Form 3 Geography Exams and Marking Schemes Free

Name_________________________­­­­_________________ Adm No __________

Date___________________________________________ Sign______________

312/1

GEOGRAPHY

2¾ HOURS

END TERM III EXAM

FORM THREE

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  1. This paper consists of two sections A and B.
  2. Answer all the questions in section A.
  3. In section B answer question six and any other two questions
  4. All answers must be written in the answer booklet provided.
  5. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed

and that no questions are missing.

 

Questions Maximum score Candidate score
1-5 25  
6 25  
  25  
  25  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer all questions in this section.

  1. a)What is the difference between a meteor and a meteorite (2mks) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

b)State three effects of earth’s revolution (3mks) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. a)List two elements of weather(2mks) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

b)Name three processes through which the atmosphere is heated (3mks) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. a)What is weathering (2mks) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

b)Give three processes of chemical weathering (3mks) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. a)Name three types of coral reefs (3mks) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

b)What are the benefits of coral reefs in the areas they have developed (2mks) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. a) Define the term waterfall                                                      (2mks) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

b)The diagram below shows a waterfall.

Name the features marked X,Y, and Z  (3mks)

X …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Y …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Z …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

SECTION B (75MARKS)

Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. Use the map of Nyeri to answer question 6
  2. a) i) What is the sheet title? (1mk)
  3. ii) Identify two districts found in Nyeri (2mks)

iii) Identify index to adjoining sheet found in the Northern and Southern                     (2mks)

  1. b) i) Name any three types of land transport in Nyeri (3mks)
  2. ii) Name two physical features found in grid square 6258 (2mks)
  3. c) Describe relief of the area covered by the map (7mks)
  4. d) Citing evidence, explain four physical factors which favour cattle keeping (8mks)

 

  1. a) i) Apart from surface run off, give two other processes in the hydrological cycle. (2mks)
  2. ii) State three factors that determine the amount of surface run off.                (3mks)
  3. b) Explain three factors that influence the transportation of materials by a river. (6mks)
  4. c) i) What is river rejuvenation?                   (2mks)
  5. ii) Explain three conditions that lead to rejuvenation of a river.    (6mks)
  6. d) Explain three negative effects of rivers to the human environment. (6mks)

 

  1. a) Differentiate between folding and faulting       (2mks)
  2. b) The table below shows types of folds and faults. For each, identify the type it belongs to.
  3. Asymmetrical       (1mk)
  4. Reverse       (1mk)
  • Isoclinals       (1mk)
  1. Shear       (1mk)
  2. Over thrust       (1mk)
  3. c) Using well labelled diagrams, describe how Fold Mountains are formed. (11mks)
  4. d) Describe how a high fold mountain located at a coastal region influences the formation of rainfall

(7mks)

 

  1. a) i)Differentiate between a soilprofile and soilcatena       (2mks)

ii)Draw a well labeled diagram of a mature soil profile                                                 (4mks)

  1. b) i)Other than topography name three factors that influence formation of soil (4mks)

ii)Explain how topography influences formation of soil                                                (3mks)

iii)List three characteristics of desert soils                                                                     (3mks)

  1. c) i)Give three types of soil erosion (3mks)

ii)Explain three effects of soil erosion on human activities                                           (6mks)

 

  1. a)Differentiate between weather and climate.(2mks)

b)Give four factors that should be considered when citing a weather station.(4mks)

c)Name four instruments placed in Stevenson screen.(4mks)

  1. d) (i)What is weather forecasting(2mks)

(ii)Explain three factors that influence weather.(6mks)

e)(i)Using a well label diagram,describe how relief rainfall is formed(6kms)

(ii)Give three characteristics of relief rainfall (3mks)

___________________________________________________________________

Name_________________________­­­­_________________ Adm No __________

Date___________________________________________ Sign______________

312/1

GEOGRAPHY

2¾ HOURS

END TERM III EXAM

FORM THREE

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  1. This paper consists of two sections A and B.
  2. Answer all the questions in section A.
  3. In section B answer question six and any other two questions
  4. All answers must be written in the answer booklet provided.
  5. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed

and that no questions are missing.

 

Questions Maximum score Candidate score
1-5 25  
6 25  
  25  
  25  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer all questions in this section.

  1. a) What is the difference between a meteor and a meteorite       (2mks)
  • Meteor – is a streak of light seen in the sky in a clear night and occurs as a result of meteoroid burning as it enters earth’s atmosphere while
  • Meteorite – is a meteoroid which has not completely burnt up and manages to reach the earth’s surface. 2×1
  1. b) State three effects of earth’s revolution (3mks)
  • -Revolution causes the four seasons-summers, autumn, winter and spring
  • -Revolution causes changes in the position of the midday sun at different times of the year.
  • -Revolution causes varying length of day and night at different times of the year
  • -Revolution causes the lunar eclipse 3×1=3mks
  1. a) List two elements of weather       (2mks)
  • Temperature
  • Air pressure
  • Precipitation
  • Humidity
  • Wind
  • Sunshine
  • Cloud cover 2×1=2mks
  1. b) Name three processes through which the atmosphere is heated (3mks)
  • -Radiation
  • -Conduction
  • -Convection 3×1=3mks
  1. a) What is weathering       (2mks)
  • This is the breaking down/decomposition of rocks/at or near the earth surface in situ by chemical or physical processes 1×2=2mks
  1. b) Give three processes of chemical weathering (3mks)
  • -Hydrolysis
  • -Solution
  • -Oxidation
  • -Carbonation
  • -Hydration 3×1=3mks
  1. a) Name three types of coral reefs       (3mks)
  • -Barrier reefs
  • -fringing reefs
  • -Atoll   3×1=mks
  1. b) What are the benefits of coral reefs in the areas they have developed (2mks)
  • -Shallow corals are a tourist attraction earning the county foreign exchange
  • -Sheltered water encourages growth of planktons/fish food 2x1mks
  1. a) Define the term waterfall (2mks)

A sudden and steep vertical fall of river water downstream due to a sharp break of the river valley gradient(2mks)

  1. b) The diagram below shows a waterfall.

Name the features marked X, Y, and Z                                                                                   (3mks)

  • X – Resistant rock or cap rock
  • Y – Water fall
  • Z – Rock boulder 3×1=3mks

 

 

SECTION B (75MARKS)

Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. Use the map of Nyeri to answer question 6
  2. a) i) What is the maptitle? (1mk)
  • East Africa 1:50,000
  1. ii) Identify two districts found in Nyeri (2mks)
  • Laikipia
  • Nyeri

iii) Identify index to adjoining sheet found in the Northern and Southern      (2mks)

  • 120/2 – Ongobit
  • 134/2 – Kangema
  1. b) i) Name any three types of land transport in Nyeri (3mks)
  • All weather road bound surface
  • All weather road loose surface
  • Other track (motorable)
  • Dry weather roads
  1. ii) Name two physical features found in grid square 6258 (2mks)
  • River
  • River valley
  • Scrub
  1. c) Describe relief of the area covered by the map (7mks)
  • There are over valleys
  • The highest point is 2800m/lowest point is 1600m a.s.l
  • The forest point in 1600m
  • They are gentle slope
  • There are rugged slopes central parts
  • There are ridges in the southern part
  • There are slopes towards the east
  1. d) Citing evidence, explain four physical factors which favour cattle keeping             (8mks)
  • Water evidence by may be perennial rivers which the livestock drink
  • Pasture evidenced by forest/thicket which the livestock feed on
  • Vast lands evidenced by few settlements which provide a large grazing field
  • Gentle slopes which are evidenced by widely spaced contours easeningmund of livestock

 

  1. a) i) Apart from surface run off, give two other processes in the hydrological cycle. (2mks)
  • Precipitation
  • Evaporation
  • Transpiration
  • Interception
  • Infiltration
  • Percolation
  1. ii) State three factors that determine the amount of surface run off.    (3mks)
  • Amount of rainfall
  • Rate of evaporation
  • Gradient/slope of the land
  • Nature of the rocks/pervious/impervious
  • Amount of vegetation cover
  1. b) Explain three factors that influence the transportation of materials by a river. (6mks)
  • Volume of water-large water volume carry large amount of load
  • Gradient of the channel-steep slopes generate greater kinetic energy enabling faster flow
  • Nature of the load-light load is transported faster/over long distance
  • Amount of load-small quantity transported for a long distance/large
  • Load reduces the efficiency of a river to transport
  1. c) i) What is river rejuvenation?       (2mks)
  • This is the renewal of the erosive activity of a river
  1. ii) Explain three conditions that lead to rejuvenation of a river.    (6mks)
  • Increase in river discharge due to increased rainfall/river capture resulting in increased erosive power
  • Change in rock resistance which make the river to start eroding vigorously
  • Change in base level due to local uplift or drop in sea level causing a steep gradient
  1. d) Explain three negative effects of rivers to the human environment. (6mks)
  • Flooding of rivers may destroy property/crops/displace people
  • Flooding of rivers can lead to loss of human lives
  • Some rivers are habitat to dangerous animals which may attack human beings or destroy crops
  • Wide or deep rivers are a barrier to transport especially where bridges have not been constructed
  • River water may be a medium of spreading water borne diseases especially when flooding occurs

 

  1. a) Differentiate between folding and faulting       (2mks)
  • Folding is the bending of crustal rocks while faulting is the fracturing/cracking of crustal rocks by tectonic forces
  1. b) The table below shows types of folds and faults. For each, identify the type it belongs to.
  2. Asymmetrical– Fault (1mk)
  3. Reverse – Fault (1mk)
  • Isoclinals – Fold (1mk)
  1. Shear – Fault (1mk)
  2. Over thrust – Fold (1mk)
  3. c) Using well labelled diagrams, describe how Fold Mountains are formed. (11mks)
  • Extensive shallow depression called geosynclines develops on the earth’s surface
  • Prolonged and extensive erosion occurs on the surrounding higher grounds
  • Sediments are deposited in the geosynclines forming thick layers
  • The weight of the sediments cause subsidence of the geosynclines leading to accumulation of more sediments
  • Further subsidence of the geosynclines triggers off compressinal forces
  • The sediments up fold down fold along the edges of geosynclines
  • The up folds form Fold Mountains
  • Text 7mks
  • Diagram – sediments 1mk
  • Geosynclines 1mk
  • Compressinal forces 1mk
  • Fold Mountains 1mk
  1. d) Describe how a high fold mountain located at a coastal region influences the formation of rainfall

(7mks)

  • During the day, the sea is heated by the sun’s rays
  • Evaporation takes place from the sea
  • Warm moist air moves towards the land and rises along the mountains to the higher atmosphere
  • The rising air cools and condenses
  • Clouds are formed
  • Eventually the clouds releases rainfall on the windward side of the mountain
  • Cold dry wind moves to the leeward side causing little or no rainfall (7mks)

 

 

 

  1. a) i) Differentiate between a soilprofile and soilcatena       (2mks)
  • Soil profile is the vertical arrangement of soil in layers from the top to the bedrock while
  • Soil catena is the arrangement of soil in-layers along a slope 1×2=2mks
  1. ii) Draw a well labeled diagram of a mature soil profile (4mks)
  2. b) i) Other than topography name three factors that influence formation of soil (4mks)
  • -Climate
  • -parent rock
  • -living organisms
  • -time
  • -vegetation cover 4×1=4mks
  1. ii) Explain how topography influences formation of soil (3mks)
  • -Valley bottoms/gentle slopes encourages the formation of deep and fertile soil due to deposition/accumulation of materials
  • -Steep slopes encourages erosion of top layer of soil thus slowing down formation of soils/thin soils
  • -Flat/flood plains are saturated with water therefore forming poor soils
  • -Slope influences arrangements of soil catena   3×1=3mks

iii) List three characteristics of desert soils                                                                   (3mks)

  • -Have very little humus/organic matter content
  • -They are thin/shallow
  • -They are sandy and saline
  • -They are loose ground
  • -They are yellow brown
  • -They are rich in calcium carbonate/high lime content 3×1=3mks
  1. c) i) Give three types of soil erosion (3mks)
  • Splash erosion
  • Sheet
  • Gulley
  • Rillerosion 3×1=3mks
  1. ii) Explain three effects of soil erosion on human activities (6mks)
  • -The productive top soil is lost and only unproductive stony soil is left lowering the agricultural productivity of land.
  • -Soil erosion leaves behind thin soils which cannot hold plants firms in the ground hence the plants are easily uprooted and blown away by the wind.
  • -When gullies are deepened up to or below the water table, underground water is exposed leading to some of it flowing away or evaporating causing the water table to be lowered.
  • -Loss of soil through wind and water erosion leads to destruction of vegetation cover which eventually turn the affected area into a semi –arid land area.
  • -Soil erosion cause sedimentation in water reservoirs constructed along rivers hence lowering water levels hence shortage of electricity and expensive to dredge.
  • -Soil erosion causes water pollution which may lead to death of aquatic animals/destroy mangrove vegetation
  • -Where soils is deposited after erosion it forms rich agricultural lands
  • -Sand eroded and when deposited on river valley is harvested for construction 3×2=6mks

 

 

  1. a) weather is the state of the atmosphere of a given place over a short period of time while climate is the average weather conditions of a place observed and recorded over a long period of time

b)-Site should be open space away from tall buildings and trees

-gently sloping ground

-away from paved or concrete surfaces

-should be secure

  1. c) max thermometer

min thermometer

hygrometer

six thermometer

wet-bulb

dry-bulb

  1. i) foretelling or predicting the weather conditions of a place for a period of time

ii)latitude

aspect

distance from the sea

cloud cover

humidity

e i) occurs in areas where onshore winds rise over a mountainous region lying parallel to the coast.

Moist are is forced to ascend the relief features or mountains far from water bodies.

The rising moist air expands, cool and condense to form clouds which eventually fall on the windward slope

ii)falls in light showers

rains for a long period of time

form on highland areas.

Name_________________________­­­­_________________ Adm No __________

Date___________________________________________ Sign______________

312/1

GEOGRAPHY

2¾ HOURS

END TERM III EXAM

FORM THREE

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  1. This paper consists of two sections A and B.
  2. Answer all the questions in section A.
  3. In section B answer question six and any other two questions
  4. All answers must be written in the answer booklet provided.
  5. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed

and that no questions are missing.

 

Questions Maximum score Candidate score
1-5 25  
6 25  
  25  
  25  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer all questions in this section.

  1. a) What is the difference between a meteor and a meteorite       (2mks)
  • Meteor – is a streak of light seen in the sky in a clear night and occurs as a result of meteoroid burning as it enters earth’s atmosphere while
  • Meteorite – is a meteoroid which has not completely burnt up and manages to reach the earth’s surface. 2×1
  1. b) State three effects of earth’s revolution (3mks)
  • -Revolution causes the four seasons-summers, autumn, winter and spring
  • -Revolution causes changes in the position of the midday sun at different times of the year.
  • -Revolution causes varying length of day and night at different times of the year
  • -Revolution causes the lunar eclipse 3×1=3mks
  1. a) List two elements of weather       (2mks)
  • Temperature
  • Air pressure
  • Precipitation
  • Humidity
  • Wind
  • Sunshine
  • Cloud cover 2×1=2mks
  1. b) Name three processes through which the atmosphere is heated (3mks)
  • -Radiation
  • -Conduction
  • -Convection 3×1=3mks
  1. a) What is weathering       (2mks)
  • This is the breaking down/decomposition of rocks/at or near the earth surface in situ by chemical or physical processes 1×2=2mks
  1. b) Give three processes of chemical weathering (3mks)
  • -Hydrolysis
  • -Solution
  • -Oxidation
  • -Carbonation
  • -Hydration 3×1=3mks
  1. a) Name three types of coral reefs       (3mks)
  • -Barrier reefs
  • -fringing reefs
  • -Atoll   3×1=mks
  1. b) What are the benefits of coral reefs in the areas they have developed (2mks)
  • -Shallow corals are a tourist attraction earning the county foreign exchange
  • -Sheltered water encourages growth of planktons/fish food 2x1mks
  1. a) Define the term waterfall (2mks)

A sudden and steep vertical fall of river water downstream due to a sharp break of the river valley gradient(2mks)

  1. b) The diagram below shows a waterfall.

Name the features marked X, Y, and Z                                                                                   (3mks)

  • X – Resistant rock or cap rock
  • Y – Water fall
  • Z – Rock boulder 3×1=3mks

 

 

SECTION B (75MARKS)

Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. Use the map of Nyeri to answer question 6
  2. a) i) What is the maptitle? (1mk)
  • East Africa 1:50,000
  1. ii) Identify two districts found in Nyeri (2mks)
  • Laikipia
  • Nyeri

iii) Identify index to adjoining sheet found in the Northern and Southern      (2mks)

  • 120/2 – Ongobit
  • 134/2 – Kangema
  1. b) i) Name any three types of land transport in Nyeri (3mks)
  • All weather road bound surface
  • All weather road loose surface
  • Other track (motorable)
  • Dry weather roads
  1. ii) Name two physical features found in grid square 6258 (2mks)
  • River
  • River valley
  • Scrub
  1. c) Describe relief of the area covered by the map (7mks)
  • There are over valleys
  • The highest point is 2800m/lowest point is 1600m a.s.l
  • The forest point in 1600m
  • They are gentle slope
  • There are rugged slopes central parts
  • There are ridges in the southern part
  • There are slopes towards the east
  1. d) Citing evidence, explain four physical factors which favour cattle keeping             (8mks)
  • Water evidence by may be perennial rivers which the livestock drink
  • Pasture evidenced by forest/thicket which the livestock feed on
  • Vast lands evidenced by few settlements which provide a large grazing field
  • Gentle slopes which are evidenced by widely spaced contours easeningmund of livestock

 

  1. a) i) Apart from surface run off, give two other processes in the hydrological cycle. (2mks)
  • Precipitation
  • Evaporation
  • Transpiration
  • Interception
  • Infiltration
  • Percolation
  1. ii) State three factors that determine the amount of surface run off.    (3mks)
  • Amount of rainfall
  • Rate of evaporation
  • Gradient/slope of the land
  • Nature of the rocks/pervious/impervious
  • Amount of vegetation cover
  1. b) Explain three factors that influence the transportation of materials by a river. (6mks)
  • Volume of water-large water volume carry large amount of load
  • Gradient of the channel-steep slopes generate greater kinetic energy enabling faster flow
  • Nature of the load-light load is transported faster/over long distance
  • Amount of load-small quantity transported for a long distance/large
  • Load reduces the efficiency of a river to transport
  1. c) i) What is river rejuvenation?       (2mks)
  • This is the renewal of the erosive activity of a river
  1. ii) Explain three conditions that lead to rejuvenation of a river.    (6mks)
  • Increase in river discharge due to increased rainfall/river capture resulting in increased erosive power
  • Change in rock resistance which make the river to start eroding vigorously
  • Change in base level due to local uplift or drop in sea level causing a steep gradient
  1. d) Explain three negative effects of rivers to the human environment. (6mks)
  • Flooding of rivers may destroy property/crops/displace people
  • Flooding of rivers can lead to loss of human lives
  • Some rivers are habitat to dangerous animals which may attack human beings or destroy crops
  • Wide or deep rivers are a barrier to transport especially where bridges have not been constructed
  • River water may be a medium of spreading water borne diseases especially when flooding occurs

 

  1. a) Differentiate between folding and faulting       (2mks)
  • Folding is the bending of crustal rocks while faulting is the fracturing/cracking of crustal rocks by tectonic forces
  1. b) The table below shows types of folds and faults. For each, identify the type it belongs to.
  2. Asymmetrical– Fault (1mk)
  3. Reverse – Fault (1mk)
  • Isoclinals – Fold (1mk)
  1. Shear – Fault (1mk)
  2. Over thrust – Fold (1mk)
  3. c) Using well labelled diagrams, describe how Fold Mountains are formed. (11mks)
  • Extensive shallow depression called geosynclines develops on the earth’s surface
  • Prolonged and extensive erosion occurs on the surrounding higher grounds
  • Sediments are deposited in the geosynclines forming thick layers
  • The weight of the sediments cause subsidence of the geosynclines leading to accumulation of more sediments
  • Further subsidence of the geosynclines triggers off compressinal forces
  • The sediments up fold down fold along the edges of geosynclines
  • The up folds form Fold Mountains
  • Text 7mks
  • Diagram – sediments 1mk
  • Geosynclines 1mk
  • Compressinal forces 1mk
  • Fold Mountains 1mk
  1. d) Describe how a high fold mountain located at a coastal region influences the formation of rainfall

(7mks)

  • During the day, the sea is heated by the sun’s rays
  • Evaporation takes place from the sea
  • Warm moist air moves towards the land and rises along the mountains to the higher atmosphere
  • The rising air cools and condenses
  • Clouds are formed
  • Eventually the clouds releases rainfall on the windward side of the mountain
  • Cold dry wind moves to the leeward side causing little or no rainfall (7mks)

 

 

 

  1. a) i) Differentiate between a soilprofile and soilcatena       (2mks)
  • Soil profile is the vertical arrangement of soil in layers from the top to the bedrock while
  • Soil catena is the arrangement of soil in-layers along a slope 1×2=2mks
  1. ii) Draw a well labeled diagram of a mature soil profile (4mks)
  2. b) i) Other than topography name three factors that influence formation of soil (4mks)
  • -Climate
  • -parent rock
  • -living organisms
  • -time
  • -vegetation cover 4×1=4mks
  1. ii) Explain how topography influences formation of soil (3mks)
  • -Valley bottoms/gentle slopes encourages the formation of deep and fertile soil due to deposition/accumulation of materials
  • -Steep slopes encourages erosion of top layer of soil thus slowing down formation of soils/thin soils
  • -Flat/flood plains are saturated with water therefore forming poor soils
  • -Slope influences arrangements of soil catena   3×1=3mks

iii) List three characteristics of desert soils                                                                   (3mks)

  • -Have very little humus/organic matter content
  • -They are thin/shallow
  • -They are sandy and saline
  • -They are loose ground
  • -They are yellow brown
  • -They are rich in calcium carbonate/high lime content 3×1=3mks
  1. c) i) Give three types of soil erosion (3mks)
  • Splash erosion
  • Sheet
  • Gulley
  • Rillerosion 3×1=3mks
  1. ii) Explain three effects of soil erosion on human activities (6mks)
  • -The productive top soil is lost and only unproductive stony soil is left lowering the agricultural productivity of land.
  • -Soil erosion leaves behind thin soils which cannot hold plants firms in the ground hence the plants are easily uprooted and blown away by the wind.
  • -When gullies are deepened up to or below the water table, underground water is exposed leading to some of it flowing away or evaporating causing the water table to be lowered.
  • -Loss of soil through wind and water erosion leads to destruction of vegetation cover which eventually turn the affected area into a semi –arid land area.
  • -Soil erosion cause sedimentation in water reservoirs constructed along rivers hence lowering water levels hence shortage of electricity and expensive to dredge.
  • -Soil erosion causes water pollution which may lead to death of aquatic animals/destroy mangrove vegetation
  • -Where soils is deposited after erosion it forms rich agricultural lands
  • -Sand eroded and when deposited on river valley is harvested for construction 3×2=6mks

 

 

  1. a) weather is the state of the atmosphere of a given place over a short period of time while climate is the average weather conditions of a place observed and recorded over a long period of time

b)-Site should be open space away from tall buildings and trees

-gently sloping ground

-away from paved or concrete surfaces

-should be secure

  1. c) max thermometer

min thermometer

hygrometer

six thermometer

wet-bulb

dry-bulb

  1. i) foretelling or predicting the weather conditions of a place for a period of time

ii)latitude

aspect

distance from the sea

cloud cover

humidity

e i) occurs in areas where onshore winds rise over a mountainous region lying parallel to the coast.

Moist are is forced to ascend the relief features or mountains far from water bodies.

The rising moist air expands, cool and condense to form clouds which eventually fall on the windward slope

ii)falls in light showers

rains for a long period of time

form on highland areas.

______________________________________________________________________

GEOGRAPHY PAPER TWO MARKING SCHEME

                                                                     SECTION A

 

  1. 1. (a) Two by-products from crude oil (2mks)

Bitumen

Grease lubricants

Tar

                          Wax

                          Asphalt

(b) three uses of soda ash                                                                                     (3mks)

Used in the manufacture of glass, caustic soda and detergents

It is used in other industries like paper making, oil refining, and textile

2   (a) two irrigation schemes in Kenya                                                                     (2mks)

Ahero

Mweatebere

Bura

Perkerra

Bunyara

Kibirigwi

(b) Three importance of irrigation farming in Kenya       (3mks)

-Increased food production

-settlement of landless people

-control of floods

-source of income to farmers hence raising their living standards

-economic development in terms of infrastructure.3. (a) State three differences between natural forests and man-made forests   (3mks)

Natural forests have thick undergrowth while planted forests have little or no     undergrowth

In natural forests trees are of mixed species while planted forests trees are of the same species

In natural forests trees grow close to each other while in planted forests trees are spaced

In natural forests trees do not mature uniformly while in planted forests trees mature uniformly

In natural forests trees grow without a pattern while in planted forests trees grow in a linear pattern

(b) Two industries associated with forestry                                                                 (2mks)

Paper and pulp

Sawmilling

Furniture industries

Construction

Wood carving

4 (a) Define the term deadground   (2mks)

It is the area hidden from the eye of the camera by an object

(b) State three aspects that should be considered when describing vegetation in a 

photograph                                                                                                                                          (3mks)

-type of vegetation

-the height and shape of vegetation

-density of vegetation

-vegetation species

5 (a) Two types of commercial dairy farming in Kenya                       (2mks)

-highland dairy farming

-lowland dairy farming

     (b) Three types of beef cattle kept in Argentina                                (3mks)

-Short horn

-Hereford

-Galloway

-Aberdeen angus

-Brangus

 

 

6(a) (i)   COMPOUND BAR GRAPH SHOWING MINERAL PRODUCTION IN COUNTRY Q

 BETWEEN 1999 – 2002P

(ii) .

  • Cumulative total for all variables in each year is shown clearly.
  • One bar can accommodate wide range of variables.
  • When properly drawn, they give a clear visual impression.                                                                                                          (2mks)

 

  • (i)     Kariandusi      –          Diatomite

Kwale              –          Titanium

West Pokot     –          Gold                                                                                        (3mks)

  1. c) Describe how deep shaft mining is carried out. (7mks)

 

  • Vertical shafts are sunk underground.
  • From the vertical shafts horizontal tunnels / galleries are dug to reach the mineral ore.
  • The galleries are supported by timber pit – props / steel / concrete beams.
  • Tunnels are adequately ventilated by supply of cool air and are well lit.
  • Water is sprinkled on walls to control dust.
  • Light railways are established on horizontal tunnels.
  • Ore is conveyed to be base of the vertical shaft by tracks or trolleys or light railways.
  • The ore is lifted to the surface using special lifting devices / cages / winding gear.

 

d)State five environmental problems associated with open cast mining.           (5mks)

  • Derelict / land is left ugly.
  • Dust causes air pollution / industrial effluents cause water pollution / noise pollution / land pollution.
  • Leads to soil erosion.
  • Water collects in pits which becomes breeding sites for mosquitoes / pests.
  • Loss of biodiversity.

7 a) –   Forestry is the science / practice of planting cultivating developing

and management of forests/ tree farming while afforestation is the planting

of trees generally in an area which has not had trees in the past.                     (2mks)

 

  1. b) i) Give three soft woods trees which grow in the forest reserves of Canada.(3mks)

–  Cedar

  • Douglas fir
  • Pine
  • Spruce
  • Fir
  • Cypress

 

  1. ii) State four characteristics of planted forests in Kenya. (4mks)

–    Trees appear in rows

  • Trees are of the same species/
  • Are mostly softwoods
  • Little / no undergrowth
  • Trees take short time to mature
  • Trees appear in blocks of different stage / age

c)i) Growth                                                                                                                                          (2mks)

  • Severe winter in Canada slow down growth of trees hence take long to mature while in Kenya trees mature faster due to cool climates in the highlands.

ii)Harvesting                                                                                                                   (2mks)                                                                                                                                            

  • In Canada harvesting is done through clearing cutting while in Kenya selective cutting is used.
  • In Canada harvesting is done in summer while in Kenya it takes place throughout
  • In both cases machines are used for logging.

iii) Marketing

  • Most of Canadas wood products are exported to USA/ Britain/ Europe while wood products in Kenya are sold locally with few being exported to USA and Europe.

2mks

d)-State four measures taken by the Kenyan government to conserve forest.(4mks)                                                                                                    

 

  • Agro forestry programmes
  • Public awareness and education through mass media
  • Establishment of forest research stations
  • Afforestation and reafforestation program creation better zone
  • Enactment of legislation governing forest conservation

4mks

  1. e) Explain three problems facing forests in Kenya (6mks)

-High demand for timber products-high demand for timber and its product in the construction, paper and pulp industries is very high which has led to over-exploitation of forests.

-Illegal logging-this involves cutting down of trees by unlicensed people for charcoal and other products.

-Forest fires- there has been fire outbreaks caused by hunters which consume large hectares of forests if not checked properly.

-Pests and diseases- pests and diseases are affecting trees especially the exotic trees eg the aphids are mainly affecting the cypress trees.

-Prolonged droughts-failure of rains in many areas has led to shrinking of forests and retarded growth rate

 

(a) i) Name two varieties of coffee grown in Western parts of Kenya.                 (2 marks)

  • Arabic coffee
  • Robusta coffee

 

  1. ii) Apart from being used as a beverage, state two other uses of coffee (2 marks)
  • Coffee husks are used as fuel
  • Coffee husks are used as manure on the farm

 

(b)       State three physical conditions that favour coffee growing in the Central                       Highlands of Kenya.                                                                                      (3mks)

  • High rainfall of 1000 – 2000mm per year
  • Cool to hot temperature/150c – 300c
  • High altitude areas of 1000m to 2300m a.s.l.
  • Deep well drained fertile soils

 

(c)       Describe the stages involved in coffee production from picking to marketing.                                                                                                                            (8 marks)

  • Ripe red berries are picked by hand
  • The berries are transported to the factory
  • In the factory, the outer covering of the berries is removed to extract beans
  • Beans are fermented to remove green skin
  • Curing is done by drying beans for 1 week
  • Beans are roasted and ground into powder
  • Coffee powder is then packed ready for marketing

 

 

(d)       Explain three significance of coffee farming in Brazil                    (6 marks)

  • Coffee is exported to earn Brazil foreign exchange used to develop other sectors of economy like transport
  • Coffee is raw material to industries which process coffee
  • It provides employment hence people earn income which raise their living standards
  • May lead to improvement of infrastructure in the country

(e)       Your class intends to conduct a field study on coffee farming

  1. i) State two preparations your class will make before the field study.(2mks) –Make a reconnaissance study
  • Prepare a working schedule
  • Prepare the necessary material
  • Group into various groups
  • Seek permission from relevant authorities

 

  1. ii) Give two problems facing coffee farming the class will find out (2 marks)
  • Pests like leaf rust and diseases like coffee berry disease which lower production
  • Fluctuation of market prices due to overproduction
  • Shortage of labour during harvesting
  • Delayed and or poor payments which lower farmers’ morale
  • Occasional droughts which destroys the coffee trees
  • Competition from other producers which limits market/competition from other beverages
  • Corruption and mismanagement of coffee cooperative societies

 

  1. 9. Friesian

Jersey

Guernsey

Ayrshire  (2mks)                               

 

  1. b) availability of capital ton run the farms

there is specialisation and advanced technology

a well-developedcooperative movement

availability of market for dairy produce at home and abroad

plenty of pasture ie high nutritious fodder

a well-developed transport system                       

  1. c) inadequate and poor pastures

stiff competition from other farming practises

poor transport network in some places

inadequate extension services

constant droughts leading to inadequate water

poor marketing systems

  1. d) ideal climate of moderate rainfall about 1000 mm well distributed throughout the

year

presence of natural open grasslands i.e.pampass

well organised and managed ranches

ready market locally and abroad

availability of capital

good transport network

 

   e)provision of veterinary services

construction of cattle dips

encouraging paddocking and zero grazing

construction of bore holes in dry areas to solve water problems

encouraging pastoralists to form cooperatives which can avail loans and required farming inputs to farmers

 

 

10 a)- it is an image of an object recorded by a camera on a film           (2mks)

  1. b) are easily taken since one does not need specific skills to take a photograph

taking a photograph is not time consuming

are more realisting in showing physical features

they record different stages of particular activities or changes that occur in a place over time   (3mks)

     c)ground close ups photographs- this are photographts taken when a camera focuses on one major object. This object may block out all the things behind it

ground general view- they capture the general appearance of an area. The objects become progressively smaller as distance from the camera increases.

Ground oblique- are taken when the photographer is standing on a higher ground and the camera is tilted downwards towards the object being photographed   (6mks)

  1. d) (9mks)                                                                                    
Left background Centre background Right background
Left middle ground Centre middle ground Right middle ground
Left foreground Centre foreground Right middle ground

 

  1. e) to break the rocks into smaller particles (2mks)

to carry rock samples   (2mks)

to show them direction   (1mks)

 

 

 

 

 

 

while fisheries refer to water bodies where fishing is done.

  1. b) Explain three human factors which have favored large scale fishing in the North

    East Atlantic fishing ground.                                                                          (6mks)

–           The advanced ship building industry

  • Establishment of settlements near the coast whose occupants practice commercial fishing
  • The large capital investment by the Norwegian and other government in commercial fishing
  • The advanced fish harvesting technology from the local people
  • The advanced scientific research from the local people which has heightened the scale of fish
  • The long – detailed historic traditions/ background in harvesting
  1. c) Describe long –lining as a method of commercial fishing. (4mks)                

–           A sea / ocean part which is rich in large stocks of fish is located usually in

rugged beds

  • A long line ranging between 19km and 24km with 300 to 400 hook is baited
  • The hooks (baited) are cast into the fish rich water body from a deck by fish harvesters a steam vessel
  • Once the fish bite the bait on the hooks they set attached to them
  • Fish harvesters haul the hooked fish for unhooking manually

 

  1. d) i) Differentiate marine fisheries from fresh water fisheries. (2mks)

–          Fresh water bodies predominantly lakes, (fresh water ones only) and rivers

from which fish are harvested while marine water fisheries refer to the sea/

ocean as a water body from which fish are harvested.

  1. ii) Explain four problems facing marine fishing in East Africa.        (8mks

-The strong sea tides which cause fish harvesters and their vessels to capsize

The limited refrigeration facilities which makes the harvested fish to be spoiled easily

Competition from foreign companies / countries which discourage local fish harvesters

The low local demand for fish which discourage marine fishing

  • The limited / low fish harvesting technology with regard to marine fishing

 

  1. e) Give three reasons why the Kenya Government is keen on promoting the

           conservation of fish as a resource.                                                                      (3mks)

–           To sustain the opportunities of those who are employed by the fishing industries

  • To sustain industrial development
  • For academic /educational research activities
  • To protect / safeguard certain fish resources from extinction
  • To sustain the generation of income to those who carry out fishing activities

 

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