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# GEOGRAPHY KNEC SYLLABUS NEW PDF

GEOGRAPHY Examination Syllabus

FORM 1

1. INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY
2. Definition 1. Geography 2. environment
3. branches of geography
4. physical Geography
5. Human Geography
6. importance study of geography
7. relationship between geography and other disciplines
8. THE EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1. composition of the solar system
9. ori, shape,size,and position of the earth in the solar system 3. rotation and revolution of the earth and their effects
10. structure of the earth
11. the atmosphere
12. the hydrosphere
13. the lithosphere/crust
14. the asthenosphere /mantle
15. the core (outer and inner core)

WEATHER

1. definition of weather
2. elements of weather
3. factors for siting weather station
4. instrument for measuring elements of weather condition
5. recording and calculating weather conditions
6. structure and composition of the atmosphere
7. weather forecasting
8. factors influencing weather
9. STATISTICAL METHODS
10. definition of statistics
11. types of statistical data
12. source of statistical data
13. method of collecting data
14. methods of recording data
15. analysis of data by working out
16. arithmetic mean
17. median
18. mode
19. percentage
20. range
21. statistical representation through;
22. simple lines
23. simple bars
24. combination bar and line graph
25. simple wind rose
27. MAPS AND MAP WORK
28. definition of pictures, plans and maps
29. distinction between pictures, plans and maps
30. types of maps
31. atlas maps
32. topographical maps
33. sketch maps
34. uses o maps
35. maral information
36. map scales
37. estimations and measurements
38. calculation of area of regular and irregular shopes
39. FIELD WORK
40. Definition of field work
41. types of field work
42. importance of field work
43. field work procedure
44. problems likely to be encountered during field study
45. field work within the local environment
46. MINERALS AND ROCKS
47. Definition of minerals 1. rocks 2. characteristics of minerals 3. classification of rock according to mode of formation 4. characteristics of rocks 5. distribution of major types of rocks in Kenya 6. significance of rocks in Kenya
48. MINING
49. Definition of mining
50. factors influencing the occurrence of minerals and their exploitation
51. methods of mining
52. distribution of major minerals in kenya
53. significance of minerals in kenya
54. problems fancing the mining industry in kenya
55. effects of mining on the enviroment
56. study of trona on lake magadi
57. gold amd diamond in south Africa
58. petroleum in middle east

* FORM 2

1. INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES
2. Earth movement 1. definition 2. types of movements horizontal and vertical 3. Causes
3. Theories of
4. Continental Drift
5. Plate tectonics
6. Folding
7. definition
8. Processes
9. types of folds and the resultant features
10. World distribution of folds mountain systems
11. Significance to human activities
12. Faulting
13. Definition
14. Processes
15. Types of faults and the resultant features
16. A study of the great rift valley
17. World distribution of features due to faulting
18. Significance of faulting to human activities
19. Vulcanicity
20. definition
21. types and the resultant features
22. World distribution of features due to vulcanicity
23. Significance of vulcanicity to human activities
24. Earthquakes
25. Definition
26. causes
27. measurements
28. Distribution of major earthquake zones in the world
29. effects of earthquake
30. MAP WORK
31. Direction and bearing 1. distinction between direction and bearing 2. Traditional and modern methods of showing direction 3. Calculation of bearing
32. Location of places using
33. Direction, bearing, and distance
34. Places names
35. Latitude and longitudes
36. Grid reference system
37. Methods of representing relief on topographical maps
38. PHOTOGRAPH WORK
39. types of photographs
40. Parts of a photograph
41. interpretation of a photograph by
42. Estimating actual size of photographs
43. Sketching from photographs
44. Studying physical features and human activities in

photographs

1. STATISTICAL METHODS
2. Statistical presentation, analysis and interpretation of: 1. comparative group multiple line graphs 2. Comparative group multiple bar graphs 3. Divided bars rectangles
4. CLIMATE
5. Distinction between weather and climate
6. Factors influencing climate
7. Distribution and characteristics of climatic regions of
8. Kenya
9. The world
10. Causes effects and possible solution to
11. Aridity
12. Desertification
13. Causes and consequences of climate change
14. VEGETATION
15. DEFINITION OF VEGETATION
16. Factors influencing the distribution of vegetation 3. Characteristics of major vegetation region of – Kenya – The world 4. Significance of vegetation 5. Field work
17. FORESTRY 1. definition 1. Forestry 2. Forest
18. Factors influencing the distribution and types of natural forest 3. importance of forests and forest products to Kenya 4. Problems facing forestry in Kenya 5. Management and conservation of forests with specific emphasis to Kenya 6. Related study on softwood in Kenya and Canada

* FORM 3

1. STATISTICAL METHODS 1. statistical presentation, analysis and interpretation of
2. Compound/cumulative bar graphs
3. proportional circles
4. Pie charts/dividing circles
6. MAP WORK
7. INTERPRETATION of physical features and human activities on topographical maps
8. Land forms
9. vegetation
10. Drainage
11. economic activities
12. Settlements
13. Enlargement and reduction of maps 3. Drawing of cross sections 4. calculations and interpretation of
14. vertical exaggeration
16. Intervisibility
17. EXTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES
18. Weathering 1. definition 2. Agents 3. Types and processes 4. Significance of weathering
19. Mass wasting
20. Definition
21. Factors influencing mass wasting
22. Types and processes
23. Effects of mass wasting on the physical and human environments
24. Hydrological cycle
25. Definition
26. Process
27. Significance
28. Action of rivers
29. Definition
30. the work of rivers and the development of rivers
31. The resultant features
32. River capture and rejuvenation
33. Drainage patterns
34. The significance of rivers and the resultant

features

1. Lakes
2. Definition of lake
3. Formation and classification of lakes
4. Significance of lakes
5. Oceans Seas and their coasts
6. distinction between oceans and seas
7. Nature of ocean water
8. water movement meaning causes and significance of
9. Wave action and the resultant features
10. types of coast
11. significance of oceans ,coast and coastal features
12. Action of wind and water in arid areas
13. Process and the resultant features
14. Significance of the resultant features
15. Action of water in limestone areas 1. Process of surface and underground water and the resultant features 9. Glaciation
16. Definition of
17. Process of glaciation and the resultant features in

highlands and low lands areas 3. Significance of glaciation

10

Field work

1. SOILS
2. Definition of soil
3. Composition of soil
4. Soil forming processes
5. Properties and characteristics of soils
6. Soil profile and soil catena
7. Soil degeneration
8. definition
9. Types of soil degeneration
10. Soil erosion
11. Classification of soils
12. Significance of soils
13. Management and conservation of soil
14. AGRICULTURE
15. Definition of agriculture
16. Factors influencing agriculture
17. Types of agriculture
18. Crop farming
19. major cash crops in kenya
20. study of Tea Sugar cane,and maize
21. Study of cocoa in Ghana
22. Oil palm in Nigeria
23. Related study in coffe in kenya and brazil,wheat in

kenya and canada ,horticalture in kenya and the netherlands

1. Livestock Farming
2. Pastrol farming in kenya
3. Daily farming in kenya and Denmark
4. Beef farming in kenya and Argentina
5. Field work

* FORM 4

1. STATISTICAL METHODS
2. Statistical representation through age-sex pyramids
3. Analysis and interpretation of
4. Age-sex pyramids
5. Dot maps
6. Choropleth maps
7. LAND RECLAMATION 1. A study of 1. mwea-Tebera irrigation scheme 2. Pekera irrigation schemes
8. Definition of
9. land reclamation
10. land rehabilitation
11. Significance of irrigation farming in kenya
12. Problems experienced in irrigation farming in kenya
13. Methods of land reclamation and rehabilitation kenya
14. Related studies on land reclamation in kenya and the Netherlands
15. FISHING
16. Definition of; 1. Fishing 2. Fisheries 2. Factors influencing fishing 3. Distribution of major fishing grounds of the world 4. types and methods of fishing 5. Fresh water and marine fisheries in East Africa 6. Problems facing in Kenya and their solutions 7. Comparative study of fishing in Kenya and Japan 8. Management and conservation of fresh water and marine fisheries
17. WILDLIFE AND TOURISM
18. Wildlife 1. Definition of wildlife 2. factors influencing the distribution of wildlife in East Africa 3. Distinction between game reserve ,national park and sanctuaries 4. location of national parks major reserves and sanctuaries in East Africa 5. Significance of wildlife 6. Problems facing wildlife in East Africa 7. Management and conservation of wildlife in East Africa
19. TOURISM
20. Definition of ;
21. Distinction between domestic and international tourism
22. factors influencing tourism in kenya
23. Tourism attraction in kenya
24. Significance of tourism
25. Problems facing and associated with tourism in Kenya
26. Related study on tourism in Switzerland
27. The future of tourism in Kenya
28. ENERGY
29. Definition of energy
30. Sources and types of energy
31. Electric power projects in Kenya and Uganda
32. Hydro-electric power projects
33. Geothermal power projects in Kenya
34. Location and other hydro-electric power projects in Africa 5. Significance of energy 6. The energy crisis 7. Management and conservation of energy
35. INDUSTRY
36. definition 1. Industry 2. Industrialization
37. factors influencing the location and development of industries 3. Types of industries 4. Distribution of industries in kenya 5. Significance of industrialization in kenya 6. Problems of industrialization and their possible solutions 7. A study on 1. Cottage industry in india 2. Iron and steel industry in the Ruhr region of Germany 3. Car manufacture and electronics industry in Japan
38. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
39. Definition 1. Transport 2. Communication
40. Mode of transport and types of communication 3. The role of transport and communication in the economic development of Africa 4. Problems facing transport and communication in Africa andefforts being made to solve them
41. A study of the Great lakes and the St Lawrence seaway
45. Major exports and imports of kenya
46. Significance of trade to kenya
47. problems facing trade in kenya
48. The future of international trade in kenya
49. The role played by the following regional trading blocks

in the economic of their respective regions

1. COMESA
3. ECOWAS
4. EU
5. POPULATION
6. Definition of population
7. Factors influencing population
8. Factors influencing population growth in ; 1. fertility
9. Motality 3. Migration
10. Population structure 5. Consequences of population growth and structure 6. Related studies on population in kenya and Sweden

10

SETTLEMENT

1. Definition 1. settlement 2. Urbanization
2. Factors influencing
3. Settlements
4. patterns of settlement
5. Distribution of major urban centers in East Africa
6. Factors influencing the growth of major urban center in East Africa
7. Study of the following towns in kenya
8. Thika
9. Kisumu
10. Eldoret
11. Related studies with the following
12. Cities Nairobi and New York
13. Port Mombasa and Rotter
14. Effects of urbanization
15. MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
16. definition of; 1. Management 2. conservation
17. the need for environmental management and conservation
18. Environmental hazards
19. Selected environmental hazards the associated problems and measures for combating them
20. Floods
21. Lightning
22. Wind storm
23. Pest and diseases
24. Pollution
25. Environmental management and conservation measures in kenya 6. field work