Home Teachers' Resources FORM 4 GEOGRAPHY PP2 JOINT EXAMS PLUS MARKING SCHEMES PDF

FORM 4 GEOGRAPHY PP2 JOINT EXAMS PLUS MARKING SCHEMES PDF

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GEOGRAPHY                Paper 2                                                                

Time: 2Hrs. 45mins  

                     GEOGRAPHY       PAPER   2          2021

                           FORM FOUR SERIES

Instructions to candidates

  • Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above.
  • Sign and write the date of examination in the spaces provided above.
  • This paper has two sections: A and B.
  • Answer all the questions in section A.
  • Answer question 6 and any other TWO questions from section B.
  • This paper consists of 5 printed pages.
  • Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English

 

                                                 For Examiner’s Use Only

 

 

Section Question  Maximum Score Candidate’s Score
A 1 – 5 25  
B 6 25  
  25  
  25  
Total score  

 

                                                                    SECTION A

Answer all questions on this section

  1. List three reasons for studying geography                                                (3 marks)

 

  1. (a) Differentiate between horticulture and market gardening . (2 marks)

(b)List three  economic factors that influence  Agriculture in the world .                                                                                                                                                                              (3 marks)

  1. a) Define domestic tourism.                                                                            (2marks)

 

  1. b) State three ways in which eco-tourism is being promoted in Kenya (3 marks)
  2. a) Give three reasons why pipeline transport is being expanded in East Africa                                                                                                                                             (3 marks)

 

  1. b) Which four activities may you undertake in your school to conserve trees ?                                                                                                                                                    (4marks)

 

  1. a) State  two causes of desertification                                                            (2marks)

 

  1. b) Name three sources of population data                                                    ( 3marks)

 

SECTION B

Answer question 6 and two other questions in this section.

 

  1. Study the photograph below and answer the questions that follow.

 

 

 

  1. a) (i) Identify the activity in the photograph       (1 mark)

(ii) Draw a rectangle measuring 15cm by 10cm and on it mark and name four main feature.                                                                                                                      (5 marks)

(iii) Why is the above referred as Green Energy ?                                          (2 marks)

 

  1. b) (i) List four advantages of the above type of energy                                   (4 marks)

(ii)Name two areas in Kenya where wind energy is generated                  (2 marks)

 

  1. c) Explain four problems the Kenyan government faces in development of energy sources

(8 marks)

  1. d) (i) Define Energy Crisis                                                                                      (2 marks)

(ii) State one impact of Energy Crisis in kenya                                               (1 mark)

 

  1. (a)(i) Give three characteristics of dairy farming                                          (3 marks)

(ii) Apart from fresh milk, name two dairy products.                                   (2 marks)

(b)Explain three human factors favouring dairy farming in the Kenya Highlands.

(6 marks)

(c )Compare dairy farming in Kenya and in Denmark.                                                (6 marks)

(d)  The table below shows Kenya’s milk production in ‘000 litres

    from 2007 to 2009. Use it to answer question (a).

 

Cattle breed/Year 2007 2008 2009
Friesian 30,000 42,000 50,000
Guernsey 12,000 13,000 20,000
Aryshire 20,000 33,000 35,000
Jersey 16,000 20,000 25,000

 

( i). Using a scale of 1cm represents 5,000 litres, draw a comparative  bar graph for the above data.                                                                                                                         (6 marks)

(ii). Give two alternative methods that can be used to represent  the above data.                                                                                                                                                       (2marks)

  1. a) (i)      Apart from coffee, name two other beverages grown in Africa .     (2 marks)

(ii)      Name three counties west of the Rift Valley where coffee is grown in kenya                                                                                                                          (3 marks)

(iii)     State four physical conditions required for the growing of coffee in kenya.

(4 marks)

  1. b)        Describe the stages in coffee production from picking to marketing                                                                                                                                                                            (6marks)
  2. c) Explain four problems facing the coffee industry in Kenya .              (8 marks)
  3. d) List two uses of coffee                                                                               (2 marks)
  4. a) Indicate where the following minerals are mined in kenya;

(i) Soda Ash         –

(ii)Base Titanium-

(iii)Fluorspar          –                                                                              (3marks)

  1. b) State four ways in which Kenya will benefit from drilling her own oil   (4marks)
  2. c) Explain three problems resulting from industrialization.                       (6 marks)

 

  1. d)    Apart from the rich families and companies, identify and explain three factors that favoured the location and development of Iron and Steel industry in the ruhr region of Germany

(6 marks)

  1. Form 4 students intend to carry out a field study on jua kali ventures in their neighborhood.
  • State two reasons why they need to visit the area in advance (2marks)
  • The students have prepared a work schedule. Name two items they would include in it.                           (2 marks)
  • Give two advantages of studying jua kali industries through field work                                                                                                                 (2 marks)

 

10 a)   (i) What is fish caging?                                                                                      (2marks)

(ii)           The diagram   provided shows a type of fishing method.

 

 

 

Identify the method and describe how it is used.                                        (4 marks)

 

(b) The map below shows the North-West Atlantic fishing grounds.  Study it and answer the questions

that follow

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Name the ocean currents marked X and Y                              (2marks)
  2. Explain how ocean currents X and Y favour fishing in the North-West Atlantic                                                                                                              (4marks)
  • Name the county marked Z                             (1mark)
  1. Name two examples of fish found in the North-West Atlantic fishing grounds                                                                                                                                    (2 marks)
  2. c) Explain three reasons that make East Africa not to be a major producer of fish and fish products in the world                                                               (6 marks)
  3. d) Explain four measures that Kenyan government has undertaken to conserve fisheries                                                                                                                      (4 marks)



REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY ASSOCIATION                                                             Geography 312/2               Marking scheme                           

  1. List three reasons for studying geography                                                (3 marks)
  • helps develop skills
  • -provide knowledge on immediate environment
  • -Encourages international understanding
  • -creates awareness about the country
  • -promotes awareness on sustainable use of resources
  • -for career opportunities
  • -make learners understand the earth they live in
  • -enable learners explain the origin of phenomena
  • -help learners manage time any 3×1=3 mks
  1. (a) Differentiate between horticulture and market gardening . (2 marks)

Horticulture is an intensive cultivation of vegetables, fruits and flowers for sale while market gardening is an intensive cultivation of vegetables and fruits for sale in the nearest urban centers.

 

(b)List three  economic factors that influence  Agriculture in the world .                                                                                                                                                                              (3 marks)

  • Operation costs and profits
  • Market demand/marketing
  • Price fluctuation
  • Availability of capital
  • Price of inputs
  • Government policy
  1. a) Define domestic tourism.                                                                            (2marks)

 

  • Visits within a country by resident of that country. 2×1 = 2mks
  1. b) State three ways in which eco-tourism is being promoted in Kenya (3 marks)

 

  • Legislation against killing of wild animals and poaching licensed hunting
  • Outlawing feeding of animals in parks and reserves
  • encouraging silence in parks, reserves
  • prohibiting littering of parks and environment
  • By encouraging local community to appreciate nature by benefiting from its proceeds
  • Recycling waste materials like papers collected from tourist attraction sites
  • Construction of social amenities eg schools using earnings from tourism to benefit local communities any 3×1 = 3mks
  1. a) Give three reasons why pipeline transport is being expanded in East Africa                                                                                                                                             (3 marks)
  • to reduce congestion on roads
  • to reduce damage on roads by tankers
  • to reduce road accidents by tankers
  • to reduce congestion on oil terminus
  • it is cheaper to transport oil
  • to reduce contamination of oil
  • it is safer
  • it is faster
  • to minimize pollution
  • Larger volumes can be transported
  1. b) Which four activities may you undertake in your school to conserve trees ?                                                                                                                                              (4marks)
  • plant trees
  • Establish a tree nursery
  • Establish an environmental club
  • use alternative source of energy
  • use energy saving jiko
  • take care of trees/manage trees
  • control pests any 4×1=4mks
  1. a) State  two causes of desertification                                                            (2marks)
  • -deforestation
  • -soil erosion
  • -global warming/climate change
  • -overgrazing
  • – Poor farming practices any 2×1=2mk
  1. b) Name three sources of population data                                                    ( 3marks)

national census

-sample survey

-vital statistics/registration of births/deaths/migration

-content analysis.                                                                  any2x1=2mks

SECTION B

  1. Study the photograph below and answer the questions that follow.

 

 

 

  1. a) (i) Identify the activity in the photograph (1 mark)
  • -harvesting solar power/energy 1mk

(ii) Draw a rectangle measuring 15cm by 10cm and on it mark and name four main feature.                                                                                                                      (5 marks)

A RECTANGLE SHOWING SCKETCH  OF THE PHOTOGRAPH

(iii) Why is the above referred as Green Energy ?                                          (2 marks)

  • it is clean, pure energy that is generated from a natural resource like the sun that does not pollute the atmosphere/environment by releasing greenhouse gases 2mks
  1. b) (i) List four advantages of the above type of energy
  • it is cheap
  • -it is inexhaustible
  • -it is safe
  • -it is free
  • -it can be stored for later use
  • -it can be found everywhere
  • -it is easy to use

(ii) Two areas in kenya where wind energy is generated

  • -Kinangop
  • -Loyangalani(Turkana/Marsabit)
  • -Ngong
  1. c) Explain four problems the Kenyan government faces in development of energy sources
  • inadequate capital to invest on energy generation machinery/prospecting
  • -low level of technology to prospect for the resources
  • -low demand for energy due to low industrialization
  • -climate change/drought which reduces water for H E P generation.
  • -corruption/mismanagement of energy sector any 4×2=8 mks
  1. d) (i) Define Energy Crisis
  • situation where prices of oil/petroleum/fossil fuels increase uncontrollably due to short supply against high demand         2×1=2mks

(ii)  State one effect of energy crisis in kenya

  • -kenya will spend a lot of foreign exchange to import oil
  • -will lead to increase in price of other commodities
  • -will lead to increase in cost of production
  • -will lead to increase in cost of farm inputs
  • -will lead to increase in the cost of transport
  • -will lead to scarcity of by-products of oil                any 1×1=1
  1. (a)(i) Give three characteristics of dairy farming                                          (3 marks)
  • Dairy cattle are reared in both temperate and tropical lands where suitable climatic conditions exist/cool areas/heavy rainfall
  • Mainly practiced in areas which enjoy good economy/developed infrastructure/high standards of living/where there is good market
  • Dairy farming is associated with high modern technologies which process and hygienically pack the products for domestic and international markets
  • Specific breeds of cattle with high milk yielding capacity are reared e.g Friesian,jersey

(ii) Apart from fresh milk, name two dairy products.                                   (2 marks)

  • Cheese
  • Butter
  • Yoghurt
  • Powder milk
  • Ghee

(b)Explain three human factors favouring dairy farming in the Kenya Highlands.

(6 marks)

  • High population that provides ready market
  • Passable roads for quick transport of milk to the market
  • Provision of extension officers and farmers training centre to train g farmers
  • Presences of processing plants and factories
  • Presences of vertinary services to farmers
  • Presence of cooperative societies that provide loans to farmers

 

(c )Compare dairy farming in Kenya and in Denmark.                                                (6 marks)

  • In Denmark dairy farming is carried out throughout the country while in Kenya dairy farming is mainly restricted in the cool areas/highlands
  • In Denmark the cattle mainly depend on fodder crops and commercial feeds while in Kenya the cattle mainly depend on natural grass / fodder and commercial feeds are limited
  • In Denmark mechanization is widely used while in Kenya mechanization is limited especially on small scale dairy farms
  • In Denmark there are constant dairy yields throughout the year due to good quality feeds and care while in Kenya yields fluctuate highly due to climatic changes/drought
  • In Denmark extension services and artificial insemination are widely used while in Kenya use of A.I. and extension services is limited to only a few areas due to shortage of capital
  • In Denmark dairy cooperatives are highly managed and developed while in Kenya most of the dairy cooperatives have suffered mismanagement/have inadequate capital
  • In Denmark most products are exported to world market while in Kenya most products are sold locally .
  • In Denmark AI services are widely  accessed while in Kenya services are practiced by  few farmers.

(d)  The table below shows Kenya’s milk production in ‘000 litres

from 2007 to 2009. Use it to answer question (a).

Cattle breed/Year 2007 2008 2009
Friesian 30,000 42,000 50,000
Guernsey 12,000 13,000 20,000
Aryshire 20,000 33,000 35,000
Jersey 16,000 20,000 25,000

 

( i). Using a scale of 1cm represents 5,000 litres, draw a comparative  bar graph for the above data.                                                                                                                         (6 marks)

 

 

(ii). Give two alternative methods that can be used to represent  the above data.                                                                                                                                                       (2marks)

  • Compound bar graph
  • Proportionally divided circles

 

 

 

 

A COMPARATIVE BAR GRAPH SHOWS KENYA’S MILK PRODUCTION IN ‘000                             LITRES    FROM 2007 TO 2009.

 

  1. . (a) (i) Apart from coffee,name two other beverages grown in Africa
    • -tea/purple/green/black
    • -cocoa
    • -cinder/apple juice
    • -orange juice                  any 2×1=2mks

(ii) Name three counties west of the rift valley where coffee is grown in kenya

  • -Nakuru
  • -Baringo
  • -Elgeyo Marakwet
  • -Kisumu
  • -Transnzoia
  • -Kisii
  • -Homabay
  • -Nandi

(iii) State four physical conditions required for the growing of coffee in kenya

  • high rainfall/1000mm-1500mm well distributed throughout the year
  • Deep,welldrained,volcanic/loam soil
  • cool to warm conditions/moderate to high temperatures/14-240c
  • gently sloping landscape                                                                         any 4×1=4 mks

(b)     Describe the stages involved in coffee production from picking to marketing

  • Ripe/deep red berries are picked by hand
    • Berries are carried in baskets/sacks to factory
  • -Berries are sorted out to remove unripe/bad ones
  • -Berries are graded
  • -Berries are weighed
  • -machines remove the outer cover/pulp
  • -Beans are fermented in tanks
  • -Beans are washed
  • -Beans are sun dried
  • -Husks are removed
  • -Beans are then winnowed
  • -Beans are sorted out
  • -Beans are graded in size and quality
  • -Beans are roasted
  • -Beans are ground into powder
  • -Powder is packed any 6×1=6 mks

NB.Sequence must be followed.

(c)   Explain four problems facing the coffee industry in kenya

  • soil exhaustion leading to low yields
  • -climatic hazards/drought destroy plant/low yields
  • -Fluctuation of coffee prices leads to low profits
  • -Stiff competition from other coffee producing countries leads to small quota
  • -competition from synthetic beverages lowers market
  • -Corruption/mismanagement of co-operatives discourage farmers any 4×2=8 mks

(d)     List two uses of coffee

it is a beverage

               -as medicine-to treat cancer,diabetes,low blood pressure,parkinsons disease

               -used for baking/food

                -as a gift

                -for pampering/scrubbing

                -the grounds can be used as fertilizer as they turn into compost

                -the grounds can be used as pesticide eg to keep away slugs

                – used to make perfumes/lip glosses/lip balms                             any 2×1=2 mks

 

  1. (a) indicate where the following minerals are mined in kenya;

(i)  Soda Ash-Magadi

         (ii) Base Titanium-Kwale

         (iii)Fluosper- Kerio Valley                                                                          3×1=3 mks

(b) State four ways in which kenyawill benefit from drilling her own oil

earn foreign exchange

            -earn revenue

            -citizens will be employed

            -save on foreign exchange

            – provision of raw materials for industry

            -improve on transport and communication                              any 4×1=4 mks

(c)  Explain three problems resulting from industrialization

            -led to rural-urban migration  thus congesting the urban centres/shortage of houses

            – some industries emit toxic gases which harm people/animals

            -effluent from industries pollute water making it unfit for humans/animals

            -Fumes from some industries corrode  roofs and destroy them

            -dumping of industrial waste has led to land degradation

            -locating some industries have led to displacement of people disrupting their social life

                                                                                                                  Any 3×2=6 mks

 

(d) Apart from rich families and companies,identify and explain three factors that favoured the location  and development of iron and steel industry in the ruhr region of Germany

            -availability of coal/iron ore/limestone from the Rhine valley which provided raw materials

            -River Rhine/Ruhr/Lippe/Emscher provided water for industrial use

             -navigable rivers and canals enabled transport

              -energy from coal in the region and HEP enabled industrialization

               -locals had inherited skill for iron making

                -large and rich population in Europe provided market            any 3×2=6 mks

(e) Form four students intend to carry out a field study on jua kali ventures in their neighbourhood

(i) state two reasons why they need to visit the area in advance

-to familiarize themselves with the area

                     -to know the times of operation of artisans

                      -to know what to wear

                      -to know what to carry                                                              any 2×1=2 mks

(ii) the students have prepared a work schedule.Name two items they would include in it

-time to start

                        -activities

                         – lucnch

                        -area of market to be covered

                        – time to end                                                                  any 2×1=2 mks

 

 

10 a)   (i) What is fish caging?                                                                                      (2marks)

  • setting up of metal/manila gauges/nets in wooden frames which are put in strategic places in a lake  where fish breed and mature and then harvested easily      2×1=2mks                                                                  

(ii)           The diagram   provided shows a type of fishing method.

 

 

 

Identify the method and describe how it is used.                                        (4 marks)

 

Trawling

a bag shaped net is attached to a ship/trawler

    -the net’s mouth is kept open by otter boards/head beams

    -the upper part of the net is kept afloat by corks/floats

   -weights keep the lower part at the sea bed.

   -the ship/trawler drags the net along

   -when enough fish is caught the net is hauled into the ship/trawler.         4×1=4 mks

(b) The map below shows the North-West Atlantic fishing grounds.  Study it and answer the questions

that follow

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Name the ocean currents marked X and Y (2marks)

X-Cold labrador

Y-Warm gulf stream

  1. Explain how ocean currents X and Y favour fishing in the North-West Atlantic                                               (4marks)
  • Convergence of cold Labrador and warm gulf stream causes upwelling and down welling of the water that leads to fish food planktons ./oxygenate water
  • The upwelling brings minerals and planktons near the surface for fish
  • The convergence of the currents provide cool temperature favourable for growth of planktons
  • The warm gulf stream raises temperature making fishing possible through out the year .
  • Ice bergs brought by the cold Labrador contains minerals for nourishment planktons .

 

  • Name the county marked Z (1mark

Canada

  1. Name two examples of fish found in the North-West Atlantic fishing grounds                                                                                                                                    (2 marks)

Cod                          Haddock                 Halibut           Hake           Flounder

Herring                    mehadden               tuna               sardine          sole

 

  1. c)        Explain three reasons that make East Africa not to be a major producer of fish and fish products in the world                            (6 marks)

 

1.Warm waters due to tropical location and the warm Mozambique current limits plankton growth and a number of fish.

East African coastline (Indian Ocean) is mainly regular so there are inadequate sea inlets needed for marine fish breeding.

2.Small and narrow continental shelf that limit growth of plankton and establishment of ports

 

3.Low technology and limited capital that limits marine fishing to the inshore waters.

 

4.Stiff competition from highly developed and industrialized nations e.g. Japan, Korea and Norway with advanced technology.

5.Limited market due to sparse population in many coastal owns which does not provide adequate market for fish

6.Low fish eating culture among the local communities who stay around the coastal regions

7.Strong sea tides that which are a great menace to local fishermen who uses small boats that are not motorised easily capsize

8.Lack of adequate refrigeration facilities hence caught fish go bad before being transported to market

  1. High prices of fish make it indeed expensive to many locals who cannot afford eating fish often

10.Inadequate capital for buying modern marine fishing equipment used in deep sea fishing

11.Regular coastlines that is unfavourable for fish breeding & development of fishing ports.

12.Warm coastal waters limit existence of more fish varieties hence only a few variety available.

13.Low demand for marine fish species compared to fresh water fish

 

  1. d) Explain four measures that Kenyan government has undertaken to conserve fisheries                                                                                                                      (4 marks)
  • Restricting fishing to specified seasons to control over fishingü
  • Licensing commercial fishermen to control their number ü
  • Standardizing the mesh size of nets to be used in fishing ü
  • Restricting the disposal of untreated waste into the sea /control of water pollution ü
  • Enforcing international conventions to protect endangered fish speciesü
  • Monitoring /discouraging the entry of foreign fishermen off the Indian Ocean waters 320km-exclusive economic zoneü
  • Special hatcheries have been set up for artificial fertilization of eggs ü
  • Conducting research to expand and improve fisheriesü
  • By practicing fish farming. The development of fish farms complements the fish being caught from the natural waters. Artificial fertilization of eggs has increased the number of fish species being bred.

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