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502 - GERMAN SYLLABUS GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF GERMAN LANGUAGE IN KENYAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS The learner's language skills should be developed to a level that enables him/her to comprehend simple spoken German, take part in a basic conversation with a native speaker, read simple authentic texts with understanding and communicate in simple written German. By the end of the course the learner should be able to: 1. communicate through speaking and writing; 2. express his/her intentions adequately and appropriately in specific communicative situations. These communicative abilities can be applied in monologic, dialogic and polylogic encounters with German-speakers; such as: a. individual and class-correspondence with German-speakers b. basic mediating and interpreting processes c. real-life conversation in German-speaking countries d. simple presentations and discussions, contrasting for instance Kenya and Germany; 3. appreciate closer cultural, political and economic links between Kenya and the German- speaking countries; 4. show creative use of the language; 5. display basic standard German necessary for further studies of the language in institutions of higher learning; 6. demonstrate basic communicative skills; 7. read and listen to authentic oral and written material in German; 8. show understanding of the German way of life and thus enhance the understanding and appreciation of the learner‟s own culture; 9. show appreciation of the German culture, its values and views with respect and tolerance; 10. show appreciation of such benefits of traveling as broadening one‟s horizons and varying one‟s outlook; 11. develop critical and rational thinking on his/her environment; 12. display a responsible attitude and behaviour with regard to life, nature and its conservation; 13. develop a future-oriented outlook towards industrial and technological development of the nation; 14. develop social skills; 15. develop skills and strategies to locate and retrieve information from print and electronic media on subject-relevant topics; 16. demonstrate knowledge of the implications of pertinent national and global topical issues at the individual and societal levels; 17. appreciate the importance of global peace through the understanding and appreciation of other people‟s cultures. THE FOUR LANGUAGE SKILLS 1. Listening Comprehension Listening is an integral part of communication and the understanding of what is heard forms the basis of the resultant response. Its significance in academic and general life cannot therefore be over-emphasized. Listening comprehension entails detailed, extensive and selective listening either singly or in combination By the end of the course, the learner should be able to: a) display a detailed understanding of questions, instructions and statements and respond accordingly. b) display a detailed and extensive understanding of fictional and non-fictional narrated or recorded listening texts. c) display an understanding of prosodic elements and interpret the intentions and the emotional state of the speaker in different simply-structured communicative situations, and develop the ability to decode the emotional state of the speakers.2. Speaking Speech production is the most widespread means of communication between people of the same language system. Lack of accuracy in expression can lead to misunderstanding; therefore all aspects of speech production need special attention for the learner of a foreign language. By the end of the course, the learner should be able to: a) read out - with correct pronunciation, clearly and fluently - unknown texts with new words and word combinations; b) make and respond to requests; c) issue and follow instructions; d) formulate and ask questions on written texts and give answers based on the texts; e) use and respond appropriately to prosodic elements and some few stylistic devices; f) formulate observations and rules on linguistic structures and their functions; g) engage in role plays on conflict resolution; h) play out situations which call for an interpreter; i) present talks about themselves and their immediate environment; j) engage in guided discussions on topics taken from the Kenyan socio-cultural background. k) present prepared short talks on topics within the Kenyan background and express opinions on some aspects of the Kenyan reality; l) engage in discussions on similar or contrasting socio-cultural aspects in Kenya and Germany; m) present prepared free talks on topics from the Kenyan and German realities within a given time limit; n) sing songs or recite texts, e.g. poems, with basically familiar linguistic elements and present them with appropriate gestures; o) present texts, e.g. short plays, with predominantly familiar linguistic elements, and perform these appropriately; p) extract simple information from maps on geographical and political features of Germany, Austria and Switzerland; q) evaluate some similarities and differences between Kenyan and German geographical and political features e.g. climate, seasons, federal states; r) put pictures in sequence and verbalise the content with the help of given expressions revealing a plot, characters and settings. Reading Comprehension Reading enhances retrieval of information from different types of printed media. This makes reading an indispensable skill for effective functioning in the modern world. By the end of the course, the learner should be able to: a) read aloud texts with correct pronunciation and intonation; b) carry out skimming and scanning strategies in texts; c) display a detailed and extensive understanding of texts, i.e. topical or narrative, descriptive and argumentative texts, chosen from within or without the learners' cultural background with some unknown words whose meaning can be inferred from the context; d) display a fine understanding of written questions, instructions and explanations, e.g. in a questionnaire for an au-pair job application, on a German visa application form etc. e) display an understanding of linguistic terminology; f) utilise reading skills to support listening comprehension (through the use of worksheets); g) deduce the meaning of new words in a text e.g. narratives; h) recognise the structure of German texts through the structural and linguistic signals learnt; i.e. paragraphs, reference words, additional cohesives, connectors, and transitional devices. Writing Writing is an expressive language skill that requires a high degree of organisation. It affects to a large extent our way of thinking and of acquiring knowledge and is a cornerstone of academic success. This skill is required by the learner in order to express his/her own ideas in written form. By the end of the course, the learner should be able to: a) write unknown German graphemes and typical German letter combinations, e.g. "ß","sch", "ö" ; b) write answers to questions on texts or topics; c) complete open ended fictional texts directed by questions or other guidelines e.g. pictures; d) fill in a detailed questionnaire, e.g. an application form for an au-pair job (functional writing); e) utilise the structural and linguistic devices e.g. paragraphs, connectors for main and subordinate clauses, transitional devices and reference words for own creative writing; f) express in writing personal position/stand and judgement on topical issues; g) transform texts by changing the perspective (tense, subjects, location), e.g. from a program of events to an invitation, or from a fairy tale to a skit; h) write openings or endings to short fictional and non-fictional texts; i) plan, organise and write texts on opinions/ conflicts/contrasting aspects of the Kenyan and German realities using the writing skills developed throughout the course (formal, informal letters, articles for a school magazine); j) write short simply-structured more creative texts directed by questions or stimulated by pictures e.g. long dialogues, short narrative and descriptive texts on own experiences, informal letters, formal letters e.t.c. Content and intercultural topics The topics to be covered in the learning of German from Form 1 to Form 4 are - greeting friends and adults - making contacts, introducing oneself and others - school/school items - family life - friends - hobbies, leisure activities - likes and dislikes - career wishes - alphabet - cardinal numbers - food and shopping - telling time - daily (school) routine - describing rooms and places - holiday activities - ordinal numbers - health and health conditions -...