Home Teachers' Resources GRADE 5 SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON NOTES- UPDATED 

GRADE 5 SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON NOTES- UPDATED 

GRADE 5

SOCIAL STUDIES

 LESSON NOTES

(COMPETENCE BASED CURRICULUM)

 

NATURAL AND BUILT ENVIRONMENTS

Elements of a map

A mapis a drawing that represents the earth or part of it on a flatsurface.

Thekeyelementsofamapinclude:

  • Title – is the name given to a map. It is usually written at the top orthebottomofthemap
  • Frame– is the border that is drawn aroundamap
  • Key/legend – contains the symbols and signs that have been used ona map. It shows what the signs and symbols represent. Symbols aresmall pictures, drawings or letters. They represent real objects on amap.
  • Scale – shows the relationship between the distance on the map andtherealdistanceontheground.
  • Compass – shows the direction of places on a map.Agoodmapshouldhavethefivekeyelements.

Importance of maps include:

  1. Locatingthedirectionsandpositionofplaces
  2. Identifyingthedirectionandpositionofplaces
  3. Identifyingourneighbours
  4. Locatingvariousphysicalfeatures

Mapinterpretation

Thisreferredtogivingmeaningtothefeaturesandsymbolsusedonamap.

We use the key elements of a map to read and interpret maps.Symbolsandsignshelpsustoidentifythedifferentfeatures,areasandactivitiesonamape.g.

The presence of a quarry shows that mining is taking place inthearea.

 

  • Market – shows that trading activities is taking place in thearea
    • Game reserved– shows the presence of wild
    • A sawmill – shows that timber processing takes place in thearea.
    • Scrubland-showsthattheareaisdry.

Location,positionandsizeofKenya

PositionofKenyainrelationtoherneighbours

Kenyahasseveralneighbouringcountries.Kenyaissurroundedby:

  • Tanzaniaistothesouth
  • Ugandaistothewest
  • Ethiopiaistothenorth
  • Somaliaistotheeast
  • SouthSudanistothenorthwest

WaysinwhichKenyamaintainsgoodrelationswithherneighbours.

  1. Trade-Kenyaexportsandimportsgoodsfromherneighbourse.g.BananasfromUganda.
  2. Games and sports – kenya participates in games such as football,withherneighbours.
  3. Ambassadors – Kenya has an ambassador in each of herneighbouringcountries.TheseambassadorsrepresentKenyainthesecountries.

Use of common language – Kenya shares a common language(Kiswahili)withsomeofherneighbours,forexample,Tanzania.Thishelpstomaintaingoodrelations.

 

ThesizeofKenya

Kenyacoversanareaofabout582,646kmsquare.

Itisabout850kmfromEasttoWestandabout1025kmfromNorthtoSouth.

MainPhysicalfeaturesInKenya.

Physicalfeaturesarenaturalthingsfoundontheearth’ssurface.

Thephysicalfeaturesaredividedintotwomaincategoriesi.e.reliefanddrainagefeatures.

Relief features are physical features that are seen above the surface oftheearth.

Relieffeaturesinclude:

  • Mountains
  • Hills
  • Plains
  • Valleys
  • Plateaus

Drainagefeaturesarephysicalfeaturesthatareassociatedwithwater.Theyinclude

  • Swamps
  • Rivers
  • Lakes
  • Oceans
  • Dams

 

WeatherandclimateinKenya

Weatheristheconditionoftheatmosphereofaplaceataparticulartime.Theweatherofaplacechangesfromtimetotime.

Elementsofweatheraretheconditionsoftheatmosphere,theyinclude:

  • Rainfall-rain,supportsthegrowthofvegetation.
  • Wind-warmandmoistwindsbringrain
  • Temperature-thehotnessorcoldnessofaplace
  • Cloudcover-heavycloudcoverbringsheavyrainfall

The weather conditions of a place can be observed, measured andrecordedforaperiodoftime.Therecordedobservationsareusedtocalculatetheaverageweatherconditionsofthatplace.

Climate – refers to the average weather conditions of a particular placeoveralongperiodoftime.Climatecanbedescribedaswet,dry,hot,cold,warmorcool.

 

ThecharacteristicsofclimaticregionsinKenyaare:

a.  Modifiedequatorialclimate

  • Experiencesheavyconvectionalrainfall1000mm-1500mm.
  • Ithastworainyseasons-longandshortrains.
  • The region receives convectional rainfall. This type of rainfallis formed by warm air which rises from the surface of theIndianOceanorLakeVictoria.
  • Rainfalliswelldistributedthroughouttheyear
  • Rainfall is affected by the winds blowing from the ocean tothecoast.
  • Temperaturerangebetween250C-3O0C

b.  Modifiedtropicalclimate

CoverstheKenyahighlandsandpartsoftheRiftvalley

Theareareceivesrainfallthroughouttheyear

Rainfallisbetween1200mm-2000mm

Lowtemperaturesrangingbetween180C-210C

Theregionismainlycoolsandwet

Itismodifiedbythehighaltitude.

c.  Mountainclimate

  • The region covers areas with high mountains like Mount KenyaandMountElgon.
  • Experiencescoolandwetconditions
  • Theregioniscoldandwet
  • Temperaturesrangefrom00C-150C
  • The region is characterized by two sides, the leeward sideandthewindwardside.
  • The windward side receives relief rainfall and the leewardsideisdrier.

d.  TropicalClimate

  • TheregioncoversKwale,taitaandNarokareas
  • Experienceshightemperatures
  • Ithasonerainyseason
  • Insomepartsthedryseasonlastsuptofivemonths

e.  Semi-desertclimate

  • Covers areas in Northern, North-eastern and some parts ofEasternKenya.
  • Experienceshightemperatureswhichmayriseto380C
  • Mainlyhotanddry
  • Lowrainfallofbelow250mmperyear

●      DesertClimate

  • ExperiencedinChalbiandTarudeserts
  • Mostofthemonthsaredrycausingdroughts
  • Hightemperaturesthroughouttheyear-average380C
  • Clearskies

 

THEBUILTENVIRONMENTS

Thesearestructures/environmentsthatremindusofourhistoryorwherewehavecomefrom.

Theyinclude:

FortJesus

Tom mboya monumentNationalmuseumofKenyaJomo Kenyatta monumentNyayomonument

Importanceofhistoricbuiltenvironments

  • Theyremindusandteachusaboutourculture
  • Theyaresourcesofemploymentforpeoplewhoworkthere
  • Theyattracttouristswhobringmoneytoourcountry
  • Theyaresourcesofinformationforlearning
  • Theyallowusinteractwithotherpeoplewhenwevisitthem
  • TheyareusedasrecreationalareasforrelaxationCaringforHistoricbuiltEnvironmentsinourcountry
    • Repairthedestroyedpartsofhistoricbuiltenvironments
    • Handleitemsinthehistoricenvironmentswithcare
    • Developconservationmessagesandplacethemathistoricbuiltenvironments

PEOPLEANDPOPULATION

LanguagegroupsinKenya

ThemainlanguagegroupsinKenyaare

  • Bantu
  • Nilotes
  • Cushites
  • Asians
  • Europeans

THEBANTU

TheyoriginatefromCongoForest

TheyarethelargestgroupinKenya

They consist of Abakuria, Abagusii, Abaluhya, Abasuba, Agikuyu,Ameru, Aembu, Mbeere, Akamba, Mijikenda (Giriama, Digo, Duruma,Kambe,Kauma,Jibana,Chonyi,RabaiandRibe),Wapokomo,Wataita,Wataweta,andWaswahili)

 

THENILOTES

TheyoriginatedfromBahr-el-ghazalinSouthSudan.

Theykeptanimalsandgrewcropssuchasmilletandsorghum.

They consist of Nandi, Kipsigis, Keiyo, Markawet, Tugen, Pokot,Sabaot,Terik,Luo,Maasai,Samburu,Iteso,TurkanaandElmolo.

 

THECUSTHITES

They originated from the Horn of Africa, popularly known asSomalia.

They consist of the Dahalo, Sanye, Makogode, Sniah, Borana,Rendile,Burji,Oromo,Ormo,AweraandGabbra

 

THEASIANS

TheyoriginatedfromAsia

TheyincludetheIndians,JapaneseandChinese.

Theyliveintownsandworkastradersandbusinesspeople.

 

THEEUROPEANS

TheycamefromEurope

They were interested in african land in order to get raw materialsandsettle.

 

 

TheyincludepeoplefromGermany,France,ItalyandSpain.

 

InterdependenceofLanguagegroupsinKenya

LanguagegroupsinKenyadependoneachotherthroughvariousmeans.Theyinclude:

  • Food
  • Treatment
  • Education
  • Market

BenefitsofinterdependenceamongthelanguagegroupsinKenyainclude:

  • Itpromotesloveandunityamongdifferentlanguagegroups
  • g.thedevelopmentofroadswhichconnectdifferentcommunities.
  • Itdiscouragestribalism,racismandcorruption
  • Itleadstotheexchangeofculture,goodsandservices.

 

POPULATIONDISTRIBUTIONINKENYA

  • Populationdensitycanbedescribedashigh,mediumorlow.
  • AreasofhighpopulationinKenyainclude:
  • Highlandssuchaswesternhighlandsandcentralhighlands,partsofMachakos.
  • LakebasinssuchasNyanzaregion,especiallynorthofLakeVictoria
  • Coastalareas
  • Majortowns suchasNairobi,MombasaandKisumu,NakuruandEldoret

 

7|Grade 5 CBC lesson notes

  • Areasoflowpopulationdensityinclude:
  • DesertslikeChalbiandTaru
  • Restrictedareassuchasneargameparksandairports

 

CULTUREANDSOCIALORGANIZATION

  • Itincludeshowtheyeat,whattheyeat,howtheydress,theirreligionamongotherthings.
  • African traditional education is a form of learning in traditionalafrican societies in which knowledge, skills and attitudes of thecommunitywerepassedfromeldertochildrentopreparethemforadultlife.
  • Methodsofinstructionsusedinafricantraditionaleducationinclude:
  • Apprenticeship
  • Songsanddances
  • Storytelling
  • Narrativesornarrations
  • Proverbs
  • Riddles
  • Ceremonies
  • Learningfromspecialist
  • Skillstaughttogirlsincluded:
  • Cooking
  • Fetchingwater
  • Lookingafteryoungones
  • Andfetchingfirewood
  • Skillstaughttoboysincluded:
  • Herding
  • Hunting
  • Cultivatingtheland

Importanceofafricantraditionaleducationinpromotingvalues

  • Itemphasizesthevalueforrespectforall
  • Itemphasizesobedience

 

 

  • Itencourageshonestyamongallmembersofthecommunity
  • Itencouragesresponsibilityandhardwork

SCHOOLADMINISTRATION

AdministrativeleadersinschoolTheyinclude:

Theheadteacher

Thedeputyheadteacher

Theseniorteacher

Teachers(classteacher)

Children’sgovernment

Dutiesofadministrativeleadersinschool

  1. Dutiesoftheheadteacher

Overallinchargeoftheschool

Linkstheschooltothedepartmentoftheschool

Admitsnewlearners

 

Maintainsschoolrecords

  • Overseesday-to-dayrunningoftheschool
  • Allocatestaskstoothermembersofstaffandsupervises
  • Inchargeoffundsandsecurityoftheschool
  1. Dutiesofthedeputyhead teacher
    • Assistanttotheheadteacher
    • Inchargeofdiscipline
    • Secretarytostaffmeetings
    • Preparetheschooltimetableandroutine
    • Ensuresafetyandsecurityoflearners
    • Teacheslearners
  2. DutiesoftheseniorTeacher
    • Helpssupervisingcurriculumdevelopmentinschool
    • Guideandcounselslearners
    • Teachesthelearners
  3. Dutiesofteachers(classteachers)
    • Preparesandmaintainsclassregister
    • Maintainsclassdiscipline
    • Providesguidanceservicestolearners
    • Resolvesconflictsarisinginclass
    • Teachessubjectsassigned
  4. Dutiesofchildren’sgovernment
  • Actsasalinkagebetweenthestudentsandtheschooladministration
  • Actsasarolemodeltootherlearners
  • Supervisesschoolactivitiesincludingmaintainingcleanliness

RESOURCESANDECONOMICACTIVITIES

ResourcesinKenya

  • Kenyahasmanynaturalresourcessuchasland,minerals,waterandforests.
  • Economicactivity-iswhatonedoeswiththeresourcestomakemoneyorwealth.
  • These resources can be used for the benefit of the people. Whenpeopleuseresourcestomakemoney,wesaytheyarecarryingouteconomicactivities.
  • Weuselandingrowingcropsliketea,coffee,vegetablesandalsokeepanimalslikesheep,carmelsandgoats.
  • Minerals are valuable substances that are naturally found on earth.Minerals found in Kenya include: soda sh, limestone, salt, diatomiteandpetroleum.
  • We use water to rear fish. Fish found in Kenya include Tilapia andmudfish.Waterisalsousedtowatercropsandanimalsaswellasinindustries.

CaringforresourcesfoundInKenya

WecareforresourcesinKenyathroughthefollowingways:

  • Plantingnewtreeswhenwecutoldones
  • Usingmineralswisely

AGRICULTURE

Thisisthegrowingofcropsandkeepinganimals.

Farmingmethods:

Subsistencefarming-itisatypeoffarmingwherebyfarmersgrowcropsforuseathome.

Characteristicsofsubsistencefarming

  • Farmersgrowcropsandkeepanimalsmainlyforhomeuse
  • Thefarmsaredividedintosmallportions
  • Farmersusesimpletoolssuchashoes,oxploughsandpangastodocultivation.
  • Farmersgrowcropssuchasmaize,beans,millet,cassava,yamsandarrowrootsinsmallquantities.
  • Animalwasteisusedasmanure
  • Familylabourisused
  • Afewanimalssuchascows,sheep,goatsandchickenarekept.

Smallscalefarming

Isthetypeoffarmingwherebythefarmergrowscropsandkeepslivestockonsmallpiecesofland.

Characteristicsofsmallscalefarming

  • Thelandavailableforfarmingislimited.
  • Improvedmethodsoffarmingsuchasrotation,applicationoffertilizerandsprayingareused.
  • Foodcropsandcashcropssuchascoffee,tea,sugarcane,pyrethrum,fruits,vegetablesandflowers.

 

Importanceoffarming

  • It’sasourcesofincomeforfarmers
  • It’sasourceofrawmaterialsforindustries
  • Sourceoffoodformanypeople
  • Promotesbetterstandardsofliving
  • Earnsrevenueforthegovernment

DAIRYFARMINGINKENYA

Thisreferstothekeepingofcattlefortheproductionofmilkandmilkproducts.Itcanbecarriedoutonasmallandlargescale.

ThefollowingfactorsfavourdairyfarminginKenya:

  • Cooltemperatures,whichdiscouragesbreedingofticks
  • Goodtransportsystemtoensurequicktransportationofmilk
  • Areas where dairy farming is mainly practised include Meru, Embu,Kirinyaga, Murang’a, Nakuru, Nyandarua, Laikipia, Nyeri, Kiambu, Kisii,Nyamira,Nandi,Bungoma,UasinGishuandTrans-Nzoiacounties.
  • Dairyproductsinclude:Milk,cheese,yoghurt,ghee,butterandcream.

Benefitsofdairyfarming

  • Improvesthelivingstandardsofpeople
  • Farmerscanearnincomewhentheysellmilk
  • It’sasourceofemployment
  • Governmentgetsrevenuefrommilkexports
  • Milkisasourceofproteinandthusitimprovesourhealth

 

ChallengesfacingdairyfarminginKenya

Dairyfarmingisveryexpensivetopractiseandneedsalotofmoney.

  • Lackofenoughcapital
  • Lackofenoughstorageandcoolingfacilitiestostoremilk
  • Poormeansoftransportbecausetheroadsaredamaged
  • Lackofadequatemarketformilk
  • Delayofpaymentoffarmersbythebuyers
  • Lackofenoughpastureduringthedryperiod

 

HORTICULTUREINKENYA

  • Horticultureisthegrowingofflowers,fruitsandvegetables.
  • Horticulture farming is done in green houses under naturalconditionse.g.flowersgrowninKenyaare:Roses,lilies,hibiscus,carnationsandorchids
  • FruitsgrowninKenyaare:Oranges,grapes,lemons,mangoesandpineapples.
  • VegetablesgrowninKenyainclude:onions,tomatoes,cabbages,carrotsandsukumawiki(kale)amongothers
  • Itismainlypractisedinthefollowingareas:
  • Mountelgon
  • Kitale
  • Cheranganyhills
  • MoisBridge
  • Nyahururu
  • Taveta
  • Naivasha
  • Ngong
  • Kisii
  • Embu
  • Eldoret
  • nairobi
  • ContributionofhorticulturetotheEconomyofKenya
  • It’sasourceofemployment.Peopleareemployedtoworkinfarms.
  • TheyareamajorsourceoffoodforthepeopleofKenya

 

MININGINKENYA

  • Majormineralsfoundinkenyainclude:
  • Sodaash-minedatLakeMagadi
  • Diatomite-minedatKariandusinearGilgil.
  • Limestone-minedatAthiRivernearNairobiandBamburiinMombasa.
  • Salt-minedinLakeMagadiandalsoalongthecoastatMalindiandNgomeni.
  • Petroleum-minedinTurkanacounty.

Importanceofmineralsinourcountry.

  • gcementmixedwithsand.
  • Different minerals are used as raw materials in industries thatmanufacturedifferentproductssuchascement,glass,soapandchemicals.
  • g.salt.

ProblemsfacingmininginKenya

  • Poortransportsystem
  • Lackofskilledlabour
  • Insecurityintheminingareas

FISHINGINKENYA

  • Fishingcanbedoneinlakes,oceans,riversorponds.

METHODSOFINLANDFISHING

  • Inland fishing is carried out in freshwater bodies like lakes, riversandfishfarms(ponds)locatedonthemaininlandfishinggroundsinKenya
    • Lakes:Victoria,Turkana,Naivasha,JipeandBaringo.
    • Rivers:Tana,Yala,Sagana,NzoiaandNyando.
    • Dams:MasingaandKiambere.
    • Fishfarms:Naromoru,Nanyuki,Borabu,BamburiandAruba.

●      Methodsofinlandfishinginclude:

  1. Harpooningorspearmethod.-thisismostlydoneinclearwater.Fishermencatchfishbyspearingthem.

Aspearisaimedatthefishinthewater.Itisamethodusedincatchingafewfishforhomeuse.

  1. Net drifting – a net is placed vertically in a The net issupportedbyfloatsatthetopandhasweightsatthebottom.Fishswimintothenetandgettrappedandcannotmove.
  2. Lamp attraction method – lamps are lit in boats over thewater surface to attract fish at night. As the fish movetowards the light, they are caught using baskets and nets.ThismethodiscommonlyusedinLakeslikeVictoria,TurkanatocatchsmallfishlikeOmena
  3. Hook and line method– a string with a hook on the head istied to a rod. A bait is then put on the hook, which is dippedintothewater.Thebaitcouldbeapieceofmeatoraninsect.The fish get attracted to the bait and are caught by thehook.Onlyonefishiscaughtatatime.
  4. Use of baskets – a conical-shaped basket is pushed into theriverwherethewaterflowsveryfast.Aftersometime,thebasket is removed from the water with whatever may havegotin.thismethodisusedinriversandnearbanksoflakes

Contributionoffishingtotheeconomyofkenya

  • Touristattraction-touristscometokenyatodofishingasasportandforenjoyment.
  • g.sourceofprotein.
  • g.inindustriesthatprocessfish,fishfarms.
  • It’sasourceofincome-sellingfishearnsfishermenincomethusimprovingtheirlivingstandards.
  • Fishisasourceofmedicine-fishcontainsthecodliverthatisusedasmedicine.
  • Fishinghasledtothegrowthofotherdependentindustriesthatmakefertilizers,animalfeedsandfishprocessing.

Wildlife and Tourism in KenyaNationalparkandGamereserve

  • A national park is a wildlife protection area controlled directly bythe national government through the Kenya wildlife service. Innationalparkspeoplearenotallowedtosettle.
  • A game reserve is a wildlife protection area managed by the localcountygovernment.Ingamereserves,peopleareallowedtoliveandgrazetheircattle.

LocatingNationalParksandGamereservesinKenya(map)

 

Importanceofwildlifeinourcountry

  • Wildlife is an important natural resource in kenya. The following aresomereasonswhywildlifeisimportant:
    • It is a major tourist attraction in kenya. National parks andgame reserves have rare kinds of animals which tourists paytosee.Thegovernmentgetsrevenuefromthetourists.
    • Somepeopleareemployedtoworkinnationalparksandgamereserves.

othersareemployedastourguidesorworkersinhotels.

  • It helps us to make good use of unproductive lands. Gameparksandreservesarelocatedinareaswhichcannotsupportdomesticanimalsandcrops.

 

  • Thishappenswhenthepopulation of wild animals is high. E.g. gazelles, crocodiles,giraffes,zebrasandimpalas.
  • It promotes cultural exchange. When tourists interact withKenyans,theyexchangeideas,beliefsandculturalvaluesandpractices.
  • It promotes development of transport and communicationfacilitiesinKenya.Roadsleadingtogameparksandreserveshavebeenimproved.

TouristsattractionsinKenya

  • ThemaintouristattractionsinKenyaare:
    1. Wildlife- this is the main tourist attraction. Tourists come toseeanimalssuchasthebigfiveandflamingosinLakeNakuru.
    2. Historicbuiltenvironments-suchasFortJesus,GediRuinsandtheNairobiNationalMuseum.
    3. Sandycoastalbeaches-touristsvisitthebeachestorelaxandsunbathe.
    4. Culture-Kenyahasvariedanduniquecultures.Theseincludedances,artefacts,waysofdressingandshelters.
    5. Warmclimate-Kenyaexperiencesawarmclimatemostoftheyear.Thisattractstouristswhenitiscoldintheircountries.
    6. Sports-somesportssuchasmountainclimbing,sportfishingandmotorvehicleralliesattracttourists.
  1. Conferencefacilities-Kenyahasmodernconferencefacilitiessuch as Kenya International Conventional Centre (KICC) ,UNEPheadquartersandseveralfive-starhotels.
  2. Beautifulscenery-thisincludestheGreatRiftvalley,thehotwaterspringsatOlkariaandthesnowpeaksofMountKenya

ContributionofTourismtotheeconomyofKenya

  • TourismcontributestotheeconomyofKenyainthefollowingways:
  • Itisasourceofforeignexchange
  • ItcreatesemploymentforKenyans
  • Touristsbringnewideaswhentheyvisitourcountry
  • Theycreateamarketforcropsgrownbyfarmers.
  • Forexample,NaroktownhasgrownduetothepresenceofMaasaiMaraGamereserve.

WaysofpromotingtourisminKenya

  • Establishinganti-poachingunitsinallgameparksandgamereserves.

TRANSPORTINKENYA

ModernformsoftransportinKenya

  • theseare:road,railways,water,airandpipeline.
  • People and goods are transported using cars, bicycles, buses,matatus,motorbikes,lorriesandtrailers.
  • It is the most suitable form of transportation for bulkygoods.Howeveritisslow.
  • Air transport involves the movement of people and goods usingaircraft.Itisthefastestandmostexpensiveformoftransport.
  • Pipelinetransportismainlyusedtotransportwater,oilandgases.

 

CausesofroadaccidentsinKenya

  • Ignoranceoftrafficrulesandroadsigns
  • Drivingbeyondthespeedlimit
  • Drivingvehiclesthatarenotingoodcondition
  • Overloadingofgoodsandpassengers
  • Drivingundertheinfluenceofalcoholorharmfuldrugs
  • Poorstateofroads

WaysofreducingroadaccidentsinKenya

  • Educatingdriversandotherroadusersontheproperuseofroads
  • Constructingfootbridges,tunnelsandpedestrianpaths
  • Usingspeedgovernorsonpublicservicevehiclestocontroltheirspeed.
  • Constructingspeedbumpsonroads
  • Placingcorrectroadsignsattherightplacesalongtheroads
  • Punishingandpenalisingdriverswhodonotobeytrafficrules

Roadsignsandtheirmeanings(picpg.120)

 

WaysofobservingroadsafetyinKenya

Observeroadsignsonyourway.

Atpedestriancrossing,lookleft,rightandagainthencrosswhentheroadisclear.

Fastenyourseatbeltswheninamovingvehicle

Donotplayneartheroads

Always use sidewalks.

 

CommunicationinKenyaModernmeansofcommunication.

  • ExamplesofmodernmeansofcommunicationinKenyainclude:
  • Mobile phones and telephones – this is the fastest and mostreliablewayofsendingandreceivingmessages.Itcanbeusedtosendbothwrittenandspokenmessages.
  • Magazines,newspapers,journals-theyareproducedeitherdaily, weekly or monthly. They report information aboutevents happening in the country and around the world. Theyreportonpolitics,business,sportsandotherhappenings.
  • Radio – this method sends messages to many people at thesametime.ThesemessagesareairedinEnglish,Kiswahiliandlocallanguages.
  • Television-thisissendingmessagesusingvisualaidsandsendingtomanyatonce.
  • Internet-thisinvolvessendingofemailsusingelectronicmeansamongotherslikevideoconferencing.
  • Postal services – this is the delivery of written messages inthe form of letters and parcels from one place to another.Thisserviceisofferedthroughpostoffices.
  • Courier services – this is sending and receiving of letters andparcels to people living far away . In this service, the parcelsaredeliveredtotheownerspersonally.Itisfastandreliable

 

POLITICALSYSTEMSANDGOVERNANCE

LeadershipandPoliticalchange

TraditionalleadersinKenya

  • Sometimes they were wisemen and women. At other timesthey were brave warriors, famous medicine people or successfultraders.they were obeyed and respected. People would go to themforadviceandguidance.

 

ContributionofTraditionalLeadersinKenyaKivoiwaMwendwa

  • He was a great long distance trader who travelled betweenMombasaandMt.Elgon.
  • He was able to organize hunting and raiding activities toacquiretradegoodsintheregion
  • When he took the goods to the coast, he exchanged them forclothes, cowrie shells, ornaments, knives, daggers, spices andglasswarefromArabtraders.
  • In 1846, he met Dr. Krapf for the first time at Rabai andtheybecamegreatfriends.
  • In 1849, Dr. Krapf visited Chief Kivoi in his home in Kitui fromwhere he saw a snow-capped mountain. It was amazing to findsuchinformationalongtheequator.
  • When Ludwig Krapf inquired about it, Chief Kivoi informed himthat the name of the mountain was “Kinyaa”, which KrapfinterpretedasKenya,thepresent-daynameofourcountry.
  • His Friendship with Dr. Krapf led to the spread ofChristianityamonghispeople.

 

MekatililiwaMenza

Shewasbornin1840

 

  • She was a prophetess and a political leader of the Agiriamapeople
  • Mekatilili was opposed to hut tax and forced labour, slavery,the destruction of the Kayas (traditional shrines) andrecruitment of Giriama youths who were forced to work onEuropean farms. She led her people to fight against theoccupationofGiriamalandalongRiverSabaki.
  • They attacked European settlements and traders passingthroughtheirland.
  • Afterthis,theAgiriamalosttheirpoliticalpower.
  • Shewasre-arrestedanddeportedtoKismayuinAugust1914.
  • MekatililiwaMenzawasafamousarmygeneralandagreatprideoftheAgiriama community, an inspiration to present-day women due to hertoilingspirit.

DifferencesandsimilaritiesbetweenKivoiwaMwendwaandMekatiliwaMenza

 

Similarities Differences
Both leaders were respected bytheircommunities KivoiwaMwendwa was a longdistance trader while MekatililiwaMenzawasaprophetes.
Both leaders were symbols of unitytotheircommunities KivoiwaMwendwa welcomed theEuropean missionaries whileMekatililiwaMenzaresistedthem
Both leaders interacted withEuropeans Mekatililiwamemnzawasarrestedand deported to Kisii and Kismayuwhile KivoiwaMwendwa was notarrested.
Bothleadersdefendedthewelfare KivoiwaMwendwawasachief

 

 

oftheirpeople while MekatililiwaMenza was amilitaryleader
  MekatililiwaMenza united herpeople against the British throughoaths while KivoiwaMwendwa didnotgiveanyoath.

 

EarlyformsofGovernment

EarlyFormsofgovernmentamongtheMaasai.

  • Theyliveintheplainswheretheycangetenoughpasturefortheiranimals
  • Enkaiwasthesourceoflifeandpunishedbadpeople.
  • Theyalsoraidedothercommunitiestogetcattle.

EarlyFormsofgovernmentamongtheMaasai.

  • Kenya.
  • There were to sets of rulers: the Kiruka and the Ntiba.each ofthese age sets was headed by a council of elders and ruled at aparticulartimebeforehandingovertotheother.
  • The generation in power had a council of elders called the NjuriNcheke.Thiscouncilwasmadeupelderlymenwhowereselectedbecauseoftheirabilityandwisdom.
  • Theydealtwithmurder,landissues,witchcraftandtheft.
  • They settled disputes, maintained law and order, presided overreligiousmatters,protectedtheenvironmentandadvisedonthebesteconomicactivityforthecommunity.
  • They had a religious leader called Mugwe. He blessed major eventslike sacrifices to ancestors, declared curses on matters of publicinterest,declaredthingstabooandprohibited,andconductedriteswhenagesetswerebeingpromoted

 

DifferencesandsimilaritiesbetweentheMaasaiandtheAmeru.

 

 

Similarities Differences
Inbothcommunitiestherewasacouncil of elders who settleddisputes The Maasai had a prophet and amedicine man while the Ameru didnot
In both communities leadershipwasinformofagesets TheMaasaiwereledbyOloibonwhile the Ameru were led by acouncilofelders
Inbothcommunities,Lawandorderwasmaintainedbytheelders The Maasai leadership washereditarywhiletheAmeruwasnot.

 

Citizenship

GoodcitizenshipinKenya

WaysofbecomingaKenyanCitizen

  • InKenya,citizensareissuedwithidentitycardstoshowthattheyareKenyans.ApersoncanbecomeaKenyancitizenintwoways.
  1. ByBirth
  • A child born of Kenyan parents becomes a KenyanCitizen. The child is registered and given a birthcertificate.Attheageof18heorshecanusethebirthcertificatetogetanidentitycard.
  • If the child is born in Kenya by parents who areforeigners,thechildhastheoptionofbecomingaKenyancitizenornot.
    • Byregistration
  • ApersonbornoutsideKenyawhohasattainedtheageof 21 years can apply to be registered as a Kenyancitizen.
  • HeorshemusthavebeenlivinginKenyaforatleastsevenyears
  • OneofhisorherparentsmustbeaKenyancitizen

RequirementsforDualCitizenship

Dualcitizenshipisthestatewherebyapersonisacitizenofmorethanonecountryunderthelawsofthosecountries.

A Kenyan citizen by birth does not lose Kenyan citizenship byacquiringcitizenshipofanothercountry,aslongasheorshecan

provethatoneorbothparentswereKenyancitizensattheirtimeofbirth.

Someonewhoqualifiesfordualcitizenshipisrequiredtobeofgoodconduct, law abiding and should show interest in becoming a dualcitizen

Heorsheshouldalsopresentthefollowingdocuments:

  • Twopassportphotographs
  • Copyofbirthcertificate
  • CopyofKenyanpassport
  • CopyofKenyanidentitycard
  • Copyoftheothercountry’spassport
  • Copyoftheothercountry’scertificateofcitizenship

 

WaysinwhichoneMayloseKenyanCitizenship

  • Kenyans who obtain citizenship of another country are required todisclosetheirothercitizenshipwithinthreemonthsofbecomingadualcitizen.Failuretodosoisanoffence.
  • Ifapersonacquiredthecitizenshipbyregistration,thecitizenshipmaybelostifone:
  1. Is discovered to have used false documents duringregistration
  2. Failstorenewcitizenshipwhenitexpires
  3. Is convicted of an offence which has a penalty of at leastsevenyearsimprisonmentwithinfiveyearsofregistration
  4. Isconvictedofplanningtooverthrowthegovernment(treason).
  5. WillinglydenouncesKenyancitizenship

Ifapersonacquiredthecitizenshipbybirth,thecitizenshipmaybelostif:

  1. The age of the person is discovered and reveals that thepersonwasolderthaneightyearswhenheorshewasfoundonKenyansoil.

Goodcitizenship

  • Agoodcitizendoesthefollowing:
  • Obeysthelawsofthecountry
  • Isloyalandloveshisorhercountry
  • Defendshisorhercountry
  • Respectstheauthorities
  • Takespartincommunityactivities
  • Paystaxtothegovernment
  • Takescareoftheenvironment

National Unity In Kenya.

NationalsymbolsinKenya

  • ThenationalsymbolsinKenyainclude:
  • Thenationalanthem
  • Isanationalprayer
  • ItexpressesthehopesandwishesofKenyans
  • Itwasfirstsangatindependence
  • ItiswritteninKiswahiliandEnglish
  • It is sang when raising the flag and when opening andclosingnationaldayscelebrations
  • TheNationalflag

It is flown in all official functions, government officesand at schools. Senior government officials fly thenational flag on their cars. It is also raised when oursportsmenandwomenwinmedalsininternationalgames.Itisthemostpopular

 

Nationalsymbol.

  • Ithasfourcolours:black,white,redandgreen.
  • The red colour is a reminder of the blood shed and liveslostduringthefightforindependence.

 

  • The green colour is the beautiful environment thatsupportsthegrowingofcrops
  • The white colour shows peace in our country and theunityofKenyans.
  • Thecoatofarms
    • Itisthelogoofourcountry
    • It has two lions holding spears as a sign of strength andreadinesstodefendourcountryfromexternalforces
    • The cock with an axe shows that we can fight anybody aswedefendourcountry.
    • Crops represent the agricultural products of our fertilesoilandtheabilityofKenyanstofeedthemselves.
    • Harambee – this is our national motto. Kenyans worktogethertobuildourcountry.
  • ThePublicseal
  • Itiscircularinshape
  • Ithasacoatofarmsatthecentre
  • Itisthegovernmentsignatureonitsofficialdocuments

 

FactorsthatpromoteNationalUnity

  • Someofthefactorsthatpromotenationalunityare:
  • National holidays – these are days when great events arecelebrated.Theyinclude,MadarakaDaycelebratedon1stJune, Mashujaa Day celebrated on 21st October, Jamhuri12thDecember.
  • Nationalsymbols-theseincludethecoatofarms,thenationalflag,thenationalanthemandpublicseal.
  • Nationallanguages-theuseofKiswahiliandEnglishbringspeopleofdifferentcommunitiestogether.
    • Thepresident
    • Sportsandgames
    • TheKenyanconstitution
    • TheNationalAssembly

HumanRights

  • Ourrightsarewritteninadocumentthat contains all the laws of Kenya. The document is called theconstitutionofKenya.
  • Somebasicrightsare:
  • Righttolife-lifeisimportanttoallhumanbeings.Noonehastherighttotakeanotherperson’slife.
  • Righttobasicneeds(food,shelter,clothingandeducation)-every child should have adequate food, clothing, goodmedicinalcare,educationandshelter.
  • Righttoshelter-placetoprotectfromdanger,rain.
  • Righttoprotection
  • Freedom of worship – Every Kenyan citizen is free to hold hisorherownbeliefsandbelongtoareligiousgroupofhisorherchoice
  • Righttovote-everyKenyancitizenabove18yearsofagehasarighttovote.
  • Righttofairtrial-Apersonwhohasbeenarrestedshouldbepresumedinnocentuntilprovenguilty.
  • Right to own property – we are allowed to own propertyanywhereinKenya.WecanbuylandordobusinessinanypartofKenya.
  • Freedomfromdiscrimination-allpeopleareequalbeforethelaw and should be protected from any discriminationregardlessofage,sex,race,colourortribe.

ImportanceofHumanrights

  • Promotesdemocracyinthesociety
  • Theyareaguaranteeforequalandfairtreatment
  • Children’srightshelpsthemtogrowupwellandbecomegoodcitizens

GOVERNANCEINKENYA

Democracyinsociety

 

TypesofdemocracyinKenya

  • Democracy refers to a form of governance where the governmentrules according to the wishes of the people and for the benefit ofthepeople.
  • Therearetwotypesofdemocracy:
  • Direct democracy – this is also called participatory democracy or pure democracy. . in this type of democracy, allcitizensareinvolvedinmakingdecisionsonvariousissuesthatconcernthem.Thisisthebestformofdemocracy.
  • Indirect democracy – this is also called representative In this type of democracy, citizens electrepresentatives who make decisions on their behalf. Theelectedrepresentativesaresupposedtomakedecisionsthewaypeoplewhoelectedthemwouldlikethemto.

Benefitsofdemocracyinsociety.

  • Democracypromotesgoodgovernanceinthesociety
  • Democracypromotesdevelopmentandstabilityinthesociety
  • Democracyenablescitizenstoexpressthemselvesfreely
  • Democracyhelpstoprotectthebasicrightsofallcitizens
  • Democracypromotespeace,loveandunityinsociety.Thishelpsreduceconflicts.

Electoral process in KenyaImportanceofvotinginKenya

  • People vote to choose leaders who will represent them in thegovernment,toexercisetheirdemocraticrightandtoreplacebadleaderswithgoodleaders.

ElectivePoliticalpositionsinKenya

  • In Kenya we have six elective political positions.. They are:President – who leads the national government.Governor-whoistheheadofthecountygovernment.Senator-whorepresentsthecountyinthesenate

Memberofparliament-whorepresentstheconstituencyintheparliament.

Woman representative – represents women who areconsideredasmarginalisedgroupbytheconstitution.Memberofcountyassembly-whorepresentsthewardinthecountyassembly.

VotingstepsinKenya

Registration of voters on the voter’s register by theindependent Electoral and boundaries Commission (IEBC)Givingciviceducationtothevoterstohelpthemunderstandtheproceedingsofvoting.

Onthedayofvoting,votersgotothepollingstationtoelecttheirleaders.Foravotertobeallowedtovote:

  1. Heorshemusthaveanationalidentitycardorvalidpassport
  2. He or she must appear on the voters register.Verifyingofthenamesfromthevoter’sregisterusingvotersidentificationcard

When cleared, the voter is given a ballot paper to fill. This isdoneinaboothorprivateroom.Heorsheputsamarknexttothenameofthecandidateofhisorherchoice.

Thevotercastshisorherballotinaballotbox.

Oncethevotercastshisorhervote,anon-washableinkisusedtomakeamarkonhisorhersmallfinger.

TheNationalGovernmentinKenya

ArmsoftheNationalGovernmentandtheirFunctions

  • ThethreearmsofNationalGovernmentinKenyainclude:
    • The legislature – is the arm of the National Government thatmakes the laws that govern the country. These laws arecontainedintheconstitutionofKenya.
    • The Executive – is the arm of the National Government Thepresidentensuresthatthereislawand order in the country. This arm of the NationalGovernmentcomesupwithpoliciesofthegovernment.
    • The Judiciary Is the arm of the National Government thatlistenstocasesbroughttothecourtsandadministersjustice

TheCompositionofthethreearmsoftheNationalGovernmentinKenya

TheLegislature

  1. NationalAssembly
    • Thespeaker
    • 290electedmembersofparliament
    • 47electedwomenrepresentatives
    • 12membersnominatedbypoliticalparties
  2. Thesenate
    • Thespeaker
    • 47senators
    • 16womennominatedbypoliticalparties
    • 2youthrepresentatives(maleandfemale)
    • 2membersrepresentingpeoplewithdisabilities(maleandfemale)

CompositionoftheExecutive

  • Thepresident
  • Thedeputypresident
  • Cabinetsecretaries
  • AttorneyGeneral
  • Publicservants

CompositionoftheJudiciary

 

www.kenyaplex.com.

 

  • TheChiefJustice
  • TheDeputyChiefJustice
  • TheChiefRegistrar
  • JudgesoftheSupremeCourt
  • TheJudicialServiceCommission
  • OtherJudicialofficersandstaff

Participatinginnationalgovernance

Wetakepartinnationalgovernancebydoingthefollowing:

  1. Obeyingtherulesandlawsofourcountry
  2. Encouragingourleaderstobefairandtransparentintheirleadership

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