1. Identify any two classifications of written sources of information on History and Government. 2 mks               
  • Archives
  • Manuscripts
  • Printed sources 2×1 = 2mk
    1. Give one social activity that was practised by early man during the New Stone Age period. 1 mk
  • Development of a language for communication.
  • Lived in small groups
  • Practised religion and worship system.
  • Practised decoration of huts with animal paintings.
  • Use of red ochre to paint their bodies for beautification. 1 x 1=1mk
    1. State two effects of the Land Enclosure System in Britain during the Agrarian Revolution
  • It led to landlessness after poor peasants were forced to sell off their land.
  • Farmers were able to use their title deeds to borrow loans.
  • It allowed use of machines
  • Farmers were able to specialise in crop growing or animal keeping
  • Landless peasants migrated to towns and the new world. 2 x 1 = 2mks
  • Fencing prevented inbreeding and spread of diseases
  • It led to large scale farming/ ranches.
  1. Highlight two negative effects of the trans-Saharan trade.
  • Increased warfare.
  • Increased slavery
  • Increased insecurity
  • Hatred and suspicion among the people
  • Destruction of wild life
  • Depopulation due to increased capture of slaves                2 x 1 =2mks
    1. Name the first woman astronaut to travel into space
  • Sally K.Ride 1 x 1= 1mk
    1. State two importance’s of the radio as a form of communication.
  • Passes information fast.
  • Compliments transport systems by sending signals and updates
  • Broadcasts education programmes
  • Entertainment
  • Advertising
  • Used in space exploration in guiding space crafts.                               2 x 1=2mks
    1. Give two ways how scientific inventions have negatively impacted on Agriculture
  • Increase in food related diseases due to GMOs
  • Pesticides are toxic and harmful
  • Pests have become resistant to pesticides
  • Soil fertility has been impoverished
  • Traditional crops have been abandoned.
  • Unemployment as a result of mechanisation 2 x 1 = 2mks
    1. What was the title given to the highest political and religious leader of the Shona?
  • MweneMutapa 1mk
    1. Identify one chartered company that was used by the Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa.
  • Imperial British East Africa company
  • German East African Company
  • Royal Niger Company
  • British South African Company.

NB: Company name must be written in full

  1. State one way how the Lochner treaty benefited King Lewanika individually,
  • He would be paid $2000 p.a and royalties of 4% for all minerals extracted.
  • He would continue to be King but with lesser powers. 1 x 1 = 1mk
    1. Outline one social factor that led to the rise of Nationalism in Africa
  • Africans were subjected to cultural discriminations as their cultures were branded primitive.
  • The urban environment enabled Africans to interact and overcome tribal prejudices.
  • Africans were denied social services
  • Acquisition of western education exposed Africans new ideas about nationhood and patriotism.
  • Christian teachings on equality influenced Africans to question the behaviour of European. 1 x 1 = 1mks
    1. State one military alliance that was formed by European nations before the First World War.
  • Triple Entente.
  • Triple Alliance 1 x 1 =1mk
    1. Name two permanent member states of the United Nations security council
  • China
  • Russia
  • France
  • United states of America (USA)
  • Britain 2 x 1=  2mks
    1. State one way how the Cold War was witnessed in Africa
  • Overthrowing of Ethiopian government with the support of USSR in 1974
  • USSR supported Angola to acquire independence against Portugal while USA supported rebels.
  • Government of DRC was supported by NATO. 2 x 1 = 2mks
    1. Give two organs of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
  • Authority of Heads of states & Governments
  • Council of ministers.
  • Secretariat
  • Tribunal
  • Specialised commissions. 2 x 1 = 2mks
    1. State two political challenges facing the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) since independence.
  • Political assassinations of various leaders
  • Ethnic based political wars
  • Threats of seceding by some regions
  • Interference by former colonialists
  • Overthrowing of governments
  • Frequent rebellions
  • Army mutinies 2 x 1 = 2 mks
    1. State the system of government practised in Britain.
  • Constitutional Monarchy 1 x 1 =1 mk





  1. State five physical changes that early man underwent tomark a clear distinction between apes and modern man.
  • The skull size became bigger to accommodate larger brains.
  • The size of jaws and teeth became smaller due to softer diets.
  • The fore arms and hands became shorter and appropriate for upright movement.
  • The thumb finger separated from the other fingers for former grip.
  • The leg and foot formation changed to support the body and maintain balance.
  • The tail disappeared.
  • The hair disappeared. any 5 x 1 = 5mks
  1. Explain five features of early man’s culture during the Neolithic period 10mks
  • They made smaller and better tools called Microliths
  • They practised large scale hunting and gathering because they lived in larger groups.
  • They practised fishing
  • They began domestication of crop and animals which marked the beginning of agriculture.
  • They made better shelters using tree branches and grass.
  • They lived a more settled life as a result of having semi permanent settlements.
  • The formulated rules and regulations to govern their social way of life/government.
  • They developed religion because they began to depend much more on natural forces such as the rain for livelihood.
  • They specialised in crafts such as basketry, pottery, weaving
  • They practised smelting of bronze and iron.
  • They invented language which was crucial for communication and strengthening of social bonds and preservation of cultures..                                              Any 5 x 2 = 10mks
  1. State five disadvantages of using animals as a means of transport 5mk
  • It’s tedious and slow because animals must feed and drink frequently along the way.
  • Pack animals may be attacked by wild animals
  • Animals can only travel relatively shorter distances compared to modern forms of transport.
  • Some animals are stubborn and difficult to control or tame.
  • Animals carry smaller loads than vehicles.
  • They can only travel during the day.
  • Animals are affected by diseases Any 5 x 1 = 5mks
  1. Explain five economic effects of modern forms of transport.
  • Local and international trade has been promoted through faster and efficient movement of goods across the globe.
  • The growth of the service sector has been boosted by modern means of transport through provision of insurance and banking services.
  • Agricultural production has increased because farmers can transport farm inputs and produce much faster.
  • Modern transport has influenced industrialisation because raw materials, finished goods and workers can be moved much faster and further across the globe.
  • Governments generate revenue through various charges and levies.
  • They create jobs/ employment opportunities.
  • Modern transport systems have enhanced exploitation of natural resources because they can be easily accessed.
  • They have boosted tourism since tourist attraction sites can be reached easily and fast.

5 x 2 = 10 mks

  1. State five uses of Gold in Africa in the early days.
  • Making ornaments
  • Making utensils
  • Making swords and flint knife handles.
  • Was used as a measure and store of wealth.
  • Making weapons.
  • Used as a trade item using gold bars and gold dust.
  • Used as a currency/medium of exchange/gold coins Any 5 x 1 = 5mks
  1. Explain 5 effects of iron working technology in Africa.
  • Widespread use of iron led to the decline of the use of other metals.
  • It led to the emergence urban centres which began as centres of iron working
  • It led to the growth of trade due to increased demand for iron ore and iron tools.
  • Use of iron tools improved agriculture as more land was put under cultivation.
  • There was increased food production as a result of increased use of iron tools/population increase
  • People were able to migrate and settle into new areas by using iron tools to clear forests.
  • Iron working led to specialisation in other crafts by those who were not smithers.
  • The smithers and smelters gained recognition and status in society because of the wealth they generated and their skills.
  • There was increased warfare and intercommunity conflicts lead to the rise of powerful kingdoms.                                                           Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks21.A
  • 21 a. Explain five causes of the Mandinka rebellion
  • SamoriToure wanted to safeguard the independence of his empire
  • Samori did not want to lose the Bure gold mines.
  • The French threatenedSamori’s plans of territorial expansion into areas they occupied.
  • Samori was confident of his large and well trained army and did not fear fighting with the French.
  • Samori was disappointed by the failure of the British to support him against the French.
  • Samori was not happy with the French who were selling arms to his enemies such as chief Tieba of Sikasso.
  • Samori was influenced by friends to resist e.g Chief Khama of Ngwato    Any 5 x 1 = 5mks
  1. Explain five results of the Chimurenga war
  • Company rule was discredited by the colonial office due to poor administration.
  • Africans eventually lost their independence and the British established their authority over the area.
  • Africans were exposed to great famine since the war hindered them from engaging infarming.
  • There was massive loss of lives.
  • There was massive destruction of property
  • TheIndunas were to be recognized as headmen.
  • No Shona police would be stationed in Matebele land.
  • There was massive land alienation and Africans were confined in reserves.
  • Africans were subjected to forced labour in European farms.
  • Africans were subjected to taxation.
  • Missionaries were able to spread Christianity since the people had lost confidence in their traditional religion.                                              Any 5 x 2 = 10mks





  1. State three factors that led to the growth of Nationalism in Mozambique.
  • Arbitrary replacement of traditional leaders.
  • Land alienation by Portuguese settlers.
  • Introduction of taxes.
  • Violation of African cultures by Portuguese officials.
  • Forced labour and mistreatment of Africans in settler farms.
  • Racial discrimination against Africans in settlement schemes and semi skilled jobs.
  • Restrictions of African movement and press censorship.
  • Cruelty of the colonial police.. Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks
  1. Explain six factors that favoured FRELIMO in the war against the Portuguese colonial government.
  • The Portuguese did not have enough troops to deal with the African random attacks ( guerrilla warfare)
  • Many Africans joined the nationalist war voluntarily.
  • The region was heavily forested with narrow foot paths which rendered Portuguese aircraft and armoured vehicles ineffective.
  • The fighters were supported by the civilians with information of Portuguese movements.
  • The FRELIMO fighters cultivated their own crops thus were not overburdening the local population
  • The FRELIMO fighters were friendly to locals.
  • They were supported by communist countries such as USSR, China and Czechoslovakia
  • The guerrillas were supported by independent African countries through the OAU liberation committee.
  • FRELIMO abolished all forms of exploitation in the liberated areas and built social amenities thus receiving the support of local people
  • They respected women and recognised their role in mobilising Africans to support the struggle.
  • Ethnicity was removed through having people of different ethnic groups in the same fighting units.
  • They were supported by fighters from Southern Rhodesia (mercenaries). Any 6 x 2 = 12mks 


  1. State three conditions given to the Germans to surrender at the end of world war one (WWI)
  • To withdraw from all occupied territories including overseas colonies.
  • Withdrawal of all German forces North of River Rhine.
  • Surrender of all German warships to the Allied forces.
  • Occupation of some parts of Germany by the Allied forces.
  • Release of all prisoners of war. Any 3 x 1 = 3mks
  1. Explain six causes of the second world war
  • The rise of nationalism after WWI as nations were more concerned with their domestic affairs than international affairs.
  • The Great Depression resulted in the collapse of many European economies and they adopted protectionist politics and aggression in a bid to generate wealth.
  • Some nations continued to violate the terms of the Versailles treaty and this threatened world peace.
  • The policy of Appeasement adopted by Britain and France enabled some countries to continue with acts of aggression further threatening world peace.
  • The League of Nations had failed to maintain world peace.
  • Emergence of dictators across Europe and their acts of aggression further caused international tension.

                                                                                                    6 x2=12mks


  1. Identify any three political parties in India. 3mks
  • Congress party
  • Bharatiya Janata party
  • Communist parties
  • Regional parties                                                                                                        3×1= 3mks
  1. Explain six powers and functions of the president in India
  • Powers to declare emergency in a state and rule that state by decree
  • Powers to veto or assent to bills
  • Commander in chief of all armed forces
  • Powers to appoint supreme court judges and state governors
  • Powers to appoint the prime minister on the advice of parliament.
  • Is the major symbol of unity in the country

Any 6×2= 12mks


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