1. Give two results of the interaction of Kenyan communities during their migration and

settlement.                                                                                                                           (2mks)

  1. Mention any two communities with age-set system of organisation in Kenya.    (2mks)
  2. State two circumstances under which it may not be against the law to kill a person. (2mk)
  3. Name two Portuguese generals that led expeditions to East coast of Africa.    (2mks)
  4. State two problems experienced by missionaries in Kenya.    (2mks)
  5. Give two distinctive features of Trade Union movement in Kenya during colonial period.                                                                                                                                  (2mks)
  6. State two reasons why the British government built the Kenya, Uganda railways.    (2mks)
  7. State two results of the Lennox-Royal Constitutional reforms of October 1957.           (2mks)
  8. According to sessional paper No.10 of 1965 on African Socialism and it’s application to

planning in Kenya, identify two principles that guide economic, social and political development

in Kenya.                                                                                                                 (2mks)

  1. Explain why Kenyans celebrate Kenyatta day as a National Holiday.
  2. State two circumstances under which a general election can be held in Kenya. (2mks)
  3. Explain what is meant by appellate jurisdiction according to Kenyan court system. (1mk)
  4. Name two committees of the cabinet. (2mks)
  5. State two reasons of giving prison sentences.    (2mks)
  6. Name the most import document that is relied upon by Historians for direct account of

the East Coast of Africa.                                                                                              (1mk)



  1. a) Outline any three achievements of Thomas Joseph Mboya in his political career.        (3mks)
  2. b) Explain the role played by Jomo Kenyatta in the struggle for independence.            (12mks)
  3. a) What were the causes of the mau-mau uprising in Kenya.     (5mks)
  4. b) Explain FIVE impacts of mau-mau uprising in Kenya.                                            (10mks)
  5. a) Highlight THREE objectives of the local Native councils set up in 1924.      (3mks)
  6. b) Explain SIX impacts of the Indian Ocean trade in Kenya.                                        (12mks)
  7. a) State FIVE causes of the migration of Iteso community to their present homeland.      (5mks)
  8. b) Describe the political organisation of the Kalenjins community upto 1870’s.           (10mks)



  1. a) List FIVE factors that led to the rise of multi-party democracy in Kenya.       (5mks)
  2. b) Explain FIVE factors that discourage National Unity.                                              (10mks)
  3. a) State THREE functions of chiefs as representatives of the government in locations. (3mks)
  4. b) Explain functions and responsibilities of the president.                                            (12mks)
  5. a) Outline THREE principles provided in the Kenyan legal system.       (3mks)
  6. b) Explain SIX functions of local authorities in Kenya today.                                                    (12mks)






  1. State two advantages of using oral traditions in the study of Africa history.                              (2mks)
  2. Name two uses of Acheulian tools during the old stone Age period.       (2mks)
  3. Identify three consequences of iron working technology in Africa before the colonial period.                                                                                                                                                  (3mks)
  4. State two factors that influenced early urbanization in Greece.                                      (2mks)
  5. Name two uses of the wheel in Mesopotamia                                                                (2mks)
  6. Name two agricultural inventions that led to the improvement of agriculture in North America

in the 19th century.                                                                                                                  (2mks)

  1. Identify three factors that led to the industrial revolution in Germany in the 19th century. (3mks)




  1. Name two ways by which advances in medical science have improved man’s life expectancy.


  1. State two effects of the construction of Suez Canal in 1869.   (2mks)
  2. State two diplomatic methods which were used by European states to establish their rule in Africa in the 19th century. (2mks)
  3. Name two leaders of the Algerian War of independence. (2mks)
  4. Why was President Anwar Sadat of Egypt assassinated in 1981? (1mk)





13  .a) Name three hunting methods that were used by the old stone Age men.              (3mks)

  1. b) What were the effects of crop and animal domestication during the New Stone Age period.


  1. a) Discuss the factors that favoured the rise of United States of America as a world Industrial power


  1. b) State five problems that hinder industrialization in the third world countries.         (5mks)

15  a) Discuss the organization of Trans-Atlantic Trade.                                                      (5mks)

  1. b) What were the effects of Trans-Atlantic Trade. (10mks)
  2. a) Explain why king Lewanika collaborated with the British. (10mks)
  3. b) What were the results of collaboration between King Lewanika and the British?  (5mks)




  1. a) Why did USA adopt a federal constitution after the American war of independence? (5mks)
  2. b) Explain how the USA government is organised.                                                   (10mks)
  3. a) How did the 1914 Sarajevo incident contribute to the rise of the first world war. 6mks)
  4. b) What were the results of the Treaty of Versailles.                                                (9mks)
  5. a) Discuss the factors that led to the rise of African nationalism in Ghana after the second World War.


  1. b) State five methods which were used by the African Political parties in the Struggle for Ghana’s

independence                                                                                                          (5mks)









  1. Give TWO results of the interaction of Kenya communities during their migration and


–     Intermarriage strengthened relations between communities.

–     Trade development between communities.

–     Assimilation and absorption of some communities by others.

–    Expulsion of some communities from their places of settlement.

(2 points 2 x 1 = 2mks)


  1. Mention any TWO communities with age set system of organisation in Kenya:.

–     Nandi / kalenjin      –      Pokomo

–     Maasai                    –      Borana      ( 2 points 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. State TWO circumstances under which it may not be against the Law to kill a person:

–     When it is self defence or in defence of property.

–     In the process of Lawful arrest or prevention of escape of a person who is lawfully detained.

–     In the course of suppressing a riot, mutiny or rebellion.

–     In order to prevent a person from committing a criminal act.

–     In event of war.                              (2 points 2 x 1 = 2mks)


  1. Name TWO Portuguese generals that led Expeditions to the East coast of Africa:

–     Vasgo – da Gama.               –      Petro Alvarries Cabral.

–     Ruy Lourence Ravasco.       –      Francisco de Almeida.                    (2 points 2 x 1 = 2mks)


  1. State TWO problems experienced by missionaries in Kenya:

–     Coastal people were Muslims and did not welcome Christian missionaries.

–     Hostility of some communities who did not want foreigners in their land.

–     Hostility from slave traders as missionaries opposed to slave trade.

–     Inadequate suppliers of food, and medicines.

–     Lack of means of transport e.g moved on foot.

–     Language barriers e.g had to learn Kiswahili and local languages.

–     Attack by tropical diseases.

–     Rivalries between missionaries of different denominations.

–     Catechists used by the missionaries to convert people were regarded as outcasts.

–     Met resistance from Africans as they preached against polygamy, circumcision and traditional religion.      (Any 2 points 2 x 1 = 2mks)


  1. Distinctive features of trade union movement in Kenya:

–     Early trade union movement were dominated by non-Africans.

–     Fought for their course through organised strikes.

–     Worked together with Nationalists to fight for improved conditions for Africa.

–     They only existed where there was wage or earning labour force e.g urban areas.

–     It was difficult for Africans working in European farms to unite together as a single force.

–     The educated elite in urban areas are the ones who mobilised trade union activities.

(Any 2 points 2 x 1 = 2mks)


  1. State TWO reasons why the British government built the Uganda Railways:

–     To establish effective control over British East Africa.

–     To facilitate economic exploitation of the region.

–     To stop slave trade and promote legitimate trade.

–     To help in the movement of troops and government administration.

–     Link Uganda with the East coast and the outside world for greater economic growth.

      (Any 2 points 2 x 1 = 2mks)


  1. State TWO results of the Lennox – Boyd constitutional reforms of October 1957:

–     Government created 6 more African constituencies.

–     Elections were held in March 1958 where 14 African countries elected to Legco.

–     Musa Amalemba was elected as second minister (ministry of housing).

–     1959, Sir Michael Blundell resigned from the post of minister for agriculture to lead the new Kenya group.

–     Three political parties were formed e.g Kenya National party of Michael Blundell, Kenya Independent Movement of Oginga odinga and United party of group captain Briggs.-

( Any 2 points 2 x 1 = 2mks)


  1. According to sessional paper no 10 of 1965 on African socialism and its application to planning in Kenya, identify TWO principles that guide economic, social and political development in Kenya.

–     Political democracy.

–     Mutual social responsibilities.

–     Various forms of  ownership.

–     A range of controls to ensure that property is used in mutual interest of society  and its members..

–     Progressive  taxes to ensure an equitable distribution of wealth and income.

–     Diffusion of ownership to avoid economic disparities.

(Any 2 points 2 x 1 = 2mks)


10) Explain why Kenyan’s celebrate Kenyatta day as A National Holiday:

–     To commemorate the day Kenyatta and other leaders of K.A.U. were arrested by colonial government.

–     To remind us of the sufferings and blood shed by our people in the struggle for independence.

(Any 1 point 1 x 1 = 1mk)


  1. State TWO circumstances under which a general election can be made in Kenya:

–     After every five years i.e at the end of the current parliament.

–     When president dissolves parliament and calls general election as happened in 1983.

–     When the government becomes unpopular and is forced to resign by a vote of no confidence.

(Any 2 points 2 x 1 = 2mks) 


  1. Explain what is made by apellate jurisdiction:

–     The powers conferred upon a court to hear appeals from lower courts.

(1 x 1 = 1mk)


  1. Name TWO committees of the cabinet:

–     An ad hoc committee.

–     Development committee.

–     Foreign affairs committee.

–     Manpower committee.                    (Any 2 points, 2 x 1 = 2mks)


  1. State TWO reasons of giving prisons sentences:

–     To rehabilitate the offender.

–     To punish the offender with the aim of correcting him.

–     To deter those who might be thinking of committing crimes.

( Any 2 points 2 x 1 = 2mks)


  1. Name the most important document relied on by historians for direct account of the East

      Africa coast:

–     Periplus of the Erythraean sea written by a Greeks based in Egypt.

( 1 x 1 = 1mk)




  1. a) Outline any THREE achievements of Thomas Mboya in his political career:

–     Became the National General Secretary of Kenya local government workers union in 1953.

–     Was elected also the Secretary General of the Kenya Federation of labour in 1953.

–     Protested against government decision to separate the Agikuyu, Aembu and Meru from other communities in Nairobi.

–     Attended trade union meetings in Brussels in 1954 and London.

–     His visits led to opening of offices for International conference of Free Trade Union and the Trade Union congress in Nairobi.

–     Attended local and overseas seminars on trade unionism.

–     Gave outstanding lectures on trade unionism.

–     Campaigned for the release of the detained unionists and other political leaders.

–     Made extensive tours of U.S.A and Canada where he explained Africa problems and called for better conditions.

–     1957 He was elected to the Legislative council.

–     Formed Nairobi peoples convention party and became its president upto 1960.

–     1958, he was elected to the international conference of free trade Unions executive board.

–     He also became first president of All – African peoples conference in Accra, Ghana in 1958 where he explained Kenyans political problems under colonial rule.

–     Became director of publicity and Treasurer of K.A.U in 1952 and 1953 respectively.

–     Protested against white domination of the government economic activities and the practice of racism.

–     Became Secretary General of K.A.N.U from 1960 to 1969.

–     Played leading role in the negotiations for independence at Lancaster Conference .

–     Held the post of Minister of labour, Minister for Justice and Constitutional affairs and Minister for Planning and economic development.

( Any 3 points outlined 3 x 1 = 3mks)

  1. b) Explain the role played by Jomo Kenyatta in the struggle for independence:

–     He became the Secretary General of  Kikuyu Central Association and played the role drafting letters for K.C.A and translation from English and Kiswahili to Kikuyu.

–     In 1928 Kenyatta was chosen to represent land grievances before the Hilton Young Commission in Nairobi and he acted as interpreter.

–     Became the editor of K.C.A newspaper “Mwigwithania” where he wrote articles on Kikuyu customs and culture as well as urging them to improve agricultural methods and take children to school.

–     February 1929, he was sent by K.C.A to present their land grievances before the British government and met with several Nationalist eg Nationalist from India, A Nigerian Lawyer, Ladipo Solanke etc.

–     Wrote an article in the Sunday workers, the communist party newspaper in Britain dealing with independence for oppressed Kenyan Africans.

–     After returning from Britain in 1930, he supported the formation of independent school movement in central Kenya to the disappointment of the Missionaries.

–     April 1931, he represented the Kenya Africans before British Parliamentary committee on closer union of Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika.

–     1937, he became a member International African Service Bureau who was to fight for civil liberties and self determination for all Africans.

–     1934, he supported North Kavirondo Central Association against the alienation of Abaluyia lands in Kakamega where gold was discovered.

–     He also supported the formation of the Taita Hills Association and Ukambani Members Association.

–     He wrote articles in British Press and gave Lectures about Kenya’s economic and political problems.

–     Participated in 1945 Pan-African Congress in Manchester which wanted freedom for colonised Africans and Liberties for Africans worldwide.

–     On his return from London in 1946 he replaced James Gichuru as President for K.A.U, making the party popular countrywide.

–     1952, the colonial government declared a state of emergency under which Jomo Kenyatta and other political leaders were arrested, tried and imprisoned.

–     1961, Kenyatta was released from prison and became president of K.A.N.U, joined the legislative council and worked with other nationalist for fight for independence.

–     1962, he with other nationalists attended the Lancaster house conference which prepared the way for Uhuru.

–     1st June 1963, Kenya attained it’s Self-government with Kenyatta as first Prime Minister.

–     1964, Kenya became a republic with Kenyatta as its first President.


  1. a) What were the causes of mau-mau uprising in Kenya:

–     Africans wanted proper representation in the in the legislative council i.e. wanted elected members not nominated .

–     Africans wanted to regain their lost land i.e. land taken for taken for white settlements.

–     The squater system where Africans were grouped on white farms where they provided labour, worked for long hours at low pay.

–     Emergence of ex-servicemen whose world outlook was wide. Those wanted constitutional changes and attainment of independence now.

–     Formation of National political parties like K.A.U. encouraged the mau mau. The leaders of those political parties supported mau mau as they fought for same principles.

–     The assumption of  K.A.U. leaders by Radical group made the movement forceful.

–     The 1949 oathings in squatters and central province bound people together in support of mau mau.

–     The formation of forty group by ex-servicemen in 1946 led to organised opposition against Europeans .They stopped the kikuyu people from terracing under control of District officer .

–     The group emerged as freedom fighters.

                             (Any 5 points = 5×1 = 5mks)


  1. b) Explain five impacts of MAU MAU uprising in Kenya:

–     It made it clear to constitutional planners that Africans wanted majority rule in Kenya.

–     It proved to the colonial government in Kenya that they were unable to control the internal situation .Troops and money had come from Britain to suppress the mau mau. Hence the responsibility for permanent settlement now rested with Britain.

–     Over $50 million were drained from Britain and Kenya to support the uprising.

–     Many people died in the war e.g. 10,000 mau mau men, 2,000 civilian African, 1,000 government troops and 50,000 Europeans and Asians civilian s died.

–     Tens of thousands of Africans were herded into reserves and detention camps. Thousands of prisoners suffered harsh treatment.

–     People lived for 10 years in fear for their lives. Villages, Clans and families were divided into loyalists and mau mau supporters.

–     It forced the government of the British to change the constitution to improve African life e .g 1957, eight Africans were elected to legislative council. The swynnarton plan was effected to give titles of land to Africans .Africans were allowed for the first time to grow cash  crops.

–     Mau mau forced independence to come.

                  (Any 5 points explained=5×2=10mks)


  1. a) Highlight Three Objectives of the Local Native Council set up in 1924:

–     To encourage and develop a sense of responsibility and duty towards the state among the African leaders.

–     To provide a forum through which the old, the young and the educated Africans could express  themselves but restrict them to district level.

–     To provide a means through which the government could come to understand the African and be able to contain him.                    (Any three points 3×1=3mks)


  1. b) Explain six impacts of Indian ocean trade in Kenya:

–     Led to foundation and development of  city states. Villages grew into towns and towns into stone built cities e .g . Lamu, Mombasa, Malindi, Pate, Manila etc.

–     Led to the spread  of Islamic religion to the interior of Kenya .Many people were converted  to Islamic faith.

–     Islamic culture and civilization spread along the coast e .g  dressing habits, eating  habits became Asian and Islamic.

–     Arabic design and architecture spread along the coast of Kenya and later into the interior of Kenya e .g. mosque, Schools and shops were built using Arabic design and architecture.

–     Most city- states became wealthy and powerful. There was often conflicts between them for control of trade and taxes charged on traders.

–     Islamic government and sheria laws were established in some of the city-states e .g. Mombasa,  Malindi , Gedi  e.t.c.

–     Rulers and merchants grew wealthy due to Indian ocean trade.

–     They dressed in expensive silk cloth from China and cotton clothes from India, they lived in houses built of stones, finely decorated, ate in splendid plates, porcelain plates from China.

–     It opened up the interior of Kenya to the outside

–     Islamic schools where people were taught how to read and write were built

–     The Arabs and Persians intermarried with the coast Bantu giving rise to a new breed of people called waswahili. A new language emerged

–     Arabs and Persians along the coast introduced new crops, spices and cooking style e.g banana, coconut, rice, clove and wheat.

                  (Any 6 points explained = 6 x 2 = 12mks)

  1. a) State FIVE causes of the migration of Iteso community to their present homeland:

–     Search for pasture and water for their animals.

–     Pressure from the Karamanjong and Turkana.

–     Over population, hence the need for fresh land for settlement.

–     Epidemic of cattle diseases.

–     Drought and famine.

–     The spirit of adventure and desire for loot and plunder.

      (Any 5 points = 5 x 1 = 5mks)


  1. b) Describe the political organisation of the Kalenjin community upto 1870s:

–     Kalenjin political system was based on semi-independent territorial units called bororosiet (Bororiet –singular).

–     Each bororiet was controlled by council of elders who members were chosen due to their wisdom and military skill.

–     Elders maintained law and order in the community, settled major disputes, made important decisions affecting the community. Their court was the final court in the land.

–     Each bororiet was further divided into smaller political units under smaller council of elders.

–     They defined grazing grounds and settled minor disputes.

–     In the 19th century the office of the Orkoiyot was introduced to the Nandi and Kipsigis. The Orkoiyot was a diviner and was skilled in foretelling the future, interpreting omens and in averting ill luck

–     The institution of the Orkoiyot brought a high degree of centralisation in the Kalenjin political structure e.g co-ordinated all the activities throughout the land. The office of the Orkoiyot brought together all the different Kipsigis groups into one strong community.

–     Boys of the same age group joined a named age- set e.g Maina, Chuma, Sawe, Korongoro, Kipkoiimet, Kiplelach, Kimnyige and Nyongi.

–     Boys also qualified after circumcision to join bororiets junior warriors, a permanent warrior group that conquered new lands and defendant the community against external attacks.

–     Age-sets was maintained by changing of age-set names through the “Sageet ap eito” ceremony marking the official hand –over of power from one age-set to the next. It was performed every 10 to 15 years

–     Complete cycle of age-set names took between 50 and 100 yrs.

      (Any 5 points 5 x 1 = 5mks)




5    a)   List FIVE factors that led to rise of Multi-party Democracy in Kenya:

–     Alleged rigging of the 1988 General election against some candidates through 70% rule i.e Queuing system.

–     KANU policies of grilling and suspending or expelling those critical to the system.

–     Political changes in the Soviet Union e.g Mikhail Gorbachevs political reforms.

–     Western Aid conditions e.g give only to countries initiating democratic policies and pluralism.

–     Influence of pluralism from Zambia and Togo..

–     Role of activists e.g clergy men, politicians, lawyers and journalists kept up the pressure for multi-partism.

–     KANUs response to criticism by organising political rallies where they claimed to revive tribalism, disrupt political stability and retard economic development.

–     Saitoti Review Committee Report of 1990. Abolition of que-voting system and expulsion from the party     (Any 5 points 5 x 1 = 5mks)


  1. b) Explain FIVE factors that discourage National Unity:

Religious conflicts

–     Lack of tolerance of each others religious beliefs can lead to inter-denominational conflicts.

–     Inter-denominational rivalry has led to civil wars in Lebanon.


–     Some Kenyans practice tribalism by favouring people of their own ethnic groups in employment and colleges.

–     Tribal clashes often pose a threat to National unity.


–     The practice of discriminating against people of a different race may cause friction and violence e.g Apartheid,  Nepotism

–     The practice of using facilities and resources to serve only one’s relatives e.g admitting relatives to colleges, employing them


–     The practice of giving and soliciting for bribes. It discourages national unity as it instills the belief that only money can buy public services and bend laws to avoid punishment.

      (Any 5 points explained 5 x 2 = 10 mks)


  1. a) State THREE functions of chiefs as representatives of the government in locations:

–     Maintain law and order in the location.

–     Act as a link between the people in the location and the government.

–     Explaining government policies to the people in the location.

–     Encouraging development projects in the location.

–     Ensuring that people co-exist peacefully.

–     Issuing permits for both private and public functions within the location.

–     Controlling the use of dangerous drugs like bhang.

–     Settling minor disputes between people in the location.

–     Chairman of the locational Development committee.

–     Mobilizing people to participate in public works.

–     Monitor payment of taxes like coffee, cars, radio and bicycles licences.

–     Convening “barazas” where people air their views on matters affecting their welfare.

      (Any 3 points 3 x 1 = 3mks)


  1. b) Explain SIX functions and responsibilities of the president:

–     Responsible for upholding the constitution. This requires that the president ensure no person or groups of persons violate the constitution. He ensures the rule of law is held.

–     Has the responsibility of protecting the interests, rights and freedom of citizens. He ensures the establishment of democratic institutions to facilitate peoples participation in government.

–     Is responsible for forming a government after general election by appointing the cabinet and permanent secretaries

–     Appoints senior civil servants as permanent secretaries, ambassadors, commissioners of police, chairman of parastatals

–     Is the chief spokesman for a Kenya in matters involving foreign relations. Some times he delegates the duty to his ambassadors and foreign minister.

–     Appoints special commissions and boards to look into particular issues of public interest.

–     Leads the nation in celebrating National holidays like Madaraka day, Jamhuri day, Kenyatta day.

–     Officially opens projects, starts some projects and holds harambee meetings.

–     Gives honour to deserving Kenyans for their exemplary service e.g the Order of the Golden Heart of Kenya, Distinguished Service Medal and Head of state commendation.

–     Leader of Government and National Assembly. Summons parliament and gives opening speeches and closing speech.

–     Attends parliamentary debates.

      (Any 6 points explained 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. a) Outline THREE principles provided in the Kenya legal Systems:

–    The independence of the Judiciary e.g the judiciary is separate from other arms of the government

–     They are not influenced by or dictated by anybody in the conduct of their official duties.

–     The rule of law i.e all citizens and residents are subjects to and governed by same law irrespective of their status, race, colour, religion or economic privillege.

–     A person is assumed innocent until he is proved guilty by courts of law. Hence the police cannot administer justice to a suspect but must take him or her for trial before court of law.

–     According to the law cases are heard either publicly or in camera.

      (Any 3 points 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


  1. b) Explain SIX functions of local authorities in Kenya today:

–     Providing public services required by local people in their areas of jurisdiction. These include educational facilities like schools and libraries, cattle dips, waters supply, roads e.t.c.

–     They run social services like day care centres, social clubs, meal services and hostels e.t.c.

–     Provision of housing facilities in Urban areas. They clear slum dwellings, build and manage new houses, provide sewarage, rubbish disposal, street lighting e.t.c.

–     Providing recreation services like swimming pools, sports grounds, parks, museums, gardens, public films shows e.t.c.

–     Are responsible for public health functions like food hygiene dispensaries, cleanliness in shops and offices, ortuaries, ambulance services, vaccination and immunisation programmes.

–     Burying destitute persons who die within their areas of jurisdiction i.e no relatives to claim and bury them

–     Regulating trading activities through provisions of markets, abattoirs, consumer protection, trading licenses and permits.

–     Providing building regulation and protection. They approve building plans, provide fire control / services.

–     Passing by – laws to regulate specific aspects of public life e.g prohibition of dumping rubbish in certain areas. By laws are approved by Local government.

–     Providing job and training opportunities for people within their jurisdiction e.g councilors, administrators, clerks, labourers.

–     It enhances participatory democracy as it affords the people to participate in the management of public affairs and their government through elected mayors, chairman and councilors.

–     Assisting officers of the central government at district level to find solutions to local problems. They are better placed to determine the nature and complexity of local problems.

      (Any 6 points explained 6 x 2 = 12 mks)








  1. Advantages of oral tradition:

–     Lack of written records in many pre-colonial African societies. Hence oral tradition offer the

most effective way of studying pre-colonial African history

–     Oral traditions offer a more lively/enjoyable way of studying African history

–     In information obtained through oral traditions can be used to supplement other sources of history

1 point 1 mark               Total 2 marks.


  1. Use of Acheulian tools:

–     Digging of roots.                       –    Killing animals.

–     Cutting animal skins.                –    Skinning animals.

–     Scrapping animal skins.            –    Pounding vegetables.

–     Breaking animals bones.                                               Any 1 point 1 mk           Total 2 mks


  1. Consequences of iron working technology:

–     Production of farming tools hence increase in food production.

–     Increased food production led to an increase in human population.

–     Increased human population forced people to migrate to sparsely populated regions.

–                  Some communities manufactured fighting weapons such as spears which they used to conquer

their neighbours.

–     Individuals who possessed iron working skills acquired special status in some societies.

1 point 1mk                   Total 3 mks.


  1. Factors that favoured early urbanisation in Greece:

–     Trading / commercial.

–     Sporting activities.

–     Self defence.

Total 2mks


  1. Uses of the wheel in mesopotamia:

–     Making of high quality pots from clay.

–     Building war chariots.

–     Making vehicles (carts) for transporting agricultural produce from the farms.

Any 1 point 1mk                        Total 2 mks.


  1. Agricultural inventions that led to the improvement of Agriculture in N.America in the 19th


–     Invention of reapers by Cyrus Mc Cormick in 1831.

–   Invention of steel plough by John Deer in 1839.

1 point 1mk                  Total 2mks.


  1. Factors that led to Industrial Revolution in Germany in the 19th century:

–     The formation of Zollverein (Custom Union) in 1818.

–     Construction of railways between 1835 and 1850.

–     The discovery of coal in Selesia.

–     The growth of an efficient banking system and joint stock company.

–     Political unification in 1871 which helped to integrate the national market.

–     Rise of ambitious private entrepreneurs such as Siemens Dernburgh and Krupp.

–     Flow of foreign capital and technology in the country.

–     Military success against France in the 1870 – 71 which brought self-glorification and business confidence which helped to boost industries.

1 point 1mk                   Total 3mks


  1. Ways by which advances in medical science have improved mans life expectancy:

–     Through discovery of drugs most of the diseases that used to kill people have been brought under control.

–     Improvement in surgery have reduced incidence of death during surgical operations.

–     The invention of vaccine has contributed greatly in controlling the spread of killer diseases such as measles.

            1 point 1mk                   Total 2mks


  1. Effects of the construction of Suez canal:

–     It provided a direct link between Europe and Asia.

–     Increased volume of trade between Asia and Europe.

–     It led to the growth of European interest in Africa and far East which encourage Europeans to search for colonies.

1 point 1mk                   Total 2mks.


  1. Diplomatic methods that were used by Europeans to establish their rule in Africa in the 19th


–     Establishing diplomatic relationship with the African rulers.

–     Signing protection treaties with African rulers.

–     Europeans states signed partition agreement among themselves in areas where spheres of influence were contested.

–     Some Europeans states used their nationals such as explorer, missionaries and traders to lure chiefs into accepting. them through gifts such as clothes, beads, weapons and drinks.

–     In some areas they used divide and rule tactics.

1 point 1mk                   Total 2mks.


  1. Two leaders of Algerian war of independence:

–     Ferhat Abbas.

–     Mohammed Ben Bella.

1 personality 1mk                      Total 2mks.


  1. Why president Auwar Sadat was assasinated in 1981:

–     His historic visit to Jerusalem (Israel) in 1977                1mk



13.a) Hunting methods that were used by the late Stone age people:

–     Chasing wild animals and throwing stones to entangle the escaping prey.

–     Digging big pits in the path through which animals went to drink water.

–     Chasing and herding animals over steep cliffs or swampy lakes.

–     Trapping animals around watering points.

1 point 1mk                   Total 3mks.

  1. b) Results of crop and animal domestication:

–     It improved mans ability to raise food, this reducing his reliance on the natural environment.

–     Gradually, more efficient methods of farming were developed leading to the use of better farming methods and tools such as iron hoes and the raising of crops through irrigation.

–     Food production increased which led to the growth of human population.

–     Due to increased food production man began to lead a more settled life.

–     Increased human population led to division of labour. Thus some people became farmers, while others engaged in weaving, pottery, metal work and trading.

–     As man began to lead a more  settled life, towns emerged, some of which became important commercial, administration and cultural centres.

–     With the rise of human settlements, laws for governing human conduct were formulated. This in turn led to the rise of rulers such as chiefs and kings to enforce the laws.

–     Increased food production led to food surplus which stimulated internal and external trade.

Any point 2mks             Total 12 mks


14.a) Factors that favoured the rise of the united States as a worlds industrial power:

–     After U.S.A attained independence in 1781 many people migrated into the country from Western Europe. The migrants provided labour for the exploitation of natural resources which led to the foundation for industrial development in the country.

–     In addition, the new migrants offered a ready domestic market for the locally manufactured goods and services

–     The country in addition had a wide range of industrial minerals such as copper, iron, coal and oil in addition to forestry resources which helped to boost industrial development in the country.

–     Availability of good road and railway network which were instrumental in the transportation of the raw materials to the industries and distribution of finished products to the market.

–     Moreover, president Theodore Roosevelt who took over in 1901 introduced “conservation Laws” which helped to prevent careless exploitation of natural resources. This, to some extent helped to increase the pace of industrialization in the country.

–     During the reign of President Woodrow Wilson (1913) new reforms (New freedom) were introduced in the country. The reforms, allowed ordinary people to participate in the business thus stimulating the growth of industries. Moreover the new reforms gave farmers an opportunity to borrow money from banks which helped to modernise agriculture. This helped to boost agro-based industries in addition to providing food for the urban industrial workers.

–     Additionally, the American unity and long period of political stability due to strong leadership helped the growth of industries.

–     The country’s policy of isolation and neutrality in world affairs especially during the first and the second world wars enabled the country to have an earlier and undisrupted industrial take off.

–     Further, the country witnessed a wide range of scientific and technological inventions, which were a further boost to the country’s industrial development.

–     Additionally, the emergence of the cold war after the second world war led to military and technological competition between U.S.A and USSR. This forced U.S.A to intensify her technological developments which was a further boost to industrial development.

Any point 2mks              Total 10mks.


  1. b) Problems that hinder industrialisation in the third world countries:

–     Lack of capital.

–     Lack of technological knowhow.

–     Poor transport and communication network.

–     Low purchasing power of manufactured goods among the people in the developed countries.

–     Competition from developed countries.

–     Political instability in some countries.

–     Neo-colonialism.                                   1 point 1mk                   Total 5mks


15.a) The organisation of Trans-Atlantic Trade:

–     Trans – Atlantic trade developed in 15th century between Europe, West-Africa and the America.

–     The trade involved European traders, African middle men and American Plantation owners.

–     European traders bought trading items such as cotton, clothes, spirits guns and gun powder; iron ware and glass ware to the west Africa. These were exchanged for slaves animal skins, gold and ivory which were brought from the interior parts of west Africa to the coast by African middlemen.

–     Commercial transactions between European merchants and African middlemen took place either in the coastal parts suck as Elmina, lagos and Quidah which were built by European Merchants or on ships anchored in the rivers

–     Of all exports from west Africa slaves were the most important item of trade. These were captured from the interior and transported to the coast by the African middlemen. At the coast they were locked in warehouses. Once the transactions were over, they were tightly packed in ships and shipped across the Atlantic ocean to the Americas

–     In the Americas slaves were sold to the plantation owners through auction. Thereafter they became either domestic servants or workers in mines, cotton, tobacco and sugar plantations.

–     The product of slave labour namely minerals and raw materials such as sugar, tobacco and cotton were inturn exported to Europe from the Americas.

Any point 1mk               Total 5 mks      


16.a) Reasons why King Lewanika collaborated with the British:

–     He wanted the British to protect him against his internal opposers.

–     His kingdom had been weakened militarily due to the kololo invasion in 1840. For these reason, he had no option but to collaborate..

–     The Lozi kingdom was under external threat from its more powerful neighbours, namely the Ngoni and Ndebele. Hence Lewanika sought assistance from the British in order to secure protection.

–     Further, the kingdom was faced with increasing threat from the Boers, the German and Portuguese.  For this reason, Lewanika undertook to collaborate with British in order to ward off threats from other Europeans.

–     Some Lozi vassal states were attempting to declare their independence, thus threatening the unity of the kingdom. Consequently, Lewanika sought British assistance in order to retain the unity of the kingdom.

–     Lewanika was in addition influenced by his close ally, chief Khama of Bamagwato to seek protection from the British.

–     Further, Lewanika had hope that by collaborating with the British his people would acquire western education and technology.

–     Additionally, Lewanika nursed the view that such a collaboration would promote trade between Britain and his kingdom.

                        (Any point 2mks )                      Total10marks.


  1. b) Result of collaboration between Lewanika and the British:

–     Colonial rule was established in northern Rhodesia without bloodshed.

–     Lewanika retained his position as the paramount chief of the Lozi.

–     The British used their foothold in Barotsel and (Bulozi) to subjugate the Lozi neighbours who did not co-operate

–     The British South African company built schools in Barotseland thus laying the foundation of Western education in the kingdom

–     The British South African company in addition started small scale mining industries in the kingdom.

–     Under the influence of the British South African company, the practice of slavery in Barotseland reduced significantly.

–     Western culture and Christianity were introduced in the kingdom.

–     Communication in Barotseland was improved through the construction of roads and telegraphic lines.

Any point 1mk               Total 5 mks.



17  a)   Reasons why USA government adopted a federal constitution:

–     To achieve unity among the different states.

–     To come up with a national government capable of levying taxes, enforcing laws and regulating commerce

–     To enable USA government to govern the unconquered Western lands.


–     To maintain forces adequate for national defence.

–     To ensure that smaller states were not dominated by the bigger states.

–     Federalism was viewed as a means of creating a larger international market.

Any point 1mk               Total 5mks


  1. b) How the USA government is organised:

–     It is a federal republic.

–     The president is the head of state and the chief executive.

–     The president is in addition the commander in chief of the armed forces.

–     The legislature consists of two houses, namely the house of representatives and the senate.

–     The federal government is composed of union Republic and autonomous republics which have their own government responsible for running affairs such education, health, transport, law and order.

–     The federal government is in charge of running the whole country through the congress in areas such as national defence, foreign affairs and currency.

–     The country has a party political system with two main parties. These are Democratic and Republican parties.

–     There is separation of power, for instance, the legislature in the congress are separated from the judges of the supreme court. Similarly, the executive i.e the president and his cabinet have no role to play in law-making process or the administration of justice.

–     The federal government intervenes incase of conflict between the states and makes the final decision through the Supreme Court. However, states can negotiate between themselves without involving the federal government.               1 point 2 mks                Total 10 mks.


  1. a) How the 1914 Sarajevo incident contributed to the rise of the first World war:

–     In June 1914, the Austro-Hungarian heir apparent, Franz Fedenand and his wife were assassinated in Sarajevo, Serbia.

–     Austria accused Serbia with a set of demands some of which were not acceptable to the government of Serbia.

–     Serbia thus rejected the demands. Consequently, Austria declared war on Serbia.

–     Russia in turn prepared her forces in readiness to defend Serbia incase she was to be attacked by Austria.

–     Germany demanded that Russia should demobilize. Russia refused. As a result, Germany declared war on Russia on 1st of August 1914.

–     After declaring war on Russia, Germany demanded that France should remain neutral. However, France did not oblige, hence Germany declared war on France on 3rd August 1914.

–     Noting the new developments, Britain had warned Germany that she should respect the 1839 Treaty which had guaranteed Belgium neutrality. Hence when Germany overrun Belgium in the course of invading France, Britain declared war on Germany.

–     Hence in mid-August 1914, all the great powers of Europe namely Germany, France, Britain, Austria and Russia came to be involved in the war. Thus what had began as a local Austro- Serbian conflict was transformed into a world war.

Any point 1mk               Total 6mks.


  1. b) Results of the Treaty of Versailes:

–     German was solely blamed for the 1st world war

–     The size of German was reduced by one eighth and her population was deprived of her colonial possessions and overseas investments.

–     Germany lost the province of Alsace and Lorraine, much of Schleswig, South Eastern Silesia and strip of Eastern Prussia.

–     Germany was required to pay a war indemnity of 6,600 million pounds.

–     Germany was restricted to an army recruitment of 100,000 men.

–     German army was restricted in the equipment it could use. For instance there was a ban on tanks, heavy artillery, military aircraft and poison gas. The navy was in addition banned from using submarines.

–     The treaty prevented any possible union between Germany and Austria.

–     The city of Danzig became a free city under jurisdiction of the league of Nations.

–     The Saar valley with its deposits of coal and iron was placed under the League of Nations.

Any 1 point 1mk                                    Total 9 mks.


19.a) Factors that led to the rise of African nationalism in Ghana after the second world war:

–     African ex-soldiers from Ghana had fought and killed Europeans during the second world war.

–     This shattered the myth of white man’s superiority. For this reason, the ex-soldiers gained confidence and thus were inspired to struggle for their independence.

–     The ex-soldiers in addition had come into contact with people in different countries such as

–     India, Burma and Borneo. Through these contacts, the ex-soldiers learnt much in regard to the struggle for independence. This motivated them to demand the independence of their country.

–     Furthermore, the ex-soldiers were poorly compensated after the war by the colonial government. For this reason, they agitated for the independence of Ghana.

–     Additionally, the war led to the formation of the United Nations Organization (UNO). To promote peace and justice in the world, UNO had advocated an end to colonialism. This encouraged Africans in Ghana to press for change.

–     The second world war in addition had led to economic hardships in Ghana which resulted in unemployment and inflation. Consequently, Africans demanded changes inorder to improve their economic and social well being.

–     Furthermore, Africans pressed for the decolonization of their country (Ghana) due to, low prices for their cocoa produce; being forced to cutdown their cocoa trees; and denial of export-import licences.

–     Majority of educated Africans, namely teachers, doctors and lawyers were dissatisfied due to lack of constitutional progress in favour of greater African participation in the political affairs of the country by 1945. For this reason, they agitated for change in order for the country to be free from British colonial rule.


  1. b) Methods used by African political parties in the struggle for Ghana’s independence:

–     Organising mass rallies to explain their goals and policies to the people.

–     Organising strikes and riots.

–     Taking part in general elections, for instance in 1951, 1954, and 1956.

–     Using propaganda to attract followers.

–     Improving the social and economic conditions of the African by for instance building roads, schools and hospitals.

–     Looting European shops.

1 point 1mk                   total 5 mks.







  1. State two reasons why the Oromo migrated from their cradleland into Kenya.           2mks
  2. Give two reasons why the Arabs settled along the Kenyan Coast before the 15th century. 2mks
  3. State two circumstances that can lead to General Elections in Kenya.       2mks
  4. State three functions of the Armed Forces in Kenya.       3mks
  5. Identify the last stage in the Law-making process in Kenya.       1mks
  6. Give the main reason why the Kenya African Democratic Union was formed. 2mks
  7. Give three results of organisation during the colonial period in Kenya.       3mks
  8. State two demands that were made by Africans to the colonial government between 1920 and 1939.                                                                                                                                        2mks
  9. What role was played by the Kenyan African Union in the struggle for independence in Kenya.                                                                                                                           3mks
  10. Give the main function of the Kenya Court of Appeal. 1mk
  11. State two problems that the local Authorities face in Kenya       2mks
  12. Give the main reason why the Taita resisted the colonial role. 1mk
  13. State two effects of plantation farming along the East African Coast. 2mks




14.a.   State five economic activities of the Akamba during the pre-colonial period.               5mks

  1. Discuss the effects of the migration and settlement of the Luo in Kenya.                                    10mks
  2. a. Identify three methods that were used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya. 3mks
  3. Explain the factors that made the Nandi to resist the British for a long time.            12mks

16.a.   What role was played by the African chiefs during the colonial period?                   3mks

  1. Explain six effects of colonial labour policies on the Africans.            12mks
  2. a. State five effects of Christian missionary activities in Kenya.                                        12mks
  3. Explain five factors that hindered the spread of Christianity in Kenya before the 19th Century.



  1. a. Identify five sources of Government revenue in Kenya.       5mks
  2. Explain five ways through which the parliament controls public expenditure in Kenya. 5mks

19.a.  Give three symbols of National Unity.                                                                             3mks

  1. Give six reasons why we need national unity in Kenya.             12mks
  2. a. Name any three political parties
  3. Explain six problems that the opposition parties have faced since 1991.                          12mks







  1. – Search for pasture / overgrazing

–   International feuds / quarrels

–   Spirit of adventure

–   Human and animal disease

–   Over population

–   External attacks

2 x 1 = 2mks


  1. – Trade

–   Persecution by rival Muslims at home

–   Cool climate compared to hostile climate at home

–   To spread Islam

–   Spirit of adventure

      2 x 1 = 2mks


  1. – End of five year  term of the parliament

–  If a “vote of no confidence is passed against the government and president

–  If the president snaps electrons

1 x 1 = 1mk


  1. – Acts as a deterrent factor to the would be attacks

–     Defends our coastline, waters from illegal anchoring and dumping of wastes, boundaries.

–     Assists the police in case of civil disorder

–     Participates in developments eg. building of bridges and road construction.

–     Provide social amenities eg. hospitals and schools

–     Help in evacuating people during floods and other calamities

3 x 1 = 3mks.



  1. – Gazetting of the Act.
  2. – To represent the interests of minority groups in Kenya.
  3. – Led to development of slums

–   Unity among the Africans of different ethnic communities

–   Overcrowding / diseases

–   Crime due to unemployment

–   Rural –urban migration

–   Social evils eg. prostitution’s

–    Towns became centres of Nationalistic activities

–     Formation of Ethnic welfare Associations.

3 x 1 = 3mks.


  1. – Expansion of  Educational facilities

–     Reduction of taxes

–     Removal of Kipande

–     Return of alienated lands

–     End of forced labour

–     African representation in the Legico

–     Removal of the colonial status of the country.

–     Lifting of the destocking policy.

–     Equal pay for equal work

–     Better living and working conditions.

2 x 1 = 2mks


  1. – Gave support to Eliud Mathu who had been nominated to represent Africans interests in the –


–     Brought Unity among Africans – it was a mass movement.

–     Educated the African on their rights

–     Voiced African grievances to the colonial government

–     Supported the Maumau movement

–     Worked together with the trade unions and as a result the Kipande was replaced with work cards for all races.

3 x 1 = 3mks


  1. To listen / hear appeal cases from lower courts.

1 x 1 = 1 mk


  1. – Lack of capital to carry out their projects

–     Corruption by the officials

–     Mismanagement of funds and other resources.

–     Vandalism of their installations by people

–     Over employment / Ghost workers

–     Lack of co-operation by the people who do not obey by-laws

–     Poor maintenance of their equipment’s eg. vehicles

–     Numerous strikes due to non-payment of salaries.

–     Conflicts among the officials

–     Too much power is vested in the office of the Minister of local Government

–   Political interference.

2 x 1 = 2mks


  1. – To maintain their independence


  1. – Increased Slave trade

–     Attracted Europeans to come and trade for raw materials

–     Increase volume of the long distance trade

–     Led to penetration of Arabs and the Swahili to the interior

–     Led to the spread of Islam in the interior

–     Led to the spread of the Swahili culture in the interior

2 x 1 = 2mks




14.a.  –  Farming eg. millet

–     Trading

–     Herding

–     Iron working

–     Hunting and gathering

–     Bee keeping

–     Basketry and weaving

–     Pottery

5 x 1 = 5mks.


  1. – Conflicts with other communities

–           Displacement of some communities

–           Intermarriage

–           Cultural exchange

–           Copied farming methods from Bantu

–           Traded with the neighbours

–           Increased population in the areas they settled.


  1. a.

–           Company rule

–           Signing of treaties

–           Conquest

–           Establishing forts and stations.

–           Diplomacy using puppets.

            3 x 1 = 3mks.


b.-  Had a standing army

–   Had a long tradition of resisting intruders

–   Resisted to prevent Kimnyoles prophecy of the ;iron snake’ coming true.

–                                           Had knowledge of the terrain

–                                                Used Guerrilla warfare

– Had National pride so they saw the British as another group which needed to be conquered.

– Hated the colour of whites which was seen as evil / ghosts which needed to be exercised

–                                              Had food for the warriors.

6 x 2 = 12 mks


16  a.  –    Collecting taxes

–    Maintenance of law and order

–      Settled minor disputes

–      Made colonial policies acceptable eg. Western medicine.

–      Recruited labour for settler farms.

        3 x 1 = 3mks


  1. – Land Alienation:  Due to the small portions the Africans could not be self sufficient thus they had

to seek for wage labour.

–     Denial from growing cash cops:  This meant Africans could not be able to get an alternative to get money thus they had to go to the settler farms.

–     Introduction of numerous taxes:  These were only payable by cash and money was only available from whites and Indians

–     Introduction of Kipande:  This prevented the Africans from changing employers thus they had to stick to the settle farms.

–     Squatter system;  Africans who were squatters spent most of their time on the Landlords farm and had no time for their small portions of land.

–     Enacting Ordinances e.g Native Registration Ordinance which required all males of age 16 yrs and above to register thus all able-bodied were recruited for labour denying it to the African reserves

–     Introduction of cash economy / monitisation of the economy.  Every purchase of oil, soap etc had to be in form of money.  This affected the barter system among the Africans.

–     Creation of reserves:  these were overcrowded and since the land was small there was no food –  This forced the Africans to move to settler farms or towns to look for wage labour.

6 x 2 = 12 mks



17.a.  –  Introduction  of formal education made some Africans to get semi skilled jobs.

–     Translation of bible into Kiswahili and local languages enhanced spread of Christianity.

–     Introduction of Western medicine led to cure of diseases like leprosy that traditional medicine could not cure.

–     Their research on coffee / crops led to introduction of coffee  plantations

–     They stopped slave trade.  This saved Africans from the misery of being enslaved.

–     They set freed slave centres eg. Jomvu where the slaves were rehabilitated.

–   They helped in improving transport and communication by building roads to their mission stations.

–     They spread Western culture – those Africans who adopted it abandoned some cultural practices.                                    5 x 1 = 5mks.


  1. – Islam was already established along the coast.  Africans were reluctant to change  to a new


–     Islam was more tolerant to some African customs eg. Polygamy

–     The Portuguese crusaders were very cruel so the inhumanity was associated with the religion.

–     The Portuguese were too few to make an impact on the Africans.

–     The Portuguese rarely interacted with the local people

–     The Portuguese were affected by tropical diseases

–     Poor transport thus the missionaries could not get to the interior

–     The missionaries ran out of food and medicine.

6 x 2 = 12mks.



18.a.  –  Indirect taxes e.g customs duties excise duties and export duties.

–     Direct taxes e.g Pay As You Earn (PAYE) interests on Investments and earnings profits from businesses.

–     Licences eg. trading and driving licences

–     Profits from parastatals eg. Central Bank

–     Court Fines

–     Domestic borrowing eg. sale of Government bonds, Treasury bills

–     External sources eg. grants and loans from donors

–     Service Charges

–     Cess eg. Coffee, tea.

5 x 1 = 5mks.


  1. –  The government Estimates have to be approved by parliament

–   Parliament approves the money to be allocated to each ministry

–   All government Expenditure must be audited by controller and Auditor General.

–   Parliament monitors the government tender systems for purchase of materials and services

–  The permanent Secretary in every ministry is the chief accounting officer and makes sure money

is used for intended projects

–  The parliament debates on the budget of each ministry.

5 x 2 = 10mks.


  1. a. – Confirms appointments of civil services

–                                            Hires and fires civil servants

–      Authorises promotions deployments retirements, disciplining of civil Servants

–                    Ensures democratic process is enjoyed by acting impartially

–                Ensures fairness and shield civil service against undue influence.

  1. – Has power to prologue the parliament

–   Has power to dissolve the parliament       –    Has power to declare a state of emergency

–   Has power to appoint senior government officials equice president, Ministers

–   Has power to nominate six members of parliament.

–   Has power to grant clemency to people condemned to death.

–   Has power to send a contingent of soldiers for peace keeping missions

–   Has power to authorise formation of commissions of inquiry on issues affecting the citizens.

6 x 2 = 12mks


  1. – Forum for Restoration of Democracy.  (FORD)

–     Forum for Restoration of Democracy Kenya (Ford Kenya)

–     Forum for Restoration of Democracy Asili (Ford Asili)

–     Kenya Social congress (KSC)

–     Kenya National Congress (KNC)

–     Party for Independent Candidates of Kenya (PICK)

–     Kenya National Democratic Alliance (KENDA)

–     Social Democratic Party (SDP)

–     National Development Party (NDP)

          3 x 1 = 3mks


  1. – Denial of licences to hold meetings

–     Inadequate coverage by mass media

–     Lack of capital

–     Some parties are tribal based thus lack support from other communities

–     Harassment of the officials by police

–     Detention of some leaders eg. Charles Rubia and Kenneth Matiba

–     Arrests of some officials by police

–     Disunity among the parties

–     Defection by some officials from their parties to KANU.

6 X 2 = 12mks.







  1. What is the meaning of the term government.       1mk
  2. State two cultural developments of early man during the Newstone Age.       2mks
  3. Give two farming methods that were used in Europe before 1750.       2mks
  4. Give two characteristics of Industrial Revolution.       2mks
  5. Give two reasons why the Odwira festival was held among the Asante.       2mks
  6. List two items that were exported from Western Sudan to North African during the

Trans-saharan trade.                                                                                                                  2mks

  1. Give two factors that led to the rise of Ethiopia during the 19th Century.       2mks
  2. List down one economic activity the Europeans involved themselves in before the 19th century. 1mk
  3. State one advantage of solar energy.       1mk
  4. State two reasons why the British used direct rule in Southern Rhodesia. 2mks
  5. State three problems that Zaire has faced since independence. 3mks
  6. Give one reason why the priests offered sacrifices in ancient Egypt. 1mk
  7. Give two reasons why city states developed in Greece. 2mks
  8. Name one scientific discovery that promoted use of surgery to save human lives. 1mk
  9. Give one reason why man domesticated animals. 1mk



  1. a. State three terms of the Berlin conference of 1884 – 5.       3mks
  2. Discuss the reasons why Samori Toure resisted the French for a long time 12mks
  3. a. Give five methods that were used to spread Islam in Africa.              5mks



  1. Explain five effects of the spread of Islam in Africa by the 19th century              5mks
  2. a. Give three modern sources of energy.       3mks
  3. What factors promoted industrialisation in Brazil.             12mks
  4. a. State three factors that promoted early Agriculture in India.                                     3mks
  5. Explain how food shortages in the third world can be solved.            12mks


SECTION C.  (30 mks)

  1. a Give three limitations of relying on messengers as a means of communication.          3mks
  2. Give the positive effects of modern means of communication.                                       12mks
  3. a. Give three factors that led to Nationalism in South Africa. 3mks
  4. Explain the methods that the Africans in South Africa used in their struggle for Independence.                                                                                                                          12mks
  5. a. Give three advantages of relying on archaeology for information on history and government.                                                                                                                                3mks
  6. Explain the importance of studying history and government.                               12mks






  1. It is practice of exercising control over ones subject.

Term can also refer to a body that governs a certain geographical area ie. A country

1 x 1 = 1mk.


  1. – Development of religion

–  Development of government

–  Settlements in villages ie man living a sedentary life.

–  Man decorated himself with ornaments eg. beads

–  Man decorated his rock shelters with animal, paintings, hunting scenes and other designs.

–  Man had simple art and crafts e.g baskets, pots.

–  Man made better tools that were lighter and sharper i.e the microlilths.

2 x 1  = 2mks.


  1. – Open field system

–     Replacement of human labour by machines

–     Rise of factory systems

–     Rise of the living standards

–     New sources of energy

–     Improved transport and communication

2 x 1 = 2mks.


  1. – Mass production of goods

–     Replacement of human labour by machines

–     Rise of the living standards

–     New sources of energy

–     Improvement transport and communication.

2 x 1 = 2mks.


  1. – During this festival prayers were made for the nation.

–     Planning for the following year was done

–     Disputes among various ornaments would be solved

–     Attendance by the omanhenes was a sign of their loyalty to the Asantehene.

2 x 1 = 2mks.


  1. – Gold

–     Slaved

–     Ivory

–     Pepper

–     Animal Skins

–     Ostrich feathers

–     Kola nuts         2 x 1 = 2mks.


  1. – Unity through the Amharic language, culture and religion.

–     Able and competent leadership by such leaders as Yohannis iv, Theodore and Menelik II.

–     They were involved in trade – were able to acquire guns and gun powder

–     Modernized army – trained and well organized

–     Had a mixed economy thus had an ample supply of food for the soldiers.

2 x 1 = 2mks.


  1. – Farming

–  Mining

–  Trading.

2 x 1 = 2mks.


  1. – It is a renewable source of energy.

–     It is cheap – to harness

–     Non – pollutant

2 x 1 = 2mks.


  1. – Wanted to have maximum profits from resources eg. land mining and labour.

–     The forceful occupation had destroyed the political institutions eg. Induna system thus they could not use indirect rule

–     The area had been occupied through force thus there was resentment and hostility from the Africans

–     The British had adequate and willing personnel to administer the area

–     The British had enough capital.

2 x 1 = 2mks.


  1. – Coup de etats

–     Assassination of the presidents eg. Kabila, Patrick Lumumba.

–     Poor foreign policies eg. Neighbours – others have been supporting rebels

–     Poor infrastructure to encourage exploitation of resources

–     Foreign interference by former colonialists eg. Belgium.

–     Illiteracy – lack of adequate schools

–     Poor health – inadequate medical facilities

–     Political instability – tribal wars between the government and rebels

–     Foreign debts

–     Lack of capital

–     Food storage’s due to high population

–     Constant wars,

–     Harsh climate.

3 x 1  = 3mks.


  1. – Thanksgiving for the good harvests

–  Appeasing the gods especially during calamities.

1 x 1 = 1mk


  1. – Trade eg. Corinth Cocyra, knossos

–     Security – some were established on cliffs and islands

–     Millitary functions eg. Sparta

–     Cultural functions eg. Athens

–     Administration eg. Athens

–     Religious functions eg. Anthens

–     Availability of food.

2 x 1 = 2mks.


  1. – Carbonic acid

–   Either / chloroform

1 x 1 = 1mk


  1. – To have a ready source of food

–     Some animals were social eg. dogs

–     For security eg. dogs

–     To help him hunt other animals

2 x 1 = 2mks.




  1. a. – Europeans agreed to use principle of spheres of influence.  Any nation that had

representatives in a given country would occupy it as its territory.

–     Agreed on Effective occupation:  that Any European country could claim any territory in African provided they sent administrators to administer the area

–     If any European nation wanted to extend its boundaries, it had to notify others to avoid clashes.

–     All European nations agreed to stamp out slave trade and slavery in their areas.

–     All  European nations agreed to protect traders, explorers, missionaries from the native attacks.

–     All European nations agreed that Zambezi, Congo and Niger basins would be free from European traders and navigation.

3 x 1 = 3mks.


  1. – Trade – guns and powder

–     Standing army

–     Was a Muslim – Jihad

–     Use of guerrilla and knowledge of terrain

–     Used scorch earth method

–     Was determined to retain independence

–     Manufactured weapons eg. guns

–     Had food for his armies

–     Use diplomacy eg. Bisandugu

–     Reinforcements delayed from France

6 x 2 = 12 mks


  1. a.

–     Trade

–     Intermarriage

–     Settlement / conquest

–     Muslim Zealots

–     Conversion of rulers

–     Exemplary life of Muslims giving alms attracted people to Islam.


  1. – Increase in trade

–     New communities ie. Swahili

–     Madrassa type of education

–     Sharia

–     New code of dressing

–     New dietary habits

–     New ruling systems i.e by sultan

–     New architectural designs – Arabic

        5 x 2 = 10mks


  1. – Cool

–     Steam

–     Petroleum

–     Electricity

–     Nuclear energy

–     Geo-thermal

–     Solar energy

3 x 1 = 3mks


  1. – Availability of economic and valuable minerals eg Iron ore, bauxite, gold

–     Availability of raw materials e.g coffee, cocoa, soyabeans.

–     The eruption of the two world wars isolated Brazil from Europe so that she could not import manufactured goods thus she started import substitute industries.

–     Provision of labour from her population as well as skilled labour from European immigrants

–     Provision of market from her population

–     Improvement of transport and communication eg. Railways, roads.

6 x 2 = 12mks


  1. a. – Availability of water from R. Ganges

–     Good irrigation methods eg. use of dykes & canals

–     Good storage facilities eg. baskets, pots

–     Fertility of the solid due to deposition of silt.

2 x 1 = 2mks.


  1. –      Encourage cultivation of draught resistant crops

–     Improve transport facilities for transportation of produce to factories and markets

–     Improve storage facilities for better storage of produce

–     Encourage growing of food crops rather than concentrating on cash crops

–     Encourage growing of some indigenous crops such as millet, sorghum

–     Provide incentives to the food – crop farmers eg. raising the prices of such foods.

–     Have good government food policies

–     Encourage the farmers by providing extension services.

–     Make family planning effective

–    Discourage cutting down of trees and encourage reafforestation to stop soil erosion and protect

catchment areas.

–     The fertilizers should be made affordable so that the farmer can buy them to improve the yields.

–     Encourage irrigation in the arid and semi arid areas

–     Reclaim more land and put it under food cultivation

–     Encourage research on better breeds and cheap fertilizers.

12 x 1 = 12mks.




  1. – Messengers can forget the message

–     Messenger can be attacked by wild animals

–     Messenger can die on the way

–     Messenger can distort the message

–     The further the place the less the reliable.

3 x 1 = 3mks


  1. – Has made communication easier – Telephones, Telefax.

–     Has been used for educational purposes

–     Are a source of entertainment

–     Have made trade transactions easier promoting international trade.

–     Space exploration

–     Promoted tourism through advertisements

–     Improve security – police

–     Disasters can be averted / managed

–     Promoted employment opportunities

–     Facilitated easy administration

–     Helped in the spread of positive ideas

–     Promoted international peace and understanding

–     Guiding of traffic and ships in the sea through satellites

12 x 1 = 12 mks


  1. –    Desire to be independent

–     Desire by Africans to control their resources for their good

–     Desire to remove apartheid system with its racist laws

–     Desire by the Africans to have a say in a the government

3 x 1 = 3 mks


  1. – Formation of political parties eg. ANC to artialete their grievances

–     Demonstrations, Strikes, boycotts organised by university students

–     Sabotage and violence against racist regime

–     Seeking for anti-apartheid international / Regional support from OAU and UNO

–     Using church to condemn racialism eg. by Desmond Tutu.

–     Use of military by the “Spear of the Nation” Ukombo  sizwe”.

–     Establishing operational basis in other countries after banning the political parties.

–     Using writing of books, magazines eg. Abante cry freedom

–     Use of films eg/ Saraffina, Steve Biko

–     Negotiations e.g between De-Klerk and Nelson Mandela

6 x 2 = 12mks.



–     Archaeology provides dates for the fossils and artefacts

–     Provides evidence ie one can see the fossils and artefacts

–     Very ancient information can be given by archaeology.

3 x 1 = 3 mks


b    –  Helps us learn about our culture – Cultural heritage.

–    Helps us to appreciate other peoples culture

–    Helps us to sharpen and develop analystic skills about historical data / information

–    Helps to understand why we need a government

–    Helps to develop patriotism and National pride

–    Helps us to solve our problems and to predict what might happen in the future

–    Provides intellectual fulfilment well paying professions like teaching law, archaeology etc.

6 x 2 = 12mks.







  1. Name the fossils which were found on Rusinga Island by Louis Leakey. (1 mk)
  2. Give two reasons for the migrations and settlement of the Abagusii into Kenya before 1800.(2 mks)
  3. Name two communities which belong to the Mijikenda. (2 mks)
  4. Identify three aspects of the Swahili culture that emerged along the Kenyan coast by 1500.(3 mks)
  5. State two factors which contributed the development of plantation farming along the Kenyan coast in the 19th century. (2 mks)
  6. Give two reasons why the British government took over direct control of Kenya from Imperial British East Africa Company. (2 mks)
  7. State three roles played by African chiefs in local government in Kenya under colonial rule. (3mks)
  8. What was the main method used by Thomas Joseph Mboya in the struggle to protect African rights against colonialism? (1 mk)
  9. List two measures taken by the colonial government to suppress the activities of the Mau Mau rebels. (2 mks)
  10. Identify the main currency used in Kenya before 1919. (1 mk).
  11. State three problems faced by white settler farmers in Kenya during the colonial period.3 mks)
  12. Name the body which appoints the Divisional Officers. (1 mk)
  13. State the main function of the Attorney-General. (1 mk)
  14. Which provision in the constitution guarantees an individual the right to form a political party? (1 mk)


  1. (a) Describe the pre-colonial government of the Maasai community. (10 mks)

(b)  What factors undermined the Maasai military power in the 19th century?                        (5 mks)

  1. (a) What difficulties were encountered by the British during the construction of the
    Kenya-Uganda Railway?                                                                                                (5 mks)

(b)  Explain the impact of the railway on the economy of Kenya during the colonial period.(10 mks)

  1. (a) Explain why Nabongo Mumia of Wanga kingdom collaborated with the British. (5 mks)

(b)  What were the results of Mumia’s collaboration?                                                           (10 mks)

  1. (a) Outline the characteristics of African Independent Churches which emerged in Kenya during the colonial period. (3 mks)

(b)  Explain the factors that led to the rise of African Independent Churches in Kenya during the colonial era.                                                                                                            (12 mks)



  1. (a) Trace the origins of FORD-Kenya Party. (5 mks)

(b)  What are the policies of FORD-Kenya?                                                             (10 mks)

  1. (a) Explain the role of the Judiciary in Kenya. (12 mks)

(b)  What is meant by the independence of the Judiciary?                                        (3 mks)

  1. (a) List the branches of local government in Kenya. (5 mks)

(b)  Describe the functions of local government authorities.                                     (10 mks)







  1. List down three reasons why history and government should be taught in schools. (3 mks)
  2. Identify two uses of stone tools during the Old Stone Age period. (3 mks)
  3. List down two factors which led to the domestication of corps and animals during the Neolithic period. (3 mks)
  4. Identify two uses of gold in Ancient Egypt. (2 mks)
  5. State two ways in which development in motoring during the 1920’s led to improvements in road transport in Europe. (2 mks)
  6. How did the Agrarian revolution lead to rural urban migration in Europe in the nineteenth century?       (1 mk)
  7. Identify two uses of coal in Britain in the nineteenth century. (2 mks)
  8. State two ways in which scientific inventions have led to improvements in Agriculture.(2 mks)
  9. How did the “Great Leap Forward” contribute to industrial development in china? (2 mks)
  10. What was the most important item of trade that was exported from West Africa to North Africa during the Trans-Saharan trade? (1 mk)
  11. Identify one disadvantage of International Trade Agreements. (1 mk)
  12. Why had the Lozi power declined by the second half of the nineteenth century? (2 mks)
  13. Why did the colonial powers hold the Berlin conference between 1884 and 1885? (1 mk)
  14. State the two objectives of the 1967 Arusha Declaration in Tanzania. (2 mks)
  15. What was the immediate outcome of the 1642 English Civil War in Britain? (1 mk)


SECTION B:  (45 Marks)

  1. (a) What factors facilitated the development of Early Agriculture in Mesopotamia? (5 mks)

(b)  Discuss possible solutions to the problem of food shortages in the Third World

countries.                                                                                                         (10 mks)

  1. (a) What factors influenced the growth of urban centres in Ancient Greece?                       (6 mks)

(b)  Discuss the social problems that were brought by urbanization in Britain during the Industrial Revolution.                                                                                                   (9 mks)

  1. (a) What were the roles of diviners among the Yoruba of Nigeria? (6 mks)

(b)  Why was Menelik II able to defeat the Italians in 1896?                                     (10 mks)


  1. (a) What measures did emperor Tewedros II take in his effort to create a united Ethiopian Empire?       (5 mks)

(b)  Describe the religious beliefs and practice of the Maya.                                      (9 mks)



  1. (a) Why did the British adopt the policy of indirect rule in Northern Nigeria?             (5 mks)

(b)  Discuss the factors that undermined the policy of indirect rule in Nigeria.                      (10 mks)

  1. (a) What methods did the African nationalists in South Africa use in their struggle for independence? (5 mks)

(b)  Discuss the problems faced by the Africans in South Africa in their struggle for independence.                                                                                                                     (10 mks)

  1. (a) State the roles and functions of the monarchy in Britain. (5 mks)

(b)  How is parliamentary supremacy guaranteed in Britain?                                     (10 mks)







SECTION A: (25 Marks)

  1. Dryopithecus Africanus/Proconsul. (1 mk)


  1. Population increase
  • Famine and droughts
  • External attacks e.g. by the Maasai, Luo
  • Internal conflicts
  • Animal and human diseases. (2 mks)
  1. Chonyi Giriama            Rabai                Kambe             Kauma

Digo           Duruma            Ribe                 Jibana                                       (2×1 = 2 mks)

  1. – The religion of Swahili people was Islam.
  • Government was based on Islamic law/sharia.
  • Formal education – reading and writing in Arabic was provided in Muslim schools/Madrasa.
  • Speaking of Kiswahili language.
  • Distinct style of dressing: men – Kanzus and caps, women – veils and buibui..
  • Diet consisted of spiced foods, rice. (3×1 = 3 mks)
  1. – Availability of cheap labour (slaves).
  • Increased demand for cloves, cashewnuts in foreign markets
  • Existence of wealthy Arabs and Swahilis ready to invest in a large-scale farming.
  • Suitability of soils/fertile lands.
  • Sayyid Said’s efforts in encouraging plantation                         (2×1 = 2 mks)
  1. The company was faced by problems:-
  • Shortage of funds for administration.
  • Poor means of transport and communication
  • Shortage of personnel
  • Hostility of local people/resistance.                         (2×1 = 2 mks)
  1. – Recruited labourers in their local areas.
  • Settled minor disputes.
  • Maintained law and order.
  • Persuaded Africans to accept foreign ideas e.g. Western medicine.
  • Collected taxes. (3×1 = 3 mks)
  1. – Trade Unions.
  2. – Military operations against the rebels.
  • Arrests and imprisonment/detentions of freedom fighters.
  • Declaration of state of emergency. (1952 – 60). (2×1 = 2 mks)
  1. – Indian Rupee.
  2. – Shortage of labour – Africans were unwilling to work in settler farms.
  • Attacks from affected African communities – those whose lands were alienated.
  • Animal and crop diseases resulted in low production.
  • Poor accessibility – lack of in-roads to their farms.
  • Lack of prior knowledge of farming seasons. (3×1  = 3 mks)


  1. Public Service Commission. (1 mk)
  2. A – G is the Chief Legal Advisor to the Government. (1 mk)
  3. Freedom of Assembly and Association. (1 mk)


SECTION B:  (45 Marks)


  1. (a) Pre-colonial government of the Maasai.
  • They had a segmentary/decentralized system of government.
  • Basic units of administration were clans, which were headed by councils of elders.
  • To qualify as an elder, a man must have undergone through circumcision, which placed him in an age-set.
  • And must have proved his military ability as a warrior (moran).
  • Elders settled disputes,
  • Punished offenders
  • And advised morans concerning raids.
  • Maasai had standing armies consisted of young warriors (morans)
  • Who lived in manyattas where they were trained to develop courage against enemies.
  • By early 19th century, sections of the Maasai had evolved the institution of Oloiboni.
  • Oloiboni was a religious leader who performed sacrifices in times of crises
  • And God/Enkai was worshipped as controller of life in general(political, economic and social).

(Any 10×1)                   (10 mks)

(b)  Maasai were weakened by:

  • Civil wars e.g. Purko vs Kwavi Maasai.
  • Succession disputes between Lenana and Sendeyo after death of Mbatiany.
  • Prolonged droughts and famines, and locust invasions.
  • Cattle diseases (rinderpest) and small pox, cholera reduced their population.
  • Rise of the Nandi – they raided Maasai cattle.
  • Loss of independence due to British invasion. (5×1) = 5 mks)


  1. (a) – Attacks by hostile communities e.g. Nandi.
  • Shortage of labour.
  • Inadequate funds.
  • Lack of building materials.
  • Man-eaters of Tsavo.
  • Geographical barriers e.g. Rift Valley.
  • Diseases – malaria, yellow fever.
  • Shortage of food and water.
  • Poor means of transport and communication. (5×1)               (5 mks)


(b)  The railway:

  • Improved transport (e.g. of bulky goods) and communication between the coast and interior of Kenya.
  • Led to expansion of local and international trade as it linked Kenya and outside world.
  • Led to development of Agriculture as white farmers settled in the Highlands and set up plantations/opened up the interior leading to the coming of settler farmers.
  • Led to growth of towns in which Asians settled and set up businesses.
  • Created employment opportunities for Africans.
  • Stimulated development of industries. Factories grew in areas where the railway passed e.g. Bata Shoe company in Limuru. (5×2)                (10 mks)


  1. (a) – To secure military support against his enemies e.g. the Luo of Ugenya.
  • To strengthen his position as King.
  • To obtain material benefits from the British .
  • To acquire firearms.
  • To gain prestige/fame by associating with the British. (5×1)                (5 mks)


(b)  –   His headquarters at Mumias became the administrative centre of the British in Western Kenya until 1920.

  • Wanga Kingdom gained more territories e.g. location of Bunyala, Samia and Bugonga.
  • Loss of independence of the Wanga.
  • Mumia’s power was streghthened.
  • Mumia’s prestige was raised – he became paramount chief in 1909.
  • Wanga people were used as agents of the British to rule various parts of Western Kenya.
  • Use of Wanga as agent led to/increased hostility and conflicts with their neighbours.

(5×2)                            (10 mks)

  1. (a) – Were led by Africans.
  • They retained some doctrines of parent (mission) churches.
  • They incorporated some African traditional customs (e.g. polygamy, circumcision, use of drums in worship).
  • Continued to have links with mission churches/were not completely independent. (3×1=3 mks)

(b)  –  Missionary condemnation of African traditions and customs e.g. polygamy, female circumcision

led some African Christians to form their own churches.

  • European missionaries denied Africans top positions of leadership in their churches. Africans

were determined to set up their own churches where they could be leaders.

  • Colonialism and its injustices e.g. forced labour, Kipande system, lack of African representation

in the Legislative council, led to the desire for independence in all aspects of life.

  • Africans were dissatisfied with mission education which emphasized manual/technical skills.
  • They set up their own churches and schools to provide better quality education for their


  • Competition/rivalry among various missionary societies caused confusion among African converts. Some of them therefore broke away.
  • Bible translations into local languages enabled educated Africans to read and understand the Bible. This created conflict and dissatisfaction with missionary interpretations, resulting in Africans forming their own churches.
  • Inconsistency between what the missionaries preached and what they practiced e.g. they preached love and equality yet they practiced racial discrimination in church leadership; this led to some African Christians breaking away.

(6×2)                (12 mks)



  1. (a) – Origin of FORD-Kenya can be traced back to the repeal of Section 2A of the Constitution of Kenya in December 1991.
  • Until then Kenya was a de jure one party state.
  • The constitutional amendment led to multi-party system.
  • In 1992, the first opposition party – FORD was formed by multi-party activists (e.g. Matiba, Oginga Odinga, Shikuku).
  • Later in 1992, original FORD split up into two parties: FORD-Kenya and FORD-Asili.
  • This was due to disagreements among the founders.
  • The first chairman of FORD-Kenya was Oginga Odinga.
  • Other founders were: Paul Muite – the first Vice Chairman/Kijana Wamalwa – the second Vice Chairman/Gitobu Imanyara – Sectretary General. (5×1)                (5 mks)


  1. (b) – Provide for improved health, social and  welfare services.
  • Secure for all Kenyans equal opportunities for employment and education.
  • Restore, protect and promote human rights, civil liberties, freedom and rights of the individual.
  • Encourage and promote strong co-operation and strong co-operative movements.
  • Enhance cultural life of Kenyans in all aspects of national development.
  • Promote a market economy and implement sound economic investment and monetary policies to achieve rapid and sustained development with social justice.
  • Protect, conserve and improve environmental management and initiate sound national population policy.
  • Create awareness among Kenyans on public issues and policies, and ensure equitable distribution of wealth.
  • Promote African unity and UNO ideals. (5×2)                            (10 mks)


  1. (a) – Role of the Judiciary.
  • Administers justice through a system of courts/deals with criminal and civil cases and punish offenders.
  • Interprets the constitution/law.
  • Ensures collection of fines.
  • Protects the constitutional rights and freedoms of the individual.
  • Administers oaths – swears in president, ministers after elections.
  • Checks bills before it becomes law to ensure it does not conflict with the constitution of the land.                                                           (6×2)                (12 mks)


(b)  –    Decisions made in courts must be strictly in accordance with the law – the rule of law must be observed in handling legal matters.

  • Decisions by judges/magistrates have to be based on available evidence.
  • And have to be made without fear of intimidation or favour – i.e be just and free.
  • Judges and magistrates have to discharge their duties professionally.

(3×1)                                                    (3 mks)

  1. (a) –   County  councils                                      –    City councils.

–       Urban councils                                         –    Area councils.

–      Town councils                                           –    Municipal councils.

(5×1)                                                    (5 mks)

(b)  –      Provided educational facilities and services e.g. schools and libraries.

  • Proved social/welfare services e.g. say care centres, children’s homes.
  • Establish and maintain health services – e.g. dispensaries, sports grounds.
  • Construct and maintain residential and public utility houses.
  • Install and maintain water, drainage and sewerage systems.
  • Collect and dispose of refuse.
  • Issue licenses for and inspect business premises e.g. shops, bars.
  • Establish and maintain appropriate public transport and communication facilities.
  • Impose cess and other levies on crops e.g. coffee and tea.
  • Issue and approve plans to regulate buildings.
  • Provide services for protection of the public and property e.g. fire control services and municipal askaris.
  • Provide job and training opportunities e.g. for clerks.
  • Ensure satisfactory standards of hygiene e.g. in public toilets are observed.

(10×1)              (10 mks)








  1. Reasons why history and government should be taught in schools.
  • History promotes national unity.
  • History promotes patriotism.
  • History promotes moral/ethical values.
  • Students appreciate their democratic rights.
  • History enables students to understand other people’s culture.
  • History promotes critical thinking.
  • It is an enjoyable subject.
  • It is a career subject. One can be employed as an administrator, a diplomat a social worker or a teacher.
  • It is a vital subject in education for world interdependence.
  • History promotes an understanding and respect for our community’s past activities.
  • History fosters empathy.
  • History provides intellectual fulfilment and an interest in further reading.

(1 point 1 mark (total 2 mks)


  1. Two uses of stone tools during the Old Stone Age period:
  • Cutting roots and/or branches for food.
  • Making other tools.
  • Digging up roots.
  • Skinning animals.
  • Cutting and scrapping animal skins.
  • Killing animals.
  • For defence. (1 use 1 mark (total 2 marks)


  1. Two factors which led to the domestication of crops and animals during the Neolithic period.
  • Increase in human population. Hence, hunting and gathering could no longer satisfy man’s food requirements.
  • Dry conditions in many parts of the world had led to a decline in wild crops and animals.
  • Some animals such as the wild dog were domesticated to assist man during hunting.

(1 point 1 mark (total 2 marks)



  1. Two uses of gold in Ancient Egypt:
  • Making utensils such as plates.
  • Making jewellery ornaments such as bracelets.
  • Decorating swords.
  • Making handles of flint knives.
  • Making vases.
  • As a medium of exchange/item of trade.

      (One use 1 mark (Total 2 marks)


  1. How development in motoring during the 1920’s led to improvements in road transport in Europe.
  • Straightening of old roads.
  • Old roads were widened.
  • New trunk roads were built.
  • Motor ways/highways were built for exclusive use of motor vehicles.
  • “Fly-over: brides were built in many places.
  • Modern bridges were constructed.
  • In many parts of Europe, dual carriage ways were built.

(1 point 1 marks  (Total 2 marks)


  1. How Agrarian Revolution contributed to rural-urban migration in Europe in the nineteenth century:
  • Agrarian Revolution led to the enclosure movement. Hence, a large number of peasants were displaced thereby migrating to the urban centres in search of employment opportunities.

            (1 mrk)

  1. Two uses of Coal in Britain in the nineteenth century:
  • Smelting iron.
  • Heating water for industrial and domestic use.
  • Providing warmth in homes.
  • As a cooking fuel in homes.
  • As a transport fuel for vehicles, locomotives and ships.
  • Providing light in houses and factories.

                  (Any 1 use 1 mark (total 2 marks)


  1. Two ways in which scientific inventions have led to improvements in Agriculture:
  • Invention of modern farming machines such as tractors have improved the efficiency of work in the farms.
  • Increased use of fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides and herbicides has improved crop yields.
  • Cross-breeding in crops and livestock has increased agricultural output.
  • Use of modern food storage techniques has reduced loss of crops after harvest.

(1  point 1 mark       Total = 2 mks)


  1. How the “Great Leap Forward” led to industrial development in China:
  • It emphasized agricultural mechanization thus leading to increased production of industrial raw materials.
  • Moreover, increased mechanization led to increased food production which in turn supported industrial workers in town.
  • Furthermore, it encouraged the setting up of light industries in the rural areas.
  • The Great Leap Forward” in addition stimulated the spread of factories and mines from the coastal town into the interior.
  • Additionally, the “Great Leap Forward” encouraged trade with the outside world which helped China to accumulate capital for industrial growth.

.                       (1 point 1 mark     Total = 2 mks)


  1. The most important item of trade that was exported from West Africa to North Africa during the Trans-Saharan trade:
  • (1 mk)



  1. One disadvantage of International Trade Agreements:
  • A member country may be forced to abandon her former trading partners who may not be members of the trading block.
  • A member nation may be compelled to create new trading barriers with non-member countries in order to conform to the policy of the trading block.

(1 point 1 mark   Total =  1 mk)


  1. Why the Lozi power had declined by the second half of the nineteenth century:
  • Succession disputes which led to internal/civil war in the empire.
  • Invasion by the Kololo.

(1 point 1 mark Total =  2 mks)


  1. Why the colonial powers held the Berlin Conference between 1884 and 1885:
  • To solve territorial disputes in Africa that had intensified following the scramble for colonials in the continent by the colonial powers. (1 mk)


  1. The two major objectives of the 1967 Arusha Declaration:
  • Promoting self-reliance in the country.
  • Promoting equality in the country in order to ensure that citizens lived as equals.

(One point 1 mark (total 2 mks)


  1. The immediate outcome of the 1642 English Civil war.
  • The execution of Charles I. (1 mk)




  1. (a) Factors that facilitated the development of Early Agriculture in Mesopotamia:
  • Availability of water for irrigation.
  • Existence of fertile soils deposited by river Euphrates and Tigris.
  • Invention of farming methods by the Sumerians, namely: building banks and ditches along rivers to prevent flooding of farmlands, draining swamps, and irrigating dryland by use of shadoof method of irrigation.
  • Invention and use of farming tools such as Ox-drawn plough which facilitated cultivation.
  • Building and storage facilities. For instance, the sumerians used baskets and clay pots for storing grains.
  • The Sumerians had developed knowledge of forecasting weather which helped them to plan farming activities more effectively. (1 point 1 mark (total 5 marks)


(b)  Possible solutions to the problem of food shortage in the Third World Countries:

  • Offering appropriate incentives to the farmers such as raising the minimum price for agricultural products and offering low interest loans to the farmers.
  • Adopting ideal population control measures through family planning programmes.
  • Establishing agricultural marketing boards for purchasing farm produce and selling the same in case of a natural calamity such as drought.
  • Adopting proper food storage techniques to minimize loss during and after harvest.
  • Improving infrastructure in the rural areas by upgrading rural access roads in order to facilitate the marketing of farm produce.
  • Extending land reclamation programmes through irrigation and draining of swampy areas.
  • Adopting appropriate environmental conservation measures such as afforestation in order to check desertification.
  • Encouraging farmers to not only grow cash crops but also to partition their plots so as to have a room for growing food crops.
  • Extending agricultural extension services so as to enable farmers to acquire modern farming skills.
  • Adopting proper land ownership policies. For instance need to be issued with title deeds which they can use to secure credit facilities.
  • Initiating effective mechanisms for solving domestic and international disputes so as to minimize civil wars and territorial disputes, both of which lead to instability and consequently food shortages in some third world countries.
  • Upgrading incomes in the rural areas in order to stem rural-urban migration, which to a certain extent contributes to food shortages due to loss of able-bodied men from the rural areas.
  • Third world countries should also design effective ways of monitoring the movement of locusts and other destructive pests such as army worms. This may hopefully enable them to take appropriate measures before such pests can cause large scale destruction of crops.
  • Intensifying scientific research in order to not only come up with cheaper and high quality fertilizers but also food crops and animals that can resist both drought and diseases.

(1 point 1 mark     Total = 10 mks)


  1. (a) Factors that influenced the growth of urban centres in Ancient Greece:
  • Defence – the early Greek settlers tended to settle in areas that were easy to defend from external invasion.
  • Soils – the Greek city-states were located in areas that had fertile soils for growing crops.
  • Kinship ties – the feeling of kinship made early Greek settlers to settle together. Such settlements gradually developed into towns.
  • Trade – the Greeks tended to settle in urban areas, for they were ideal for overseas trade.
  • Water – the Greeks mostly settled in areas where they could easily secure water for domestic use.
  • Cultural factors – Greek scholars, for instance philosophers and writers tended to settle in towns like Athens for it was in such centers where they had an opportunity to meet and exchange ideas. Moreover sportsmen were attracted by the urban centres, where they had an opportunity to both exercise and develop their talents.

      (1 point 1 mark  (total 6 mks)


  • Social problems that were brought by urbanization in Britain during the Industrial Revolution:
  • Inadequate housing facilities which led to overcrowding and development of slums.
  • Inadequate sanitary facilities such as garbage collection amenities, clean water and drainage system.
  • High incidence of diseases such as dysentery, cholera and typhoid due to overcrowding in the urban centres.
  • High death rates in the urban centres due to a combination of factors such as poor health facilities, overcrowding, pollution (both air and water) malnutrition and diseases.
  • Unemployment in the urban centres.
  • High level of poverty and unemployment led to pauperism as the poor resorted to begging as a means of earning livelihood.
  • The problem of unemployment which was prevalent in virtually all industrial cities increased incidence of urban crimes.
  • High level of alcoholism which the poor/unemployed urban dwellers saw as an alternative way of reducing their frustrations.
  • A combination of factors such as poverty, unemployment and alcoholism led to high incidence of prostitution in many industrial towns.
  • Related to the problem of prostitution was the break-up of formal marriages as illicit marriages became a common feature in the urban centres.

(1 point 1 mark  Total = 9 marks)


  1. (a) Role of diviners among the Yoruba of Nigeria:
  • Acted as mediators between the gods and the people.
  • Predicting future events.
  • Officiating religious festivals/ceremonies.
  • Making sacrifices to the gods.
  • Offering prayers during private and public religious ceremonies.
  • Giving religious and judicious advice to the people.
  • Controlling the power of rulers through the use of taboos.

(1 point 1 mark  Total =  6 marks)


(b)  Religious beliefs and practices of the Maya:

  • They worshipped many gods/were polytheists.
  • Believed that their gods had both good and bad aspects.
  • Believed that life was a struggle between good and evil gods.
  • They believed in life after death. They believed that warriors who died in war and people killed in sacrifices were sure of going straight to heaven.
  • They had priests whose role was to perform religious rites and offer advice to the people.
  • The Maya offered human sacrifice to their gods.
  • They had temples where they worshipped their gods.
  • During religious festivals, worshippers participated by singing and dancing out side the temple as the priests conducted ceremonies in the temple.
  • They believed in the existence of a supreme God whom they called the creator/Huna


(1 point 1 mark Total =  9 mks)


  1. (a) Measures taken by emperor Tewedros II to create a United Ethiopian empire:
  • He destroyed the power of provincial kings by replacing them with paid governors whom he could appoint and dismiss at will.
  • He broke the existing large provinces into smaller ones for ease of administration.
  • He created a strong national army which was put under his command. The army compromised of men from different parts of the empire, a factor that promoted loyalty to the emperor and the nation.
  • He put down local rebellions and banditry which were a hindrance to his unification programme.
  • He instituted a system of taxation whereby the citizens, irrespective of their social status were required to contribute part of their income to the state. This helped him to raise money for financing his unification campaign.
  • He modified the empire’s judicial system in order to ensure that fair justice was administered to the accused.

(1 point 1 mark   Total =  5 mks)


(b) Reasons why Menelik II was able to defeat the Italians in 1896:

  • Menelik in addition had raised an army that was far much superior in number compared to the Italian forces.
  • Furthermore, the Ethiopian army was not only numerically superior but was equipped with modern arms, which Menelik had acquired earlier from the Europeans.
  • Additionally, unlike the Italian army, the Ethiopian forces knew the geography of the territory in which they were fighting. Hence, while the former experienced mobility difficulties the latter were able to move with minimal hindrances.
  • The Italian army generals, were somewhat incompetent in their campaign against the Ethiopians. For instance, they were occasionally fed with wrong information by the Ethiopians thereby making wrong moves.
  • The Ethiopians, in addition, were a united people, a factor that enabled them to forge a united front against the Italians.
  • Moreover, the Ethiopians were determined to be free from any form of foreign domination. For this reason, they fought with a lot of determination to retain their independence.                                                                                           (1 point 1 mark  Total =  10 mks)




  1. (a) Reasons why the British adopted the policy of indirect rule in northern Nigeria.
  • The need to preserve indigenous local government institutions.
  • Lack of sufficient administrative personnel.
  • Inadequate funds to employ white administrators.
  • An attempt to avoid revolt against colonial rule since through the system, the Africans, the British officials argued – would feel that they were still being ruled by their African leaders.
  • Existence of a centralized system of government in northern Nigeria prior to the coming of the British.
  • The British had prior experience in the use of this system of administration for they had successfully used it in India.

(1 point 1 mark  Total = 5 mks)




(b)  Factors that undermined the policy of indirect rule in Nigeria:

  • The policy was devised to suit northern Nigeria where an indigenous centralized system of administration was already in existence. Consequently it was not very successful in areas such as Iboland where such administrative structures were non-existent.
  • Save for northern Nigeria where the British officials had learnt the local Hausa language, majority of the white officials knew little of the local languages in other parts of Nigeria. Consequently, they were unable to communicate effectively with the local rulers thus hampering the successful implementation of the indirect rule policy.
  • Furthermore, the success of the policy required the education of African rulers. However, since Western education was alien the Africans, the education part of the policy was somewhat unsuccessful.
  • Moreover, some of the British officials were unable to sell their ideas to the native rulers effectively in regard to the objective and hence benefits of the indirect rule policy.
  • Additionally the role of local rulers changed considerably with the introduction of indirect rule in Nigeria. For instance, they were expected to recruit labour for the successful implementation of local projects. However, the native rulers were compelled to use force in some occasions, a factor that made them unpopular.
  • Furthermore, although the policy of indirect rule aimed at promoting partnership in administration, the African rulers gradually realized that they had lost their authority to the British. For instance, they had no mandate to impose tax without the consent of the British officials. Moreover, they were compelled to abolish cultural practices such as human sacrifice and slavery which were regarded as barbaric by the British. Consequently, some of the African rulers lost confidence in the indirect rule policy of administration.

      1 point 1 mark   Total = 10 mks)


  1. (a) Methods used by the African nationalists in South Africa in their struggle for independence:
  • Forming political parties that played a key role in coordinating nationalist activities. For instance the African National congress (ANC) and Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) which were founded in 1912 and 1952 respectively.
  • Negotiating with the white South African government.
  • Partitioning international organizations such as the OAU and UNO in order to gain their support against the repressive apartheid policies.
  • Armed struggle. For instance, ANC opened military bases in Tanzania and Zambia. Using such bases the military wing (Umkhonto we Sizwe) of the ANC sabotaged military and economic installation in south Africa through bombing.
  • Organizing mass demonstrations and riots in the urban centres. For example, in 1961, PAC organized large demonstrations against pass laws, an episode that culminated in the infamous sharpville Massacre in which 69 people were killed and hundreds wounded.
  • Organizing boycotts and strikes. For example the African nationalists organized job boycotts during the 1970s. similarly, there were student riots in Soweto in 1976 following the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction in schools. Similar student demonstrations were organized in 1980 and 1984.
  • Harmonizing nationalist activities through trade Union Movement. For instance, in 1979, the Federation of South African Trade Union Movement was formed and became instrumental in the 1979 and 1981 black workers strike.
  • Religious protest – for instance, church leaders like Alan Boesak and Desmond Tutu played a key role in championing the African nationalist cause in the country.
  • Use of mass media such as the Africanist newspaper and other forms of publication to educate the masses.
  • Hunger strike – some of the jailed nationalists resorted to hunger strike as a form of protest against incarceration and the oppressive government policies.

(1 point 1 mark  (total 5 mks)


(b) Problems faced by the African nationalists in south Africa in their struggle for independence:

  • Political assassination and mass killing of the nationalists both within and without South Africa. For instance, Steve Biko, the leader of the Black consciousness movement was killed in police custody in 1977.
  • Lack of adequate funds to finance their activities such as the purchase arms.
  • Harassment, arrest and subsequent jailing/ detention of the nationalist leaders. For example, following the famous Rivonia trial (1964), nationalists’ leaders namely: Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki and Nelson Mandela were detained.
  • Banning of political parties for instance, ANC and PAC were banned in 1961.
  • Lack of a well-trained army to effectively challenge the government.
  • Lack of unity among the nationalists for instance, PAC splintered from the ANC in 1959 due to differing views on how to carry out the struggle. This was in view of the fact that while the latter wanted peaceful approach, the former was in favour of military methods to achieve its objectives.
  • Opposition from the ordinary whites who opposed majority rule in the country for fear of losing their wealth and privileged position.
  • The presence of Portuguese in Angola and Mozambique. Being sympathetic to the apartheid government, they arrested and subsequently repatriated black nationalists who had taken refuge in Mozambique and Angola.
  • Banning of publications that were sympathetic to the nationalists. For instance, following the 1963 Undesirable Publications Act, publications that contracted apartheid policies such as Thomas Hardy’s novel – The Return of the Native – were banned.
  • The 1959 Bantustan Policy, through which the government aimed at creating semi-independent African states in the country. The policy undermined African nationalist activities for it tended to divide the blacks along ethnic lines.
  • The government in addition used money to employ black informers. Africans who were lured into this trap gave information to the government that was detrimental to the struggle.                                                                                                       (1 point 1 mark  (total 10 mks)
  1. (a) Roles and functions of the Monarchy in Britain:
  • The monarchy is the legal/constitutional head of state.
  • The King or Queen is the commander-In-Chief of the armed forces in Britain.
  • The monarchy gives authority to the winning political party to form a government after elections.
  • The monarchy officially opens the parliament after elections.
  • The monarchy has to grant assent before a Bill becomes a law.
  • The monarchy is the role model in matters regarding the accepted moral/social standards in the country.
  • The monarchy has the power to appoint members in the House of Lords.

1 point 1 mark  (total 5 marks)


(b)  How parliamentary supremacy is guaranteed in Britain:

  • It is only parliament that has the power to make, amend or abolish any existing law.
  • The parliament, in addition is the only institution in the country that can pass a vote of no confidence in the government, and thus force it to resign.
  • Furthermore, it is only members of parliament who have the power to approve government expenditure and revenue.
  • In addition, parliament is the only government organ that has the power to declare war incase the country is attacked from without.
  • Moreover, no parliament can legally bind its successor.
  • Furthermore, no decision of parliament can be overruled by any court of law in the country.
  • Parliament in addition, is the only institution that has the power to declare a state of emergency in the country. 1 point 1 mark  (total 10 mks)








  1. What is the name of the fossil that was discovered by Mary Leakey on Rusinga Island? (1 mk)
  2. Identify TWO ways in which iron working technology facilitated the migration and settlement of the Bantu in Kenya (2 marks)
  3. Name TWO Coastal Bantu communities in Kenya that are linguistically related to the Miji Kenda (2 marks)
  4. Identify TWO factors that had facilitated the spread of Islam in Kenya by 1500 (2 marks)
  5. Give TWO reasons why the Portuguese occupied the Kenyan Coast between 1500 and 1700 (2 marks)
  6. Name TWO plantation crops that were grown along the Kenyan Coast during the pre-colonial period (2 marks)
  7. State TWO social effects of Missionary activities in Kenya during the nineteenth century (2 marks)
  8. Name TWO African political movements that developed in Kenya between 1918 and 1939

(2 marks                                                                                                                              (2 marks)

  1. Give TWO reasons why trade union movement in Kenya was confined to the urban centres during the colonial period (2 marks)
  2. State TWO anti-social activities that are controlled by Chiefs in Kenya (2 marks)
  3. Name TWO African nationalist parties whose leaders attended the Lancaster House conference                                                                                                                 (2 marks)
  4. State TWO ways in which Kiswahili language helps to promote national unity in Kenya
    (2 marks)
  5. State TWO roles of a returning officer during General Elections in Kenya (2 marks)





  1. (a) What factors made the Kalenjin to migrate into Kenya during the pre-colonial period? 5 marks.                                                                                                                                                    (5 marks)

(b)     Describe the political organisation of the Kalenjin during the pre-colonial period      (10 marks)

  1. (a) What factors had led to the development of trade between the Kenyan Coast and the

outside world by 1500AD?                                                                             (5 marks)

(b)     Explain the effects of Indian Ocean trade to the people of Kenya                  (10 marks)

  1. (a) Why were the Portuguese able to occupy the Kenyan Coast during the sixteenth century?                                                                                                                            (3 marks)

(b)     Explain the results of the Portuguese rule on the Kenyan Coast                    (12 marks)

  1. (a) Why did the British colonise Kenya in the nineteenth century?                      (3 marks)

(b)     Explain the results of Nabongo Mumia’s collaboration with the British         (12 marks)




  1. (a) What are the functions of the District Executive Committee in the ruling party KANU?                                                                                                                             (5 marks)

(b)     Explain the policies of KANU                                                                      (10 marks)

  1. (a) What are the necessary conditions for a parliamentary candidate in Kenya?    (3 marks)

(b)     Explain the functions of parliament in Kenya                                               (12 marks)

  1. (a) What are the branches of the local government in Kenya?                              (5 marks)
  • How does the central government control local authorities in Kenya                     (10 marks)








  1. Drypithecus Africanus / Proconsul (1 mark)


  1. * The Bantu were able to manufacture farming tools thereby increasing food production.

*    This led to population increase which forced them to migrate to other areas

*     They were able to conquer their neighbours for they had iron weapons  (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Taita – Taveta

*        Pokomo                                                                                             (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Trading activities between Arabs and Africans at the coast

*        Islam was accepted by Africans for it was accommodating to the African traditions
and cultural practices e.g. polygamy

*        The settling of Arabs at the coast

*        Being a new religion some Africans accepted it out of curiosity          (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * To trade / control Indian Ocean trade

*        To spread Christianity                                                                        (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Maize

*        Millet

*        Sesame

*        Coconuts

*        Nuts

*        Beans                                                                                                (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * African religious beliefs and practices were undermined

*        Missionaries introduced Western education and culture

*        Missionaries introduced medical facilities in Kenya

*        They facilitated the abolition of slave trade

*        Some aspects of African culture e.g. female circumcision and polygamy were undermined

*        Caused disunity between Africans who accepted Christianity and those who followed

traditional religion

*        Led to the rise and growth of African Independent churches               (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Young Kikuyu Association

*        Kikuyu Association

*        Young Kavirondo Association

*        East African Association

*        Kavirondo Tax Payers Welfare Association

*        Kikuyu Central Association

*        Ukamba Members Association

*        Taita Hills Association

*        Coast African Association                                                                  (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * It was in the urban centres where trade unions would get funds to finance their  activities

from the urban workers

*       It was relatively easy for the African urban workers to unite as opposed to the Africans working in European farms

*       Most of the trade union movement leaders where educated elites who were working in the urban centres

*       It was easy to sell trade union movement ideas to the urban workers for they were relatively better educated than their counterparts in the rural areas

*        It was easy to mobilise urban workers during trade union movement meetings

(2 x 1 = 2 marks)

  1. * Water pollution

*        Deforestation

*        Brewing of illicit beer

*        Stealing other people’s property e.g. cattle                                          (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Kenya African National Union (KANU)

*        Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU)                                         (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Facilitates the sharing of ideas between Kenyans of different ethnic backgrounds

*        Enhances interaction between Kenyans hailing from different cultural backgrounds

(2 x 1 = 2 marks)

  1. * To receive nomination papers from prospective candidates

*        To distribute ballot papers and boxes to the polling stations

*        To supervise voting and counting of votes

*        To announce election results

*        To appoint presiding officers

*        To fix polling stations                                                                        (2 x 1 = 2 marks)



14.(a) *       Family conflicts / internal quarrels / feuds

*       Attack by hostile neighbours

*       Population pressure

*       Search for land for settlement

*       The spirit of adventure

*       Natural calamities e.g. drought and famine

*       Search for pastures for their livestock

*       Outbreak of cattle diseases                                                                 (5 x 1 = 5 marks)


(b)     *       Were organised in semi-independent territorial units known as Bororosiek

*       Each territorial unit was controlled by a council of elders

*      Members of the council of elders were chosen on the basis of their seniority, wisdom and

military skills

*     The council of elders was responsible for maintaining law and order and settling major

disputes in the Bororosiek

*     Each Bororiet was further divided into smaller political units under lesser councils of elders

*     The lesser councils of elders had the role of defining grazing grounds and settling minor


*     Young initiates joined the warrior class whose role was to defend the community against

external attack and conquering new territories

(5 x 2 = 10 marks)


15.(a)*   Existence of enterprising merchants in places like Persia and Saudi Arabia

*    Availability of trading goods at the Coast e.g. ivory, slaves and animal skins

*    Demand for goods from the Kenyan coast e.g. ivory in both Europe and Asia

*    Accessibility of the Kenyan coast by sea

*    Political stability at the Coast which created an ideal / conducive environment for trade

*   The Monsoon winds facilitated the movement of traders to and from the coast

(5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b)     *        Led to the rise of commercial towns e.g. Mombasa and Lamu

*        Led to the introduction of Islam religion at the Coast

*        Arabic literacy skills were introduced at the Coast

*        Led to the rise of Swahili language and culture

*        Arabic architectural designs were introduced at the Coast

*        New crops e.g. coconut, wheat and rice were introduced at the Coast

*        Islamic sharia laws were introduced at the Coast

*        Led to the rise of slave trade which brought sufferings to the African communities

*        Introduction of firearms which encouraged inter-tribal wars in some parts of Kenya

*        Gave value to resources that previously had little local value e.g. tortoise shell and

rhinocerous horns

*        Stratified the society at the Coast between the wealthy merchants who lived in stone         houses, the ordinary people who dwelled in mud huts and finally the slaves

*        Cowrie shells became a medium of exchange in some places

*        Kenyan Coast came to be known to the outside world

*        Led to the development of closer links between the Kenyan coast and the outside world

                   (10 x 1 = 10 marks)

16.(a) *        They had superior weapons

*        They had well trained soldiers

*        They knew the geography of the Coast

*        They were supported by their mother country Portugal

*        Coastal people were not united to challenge the Portuguese

*        The Portuguese organised surprise attacks on the Coastal settlements

*        The Portuguese were united during their invasion of the Kenyan Coast

(3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b)     *        Decline of the Coastal trade

*        Decay of some Coastal towns e.g. Gedi

*        Some Coastal people lost their lives from Portuguese raids

*        Level of poverty at the Coast increased due to the imposition of heavy taxes by the


*        The Portuguese enriched Kiswahili language with such loan words as Meza and Mvinyo

*        They taught the Coastal people the idea of using animal manure in the farms

*        They built Fort Jesus which is today an important historic site that attracts

*        They introduced new crops at the Coast e.g. maize, cassava and pineapples

*        Portuguese rule led to the development of closer links between the Kenyan Coast and India

*        They introduced new architectural designs e.g. Fort Jesus

*        They introduced guns and gun powder along the Coast which led to fear and  insecurity in

the region

*        Due to their harshness the Coastal people developed a negative attitude

towards Europeans and by extension Christianity

(6 x 2 = 12 marks)

17.(a) *        Britain wanted to establish a market for her manufactured goods

*        To stop slave trade

*        To ensure that Kenya and Uganda were not taken by rival European powers such as


*        Kenya was strategically placed for the British would get hold of Uganda and hence control

the source of river Nile

*        Britain viewed Kenya as a potential area for investing surplus capital

*        To protect European missionaries and traders in the region

*        Britain saw Kenya as a potential area for securing raw materials for her industries                                                                                          (6 x 1 = 12 marks)

(b)     *        The British were able to establish their rule in Western Kenya through the
assistance of Wanga warriors

*        The Wanga were used as agents of British colonial rule in Western Kenya

*        There developed hatred between the Wanga and their neighbours

*        Nabongo was made a paramount Chief thereby increasing his power and

*        Nabongo’s headquarters at Elureko became the centre of British administration in Western


*        Nabongo became an advisor to the British over the appointment of Chiefs and headmen in

Western Kenya

(6 x 2 = 12 marks)




18.(a) *        To implement party propaganda at the district level

*        To organise the party at the district level

*        To promote political awareness among the people at the local/ district level

*        To offer people general education at the district level

*        To recruit party members

*        Maintaining discipline among the party members at the district level

*        Promoting the spirit of self-reliance / self-help amongst the people at the  district  level

*        Supervising the activities of sub-branch, location and sub-location committees

(5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b)     *        Safeguarding Kenya’s sovereignty / independence

*        Protecting the environment for the benefit of prosperity / future generations

*        Promoting national unity

*        Promoting democratic ideas / principles in the country                                                                    *        Protecting human life

*        Promoting socio-economic development in the country through say expansion
of education, industrialisation etc.

*        Adhering to the Bill of Rights that protects the rights and freedoms of the
individual in the country

*        Supporting and respecting the independence of the Judiciary

*        Supporting the ideas of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and United
Nations Organisation (UNO)                                                            (5 x 2 = 10 marks)


19.(a) *        One must be a Kenyan citizen

*        Be of 21 years of age and over

*        Be a registered voter in the constituency he/she wants to contest in the election

*        Be able to read and write in English and Kiswahili

*        Must have resided / lived in Kenya for at least six months before the polling day

*        Be nominated by his/her party                                                           (3 x 1 = 3 marks)



(b)     *        Making and amending laws in the country

*        Controlling government revenue and expenditure

*        Members of Parliament (MP’s) act as a link between the people and the

*        It protects the individual against abuse of power by either the executive,
judiciary or powerful individuals

*        Checks abuse of power of individual MP’s and government offices through
substantive motion that may force an errant individual to resign from his/her

*        Checking the performance of government by asking critical questions to the
ministers in regard to the performance of their ministries

*        Firing the President and/or government through a vote of no confidence if the
MP’s feel that either of the two have performed below the expectations of the

*        Establishing statutory bodies / parastatals in the country

(6 x 2 = 12 marks)

20.(a) *        Municipal councils

*        County councils

*        Urban councils

*        Area councils

*        Town councils

*        City councils                                                                                     (3 x 1 = 3 marks)


(b)     *        Central government gives directives and policy guidelines to the local authorities

*        Central government through the Minister of Local Government has power to probe                         the activities of the local government

*        The Minister for Local Government has authority to punish errant local authority

*        Local Authority by-laws have to be approved by the central government in order to

be operational

*        The central government can dissolve a local government whose performance is

*        Central government has power to upgrade a local authority from a lower to a higher                        status

*        The Central government through the Minister of Local government can reorganise

the administration of a local authority whose performance is below expectations

*        The Central government is represented in local government meetings by its

appointed officials e.g. District Commissioners

*        Local authority budgets must be approved by the Central government before they

are implemented

*        Local government loan applications must be approved by the Minister for Local                              government                                                                                     (6 x 2 = 12 marks)








  1. State any TWO major branches of history (2 marks)
  2. State the most important reason why oral traditions are important in the study of pre-colonial

African history                                                                                                             (1 mark)

  1. How was Australopithecus similar to modern man? (2 marks)
  2. Why were early urban centres located near water bodies? (2 marks)
  3. Identify TWO uses of roads in the ancient Roman Empire (2 marks)
  4. State TWO ways in which railways facilitated Agrarian Revolution in Western Europe
    (2 marks)
  5. State TWO results of mechanisation in the British textile industry in the eighteenth century  (2 marks)
  6. How was steam power used in the nineteenth century? (2 marks)
  7. What was the contribution of Edward Jenner in the medical field? (1 mark)



  1. Identify TWO government policies that have facilitated industrialization in Brazil (2 marks)
  2. Name any TWO gods of the Maya people (2 marks)
  3. Why were the British able to suppress the Ndebele uprising? (2 marks)
  4. Identify the main political problem that Zaire has faced since independence (1 mark)
  5. State any TWO roles of the President in France (2 marks)





15.(a) What factors led to the rise of early agriculture in Mesopotamia?                             (6 marks)

(b) Explain ways in which crop and animal domestication improved man’s way of life

during   the Neolitic period                                                                                    (9 marks)


16.(a) How were slaves obtained in West Africa during the Trans-Atlantic trade                 (5 marks)

(b)          Describe the organisation of Trans-Atlantic slave trade?                               (10 marks)


17.(a) What were the results of the invention of steam ship?                                             (6 marks)

(b)          Explain how man has benefited from improvements in air transport               (9 marks)


18.(a) What factors facilitated the spread of Islam in Africa upto the nineteenth century?   (5 marks)

(b) Explain the effects of the spread of Islam in Africa during the pre-colonial period   (10 marks)




19.(a)   How did European nations acquire colonies in Africa during the nineteenth century?        (3 marks)

(b)            Explain the results of Maji Maji uprising                                                    (12 marks)


20.(a) Explain the economic activities that were carried out by the Lozi people during the
pre-colonial period                                                                                                (3 marks)

(b) Describe the political organization of the Lozi kingdom during the pre-colonial period     (12 marks)


21.(a)   What were the necessary conditions for one to become a French citizen in Senegal?          (3 marks)

(b)   Explain the results of the French policy of Assimilation in Senegal                        (12 marks)







  1. * Political History

*        Social History

*        Economic history                                                                              (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Lack of written records / documents                                                                (1 mark)
  2. * Stood upright like modern man

*        Walked on two legs

*        Their canines were similar to those of modern man

*        Used hands / fingers

*        Made tools like modern man                                                              (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * For ease of communication

*        It was easy to get water for irrigation

*        Such sites were ideal for fetching water for domestic and industrial purposes

*        Such centres were easier to defend from external invasion                  (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Transportation of people

*        Transportation of goods

*        Transportation of soldiers in times of trouble

*        Deploying of administrators to the various parts of the empire            (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * They facilitated the transportation of agricultural workers

*        They facilitated the movement of farm produce to the market

*        They facilitated the transportation of farm inputs to the farms            (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Cotton replaced wool as the raw material for making clothes

*        Many people who were employed in the cottage industry lost their jobs

*        Coal replaced wood as the major source of energy in the textile industry

*        Led to increased use of iron and steel

*        Led to the emergence of textile towns e.g. Manchester and Leeds       (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Pumping water out of mines

*        Driving ships and locomotives

*        Smelting iron

*        It provided energy for driving machines in the factories

*        Producing light in factories                                                                (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * He invented vaccine                                                                                       (1 mark)
  2. * Restriction of imported goods that can be produced locally

*        The government has invested in heavy industries

*        Promotion of technical / scientific education

*        Encouraging foreigners to invest in the country                                  (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Kunabku

*        Kukulcan

*        Yumkax

*        Itcama

*        Chac

*        Pipil                                                                                                  (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * The British had superior arms

*        Lack of unity among the Africans

*        The Ndebele were demoralized for the uprising was handled ruthlessly by the  British


*        Britain soldiers were well trained and better organized                        (2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  1. * Rivalry over leadership                                                                                    (1 mark)


  1. * He is the Head of State

*        He is the executive head of the French government

*        He appoints the Prime Minister / Premier

*        Formulates domestic and foreign policy

*        Controls defence

*        Assumes legislative and executive powers during a national emergency (2 x 1 = 2 marks)




  1. (a) *Availability of water for irrigation from rivers Euphrates and Tigris

*        Presence of fertile soils deposited by rivers Tigris and Euphrates

*        Sumerians had invented farming tools e.g. Ox drawn plough and Seed drill

*        Favourable topography which facilitated irrigation

*        High population in the region provided labour in the farms

*        Summerians had invented irrigation techniques e.g. camels which facilitated irrigation

*        Towns in the region e.g. Ur, Uruk, Kish and Babylon created market for farm produce

*        Political stability in the region enabled farmers to carry out agricultural activities

with   ease

*        Sumerians had invented a system of writing which enabled them to measure and
record both agricultural production and consumption

*        Sumerians had invented food storage facilities such as pots and public granaries

*        Sumerians had invented weather forecasting techniques which enabled them to plan                       their activities

*        Sumerian rulers e.g. Sargon, Ur-Nammu and Hammurabi encouraged agricultural                           activities in the region.

(6 x 1 = 6 marks)

(b)     *        The level of food production increased

*        Man’s food supply became regular throughout the year

*        Man saved both time and energy that would have been used in hunting wild animals            and collecting wild fruits

*        Man was able to raise crops through irrigation in dry areas thereby increasing his area of


*        Man began to eat a balanced diet which improved not only his health but also his                           lifespan

*        Led to the rise of trade at the community and inter-community level

*        Individuals who not only engaged in the farms undertook other tasks e.g. basketry                          and pottery hence increasing mans material wealth

*        Led to the rise of permanent settlements which stimulated the development of

organised states

*        Led to the development of a wide range of sciences and arts e.g. geometry and                                arithmetric both of which developed out of the need to measure land accurately

*        Led to the development of the art of writing which was a vital skill for keeping
records on farm produce

*        Some of the domesticated animals e.g. the horse and the camel improved man’s

*        Led to the emergence of urban centres which improved the level of interaction
between individuals

*        Some individuals engaged themselves in reading and writing for they could be
supported by the agricultural sector, a factor that laid the foundation for formal education.

*        Led to the production and continued refinement of agricultural tools such as sickles                        and iron hoes

*        Some individuals who were not engaged in farmwork had time to concentrate on                            spiritual matters thereby facilitating the development of religion.

*        The need to make food storage items like baskets led to the development of weaving             skills which were gradually utilized in weaving clothes                                 (9 x 1 = 9 marks)


16.(a) *        Some individuals were sold by their rulers for being criminals

*        Through raiding

*        Through trickery

*        Sale of war captives

*        Kidnapping

*        Some individuals were sold by their relatives to settle debts

*        Slaves could be obtained by being exchanged for items like cotton clothes and guns

(5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b)     *        The trade was operated a long three routes, namely; Europe to West Africa to the                            New World (America and Carribean) and the New World to Europe

*        The trade involved European traders, African middlemen and plantation owners in

the New World

*        The trade was both in kind (barter) and in money

*        Slaves were transported in large cargo by boats and ships

*        Slaves were bought and sold in different market centres in West Africa

*        There were established places where slaves were kept while awaiting shipment or                            collection to their destination

*        Slaves were forced to march long distances from the interior to the coast

(5 x 2 = 10 marks)

17.(a) *        Steam ships promoted international trade

*        Led to increased use of coal

*        Led to increased use of iron and steel

*        Increased use of steamships created employment to many people e.g. sailors,

shippers, engineers and captains

*        Facilitated exploration                                                                       (3 x 1 = 3 marks)


(b)     *        Air transport facilitates the transportation of perishable goods e.g. flowers and fruits

*        Used by flying doctors during emergency cases

*        Aircrafts are used in transporting soldiers and military equipment in times of war

*        Used for spying purposes

*        Aircrafts are used in weather forecasting

*        Aircrafts are used in aerial photography

*        Aircrafts are used in space exploration

*        Aircrafts are used to spray pesticides and insecticides to protect crops* Used in the evacuation in

flooded areas and areas struck by earthquakes

*        Has created employment opportunities to many people e.g. pilotes, air hostess and

aircraft engineers

*        Has promoted cultural interaction between world communities

*        Has facilitated the movement of people into inaccessible areas e.g. mountain tops

*        Has promoted trade between nations                                                  (9 x 1 = 9 marks)


  1. (a)* Missionary activities of Muslim scholars

*        Trade

*        Intermarriage

*        Jihad / war

*        Migration and settlement of Muslims / Arabs in various parts of Africa

*        Some people accepted Islam for fear of being enslaved

*        Other people accepted Islam out of curiosity for it was a new religion

*        Influence of already converted African rulers                                     (5 x  1 = 5 marks)


(b)     *        Arabic language spread to many parts of Africa e.g. North Africa

*        Led to intermarriages between Arabs and Africans

*        Islam weakened African indigenous religion in some areas

*        Arabic language enriched local languages e.g. Kiswahili and Hausa

*        Islamic law (sharia) was introduced in areas where Islam was established

*        Islam brought a new type of education based on the Koran

*        Arabic and Persian architectural styles were introduced in some areas e.g. along the                         Coast of West Africa and North Africa

*        Africans who accepted Islam adopted Arabic dress, music and eating habits

*        Islam acted as a unifying factor among the believers

*        Spread of Islam led to the introduction of new crops e.g. cloves in East Africa

*        Led to the development of coastal towns                                          (5 x 2 = 10 marks)




19.(a) *        Use of military force against uncooperative communities e.g. Ndebele

*        Signing treaties with the local African rulers

*        Signing treaties amongst themselves e.g. 1886 & 1890 Aglo-German agreements

*        Use of treachery                                                                                (3 x 1 = 3 marks)


(b)     *        Destruction of property e.g. houses and crops

*        Many people lost their lives

*        Caused disunity between Africans who supported the rebellion and those who did not

*        Africans lost faith in their traditional religion thereby maxing some to accept


*        Many people were displaced

*        Laid basis for future African nationalism in Tanzania

*        Led to famine and starvation

*        Many Africans were arrested and either imprisoned or hanged

*        Germans involved Africans in the administration of the local affairs

*        Created fear and insecurity in Southern Tanzania

*        Africans learnt the futility of resisting a better armed opponent

*        Germans improved the social life of Africans by promoting African health and education

(6 x 2 = 12 marks)

20.(a) *        The Lozi grew crops like millet, maize and cassava

*        They kept cattle

*        Raided their neighbours e.g. Tonga and Ila for cattle

*        They traded among themselves and with the Portuguese

*        Practiced fishing along river Zambezi

*        Made iron implements e.g. hoes and spears

*        Practiced pottery and basketry                                                            (3 x 1 = 3 marks)


(b)     *        The Lozi had a centralized monarchical government

*        Position of the monarchy was hereditary

*        The King (Litunga) maintained unity in the kingdom

*        There was a queen mother and a queen sister who assisted Litunga / King in the day-                      to-day running of the Kingdom

*        There was a council of elders who offered advisory services to Litunga besides                                 overseeing tax collection

*        The council of Chiefs was organized in a hierachical order e.g. at the top were chiefs                       from the leading families. Below were lesser chiefs from the conquered people

*        Litunga had two capitals, namely; Levlui on the Bulozi floodplain which he occupied                    during dry seasons  and Mangui on the adjacent hills which he resided during wet          seasons

*        The administrative system was organized around groupings for the purpose of maintaining

unity in the kingdom e.g. there was a section dealing with the administration

and justice while the other handled the treasury and recruitment of communal labour.                                                                                                        (6 x 2 = 12 marks)


21.(a) *        To have been born in Senegal

*        To be aged 21 years and above

*        To have a place of residence

*        Know how to read and write in French

*        Be loyal to the state

*        To have served the state for at least 10 years

*        To be of good conduct / well behaved

*        Be leading a good life                                                                        (3 x 1 = 3 marks)


(b)     *        Senegal  was in corporated into the French Republic

*        French culture was promoted in Senegal

*        Many Africans adopted French hence undermining African traditions and  cultural                          practices

*        Africans who were assimilated acquired the right to participate in the political affairs of


*        Traditional rulers in Senegal lost their power / authority

*        Islam religion was undermined in the four communes of Senegal i.e. St. Louis, Goree,

Dakar and Rufsque where many Africans had adopted Christianity

*        Led to the rise of a priviledged class of Africans who were regarded as being equal with

the French people.

*        Created disunity among Africans who had qualified to be citizens and those who had                      not i.e. the subjects

*        Promoted the French system of education in Senegal

*        Created an educated class of African elite who played an important role in the rise of

African nationalism in Senegal

(6 x 2 = 12 marks)







  1. State two economic activities of the Kamba during the pre-colonial period.                  (2mks)
  2. What were the function of the Laibon among the Massai during the precolonial period? (2mk)
  3. What was the major result of the encounter between the coastal Bantu and the Oromo? (1mk)
  4. Identify two factors that facilitated the contact between the Kenyan coast and the outside world before 1500AD            (2mks)
  5. State two terms of the 1886 Anglo-german Agreement            (2mks)
  6. Why were the local Native Councils established in Kenya during the colonial period                      (2mks)
  7. Give two reasons why Africans were denied the right to grow cash crops in Kenya during the colonial period.                                  (2mks)
  8. Identify two features of formal education in Kenya during the colonial period           (2mks)
  9. State two factors which led to the formation of Taita Hills Association.                      (2mks)
  10. How did the trade union movement contribute to the struggle for independence in Kenya. (2mks)
  11. State one aim of the second Lancaster House Conference            (1mk)
  12. Identify the body which appoints Assistant chiefs in Kenya.           (1mk)
  13. State two social interactions which promote national unity in Kenya         (2mks)
  14. Give two factors which hastened the introduction of multi party democracy in Kenya in 1991.






15(a).What factors led to the migration of the Eastern Cushites into Kenya during the  pre-colonial

period?                                                                                                                               (5mks)

(b). Discuss the results of the migration and settlement of the Cushites in Kenya during the pre-

colonial  period.                                                                                                         (10mks)

16(a). Why did the Portuguese establish their rule at the Kenyan coast in 1500A.D ?                           (3mks)

(b). Explain the factors that led to the decline of the Portuguese rule at the Kenyan coast.       (2mks)

17(a). Why did some African communities resist the establishment of British rule in Kenya.?     (7mks)

(b). Explain the results of the African resistance against the introduction of British rule in Kenya.                                                                                                                                             (8mks)

18(a). What factors led to the migration of Africans into the urban centres during the  colonial period                                                                                                                                    (5mks)

(b). Discuss the effects of urbanization in Kenya during the colonial period.                         (10mks)





19(a). Why is national integration essential in Kenya?                                                            (5mks)

(b). Explain the factors that have undermined governments efforts to promote national unity in

Kenya since independence.                                                                                                    (10mks)

20(a). What are the functions of the Attorney General in Kenya?                                                        (5mks)

(b). Describe the stages through which a bill passes before it becomes a law in           Kenya          (10mks)

21(a). What is the role of  the Public Service Commission in Kenya?                                      (5mks)

(b). Explain the functions of Civil Servants in Kenya.                                                         (10mks).








  1. Identify two sources of information used by historians to write the history of man during the

pre-historic period                                                                                                         (2mks)

  1. Give two factors which facilitated crop domestication in Mesopotamia.        (2mks)
  2. Name two metals which were used to manufacture weapons for defence in pre-colonial Africa.                                                                                                                                      (2mks)
  3. List down two limitations of road transport        (2mks)
  4. Give two agricultural changes that were introduced in western Europe from the mid eighteenth century.                      (2mks)
  5. State two problems that hinder third world countries in their effort to industrilise         (2mks)
  6. Identify two forms of communication that offer mass entertainment                                       (2mks)
  7. Name one item of trade that was exchanged for salt in the western Sudan during the

Tran-Saharan trade                                                                                                                         (1mk)

  1. State two similarities between Islam and Christianity                                    (2mks)
  2. What was the most important factor that facilitated European colonization of Africa in the nineteenth century?                                                                                            (1mk)
  3. State the main reason why the Ndebele fought the British                          (1mk)
  4. Name two systems of colonial administration which were used by the French to administer

their colonies in Africa                                                                                                      (2mks)

  1. Name two Houses of the French parliament                                                 (2mks)
  2. State two objectives of the Commonwealth.                                    (2mks)




  1. (a). How did bipedalism improve mans way of life during the early stage period?            (3mks)

(b). Explain the economic activities of man during the new stone age period.                    (12mks)

  1. (a). What were the uses of coal in Europe in the nineteenth century?   (5 mks)

(b). Discuss the factors that favoured the development of industries in Britain in the nineteenth century                                                                                                                    (10mks)

  1. (a). Explain the factors that facilitated the spread of Christianity in southern Europe by the end of the    fourth century A.D                                                                                             (5mks)

(b). Discuss factors which led to the emergence of the protestant churches in the sixteenth century.                                                                                                                                     (10mks)

  1. (a). Explain the factors which led to the abolition of the slave trade in the nineteenth century


(b). Discuss the effects of Trans-Atlantic trade on west Africa                                  (10mks)




  1. (a). What were the economic activities of the Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period?      (5mks)

(b). Describe the political organization of the Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period.                                                                                                                        (10mks)

  1. (a). How did the apartheid laws in south Africa discriminate against Africans?        (5mks)

(b). Discuss the problems that were faced by African nationalists in South Africa in their struggle

against apartheid.                                                                                              (10mks)

  1. (a). Why was the Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) formed? (5mks)

(b). Explain the factors that have undermined the activities of the OAU.                (10mks)








  1. – Cattle keeping
  • Hunting and Gathering
  • Trading activities – local & long distance trade
  • Making iron tools / implements/ weapons
  • Making cooking and food storage facilities.
  • Growing crops e.g                      2 x 1 mk each =( 2 marks).


  1. – Officiating religious ceremonies
  • Advised the council of elders
  • Blessed warrior before they went to war / cattle raiding parties
  • Predicted future events
  • Explained mysteries of nature to the people
  • Offered communal prayers to god.

                           2 x 1 mark each = (2marks)


  1. –The Bantu were forced by the Oromo to disperse from Shungwaya.                    1 mark.


  1. – Existence of monsoon winds which facilitated the movement of the outsiders to and from  the

Kenyan coast.

  • Accessibility of the Kenyan coast by sea.
  • The outsiders had developed boat/ dhow making skills
  • Availability of funds to finance the journey to and from the Kenyan coast

2 x 1 = (2marks)


  1. – Witu and the territory between rivers Umba and Ruvuma were given to the Germans
  • The sultan was given the islands of Pemba, Pate, Zanzibar, Mafia and Lamu.
  • The sultan was awarded a 16km strip of land along the coast .
  • The territory North of river Umba and river Jumba was given to the British

2 x 1 = ( 2marks)


  1. – To promote a sense of responsibility towards the state among the Africans
  • To give Africans an opportunity to participate in the administration of the local areas.
  • To enable the Africans to present their needs to the government
  • To give the colonial government an opportunity to control the Africans.

2 x 1 = (2marks)


  1. – To protect European farmers against competition from African farmers
  • To safeguard the supply of cheap African labour to the European farms
  • To safeguard against the demand of land by Africans in the Kenya highlands.

2 x 1 = (2marks)


  1. – Formal education was organised along racial lines
  • African schools had inferior facilities
  • Europeans received academic education while Africans received industrial / technical education.
  • There was separate examinations for Europeans, Africans and Asians
  • Africans had very limited opportunities for secondary and post- secondary education

2 x 1 = (2marks)


  1. – The Taita wanted to oppose the colonial policy of destocking
  • They wanted to regain land that they had lost to the British.
  • They wanted to oppose the government move to relocate the Wadawida from Taita hills to Samburu district.
  • To oppose the kipande system

2 x 1 = (2mks)


  1. – Trade unions organised strikes and boycotts to oppose the unpopular colonial policy.
  • They educated / sensitised workers on the need to join / support nationalist parties like K.A.U and KANU
  • They gave moral and material / financial support to the political parties that struggled for independence.
  • They offered training opportunities to the potential nationalist leaders e.g Tom Mboya.

2 x 1 =  (2 marks)


  1. – To draft the independence constitution
  • To sort out the differences between KANU and KADU.

1 x 1 = ( 1mark)


  1. – Public Service Commission (PSC) 1 mark


  1. – Inter community marriages
  • Sports/ games
  • Working together in places of work e.g offices.

2 x 1 =(2marks)


  1. – Repealing of section 2(a) of the Kenyan constitution  which legalised the formation of many

political parties

  • Economic hardships in the country which compelled Kenyans to demand for change.
  • External pressure from the international community/ donors
  • End of the cold war which influenced USA to compel African countries e.g Kenya to legalise pluralism
  • Internal agitation for pluralism by multiparty activists.

2 x 1 = ( 2maks)







  1. (a) – They were searching for pasture and water for their livestock
  • Their territory had been attacked by hostile neighbours /external attack
  • Outbreak of natural calamities e.g drought and famine
  • Family and clan conflicts
  • Some Cushites migrated in search of land for settlement.
  • Some migrated due to the spirit of adventure.

5 points x 1 mark each = (5marks)


(b) – The Cushites introduced livestock farming in the areas they settled

  • They increased human population in the areas they settled
  • Their settlement led to increased rivalry and conflict over land ownership
  • They spread Islamic religion in the areas they settled
  • They intermarried with the communities they came into contact with e.g the coastal Bantu and the Samburu.
  • A new cultural group – the Cushites – was introduced in Kenya
  • They established trading contact with the communities they came into contact with e.g they sold milk and butter to the Bantus in exchange for grains.
  • They attacked the eastern Bantu at shungwaya thereby forcing them to move to their present homeland.
  • They introduced new cultural practices e.g circumcision to the Bantus
  • They acquired the art of iron working and mixed farming from the Bantus.

5 points x 2 marks = (10 marks)


  1. (a) – The Portuguese wanted to spread Christianity at the coast
  • To control the Indian Ocean trade
  • To establish ports along the coast that could facilitate their naval and commercial activities in the far East
  • They wanted to control the Kenyan coast to prevent other people e.g Egyptians and Turks from doing so. 3 x 1 = (3marks)


(b)    –   Some coastal people revolted against the Portuguese in order to regain their independence.

  • Their harsh rule compelled the coastal people to rebel against them
  • Most of the Portuguese officials at the coast were corrupt hence they embezzled revenue thereby making it difficult for Portugal to sustain her rule at the coast.
  • Decline of Indian ocean trade which forced Portugal to lose interest in her coastal possessions
  • Their coastal settlements were attacked by the Zimba terrorists which made life at the coast unbearable to the Portuguese
  • The long distance between the coast and Portugal made it difficult for Portuguese officials at the coast to receive reinforcement from Portugal I time.
  • Portuguese officials were attacked by the tropical diseases e.g malaria thereby discouraging those who survived to remain.
  • Their commercial monopoly in the Indian ocean was challenged by the rival European powers, namely the Dutch and the British.
  • Their coastal settlements were frequently attacked by the Turks and Oman Arabs who had arrived in the scene to rescue their fellow Muslims.

6 x 2 = 12marks


  1. (a) –Some communities resisted in order to protect their independence
  • Some communities underestimated the military strength of the British
  • To protect their land.
  • Some had strong economic base to sustain their resistance e.g the Nandi.
  • Some like the Abagusii and the Turkana were encouraged to resist by their religious leaders who convinced them that they would receive supernatural protection against the British.
  • Some communities e.g the Swahili and the Mazrui Arabs were against the imposition of unpopular leaders by the British.
  • Some were against forced labour
  • Others like the Kamba and the Taita were opposing the colonial policy of destocking.

7 x 1 = 7 marks


(b) –     The resistance brought war between some African communities e.g the Nandi and the British.

  • The resultant wars led to the loss of life and property
  • The British confiscated crops and livestock from the resisting communities
  • Wars of resistance led to widespread fear and insecurity in some of the affected areas.
  • Productive economic activities e.g farming and trade were disrupted in some of the areas that were affected by wars of resistance.
  • In most cases the resisting communities lost land to the British
  • Resistance wars proved to the British that Africans were ready to die in defence of their independence
  • Resistance promoted unity between Africans of a particular community against alien rule.
  • The resistance laid the foundation for future African Nationalism in Kenya.

8 x 1 = 8 marks


  1. (a) –Some Africans migrated in search of wage employment in the urban centres
  • Some were attracted by the high standard of living in the urban centres e.g electricity and piped water.
  • Some moved to the urban centres to escape conscription for labour which was needed in the European farms
  • Some were escaping taxation in the rural areas
  • Others moved to the urban centres due to the loss of land in their rural areas.
  • Some moved to the urban centres in search of western education
  • Some moved to establish small scale business enterprises.

5 x 1 = (5marks)


(b) – Urbanization led to overcrowding in the African residential areas which encouraged the

development of slums.

  • urbanization facilitated the interaction of people from different ethnic backgrounds.
  • The difficult urban life forced many people to engage in crime and other antisocial behaviours such as prostitution as a means of survival.
  • Rural areas lost their active part of labour force thereby disrupting agricultural activities in the affected areas.
  • Urban centres attracted industrial entrepreneurs who invested their capital in the centres thereby creating job opportunities.
  • Led to congestion in African living quarters which lowered the quality of sanitary conditions. This led to high incidence of contagious diseases like cholera in some of the affected areas.
  • Availability of jobs in the urban centres led to the emergence of a class of people who earned their living through wage employment.
  • Led to the migration of people from the rural areas to the urban centres.
  • The influx of people into the urban centres interfered with socio-cultural set up in the rural areas. For instance women increasingly took some roles hitherto held by men.
  • Led to the co-existence of different ethnic groups which promoted national integration/unity
  • Urbanization interfered with some traditional social institutions e.g the family whose role was undermined due to the separation of husband and wife.
  • Led to the formation of social welfare organizations to cater for the interests of Africans living in the towns. The organizations laid the foundation for African nationalism in the country.
  • Urbanization led to the popularization of sports and sporting activities e.g football and athletics among the urban dwellers.

10 x 1 = 10 marks



  1. (a) –National integration enables Kenyans of different ethnic and racial backgrounds to live together in peace .
  • It enables Kenyans to solve national problems like drought and famine as one people.
  • It enables Kenyans to jointly participate in the cultural activities like games and sports.
  • It promotes political stability in the country.
  • It creates a sense of security among Kenyans
  • It enables people to mix freely in place of work and educational institutions.
  • Enhances nationalism /patriotism
  • Encourages foreigners e.g tourists to visit our country.
  • Promotes foreign investments in the country

5 x 1 = (5marks)


(b)  –    Existence of different ethnic groups in the country tends to encourage tribalism in the allocation

of national resources. This works against national unity.

  • Political differences especially with the introduction of multi –party democracy in 1991
  • Religious differences. These have tended to divide Kenyans along religious lines
  • Corrupt practices e.g Nepotism and mismanagement of different resources by those in key positions in the government.
  • Economic disparities at both the individual and regional levels have tended to undermine the governments efforts to promote national unity in the country /government’s.
  • International propaganda against the country which tends to gain support among some Kenyans.
  • Poorly developed transport facilities in some parts of the country. This makes it rather difficult for people in such regions to interract with other Kenyans.
  • Formation of tribal associations such as Gema and soccer clubs that are tribally based e.g. Abaluhya F.C.
  • Insecurity in some areas due to banditry. This discourages other Kenyans from visiting such insecure areas thereby undermining efforts to promote national integration.
  • Tribal clashes as did happen in 1991/1992 and 1997.

5 x 2 = 10 marks


  1. (a) – The Attorney General (A.G) is the chief legal adviser to the government.
  • G is the chief state prosecuter.
  • G interprets the laws of Kenya
  • G drafts the government bills.
  • The A.G serves as the an ex- officio member of the parliament.
  • The A.G has the responsibility of presenting a drafted bill to parliament for consideration and debate. 5 x 1 = ( 5 marks)


(b) –    The bill is introduced in the parliament by Attorney General or the minister under whose

portfolio the matter of the bill falls. This stage is the first reading.

  • The bill goes to the second reading . It is debated by the members of the parliament. (MPs)
  • The bill moves to the third stage (committee stage). The bill is improved by a committee selected by the Parliament. This is done by incorporating in the bill suggestions made during the second reading.
  • The bill moves to the fourth stage (report stage), Whereby it is taken back to the parliament. This is in order for the MPs to be satisfied that suggestions/ recommendations made during the second reading have been taken into account.
  • The bill then passes to the third reading. At this stage it is debated further by the MPs and any necessary amendments
  • The bill is then passed to the president for assent after which it becomes a law or an Act of parliament.
  • After the presidential assent the new law is published in the Kenya Gazette for public knowledge and awareness.

5 x 2 = (10 marks)


  1. (a) – The Public Service Commission (P S C) is charged with the responsibility of appointing,

promoting and disciplining civil servants in Kenya.

  • P S C formulates code of conduct for the civil servants in Kenya
  • P S C facilitates fairness in the civil service with regards to promotions, demotions and dismissal of civil servants in Kenya.
  • Advertising jobs/ vacancies in the civil service both in the local dailies and the Kenya gazette.
  • Delegating authority to the heads of department to appoint junior civil servants.

5 x 1 = 5 marks





  • – Civil servants facilitate the implementation of government policies / programs in Kenya.
  • They interpret government policies to the people through public barazas
  • Advise minister on policy matters.
  • They keep/ maintain government records
  • They participate in the drawing and preparations of the district and national budget.
  • They maintain law and order
  • They help in collecting the government revenue
  • Civil servants e.g doctors and teachers give direct services to the people.

5 x 2 = (10 marks)       







  1. – Archeology
  • Botany/Zoology
  • Geology
  • Rock paintings / engravings

2 x 1 mark each = (2marks)


  1. – Presence of fertile soils / silt along rivers Tigris and Euphrates
  • Availability of water for irrigation
  • Existence of indigenous crops e.g barley and wheat / indigenous.
  • Invention of farming methods by the Sumerians e.g building banks to prevent flooding of farmland and the Shadoof method of irrigation.
  • Invention and use of farming tools e.g Ox-drawn plough.
  • Construction and use of food storage facilities.

2 x 1 each = (2marks)


  1. – Iron
  • Bronze
  • Copper

2 x 1 = (2mks)


  1. – Carries less bulky goods in comparison with railway, water and air transport
  • Cannot carry goods beyond the land into the sea.
  • Frequency / rate of road related accidents is higher than those caused by air, railway and water transports.

2 x 1 = (2marks)


  1. – Farms were mechanised.
  • Fallows were abolished.
  • Animal breeding was introduced
  • Fencing / enclosing / hedging of plots / farms
  • Use of manure / fertilizers in the farms
  • Crop rotation
  • Reclaiming of waste land.

2 x 1 = (2marks)


  1. – Low purchasing power among the citizens
  • Low level of technological knowhow
  • Lack of capital / adequate funds to invest in the industrial sector.
  • Poorly developed transport and communication system
  • Competition from developed countries
  • Poor economic policies
  • Neo – Colonialism.

2 x 1 = (2marks)


  1. – Cinema
  • Film
  • Television 2 x 1 = ( 2 marks)


  1. – Gold
  • Slaves
  • Ivory
  • Kola nuts
  • Animal skins
  • Ostrich feathers
  • Pepper 2 x 1 = ( 2 marks)


  1. – Belief in one God
  • Belief in the existence of angels
  • Belief in prophets
  • Belief in life after death

2 x 1 = ( 2 marks)


  1. – European colonial powers possessed superior weapons 1mark


  1. – To preserve their independence 1 mark


  1. – Assimilation
  • Association 2 x 1 = ( 2mks)
  1. – Senate
  • National Assembly

2 x 1 = ( 2marks)


  1. – To promote world peace
  • To promote economic development of the member states
  • To promote the rights of the individual
  • To promote international trade


  • To fight against colonial administration
  • To promote development .

2 x 1 = ( 2mks)




  1. (a) – The forelimbs / hands were freed for other useful activities e.g making tools.
  • Man’s mobility improved
  • Man’s ability to hunt improved
  • Man acquired an upright posture thereby improving his ability to detect his enemies
  • Man’s ability to gather fruits and vegetables improved.

3 x 1 = ( 3mks)


(b) – The new stone age people made microlithic tools e.g fishing harpoons and bone needles

  • They made weapons e.g bows and arrows
  • They practiced basketry and pottery
  • They made clothes / garments using animal skins
  • They made red Ochre for body decoration
  • They traded with their neighbours
  • They domesticated crops
  • Practiced fishing
  • Making utensils e.g. stone bowls

6 x 2 marks each = (12 marks)




  1. (a) – Smelting iron
  • Heating water for industrial and domestic use
  • Providing warmth in the homes
  • As cooking fuel in the homes
  • Was used as fuel for driving vehicles, locomotives and ships
  • Providing lights in houses and factories.

5 x 1 = ( 5 marks)


(b) – Availability of skilled labour force

  • Existence of cottage industries which provided a base for industrial development
  • The country had a large supply of industrial energy e.g. coal
  • The country had a large population which offered a steady market for her manufactured goods.
  • The country had a large number of colonies which provided a ready external market for her manufactured goods
  • Availability of iron ore for heavy industries
  • Availability of a large pool of unskilled labor force
  • Existence of rich entrepreneurs who were willing to invest in industries.
  • The country had enjoyed a long period of political stability.
  • Agrarian Revolution increased food for industrial workers and raw materials for industries.
  • Availability of a well developed transport and communication network e.g. canals and railways.
  • Scientific /technological inventions led to the improvement and expansions of industries in Britain.
  • The country’s policy of promoting free trade encouraged industrialization .
  • The country had a large navy which protected her merchants from foreign competition
  • Existence of banks and insurance systems gave financial assistance and security to the industrialists. 10 x 1  =   (10 marks)


  1. (a) – Missionary work of the apostles e.g. Peter and Paul who established early churches in

Southern  Europe.

  • Missionary work of the early Christian converts.
  • Persecution of Christians. Due to the fear of persecution in the roman empire, many Christian converts fled to different parts of Southern Europe thereby spreading Christianity in the process.
  • Emperor Constantine’s support for Christianity, which encouraged the spread of Christian faith in the Roman empire.
  • Being a new religion, some people accepted it out of curiosity to understand it.
  • Peace and security in the Roman empire encouraged the spread of Christianity in Southern Europe.
  • Existence of roads in the Roman empire facilitated the movement of Christian missionaries in the empire.
  • Existence of common languages for communication e.g. Latin and Greek.

5 x 1 = (5 marks)


(b) –   Translation of the bible into many languages in Europe. Hence the Bible became accessible to

many  people thereby giving them a chance to criticise it.

  • Corruption among the clergy. For instance some of the clergy bribed their way to senior positions. Due to such malpractices many people lost confidence in the Catholic church.
  • Life of luxury of the clergy. For example some Catholic priests and the pope lived in the Palaces, where they were served by many servants and had a lot of wealth. This became a centre of controversy and gradually led to the formation of Protestant churches.
  • Selling of indulgences. The tradition of the church held that those who had sinned perform an act of self denial in order to be forgiven. However the catholic church began to sell letters of indulgences (pardon) to the rich people. Hence some rich people became habitual sinners thereby creating room for criticism against the church.
  • Development of printing press. This development made it possible to pinpoint and subsequently spread the weaknesses of the Roman Catholic church thereby paving way for the rise of the Protestant church.
  • The unwillingness of the church to accommodate the views of reformists such as Martin Luther.
  • Absolute power of the pope. The pope, the reformists argued had a lot of power over religious matters thereby denying people the right to act independently. This paved the way for the rise of the Protestant churches.
  • Growth of nationalism in Europe. The rise of nationalism in different parts of Europe disillusioned people in different parts of Europe who began to question their answerability to Rome. Hence they expressed the need to be free from the pope in matters related to marriage, divorce, wills and trying of the clergy.
  • Excessive wealth of church. The church had become too rich for instance, it owned large tracks of land and this attracted envy and criticism both from the kings and the rulers.
  • Immoral practices of the clergy. For instance some kept mistresses, thereby contravening the rule of celibacy. This led to increased criticism towards the church leadership.
  • Challenge of some of the doctrines and ceremonies of the church. For example, the reformists questioned the practice of addressing prayers and confessions through priests rather than to God directly. 5 x 2 = ( 10 marks)


  1. (a) – Rise of anti – slavery movement in Europe towards the end of the eighteenth century. The

movement emphasized on the equality of all men irrespective of colour or creed. Gradually,

the  movement gained support and  thus played an important role towards the abolition of

slave trade.

  • The spread of Christianity in Africa in the nineteenth century. Christian missionaries argued that their work in Africa was being interfered with by slave merchants. Hence they pressed their mother countries e.g. Britain to legally abolish slave trade.
  • The industrial revolution. Industralists in Europe needed raw materials for their industries. Hence they influenced their governments to outlaw slave trade in Africa in order to facilitate the exploitation of raw materials in the continent.
  • The influence of economists in both Europe and America. The economists argued that slave labor was less productive than free labor. This argument influenced governments in Europe to legally abolish the trade.
  • The need for markets for manufactured goods. Since slave trade was insecure to human life and property, owners of industries pressed their governments to abolish the trade. This was in order to get a conducive atmosphere to market their finished products.
  • The independence of the United States of America (USA) from Britain in 1776. Since Britain relied on slave labor to exploit her American colonies, the independence of USA meant that they were no longer useful to Britain. This motivated Britain to enact anti-slave trade laws that facilitated the abolition of slave trade.
  • The American civil war ( 1861- 1865) between the Northern states and the slave owning states in the south. The defeat of the slave owning states led to the abolition of slavery in the USA.

5 x 1 =  ( 5 marks)


(b) –    Many areas were de-populated due to the slave raiding activities .

  • Led to the introduction of firearms in West Africa which caused inter tribal wars, fear and insecurity.
  • West Africa lost a large number of young productive people thereby undermining the economic development of the region
  • Led to the importation of manufactured goods such as iron-ware and cotton clothes. This led to the decline of indigenous industries in some areas.
  • Chiefs changed their rle in some areas. For example, they ceased to be the custodian of their people, as they began to sell them to the slave dealers.
  • It stimulated the rise of states in the region e.g. Fante, Asante, and Dahomey due to the acquisition of firearms which they used to expand their territories through the conquest.
  • It led to the rise of the powerful class of merchants e.g. Jaja of Opobo. Some of the merchants became political leaders.
  • It led to the creation of new states in West Africa, namely Liberia and Sierra Leone which comprised of freed slaves from America
  • The trade somewhat contributed to the decline of Trans –Saharan trade since, some West African merchants shifted their commercial activities to the West African coast.
  • As a result of Trans – Atlantic trade Europeans developed some interest in West Africa. Gradually this interest led to the colonisation of West Africa by European powers in the nineteenth century.
  • Since slave trading activities had weakened the African communities in the region , they were unable to resist the imposition of colonial rule in west Africa .
  • The trade stimulated the development of urban centres in the region e.g. Lagos.
  • It led to the rise of Mulatto population along the coast of West Africa due to the intermarriages between Africans and Europeans. 5 x 2 = ( 10 marks)



  1. (a) – The Buganda grew a variety of crops e.g. millet, sorghum and bananas.
  • They kept cattle and goats
  • They manufactured farm implements e.g iron hoes.
  • They bark clothes.
  • They mined salt
  • The Buganda made / build canoes
  • They practiced fishing on the shoes of lake Victoria and in the numerous rivers that cris-crossed their country.
  • They traded with their neighbors e.g. the Bunyoro and the coastal Swahili and the Arab merchants

5 x 1 = ( 5 marks)


(b) – Buganda Kingdom was a centralised monarchy that was headed by a king / Kabaka.

  • The office of the Kabaka was hereditary.
  • Kabaka was assisted by a number of officials to administer the Kingdom. These included the prime minister (Katikiirio), the senior chief (Mugema), chief justice (Omulamuzi) and the treasurer (Omuwanika).
  • The kingdom had an advisory council (Lukiiko) or parliament which made laws for the kingdom in addition to advising the Kabaka.
  • Kabaka had unlimited powers. For instance he was the overall head of political and judicial matters, commander in chief of the armed forces and could fire senior government officials at will
  • For ease of administration, the kingdom was divided into administrative units called Sazas which were in turn sub divided into sub counties (Gombololas), these were headed by chiefs and lesser chiefs respectively.
  • Both Saza and Gombolola chiefs had the responsibility of collecting taxes and maintaining law and order in their respective jurisdictions.

5 x 2 =  ( 10 marks).


  1. (a) – Apartheid laws denied Africans right to form political parties.
  • Africans were denied freedom of movement.
  • Africans were given low quality education
  • Africans were denied freedom of speech
  • Africans were given low quality medical and housing facilities.
  • Africans were compelled to use different roads and hotels from those that were used by whites.
  • Africans were confined in the black homelands / Bantustans.

5 x 1 = ( 5 marks )


(b) – African nationalists in South Africa lacked adequate funds to finance their nationalists activities.

  • They were affected by political assassination of their leaders e.g. Steve Biko – 1977
  • Banning of political parties, for instance ANC and PAC were outlawed in 1961.
  • Frequent harassment of the nationalist leaders
  • Jailing of the nationalists leaders e.g. following the infamous Rivona trial of 1964, Nelson Mandela and his co- accused nationalists namely, Walter Silulu and Govan Mbeki were detained.
  • The African nationalists lacked a well trained army to effectively challenge the apartheid regime.
  • Disunity among the nationalists leaders e.g. PAC splintered from the ANC in 1959.
  • Opposition from the civilian white population.
  • The presence of Portuguese in Angola and Mozambique since they were sympathetic to the apartheid government. They repatriated black nationalists from South Africa who had taken refuge in Angola and Mozambique.
  • Banning of publications that were sympathetic to the nationalists. For instance following the 1963 Undesirable Publications Act, publications that contradicted apartheid policies such as Thomas Hardy’s novel – The Return of the Native- were banned.
  • The 1959 Bantustan policy which divided the black people along ethnic lines.
  • The government used money to employ black informers who gave information to the government that was detrimental to the nationalist struggle.

5 x 2 = ( 10 marks)


  1. (a) – Economic community of West Africans States ( ECOWAS) was formed to promote economic independence of the member states.
  • To promote economic cooperation among West African states in such fields as trade and agriculture.
  • To promote unity and solidarity among member states
  • Promote cultural interractions among member states.
  • To facilitate movement of people among the member states.
  • Create customs union in the region
  • Promote industrial movement among the member states.
  • Promote peace in the region
  • Set up a fund that would finance viable economic projects among member states.
  • x 1  =  (5 mks)


(b) – Personal differences among leaders which makes it difficult for some of them to come together.

  • Existence of national interest among member states which override continental commitment.
  • Lack of funds to implement OAU activities since some of members fail to remit their subscriptions regularly.
  • Lack of an army to enforce OAU decisions e.g. border conflicts between member states.
  • External interference by foreign powers in some of its activities.
  • Divided loyalty – some member states countries belong to other organizations e.g. commonwealth.
  • Political instability in the continent makes it difficult for the OAU to operate effectively.
  • Some member countries are still attached to their former colonial masters, thereby undermining their commitment to the organization.
  • Existence of basic problems within member states which require immediate attention e.g. famine, drought and diseases. This tends to divert commitment to the QAU among the affected states.
  • Ideological / political differences among member states.
  • Dispute among member states.

05  x  2   = ( 10 marks)

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