Geography KCSE Mock Exams and Answers {Latest Best Collections}

 

NAME: …………………………………………………………CLASS……… ADM……….

 

312/1

GEOGRAPHY

PAPER 1

TERM 2 2023

TIME: 2 ¾ HOURS

MOCKS 1 2023

 

 

 

INSTRUCTION TO CANDIDATES.

  • This paper consist of TWO sections A and B
  • Answer all questions in section A
  • Answer question six and any other two questions from section B

 

For examiner’s use only

 

QUESTIONS

CANDIDATE’S

TOTAL SCORE

 

CANDIDATE’S

SC

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SECTION A

 

 

  1. Name three components of the solar system                                                                  (3mks)
  2. Give two weakness of the nebular cloud theory                                                             (2mks)
  3. What is lunar eclipse                                                                                                      (2mks)
  4. Give the two dates of the year when equinoxes is experienced                  (2mks)
  5. What is a sea breeze?                                                                                                      (2mks) …
  6. Give the four main zones of the earth’s atmosphere                                                     (4mks)
  7. Name three man-made lakes in Kenya                                                                           (3mks)
  8. State two reasons why some Rift valley lakes in Kenya have saline water                            (2mks)
  9. Define the term climate                                                                                                  (2mks)
  10. Mention any three consequences of climate changes                                                      (3mks)

 

 

SECTION B

Answer questions 6 and any other two questions in this section.

 

6.a. Study the map of Kisumu East (1:50,000) Kenya sheet 116/2 provided and answer the following questions.

  1. i) What is the title of the map? (1mk)
  2. ii) identify two types natural vegetation in the area covered by the map. (2mks)

iii) Identify three man made features in grid square 0494. (3mks)

  1. i) draw a rectangle to represent the area enclosed by Eastings 04 to 07 and Northings 85 to 87. Enlarge it twice marking and naming following features;(5mks)

– road c544

-ditch

-swamp

-footpath

  1. ii) Give the new scale of the enlarged section. (2mks)
  2. i) Calculate the bearing of Ranjira school from the air Photo principal point (04) at grid reference 0986. (2mks)
  3. Identify four drainage features in the area covered by the map. (4mks)
  4. Citing evidence from the map, explain three human factors that are likely to favour agriculture in the area covered by the map. (6mks)

 

  1. (a) (i) Apart from surface run off, give two other processes in the hydrological cycle. (2 marks)

(ii) State three factors that determine the amount of surface run off.                            (3 marks)

(b) Explain three factors that influence the transportation of materials by a river.                         (6 marks)

(c) (i) What is river rejuvenation?                                                                                         (2 marks)

(ii) Explain three conditions that lead to rejuvenation of a river.                                   (6 marks)

(d) Explain three negative effects of rivers to the human environment.                             (6 marks)

 

  1. (a) Name one fold mountain in:

(i) Asia                                                                                                            ( 1mk)

(ii) North America                                                                                         ( 1mk)

(iii) South Africa                                                                                            ( 1 mk)

(b)       (i) Apart from fold mountains, name three other features resultingfrom folding. (3mks)                                   (ii) With the aid of labeled diagrams, describe the formation of anover thrust fold(5mks)

(c)       Explain four effects of fold mountains on human activities .                                  (8mks)

(d)       Students are planning to carry out a field study on landforms in their conty.

(i) State three ways in which the students would prepare themselvesfor the field study. (3mks)                             (ii) Give threeadvantages of studying landforms through field work                  (3mks)

 

  1. The diagram below represents zones of natural vegetation on a mountain use it to answer questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a)       (i)  In your answer  booklet, name the  zones  marked X,Y and Z (3mks)

(ii) Describe the characteristics of tropical Savannah vegetation                (5mks)

(iii) State two reasons why the mountaintop has no vegetation                   (2mks)

(b)       Explain three factors that have led to a decline of the natural grassland in Kenya.(6mks)

(c)       Suppose you were to carry out a field study on the relationship between vegetation and altitude

(i)        State three hypotheses you would formulate for your study                          (3mks)

(ii)       State four methods you would use to record the information collected during the field study(4mks)

(iii)      Name the type of map you would draw to present your findings.                  (2mks)

 

 

10(a)   Name two types of submerged coasts                           (2mks)

(b) Explain how the following factors determine the effectiveness of wave erosion along a coast

(i) Nature of the material transported by waves                      (3mks)

(ii) Nature of the coastal rocks (3mks)

(c) With the aid of labeled diagrams, describe the process through which a stack is formed(7mks)

(d) (i) State  four conditions that favour the growth of coral.                       (4mks)

(ii)       Explain three ways in which coral contributes to the economic development of Kenya.(6mks)

.

GEOGRAPHY PAPER TWO

312/2

2 ¾  HOURS

 

MOCKS 1 2023

KENYA CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

GEOGRAPHY PAPER TWO – 312/2

2 ¾ HOURS

 

 

 

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper has two sections: A and B.
  • Answer all the questions in
  • Answer question 6 and any other two questions from section B.
  • All answers must be written in the answer booklet
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English.

 

 

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1. (a) define ecotourism (2 Marks)

(b) State two reasons why domestic tourism is encouraged in Kenya (2 Marks)

  1. (a) State three physical features that favoured the development of the seven forks hydro-electric power scheme. (3 Marks)

(b) State two human problems facing hydro-electric power projects development in Kenya. (2 Marks)

  1. Use the map of Eat Africa below to answer questions (a (i)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Identify the minerals which are mined in the areas marked W, X, Y and Z. (4 Marks)
  • State two problems facing gold mining in South Africa. (2 Marks)
  • State two factors which influence the mode of occurrence of minerals. (2 Marks)
  1. (a) Give three features of the cottage industry in India. (3 Marks)
  • Identify two human factors which influenced the development of the Iron and Steel industry in the Ruhr Region of Germany in the 19th (2 Marks.

 

 

 

 

  1. Below is a map of the Great Lakes of North America – Lawrence Seaway. Use it to answer question (a).
N
T
L

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Name:
  • The Lake marked L (1 Mark)
  • The waterfall marked T. (1 Mark)
  • The port marked N. (1 Mark)
  • Give two activities which were carried out by the St. Lawrence Seaway Project between 1954 and 1959. (2 Marks)

SECTION B (75 MARKS)

  1. The table below shows the population distribution within various sub counties of county T.
Sub – County Population Size
K 65,000
L 55,000
M 40,000
N 35,000

 

  • (i) Use the Base Map provided on page 7 to present the above population distribution data.

Use a scale of one (1) dot to represent 5000 people. (14 Marks)

(ii) State three disadvantages of Dot Maps in data presentation. (3 Marks).

  • State four measures which the government of Kenya has taken to reduce infant mortality. (4 Marks)
  • Statefour similarities between the population trends of Kenya and Sweden. (4 Marks)
  1. (a) (i) Differentiate land reclamation from land rehabilitation. (2 Marks)

(ii) Describe the stages of land reclamation from the sea in the Netherlands (6 Marks)

(b) Explain four ways in which the Zuyder Zee economically benefits the Netherlands.

(8 Marks)

(c) (i) State four ways in which land is reclaimed in Kenya excluding irrigation. (4 Marks)

(ii) State five problems facing the Perkerra Irrigation Scheme. (5 Marks)

  1. Use the map of the North-West Atlantic fishing ground below to answer questions (a)

and (b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • (i) Name the country marked M. (1 Mark)

(ii) Explain how the two ocean currents shown on the map influence fishing in the area. (4 Marks)

  • Explain threefactors whichfavour commercial fishing in the area shaded on the map other than ocean currents. (6 Marks)
  • Explain threehuman reasons why fresh water fishing is more developed than marine fishing in East Africa. (6 Marks)
  • The diagram below shows a commercial fishing method.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Describe how the method is used in catching fish. (5 Marks)
  • List three methods used to preserve fish (3 Marks)
  1. (a) State three physical conditions that favour coffee growing in the Central Highlands of Kenya. (3 Marks)

(b) Describe the stages involved in coffee production from picking to marketing. (8 Marks)

(c) Explain four problems facing coffee farming in Brazil. (8 Marks)

(d) Your Geography class carried out a field study on a coffee farm.

  • State four methods the class may have used to collect data. (4 Marks)
  • During the field study, the class collected data on the quantities of coffee produced from the farm in the last five years.

State two methods that the class may have used to present the data. (2 Marks)

  1. (a) (i) A part from water and air pollution, name two other types of pollution. (2 Marks)

(ii) Identify three ways in which water is polluted. (3 Marks)

  • Explain three effects of air pollution on the environment. (6 Marks)

(b) (i) Explain three factors that lead to frequent flooding in the Lake Region of

Kenya. (6 Marks)

(ii) Explain two ways through which floods are controlled in the Lake Region of

Kenya. (4 Marks)

(c) State four negative effects of wind as an environmental hazard in Kenya. (4 Marks)

 

 

 

 

 

 

A BASE MAP FOR QUESTION 6 (a) (i)

 

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

MOCKS 1 2023

MARKING SCHEME

  1. A) Name three components of the solar system
  • sun
  • planets
  • Asteroids
  • comets
  1. b) Give two weaknesses of the Nebular cloud theory
  • Chances of another star approaching the sun are minimal
  • High temperature materials draw from the sun or from the star world disperse rather than condense
  • It does not explain where the sun and the passing star came from
  1. a) What is lunar eclipse

Lunar eclipse is a shadow that occurs when during the revolution of the earth, the earth lies in between the sun and the moon

  1. b) Give the two dates and months of the year when equinoxes is experienced

-21ST MARCH

-23RD SEPTEMBER

  1. a) What is a lake Breeze?

Sea breeze is the movement of cool air from the lake/sea to the land during the day the air therefore cools the temperature over areas where they blow

  1. b) Give the four main zones of the earth’s atmosphere
  • the troposphere
  • the stratosphere
  • the mesosphere
  • the thermosphere/ionosphere
  1. a) Name three man- made lakes in Kenya
  • masinga
  • kindaruma
  • kamburu
  • lutaru
  1. b) State two reasons why some Rift Valley lakes in Kenya have saline water
  • some have no outlets
  • some are located in areas where rate of evaporation is high
  • some have floors made of soluble rock materials                          Average weather conditions over a wider area for a long period of time, generally 35 years
  1. b) Mention ant three consequences of climate change
  • Enhances drought
  • Reduced agricultural productivity and harvest
  • Increase incidence of soil erosion due to excessive flooding or sporadic storms
  • Reduction in water resources
  • Desert encasement
  • excessive heat
  • increased incidence of storms and sea level rise

 

  1. MAPWORK

6.a. Study the map of Kisumu East (1:50,000) Kenya sheet 116/2 provided and answer the following questions.

  1. i) What is the title of the map? (1mk)
  • EAST AFRICA 1:50,000 (KENYA)
  1. ii) identify two types natural vegetation in the area covered by the map. (2mks)
  • Woodland
  • Scattered trees
  • Scrub
  • papyrus

            iii) Identify three man made features in grid square 0494. (3mks)

  • plantation
  • buildings
  • ditch
  • road
  1. i) enlargement the area enclosed by Eastings 04 to 07 and Northings 85 to 87. (5mks)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. ii) Give the new scale of the enlarged section. (2mks)
  • 1:50,000/2
  • = 1:25,000
  1. i) Calculate the bearing of Ranjira school from the air Photo principal point (04) at grid reference 0986. (2mks)
  • 370SW
  1. Identify four drainage features in the area covered by the map. (4mks)
  • ditches
  • swamp
  • lake
  • rivers
  1. Citing evidence from the map, explain three human factors that are likely to favour agriculture in the area covered by the map. (6mks)
  • research-agricultural sugar research station
  • good transport-all weather roads
  • market-numerous markets and urban settlement
  • availability of labour-from the large population evidenced by the presence dense settlement

 

7.      (a) (i) Apart from surface run off, give two other processes in the hydrological cycle.

precipitation

evaporation

transpiration

interception

infiltration

percolation

(ii) State three factors that determine the amount of surface run off.

amount of rainfall

rate of evaporation

gradient/slope of the land

nature of the rocks/pervious/impervious

amount of vegetation cover

(b) Explain three factors that influence the transportation of materials by a river.

volume of water-large water volume carry large amount of load

gradient of the channel-steep slopes generate greater kinetic energy enabling faster flow

nature of the load-light load is transported faster/over long distance

amount of load-small quantity transported for a long distance/large load reduces the efficiency of a river to transport

(c) (i) What is river rejuvenation?

this is the renewal of the erosive activity of a river

(ii) Explain three conditions that lead to rejuvenation of a river.

increase in river discharge due to increased rainfall/river capture resulting in increased erosive power

change in rock resistance which make the river to start eroding vigorously

change in base level due to local uplift or drop in sea level causing a steep gradient

(d) Explain three negative effects of rivers to the human environment.

flooding of rivers may destroy property/crops/displace people

flooding of rivers can lead to loss of human lives

some rivers are habitat to dangerous animals which may attack human beings or destroy crops

wide or deep rivers are a barrier to transport especially where bridges have not been constructed

river water may be a medium of spreading water borne diseases especially when flooding occurs

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. a) Fold mountains in Asia – Himalayas                                                                                                                               North America – Rockies                                                                                                                   South Africa – Cape ranges                                                                                                   b) i) Other features of folding                                                                                                            – Rolling plains                                                                                                                                   – Ridge and valley landscape / depressions                                                                             – Intermountain basins                                                                                                           – Intermountain plateaus
  2. ii) Formation of over thrust fold
  3. c) Effects of fold mountains on human activities – Heavy rainfall support luxuriant growth of forests on the windward slopes of fold mountains which act as water catchment ( sources of rivers)

– Fold mountains provide unique scenery making such areas attractive to tourists earning foreign exchange to a country

– Descending cold winds are harmful to crops

– Forests which grow on fold mountains slopes are sources of timber

  1. d) i) Ways in which students prepare for field study on landforms             – Formulate objectives

– Seek permission

– Conduct a pre-visit

  1. ii) Advantages of studying folding through fieldwork

 

  1. a) i) X- Rainforest

Y – Bamboo

Z – Heath and moorland

  1. ii) Characteristics of tropical savannah vegetation

– Trees are widely spaced

– Trees are medium height

– Trees are mostly drought resistant

– Trees shed leaves during dry season

iii) Thin soil, extremely low temperature, bare rock

  1. b) Factors that have led to decline in natural grasslands

– Fire outbreaks

– Drought

– Overgrazing                                                                                                             – Encroachment / population pressure

  1. c) i) Hypothesis

any applicable answer

  1. ii) Methods of recording statistical data

– Taking notes

– Tables

– Taking photographs

– Field sketching

iii) Sketch maps

  1. a) Types of submerged coasts

– Rios

– Fiords

  1. b) Factors influencing wave erosion

*Nature of materials transported by waves – determine the rate of abrasion

*Nature of coastal rocks – whether hard or soft

  1. c) Formation of a stack

 

  1. d) i) Condition favoring growth of coral

– Warm water

– Shallow water < 60M deep

– Clear oxygenated water

– Submerged conditions

  1. ii) How coral contribute to the economy of Kenya

– Coral limestone is used in building and construction

– Coral reefs attract tourists

 

 

 

 

MOCKS 1 2023

 

 

 

GEOGRAPHY PAPER TWO – 312/2

 

 

 

MARKING SCHEME – GEOGRAPHY 312/2

 

 

 

TEN (10) QUESTIONS

 

 

SECTION A = 25 MARKS

 

ALL QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION TO BE ANSWERED.

 

  1. (a) Define Ecotourism
  • Ecotourism is the development and management of tourism while conserving the environment/enjoying what nature provides while protecting it.
  • The enjoyment of watching the natural environment while protecting it at the same time by the tourists.

Any 1×2 = 2 Marks Only

(b) State two reasons why domestic tourism is encouraged in Kenya.

  • To make use of tourist facilities during the low tourist seasons.
  • Inorder for Kenyans to be exposed and know more about their own country.
  • To expose Kenyans to a wider variety of recreational facilities.
  • To create employment to the people.
  • To generate income to the people and the government.

Any 2×1 = 2 Marks Only

  1. (a) State three physical features that favoured the development of the seven forks hydro-electric power scheme.
  • The presence of a hard basement rock.
  • The presence of large volume of water, from River Tana.
  • The presence of water falls/rapids/steep gradient.
  • The presence of a narrow steep sided river valley/deep gorges.
  • The regular flow of river Tana/The permanent/constant River Tana.

Any 3×1 = 3 Marks Only

(b) State two human problems facing hydro-electric power projects development in

Kenya.

  • The high cost of maintenance of machines.
  • The inadequate capital to expand the projects.
  • The high cost of transmission of power from remote areas.
  • The high rate of corruption
  • Drastic technological changes

Any 2×1 = 2 Marks Only

  1. (a) Identify the minerals mined in the areas marked
  • W – Fluorspar (1×1 = 1 Mark)
  • X – Gold (1×1 = 1 Mark)
  • Y – Diamonds (1×1 = 1 Mark)
  • Z – Copper (1×1 = 1 Mark)

Total = 4 Marks Only

(b) State two problems facing gold mining in South Africa.

  • The hard rocks to be broken.
  • The collapse of the mines.
  • The low ventilation standards deep underground.
  • The dusty conditions/silica dust.
  • The high frequency of strikes by gold miners.
  • The flooding of the gold mines.
  • The high temperature conditions deep underground.
  • The great depth of the mines.
  • The drop in gold quality.

Any 2×1 = 2 Marks Only.

(c) State two factors which influence the mode of occurrence of minerals.

  • Vulcanicity process.
  • Metamorphism process of rocks.
  • Sedimentation of materials.
  • Evaporation of water.
  • Weathering of rocks.
  • Erosion of mineral particles

Any 2×1 = 2 Marks Only

  1. (a) State two features of the cottage industry in India
  • Relies on simple equipment/machines owned by families/groups/individuals.
  • Uses locally available raw materials.
  • Produces goods mainly for local markets.
  • Wide spread/ubiquitous in the country.
  • Embraced advanced technology in operations.
  • Operated from homes or small workshops.
  • Middlemen aid in marketing.

Any 2×1 = 2 Marks Only.

(b) Identify two human factors which led to the development of the iron and steel

industry in the Ruhr Region of Germany in the 19th century.

  • Large capital/entrepreneurship from the Krupp family/The Ruhr Kohle companies.
  • Large external and internal market.
  • Large supply of hydro electric power.
  • The long historical background in metals workings from the local people /local craftsmen.
  • The skilled labourers from the local villages.

Any 2×1 = 2 Marks Only

  1. (a) Name the
  • The Lake marked L
  • L- Lake superior

1×1 = 1 Mark Only

  • The waterfall marked T
  • T- Niagara Falls
  • 1×1 = 1 Mark Only
  • The port marked N
  • N – Quebec Port

1×1 = 1 Mark Only

(b) Give two activities which were carried out by the St. Lawrence seaway project

between 1954 and 1959.

  • The construction of canals.
  • The establishment of locks along the river channel.
  • The development of dams.
  • The removing of rock shoals.

Any 2×1 = 2 Marks Only.

 

SECTION B = 75 MARKS

QUESTION 6 AND ANY OTHER TWO QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED.

  1. (a) (i) Use the base map provided to present the above population distribution data.
  • The scale is 1 dot represents 5000 people.

Calculations

Sub-County Population Size Total No. of Dots
K 65000

5000

13
L 35000

5000

11
M 40000

5000

8
N 35000

5000

7

 

Marks Distribution

Calculations = 8 Marks

Dots = 4 Marks

Title = 2 Marks

Total = 14 Marks

NB: Examiners to indicate the dots appropriately before marking starts.

A DOT MAP SHOWING POPULATION DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUB COUNTIES OF COUNTY T.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(ii) State three disadvantages of Dot Maps in data presentation.

  • They are tedious to draw for a large area/Time consuming to draw.
  • They give a false impression of the real distribution of phenomena when dots are evenly spread.
  • Difficult to draw many dots of a uniform size and shape.
  • Difficult to place dots on the exact location of the phenomena.

Any 3×1 = 3 Marks Only.

(b) State four measures which the Government of Kenya has taken to reduce infant

mortality.

  • The widespread immunization of children to control diseases.
  • The provision of free medical services for children/free mosquito nets.
  • The provision of parental education to ensure better care for children/breast feeding campaigns/family planning.
  • Granting longer maternity leave for mothers to take care of the new born babies.
  • Research on infant related diseases has been stepped up..
  • Encourages the provision of homes for the orphans.
  • Enhancement of the training of traditional midwives.
  • Improving/increasing of medical facilities.

Any 4×1 = 4 Marks Only.

(c) State four similarities between the population trends of Kenya and Sweden.

  • In both countries the distribution of population is uneven.
  • In both countries a low mortality rate prevails.
  • In both countries population policies do prevail on population trends followed by recommendations.
  • In both countries there is use of family planning methods and contraceptives geared towards controlling population growth.
  • In both countries population density in urban areas is high.

Any 4×1 = 4 Marks Only

  1. (a) (i) Differentiate land reclamation from land rehabilitation
  • Land reclamation is the process by which unproductive land/wasteland is converted into farmland for crops growing /keeping animals while land rehabilitation is the process of restoring wasteland to its former productive state.
  • Land reclamation is the process of creating new land from the sea/lake beds/river beds and making it available for agriculture/settlement while land rehabilitation is the process of restoring waste land to its former productive state.
  • Land reclamation is the practice by which less useful land is converted into more useful land while land rehabilitation is the process of recovery/restoration of land which has been misused/destroyed through human activities.

Any 1×2 = 2 Marks Only

(ii) Describe the stages of land reclamation from the sea in the Netherlands.

  • Protective dykes/walls are constructed to enclose the part of the sea to be reclaimed.
  • Ring canals are constructed to convey water from the land to be reclaimed into the sea.
  • Pumping stations are installed to pump out sea water from the area enclosed by the dykes.
  • Water is pumped out of the area enclosed by the dykes.
  • Reeds are sown to use up any excess water in the area/facilitate soil desalinization process.
  • Drainage ditches/pipes are cut in the land/laid down to drain water from the water table.
  • The soils are treated with chemicals/flushed with fresh water to lower their salinity levels.
  • The pumping out of the water from the bolders is a continuous process to prevent water accumulation in the reclaimed land.

Any 6×1 = 6 Marks Only.

(b) Explain four ways in which the Zuyder Zee project economically benefits the

Netherlands.

  • Reduced degree of soil salinity which has promoted agricultural production.
  • Reclaimed land which has increased agricultural land by 10% thus high horticultural production.
  • The creation of Lake Ijssel which provides fresh water for domestic and industrial use.
  • The road connection between the provinces of North Holland and Friesland has been significantly shortened leading to low transportation costs/great saving of transportation time.
  • Reduced flooding prospects which has facilitated significant economic growth.
  • More employment opportunities created leading to high standards of living of the people.

Any 4×2 = 8 Marks Only

(c) (i) State four ways in which land is reclaimed in Kenya excluding irrigation.

  • The drainage of swamps/marshes.
  • Infilling of quarries.
  • Tsetse fly control and clearing of jungles.
  • Establishing forests/Afforestation.
  • Cultivation of drought – resistant crops.

Any 4×1 = 4 Marks Only

(ii) State five problems facing the Perkerra Irrigation Scheme.

  • River Perkerra fluctuations.
  • Livestock-human conflicts.
  • Land ownership conflicts.
  • Farmers’ financial constraints.
  • High cost of farm inputs.
  • High salinity levels in water during the dry periods.
  • Delayed issuance of land title deeds to the farmers.

Any 5×1 = 5 Marks Only

  1. (a) (i) Name the country marked M
  • Canada

1×1 = 1 Mark Only

  • Explain how the two ocean currents shown on the map influence fishing in the area.
  • The convergence of the cold Labrador and the warm Gulf Stream ocean currents causes upwelling of water which brings minerals for planktons closer to the surface attracting large number of fish to the area.
  • The convergence of the cold Labrador and the warm Gulf Stream ocean currents modifies the temperature of the ocean water leading to fishing activities throughout the year.
  • The convergence of the cold Labrador and the warm Gulf Stream ocean currents cools water which favours the survival of a wide variety of fish species making the area an important fishing ground.

Any 2×2 = 4 Marks Only

 

 

(b) Explain three factors which favour commercial fishing in the area shaded on

the map other than ocean currents.

  • The area has a broad continental shelf with large quantities of fish to be harvested.
  • The shallow continental shelf which is reasonably sun lit promotes massive planktons development which attract large quantities of fish.
  • The low temperatures in the area are suitable for fish preservation/storage of fish.
  • The adjacent rugged landscape discourages agriculture compelling people to focus on fishing for economic sustainability.
  • Rich deposits of land derived minerals from rivers which leads to plankton growth providing adequate fish food.
  • The hinterland is densely populated thus providing ready market for fish.
  • Advanced technology has resulted in highly developed ship building/fishing vessels which are equipped with modern preservation facilities thus making it possible for fishermen to carry out large scale fishing.

Any 3×2 = 6 Marks Only.

(c) Explain three human reasons why fresh water fishing is more developed than marine

fishing in East Africa.

  • The demand for fresh water fish is usually high while that one of marine fish is low hence encouraging the pursuit of fresh water fish in East Africa.
  • With low skills fresh water fishing is carried out conveniently in East Africa unlike marine fishing which thrives on advanced skills which are uncommon.
  • With low capital outlay investment in fresh water fishing is carried out unlike marine fishing which requires high capital for investment.
  • With simple/cheap equipment fresh water is carried out in East Africa unlike marine fishing which flourishes on advanced equipment usage.

Any 3×2 = 6 Marks Only

(d) (i) Describe how the method is used in catching fish.

  • A bag-shaped net is attached to a ship called a trawler.
  • The net is cast into water by the trawler.
  • The net’s mouth is kept open by otter boards/head beams.
  • The upper part of the net is kept a float by corks/floats.
  • Weights are used to keep the lower part of the net at the sea bed.
  • The trawler drags the net along the sea bed.
  • After sufficient fish have been caught, the net is hauled to the trawler to empty the fish.

Any 5×1 = 5 Marks Only

(ii) List three methods used to preserve fish.

  • Canning
  • Freezing/Refrigeration
  • Deep frying
  • Salting
  • Smoking

Any 3×1 = 3 Marks Only.

  1. (a) State three physical conditions that favour coffee growing in the Central Highlands of Kenya
  • The high rainfall throughout the year/1000mm – 1500 mm.
  • The deep and well drained volcanic soils/loamy soils.
  • The moderate/high temperature conditions.
  • The gently sloping landscape.
  • The highland elevation of Central Kenya/The high altitude.

Any 3×1 = 3 Marks Only

(b) Describe the stages involved in coffee production from picking to marketing.

  • The ripe/deep red berries are picked by hand.
  • The harvested berries are carried in baskets/sacks to the factory.
  • The berries are sorted out to remove the outer diseased berries.
  • The different grades are weighed.
  • The berries go through a machine that removes the outer covering pulp.
  • The beans are fermented in tanks for sometime.
  • The beans are washed and thensun dried for about a week.
  • The husks are removed and the beans winnowed.
  • The beans are sorted out and graded according to size and quality.
  • The beans are roasted at temperatures of about 1000
  • The beans are ground into powder ready for sale.

Any 8×1 = 8 Marks Only

(c) Explain four problems facing coffee farming in Brazil

  • Attack by frost which destroys the crop/leads to low yields.
  • Unplanned planting which leads to overproduction/surplus production which lowers prices.
  • Stiff competition from other coffee producing countries in the world which reduces Brazil’s dominance in the world coffee market.
  • The fluctuation of coffee prices in the world market which sometimes leads to low prices/demoralizes the farmers.
  • The soil exhaustion which leads to low coffee yields.
  • Attack by coffee leaf rust disease which destroy the crop/reduces production yields
  • Attack by coffee leaf miner/coffee berry borer pests which destroy the crop/ reduces production yields.

Any 4×2 = 8 Marks Only

(d) Your Geography class carried out a field study on a coffee farm.

(i) State four methods the class may have used to collect data

  • Administering questionnaires.
  • Taking photographs/videos.
  • Content analysis.
  • Oral interviewing
  • Observation of phenomena.
  • Taking measurements

Any 4×1 = 4 Marks Only

(ii) During the field study, the class collected data on quantities of coffee produced from the farm in the last five years.

State two methods that the class may have used to present the data.

  • Drawing charts.
  • Drawing tables.
  • Drawing graphs.

Any 2×1 = 2 Marks Only

  1. (a) (i) Apart from water and air pollution, name two other types of pollution.
  • Land pollution.
  • Soil pollution.
  • Noise/Sound pollution.
  • Thermal pollution.
  • Radioactive contamination.

Any 2×1 = 2 Marks Only

  • Identify three ways in which water is polluted.
  • Discharge of industrial waste/oil spillage/radioactive waste into water bodies.
  • Disposal of domestic waste into water bodies.
  • Discharge of agricultural chemicals into rivers/lakes by rain water.
  • Discharge of raw sewage into water bodies.
  • Natural causes such as soil erosion.
  • Abuse/Dirtying of water bodies by human beings.

Any 3×1 = 3 MarksOnly

  • Explain three effects of air pollution on the environment.
  • Gases emitted from some factories contain substances which corrode roofs of houses and metal structures.
  • Some gases from factories contain substances which dissolve in water to form acid rain which destroys plants/kill animals.
  • Inhalation of smoke and soot particles/bad smell leads to discomfort/irritation of the respiratory system/discolouring of vegetables/buildings.
  • Gases emitted from factories may contain poisonous substances which can lead to poor health.

Any 3×2 = 6 Marks Only.

(b) (i) Explain three factors that lead to frequent flooding in the Lake Region of Kenya.

  • Most of the land is low lying which causes rain water to spread over a wide area.
  • The adjacent highlands receive torrential rainfall which releases large volumes of water resulting to rivers overflowing their banks.
  • The rivers are in their old stage thus they have wide flood plains which allows water to spread over large areas.
  • The area has black cotton soil which is non porous and when it soaks up allows water to flow and spread on the surface.
  • The high rainfall received in the area is discharged into Lake Victoria making its level to rise thus flooding the adjacent lowlands.

Any 3×2 = 6 Marks Only.

  • Explain two ways through which floods are controlled in the Lake Region of Kenya.
  • By diverting/redirecting river tributaries to other rivers to reduce the water volume in the main rivers.
  • By planting trees in the catchment areas to increase water infiltration and seepage to reduce surface run off.
  • By dredging to deepen/widen the channels of rivers to make them hold excess/large volumes of water.
  • By the construction of diversion channels and canals which help to straighten river meanders and restrict the flow of water within the river valleys.
  • By dams construction in the upstream stages of rivers to hold excess water in order to reduce river water volume and velocity downstream.
  • By dykes/levees/embankment/construction along river banks to prevent water from overflowing.

Any 2×2 = 4 Marks Only

(c)  State four negative effects of wind as an environmental hazard in Kenya.

  • Strong winds destroy trees.
  • Strong winds blow off roofs of houses.
  • Winds cause strong sea storms which leads to boats capsizing.
  • Winds cause soil erosion.
  • Winds cause air borne diseases to spread rapidly.
  • Winds facilitate the spread of dangerous bush fires.
  • Winds damage transport and communication systems.

Any 4×1 = 4 Marks Only

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