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GEOGRAPHY KNEC SYLLABUS NEW PDF

GEOGRAPHY Examination Syllabus

FORM 1

  1. INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY
  2. Definition 1. Geography 2. environment
  3. branches of geography
  4. physical Geography
  5. Human Geography
  6. importance study of geography
  7. relationship between geography and other disciplines
  8. THE EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1. composition of the solar system
  9. ori, shape,size,and position of the earth in the solar system 3. rotation and revolution of the earth and their effects
  10. structure of the earth
  11. the atmosphere
  12. the hydrosphere
  13. the lithosphere/crust
  14. the asthenosphere /mantle
  15. the core (outer and inner core)

 

WEATHER

  1. definition of weather
  2. elements of weather
  3. factors for siting weather station
  4. instrument for measuring elements of weather condition
  5. recording and calculating weather conditions
  6. structure and composition of the atmosphere
  7. weather forecasting
  8. factors influencing weather
  9. STATISTICAL METHODS
  10. definition of statistics
  11. types of statistical data
  12. source of statistical data
  13. method of collecting data
  14. methods of recording data
  15. analysis of data by working out
  16. arithmetic mean
  17. median
  18. mode
  19. percentage
  20. range
  21. statistical representation through;
  22. simple lines
  23. simple bars
  24. combination bar and line graph
  25. simple wind rose
  26. advantage and disadvantage of each method of data presentation
  27. MAPS AND MAP WORK
  28. definition of pictures, plans and maps
  29. distinction between pictures, plans and maps
  30. types of maps
  31. atlas maps
  32. topographical maps
  33. sketch maps
  34. uses o maps
  35. maral information
  36. map scales
  37. estimations and measurements
  38. calculation of area of regular and irregular shopes
  39. FIELD WORK
  40. Definition of field work
  41. types of field work
  42. importance of field work
  43. field work procedure
  44. problems likely to be encountered during field study
  45. field work within the local environment
  46. MINERALS AND ROCKS
  47. Definition of minerals 1. rocks 2. characteristics of minerals 3. classification of rock according to mode of formation 4. characteristics of rocks 5. distribution of major types of rocks in Kenya 6. significance of rocks in Kenya
  48. MINING
  49. Definition of mining
  50. factors influencing the occurrence of minerals and their exploitation
  51. methods of mining
  52. distribution of major minerals in kenya
  53. significance of minerals in kenya
  54. problems fancing the mining industry in kenya
  55. effects of mining on the enviroment
  56. study of trona on lake magadi
  57. gold amd diamond in south Africa
  58. petroleum in middle east

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* FORM 2

  1. INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES
  2. Earth movement 1. definition 2. types of movements horizontal and vertical 3. Causes
  3. Theories of
  4. Continental Drift
  5. Plate tectonics
  6. Folding
  7. definition
  8. Processes
  9. types of folds and the resultant features
  10. World distribution of folds mountain systems
  11. Significance to human activities
  12. Faulting
  13. Definition
  14. Processes
  15. Types of faults and the resultant features
  16. A study of the great rift valley
  17. World distribution of features due to faulting
  18. Significance of faulting to human activities
  19. Vulcanicity
  20. definition
  21. types and the resultant features
  22. World distribution of features due to vulcanicity
  23. Significance of vulcanicity to human activities
  24. Earthquakes
  25. Definition
  26. causes
  27. measurements
  28. Distribution of major earthquake zones in the world
  29. effects of earthquake
  30. MAP WORK
  31. Direction and bearing 1. distinction between direction and bearing 2. Traditional and modern methods of showing direction 3. Calculation of bearing
  32. Location of places using
  33. Direction, bearing, and distance
  34. Places names
  35. Latitude and longitudes
  36. Grid reference system
  37. Methods of representing relief on topographical maps
  38. PHOTOGRAPH WORK
  39. types of photographs
  40. Parts of a photograph
  41. interpretation of a photograph by
  42. Estimating actual size of photographs
  43. Sketching from photographs
  44. Studying physical features and human activities in

photographs

  1. STATISTICAL METHODS
  2. Statistical presentation, analysis and interpretation of: 1. comparative group multiple line graphs 2. Comparative group multiple bar graphs 3. Divided bars rectangles
  3. advantage and disadvantage of each method of data presentation
  4. CLIMATE
  5. Distinction between weather and climate
  6. Factors influencing climate
  7. Distribution and characteristics of climatic regions of
  8. Kenya
  9. The world
  10. Causes effects and possible solution to
  11. Aridity
  12. Desertification
  13. Causes and consequences of climate change
  14. VEGETATION
  15. DEFINITION OF VEGETATION
  16. Factors influencing the distribution of vegetation 3. Characteristics of major vegetation region of – Kenya – The world 4. Significance of vegetation 5. Field work
  17. FORESTRY 1. definition 1. Forestry 2. Forest
  18. Factors influencing the distribution and types of natural forest 3. importance of forests and forest products to Kenya 4. Problems facing forestry in Kenya 5. Management and conservation of forests with specific emphasis to Kenya 6. Related study on softwood in Kenya and Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* FORM 3

  1. STATISTICAL METHODS 1. statistical presentation, analysis and interpretation of
  2. Compound/cumulative bar graphs
  3. proportional circles
  4. Pie charts/dividing circles
  5. advantages and disadvantages
  6. MAP WORK
  7. INTERPRETATION of physical features and human activities on topographical maps
  8. Land forms
  9. vegetation
  10. Drainage
  11. economic activities
  12. Settlements
  13. Enlargement and reduction of maps 3. Drawing of cross sections 4. calculations and interpretation of
  14. vertical exaggeration
  15. gradient
  16. Intervisibility
  17. EXTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES
  18. Weathering 1. definition 2. Agents 3. Types and processes 4. Significance of weathering
  19. Mass wasting
  20. Definition
  21. Factors influencing mass wasting
  22. Types and processes
  23. Effects of mass wasting on the physical and human environments
  24. Hydrological cycle
  25. Definition
  26. Process
  27. Significance
  28. Action of rivers
  29. Definition
  30. the work of rivers and the development of rivers
  31. The resultant features
  32. River capture and rejuvenation
  33. Drainage patterns
  34. The significance of rivers and the resultant

features

  1. Lakes
  2. Definition of lake
  3. Formation and classification of lakes
  4. Significance of lakes
  5. Oceans Seas and their coasts
  6. distinction between oceans and seas
  7. Nature of ocean water
  8. water movement meaning causes and significance of
  9. Wave action and the resultant features
  10. types of coast
  11. significance of oceans ,coast and coastal features
  12. Action of wind and water in arid areas
  13. Process and the resultant features
  14. Significance of the resultant features
  15. Action of water in limestone areas 1. Process of surface and underground water and the resultant features 9. Glaciation
  16. Definition of
  17. Process of glaciation and the resultant features in

highlands and low lands areas 3. Significance of glaciation

10

Field work

  1. SOILS
  2. Definition of soil
  3. Composition of soil
  4. Soil forming processes
  5. Properties and characteristics of soils
  6. Soil profile and soil catena
  7. Soil degeneration
  8. definition
  9. Types of soil degeneration
  10. Soil erosion
  11. Classification of soils
  12. Significance of soils
  13. Management and conservation of soil
  14. AGRICULTURE
  15. Definition of agriculture
  16. Factors influencing agriculture
  17. Types of agriculture
  18. Crop farming
  19. major cash crops in kenya
  20. study of Tea Sugar cane,and maize
  21. Study of cocoa in Ghana
  22. Oil palm in Nigeria
  23. Related study in coffe in kenya and brazil,wheat in

kenya and canada ,horticalture in kenya and the netherlands

  1. Livestock Farming
  2. Pastrol farming in kenya
  3. Daily farming in kenya and Denmark
  4. Beef farming in kenya and Argentina
  5. Field work

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* FORM 4

  1. STATISTICAL METHODS
  2. Statistical representation through age-sex pyramids
  3. Analysis and interpretation of
  4. Age-sex pyramids
  5. Dot maps
  6. Choropleth maps
  7. LAND RECLAMATION 1. A study of 1. mwea-Tebera irrigation scheme 2. Pekera irrigation schemes
  8. Definition of
  9. land reclamation
  10. land rehabilitation
  11. Significance of irrigation farming in kenya
  12. Problems experienced in irrigation farming in kenya
  13. Methods of land reclamation and rehabilitation kenya
  14. Related studies on land reclamation in kenya and the Netherlands
  15. FISHING
  16. Definition of; 1. Fishing 2. Fisheries 2. Factors influencing fishing 3. Distribution of major fishing grounds of the world 4. types and methods of fishing 5. Fresh water and marine fisheries in East Africa 6. Problems facing in Kenya and their solutions 7. Comparative study of fishing in Kenya and Japan 8. Management and conservation of fresh water and marine fisheries
  17. WILDLIFE AND TOURISM
  18. Wildlife 1. Definition of wildlife 2. factors influencing the distribution of wildlife in East Africa 3. Distinction between game reserve ,national park and sanctuaries 4. location of national parks major reserves and sanctuaries in East Africa 5. Significance of wildlife 6. Problems facing wildlife in East Africa 7. Management and conservation of wildlife in East Africa
  19. TOURISM
  20. Definition of ;
  21. Distinction between domestic and international tourism
  22. factors influencing tourism in kenya
  23. Tourism attraction in kenya
  24. Significance of tourism
  25. Problems facing and associated with tourism in Kenya
  26. Related study on tourism in Switzerland
  27. The future of tourism in Kenya
  28. ENERGY
  29. Definition of energy
  30. Sources and types of energy
  31. Electric power projects in Kenya and Uganda
  32. Hydro-electric power projects
  33. Geothermal power projects in Kenya
  34. Location and other hydro-electric power projects in Africa 5. Significance of energy 6. The energy crisis 7. Management and conservation of energy
  35. INDUSTRY
  36. definition 1. Industry 2. Industrialization
  37. factors influencing the location and development of industries 3. Types of industries 4. Distribution of industries in kenya 5. Significance of industrialization in kenya 6. Problems of industrialization and their possible solutions 7. A study on 1. Cottage industry in india 2. Iron and steel industry in the Ruhr region of Germany 3. Car manufacture and electronics industry in Japan
  38. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
  39. Definition 1. Transport 2. Communication
  40. Mode of transport and types of communication 3. The role of transport and communication in the economic development of Africa 4. Problems facing transport and communication in Africa andefforts being made to solve them
  41. A study of the Great lakes and the St Lawrence seaway
  42. TRADE
  43. Types of trade
  44. factors influencing trade
  45. Major exports and imports of kenya
  46. Significance of trade to kenya
  47. problems facing trade in kenya
  48. The future of international trade in kenya
  49. The role played by the following regional trading blocks

in the economic of their respective regions

  1. COMESA
  2. SADAC
  3. ECOWAS
  4. EU
  5. POPULATION
  6. Definition of population
  7. Factors influencing population
  8. Factors influencing population growth in ; 1. fertility
  9. Motality 3. Migration
  10. Population structure 5. Consequences of population growth and structure 6. Related studies on population in kenya and Sweden

10

SETTLEMENT

  1. Definition 1. settlement 2. Urbanization
  2. Factors influencing
  3. Settlements
  4. patterns of settlement
  5. Distribution of major urban centers in East Africa
  6. Factors influencing the growth of major urban center in East Africa
  7. Study of the following towns in kenya
  8. Thika
  9. Kisumu
  10. Eldoret
  11. Related studies with the following
  12. Cities Nairobi and New York
  13. Port Mombasa and Rotter
  14. Effects of urbanization
  15. MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
  16. definition of; 1. Management 2. conservation
  17. the need for environmental management and conservation
  18. Environmental hazards
  19. Selected environmental hazards the associated problems and measures for combating them
  20. Floods
  21. Lightning
  22. Wind storm
  23. Pest and diseases
  24. Pollution
  25. Environmental management and conservation measures in kenya 6. field work

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