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Physical Education, PE, Notes

Physical Education Revision Guide

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

This is a phase of general education system that aims through physical activities/experiences such as games, dances, athletics and gymnastics e.t.c to the growth and development of an individual.

Qualities of a good P.E. TEACHER

Should posses the following components of physical fitness:

  • Endurance
  • Speed – Co-ordination
  • Flexibility – Power
  • Strength – Reaction time
  • Agility – Balance
  • Should be knowledgeable with the subject
  • Should be cheerful
  • Should be confident
  • Should be sympathetic
  • Should be understanding
  • Should have good communication skills
  • Should be approachable
  • Should be organized

Duties/responsibilities of a P.E teacher

  • Instructor – Team Manager/Chaperon
  • Counselor – Demonstrator
  • Dietician – Administrator
  • Coach – First aider
  • Trainer – Referee/umpire
  • Evaluator – Disciplinarian

Problems encountered when teaching P.E

  1. Lack of role models
  2. Lack of resource materials e.g. books
  3. Lack of proper facilities e.g. fields, gymnasiums
  4. Lack of equipment e.g. balls
  5. Lack of proper game uniforms
  6. Competition from examinable subjects
  7. Negative attitude by pupils, fellow teachers and parents
  8. Conflict with religion
  9. Conflict with tradition and cultural beliefs

Sources of information to a P.E teacher

  •  Reading from newspapers, books and other sports journals
  •  Listening to radio programs
  • Viewing T.V and video cassettes
  • Officiating in sports
  • Active participation in sports
  • Coaching and training
  • Active and intellectual spectating
  • Participating in sports debates or lectures.

Purpose of P.E to early man

For physical fitness to enable them during hunting
and gathering
For recreation/entertainment
For surviving through gathering and hunting
expeditions
For defence mechanism against wild animals and
enemies
Settling disputes among clans
Choosing for marriage partners
For communication purposes.
Specific objectives of P.E
Physical fitness
Social development
Emotional development
Movement skills development
Aesthetic/beauty development
Mental/intellectual development.
How P.E tries to meet national goals of
education
1. National unity
a) Through national sporting competition
b) P.E curriculum in schools, colleges and
universities is the same.
c) Use of national anthem during sports
2. National development
a) P.E provides job opportunities
b) Income through cash rewards, trophies
acquired by players
c) Development of sporting industries to
provide sporting equipment for the
growing demand.
d) Fitness, Strength and health from
regular exercise leads to increased out
put.
e) Acquisition of skills, expertise and
personal qualities so vital for growing
economy.
3. Social equality
a) Rules encourage social relationship
which equal opportunity for all.
4. Respect for and development of cultural
heritage.
a) Through cultural dance and games
competition
b) Interaction with international culture
1
5. International consciousness
a) Through international sports e.g. all
African games
b) Hosting games in all countries
c) Drawing officials from all countries
6. Individual fulfilment
a) Opportunities for development of
physical talents.
b) Personal income
c) Personal esteem from successful
performance
Purpose of P.E. to the nation
 Enables people to perform skilful and
efficient movement through use of physical
and mental power.
 People use movement as a means of
communication, expression etc
 People use leisure time well in creating,
performing and appreciating physical
activities e.g. games, dance e.t.c
 Promotion, preservation and appreciation
of national and international culture.
 Self discipline through rules and regulation
 Learning and participating in P.E creates
awareness of natural resources and
environment.
 People learn to improvise and use
equipment in various activities.
 Maintenance of high standard of body
health, strength, fitness and general body
development.
OBJECTIVES OF P.E
P.E activities are conducive to growth and
development.
P.E contributes to constructive use of leisure time
P.E provides for leadership
P.E provides opportunity for expression and
creativity.
P.E provides for personality and character
development
P.E provides for neuromuscular skills
P.E develops habit of health and safety
P.E develops mental capabilities and knowledge
P.E has biological, psychological and sociological
function.
P.E provides for cultural development
Playing is an instinctive drive that has educational
potentials.
SPORTS ORGANIZATION
This deal with the way various sporting
activities/competitions is organized. It also
discusses how points are awarded and recorded ,
filling score sheet and arranging how teams are
going to play.
1. A LEAGUE (ROUND ROBIN)
This is a competition where each team will have a
chance to meet every team in the other group
either once or twice. The possible outcome during
league competition is a win, loss or a tie/draw.
Merits
Give satisfaction to the players
A weak team will have a chance to meet a strong
team.
Weak team improves as the league progresses
The winner is clearly determined
Players get a lot of exposure
Provide fair judgement.
Demerits
Take too long to be completed
Very expensive to organize in terms of transport
and accommodation
Require very many officials
Require very many facilities
Require very many equipment
Expose players to very many injuries
Tiresome on the side of players
Very difficult to organize especially the league
table.
Determining number of matches per team to play
T (T-1)
T
T = Number of teams
Minus (-) 1 because a team cannot play against
itself.
Determining the total number of matches in a
league.
T(T-1)
2
T = Number of teams
Minus (-) 1 because a team cannot play against
itself and divide by two (2) because it takes two
teams to play a match.
2. KNOCK OUT
A competition where once a team is defeated, it is
eliminated. The possible outcomes are (i) win
(ii) loss
2
Types of knock out
I. Single elimination
II. Double elimination
III. Consolation elimination
Merits of knock out
Takes short time to complete
Require few officials
Requires less equipment
Requires few facilities
Easy to organize
Has clear climax
Demerits of knock out
Does not give suggestion for the players
Players are not given time to improve on their
skills
Teams are not given chance to realize their
mistakes and correct.
A weak team can eliminate a strong team
The winner is not outly determined
Not the best way of judging a strong team.
A BYE
This is when a team is allowed to proceed to the
next stage without touching or playing the ball
Rules for a bye
a) Given during preliminary stages of competition
b) Give the bye when the teams cannot be paired
“through” to avoid odd numbers at the last stage.
Entering league score sheet
Egoji Vs.
Kigari 2:3
Egoji Vs
Meru 3:3
Egoji Vs
Rubate 3:2
Egoji Vs
Augustine 4:2
Kigari Vs
Meru 3:3
Kigari Vs
Rubate 1:1
Kigari Vs
Augustine 3:2
Meru Vs
Rubate 2:2
Rubate Vs
Augustine 0:1
Meru Vs Augustine 1:
How to give a bye
a) By considering the previous performance
b) By random draw
When giving byes pick on a magic number, which
is slightly higher than the number of teams. Magic
numbers include: 2,4,8,16,32,64,128 e.t.c
3. LEAGUE CUM KNOCK OUT
Takes the advantage of both league and knock out.
Neither too short nor too long
Provide a well – matched competition
Doesn’t exclude a team from a competition after a
game.
Organization of league cum Knock out
Teams are divided in to pools where each team is
expected to play all others in the same pool.
(Preliminary round league).
Winners meet runners up in the next pool.
After the preliminary round the competition
changes to knockout.
Only the winners and runners up from each group
proceed to quarterfinals.
Merits
Correct the mistakes of league and knock out
Has very clear climax of competition
Saves time
Allows the defending champion to participate
Problem of an even do not occur
Neither too long nor too short
No team plays greater or minimal game than the
other
P – Matches played
W- Matches won
D – Matches drawn
L – Matches lost
F – Goals scored by the team
A – Goals the team was scored
Pts – Points
Ps – Position
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Enter the above information in a score sheet
Teams Egoji Kigari Meru Augustine Rubate P W D L F A
Pts
Ps
Egoji 2:3 3:3 4:2 3:2 4 2 1 1 12 10 7 2
Kigari 3:2 3:3 3:2 1:1 4 2 2 0 10 8 8 1
Meru 3:3 3:3 1:0 2:2 4 1 3 0 9 8 6 3
Augst 2:4 2:3 1:0 1:0 4 1 0 3 5 8 3 4
Rubate 1:3 1:1 2:2 0:1 4 0 2 2 4 7 2 5
ROUNDERS
B 2nd Post
13m 13m

DF
2.5m DF
2.5m
3
rd Post Bowlers
Umpire 1ST Post
B
7m
13m
7.5m
2m
B 13m
4
th Post
XXXXXXX
Waiting batsmen
B Substitute runner
Backstop

4
Batting
Square X
Bowling
Square B
This is a game played by 2 teams each having 9
player and 2 substitutes
The two teams are:
I. Bowling/fielding/out team:
Consists of:
a) Backstop; position at the back of the bating
square to collect backward hit
b) Bowler in bowling square
c) Bowlers at each post (4)
d) Deep fielders (3)
II. Batting/Inning team
Members are known as batsmen. One batman is
inside the bating square and the rest line up next to
the bating square.
Duration of game:
This is known as inning and normally given to
batting team. Should not take more than 15
minutes.
Basic skills
– Passing – Catching
– Bowling – Running
– Stumping – Batting
Basic equipment
Rounders ball
Rounders bat
4post (not > 1.5m high).
Officials
Batsman umpire
Bowlers umpire
Duties
Inspecting facilities and equipment before the start
of the game
Awarding the scores
 Signing score sheet after the game
 Declaring the ball as no ball
 Declares when a batsman is taken out
 Ensuring rules and regulations are
followed.
When a batsman can be taken out:
If a batsman misses a good ball unless he is the
last batsman who is entitled to 3 good balls.
If a batsman overtakes a teammate
If a batsman is found in a post by a teammate
If the ball is grounded in the bowling square when
the batsman is in between the posts.
When the batsman runs inside the track
Failure to touch 4th post on completion
Batsman foot protruding outside batting square.
When the ball is caught in air unless it is no ball
When a batsman obstructs a fielder
When the post a head is stumped with a ball.
NO BALL
This is a ball that cannot be batted due to the
mistake of the bowler.
Ball either too high or too low i.e above the head
and below the knees.
When the ball is outside the batting square
When the feet of the bowler are protruding outside
the bowling square.
When the ball is not thrown in a smooth
continuous motion.
SCORING
1. Full rounder:
Awarded when the batsman hits the ball
successfully in a forward direction and manages to
hit round the track from outside touching the 4th
post before the ball is grounded in the bowling
square.
2. Half rounder:
Awarded in case of a backward hits and the
batsman run in the normal way.
3. Penalty half rounder
a) Awarded incase of 3 consecutive no balls
b) A bowler or fielder obstructs a batsman.
Ha Full rounder –
Why rounder is famous in primary schools:
 Equipment’s cheap to attain
 Skills easy to master
 Rules easy to understand
 Take short time
 Use limited space
 Can be played by all ages
 Can be played by both sexes
 Not tiresome
 Limited chances of injuries
Improving accuracy when batting
 Should have good stance
 Should have good eye contact
 Should have good co-ordination between
the hands and the ball.
 Good reaction time
 Enough power/strength
 Good bowling ball.
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OLYMPIC EDUCATION
Ancient games
The first ancient games were held in 776BC in
Olympia Athens in Greece. The games were
meant to commemorate burial of a prominent
personality and as a way of worship.
The major events were gymnastics and athletics,
which were specifically by the Greeks. It was
done by men only and during night.
The game was held after every four years
(Olympiad) and truce period was maintained.
Amateurism dominated the game. The price give
to the winner was the olive wreath.
Philosophy of olympism
 Was based on;
 Games free from corruption
 Games free from discrimination
 Promote the spirit of brotherhood
Modern Olympic games
The first modern Olympic was held in Athens
Greece in 1896A.D. The games are held after
every four years (Olympiad).
Was revived by a French scholar by the name
Baron Pierre with an intention to unify the whole
world by opening the game to the rest of the
world.
The modern games are hosted by the city and the
city is selected six years before the game.
i) International Olympic Committee (IOC)
This is a world governing body with the
headquarter Geneva in Switzerland.
Former President was Juan Antonic Samaranch
Current President is Jacques Rogge.
Tripartite commission is made up of:
(ii) International sports federation (I.S.F)
I.S.F deals with the laws of the game and
officiating e.g IAAF (Atheletics), FIFA (Football)
FIVB (Volleyball)
(iii) National Olympic Committee (NOC)
Made up of all the countries that are members of
the Olympic committee e.g. National Olympic of
Kenya (NOCK)
(iv) International Olympic Academy (IOA)
Deals with principles and philosophies of Olympic
(Olympism)
(v) Olympic Solidarity (O.S)
Trustee, which handles IOC funds for, sports
development.
Olympic logo
This has five interlaced rings, which represent the
solidarity of five continents e.g.
Red ———————– America
Green ——————– Australia
Yellow —————— Asia
White ——————- Europe
Black ——————- Africans
Opening ceremony
Singing of the Olympic anthem and hosting of
Olympic flag
Putting up Olympic torch flame.
Three gunshots associated with the Olympic motto
– which reads higher, faster and stronger.
Releasing of doves and pigeons.
Order of Olympic games
Year City Country
1968 Mexico America
1972 Munich Germany
1976 Mautical Canada
1980 Moscow Russia
1984 Los Angeles U.S.A
1988 Seoul S. Korea
1992 Barcelona Spain
1996 Atlanta U.S.A
2000 Sydney Australia
2004 Athens Greece
a
Conditions for awarding medals
A competitor must be nationality of a given
country and must have a national flag.
Athletes must pass the drug test.
The result must be verified to find out whether it
was accurate.
Why some countries don’t participate in
Olympic games
If they are not members of International Olympic
Committee (I.O.C)
Lack of finance/funds
Failure to meet the required qualifying standards
Political ideologies e.g. capitalization, socialism,
apartheid e.t.c
Political instability e.g. civil wars
Lack of qualified coaches and trainers
Lack of equipment
Lack of standard facilities
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Similarities between ancient and modern
Olympic games
 Both are held after every 4 years i.e.
Olympic
 In both the games are hosted by cities
 Both propagate the spirit of brotherhood
 In both Olympic flames is put up during
the opening ceremony
 Both emphasize on peace/truce
Difference between ancient and modern
Olympic games
 In ancient the games were held at night
while modern the games are held during
daytime.
 In ancient only men participated while in
modern both sexes participate.
 In ancient winners were awarded olive
wreath while in modern winners are
awarded medals
 In ancient the games were specifically for
the Greeks while in modern the games are
open for all races
 The ancient Olympic games were
dominated by amateurism while in modern
both professionalism and amateurism
dominates the games.
 In ancient only two events were
participated in i.e. athletics and gymnastics
while in modern many games are
participated in.
NETBALL
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
This game was invented in America in 1891.
Originally, the method of playing was similar to
that of basketball. Two baskets were placed at the
end of the gymnasium and two opposing teams
passed the ball to score in the baskets. In 1895
Dr. Tole an American introduced it in England and
the game spread by word of mouth because there
were no printed rules.
Some of the changes that have taken place in the
development of netball include:
a) In 1897 rings were introduced instead of baskets
b) Rules were published for the first time in 1901.
c) In 1924 the netball federation was formed
d) In 1926 all England netball association was
formed in England
e) The game was introduced in Kenya in 1920s by
the missionaries and was mainly played by the
Europeans.
f) In 1968 Kenya netball association was formed
under the chairmanship of British lady who was a
physical education lecture at the Kenyatta College.
g) In 1960 the International Federation of Women
Netball Association was formed and new rules
were published.
Members of the I.F.W.N.A meets after every 8
years to review and change the rules if need arise.
Kenya is a member through the affiliation of
Kenya netball association.
Team size
A team is made up of 12 players i.e. 7 in the court
and 5 substitutes. A game cannot be played if a
team has less that 5 players. If a team is
incomplete they loose the game by default and if
the team refuses to play then they loose the game
by forfeit.
PLAYERS
The seven players include:
1. Goal keeper (G.K)
2. Goal defence (G.D)
3. Wing defence (W.D)
4. Centre (C)
5. Goal shooter (G.S)
6. Goal attack (G.A)
7. Wing attack (W.A)
7
Side line (30 ½ m)
Goal third
WA
WD

Goal area
GK 1
GS 4.9
2
GD
GA
Center third
0.9m

3
Center circle
Goal third
GA
GD
Goal area
5
4 GS
GK

PLAYING AREAS
GK – 1,2 GD – 1,2,3 WD – 2,3 C- 2,3,4
WA – 3,4 GA – 3,4,5 GS – 4,5
Substitution
There is no limit to the number of substitutes a
team can use provided they were all registered at
the beginning of the play. A player comes in and
out as many times as possible and this is referred
to as revolving substitution.
Game duration
In a match:
There are 4 quarters of 15 minutes each with
resting interval of 3 minutes between first and
second quarters and between third and fourth
quarters. There is a resting interval of 15 minutes
during half time.
In tournament:
There are 2 halves of 20 minutes each with a
resting interval of 5 minutes during half time. The
teams change sides at the end of every quarter or
half.
Breaking a tie:
If a tie occurs it is broken by adding an extra
period of 5 minutes. If still occurs similar periods
are added till it is broken.
BASIC EQUIPMENT
1. Ball
Size number 5
Spherical
Circumference 27-28
Weight 400gms – 450gms
Color – white
2. Goal post
3.05m tall (10ft)
Ring diameter 380mm
3. Players equipment
Sports shoe and stockings
Skirts/shorts/bloomers/wrappers
Jersey/T-shirts
Playing bibs.
STARTING THE GAME
Procedure
Umpire tosses a coin for the 2 captains and the
winning captain has two options i.e.
i) Choice of the side
ii) The 1st centre pass
The team starting with centre pass is known as
even team while the other is known as odd team.
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CC
Conditions during centre pass
 The centre with the ball should be within
the centre circle.
 All other players except opponent of the
centre should be in their respective goal
thirds.
 After the umpires whistle, the ball must be
released within 3 seconds.
 The centre pass must be received within
the same third (centre third)
 The centre with the ball must obey the
footwork rule.
 A goal cannot be scored directly from the
centre pass.
Occasions when centre pass are administered
 Start of the game
 After the score
 After the score
 After every quarter or half
 Start of 2nd half
 Start extra time.
NB/ Incase of any infringement during centre
pass, the centre pas is referred to as faulty centre
pass.
CONTROL OF CENTRE PASS
i) When the whistle is blown the centre in
possession of the ball shall play within three
seconds and obey the footwork rule.
ii) The centre pass should be caught or touched by
a member of the attacking team who is
standing/lands within the centre third.
iii) A player who lands with one foot or both feet
simultaneously within the centre third is judged to
have received the ball in that third.
iv) A player who lands with both feet
simultaneously with one foot within the centre
third and the other on goal third is judged to have
received the ball in that goal third.
v) If a member of a team taking the centre pass,
catches the ball in the centre third without crossing
the line, a free pass is a warded the opposing team
to be taken at the goal third close to the point
where the ball crosses the line.
vi) If a member of opposing team touches or
catches the ball on the centre third or goal third,
with a stride along a transverse line, then the
advantage rule is applied.
vii) If a ball from centre pass goes untouched over
the sideline boundary or the centre third, a throw
in is awarded to the opposing team where the ball
crosses the line.
PLAYING THE BALL
A player may:
i) Catch in one or both hands
ii) Gain or regain possession of the ball if it
re-bounces on the goal post.
iii) Bounce the ball to another player
iv) Tip the ball in uncontrollable manner once or
more than once, hit the ball to another player or
catch the ball.
v) Bat the ball once, catch or direct to another
player
vi) Fall while holding the ball but must regain
footing and throw the ball within three seconds.
A player may not.
i) Kick the ball deliberately
ii) Strike the ball with the wrist
iii) Deliberately fall on the ball to get it
iv) Attempt to regain possession of the ball while
lying, sitting or kneeling on the ground
v) Use goal post as a support in recovering the ball
going out the court
vi) Use the goal post as a means of regaining
balance/ any other way or purpose.
LATE ARRIVALS
A late comer can only replace a player who filled
her position only after notifying the umpire.
She takes to the court:
a) After a goal has been scored
b) After stoppage for injuries or illness
c) Immediately following an interval
The penalty for breaking the rule is a free pass to
the opposing team where the infringer is standing
and she leaves the court until the next goal is
scored or next interval.
Stoppages, injuries or illness
When a player is injured or ill a stoppage of up to
3 minutes is allowed from when team manager is
called to decide whether the player is fit to
continue with the play.
Umpire may stop play for emergency related to:
i) Equipment, court interference by
outsiders, weather conditions
ii) Players clothing.
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OFFICIALS
Team officials – Game officials
Coach – Umpire
Team manager – Timekeeper
Captain – Scorer
1. UMPIRE
 They put on costumes distinct from that of
players
 Should have control over the game and
make decisions
 Should officiate according to the rules
 Each umpire should control and give
decisions only in one half of the court
unless appealed to by other umpires for
decision on her behalf.
 The umpire whistle starts and stops the
game after an interval.
 After the players have taken their positions
in the court, the umpire tosses a coin for
the start.
 Each umpire restarts the game after all the
goals scored in the half he or she is
controlling.
 Keeps outside the court except when it is
necessary to enter in to secure a clear view
of a player or to indicate the point of which
the penalty must be taken or to take a toss
up.
 Move along the sideline and behind the
goal line to see play and make decision.
 An umpire may call on an advantage to
indicate an infringement has been observed
and not penalized.
 Not criticize or coach any team when the
game is in progress.
 Check that during the stoppage, injuries,
other players remain in the court and there
is no coaching going on.
 On seeing an infringement blow whistle,
state the infringement and the penalty and
indicate the place on which the penalty is
to be taken.
2. SCORERS
There are two scorers and their duty include:
a) Keep a written record of the scores
together with the record of the centre pass
and the record of all the successful scores
shot.
b) Record each goal as it’s scored unless
notified contrary by the umpire.
c) Call centre pass if applicable to.
d) Notify the umpire immediately if the
incorrect centre pass is given.
3. TIME KEEPERS
Their duties include:
a) Toss off for the choice of goal side or first
centre pass and notify the umpire of the
result.
b) Take note of time during an interval,
stoppage or illness.
c) During the above occasions notify the
umpire and the other captain that they have
changed the positions whether or not
substitute is involved or not.
Over third
a) The ball cannot be thrown over a complete
third without being touched or caught by a
player who is at the time touching or
catching the ball is fully within the third or
lands within that third.
b) The player, who lands first with one foot in
the correct third, is judged to have received
the ball I that third.
c) The player who lands on both feet
simultaneously with one foot within the
correct third and the other one in incorrect
third is penalized.
FOOTWORK RULE
A player may receive a ball with one foot or both
feet grounded or jump to catch and land on one or
both feet and then:
a) Step with one or both feet in one direction, any
number of times pivoting on the landing foot. The
pivoting foot may be lifted but the player must
throw or shoot before grounding.
b) Jump from the landing foot or both feet on the
other foot or either foot but must throw or shoot
the ball before re-grounding foot.
A player in possession of the ball may not:
Drag or slide the landing foot
Hop on either foot
Jump from either both feet unless the ball has been
released before landing.
DEFENCE
This is mounting around of the player who is in
the guard position. Its duty is to capture from the
opponent and bring it up court to start her team’s
attack. She is also supposed to draw the defence
onto herself and then pass the ball to her team
mate in her position.
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Player’s responsibilities in defence against an
opponent include:
Anticipating an opponents moves so as to
discourage him from moving past for a shot near a
goal area.
Discouraging the opponent from reaching the high
percentage scoring area.
Making it difficult for the opponent to pass
accurately.
Making it difficult for the opponent to run fast and
receive a pass or collect a reground.
Types of defence
1. Man to man defence – A player marks her
opponent wherever she goes in the court.
2. Zone defence- court player guards one section
at all times no matter which attacker comes into
the area.
PENALTIES IN NETBALL
These are awarded when infringement occurs i.e.
offences or breaking of rules.
1. THROW IN
This is an act of putting the ball back into play
when the whole ball is out the court.
Occasions when the ball is considered out:
When it touches the ground outside the court.
When the player steps outside the court while
holding the ball.
When the ball comes in contact with a person or
an object outside the court.
Conditions to observe:
Should be thrown at the exact point where it went
out.
Throw at the nearest third.
Release the ball in three seconds.
At least one foot should be close to the line but not
stepping on it.
Footwork rules should be obeyed i.e. the foot
should be in contact with the ground.
Opponents should be 0.9m away from the ball.
A goal cannot be scored directly from the throw
in.
The player cannot pass the ball to herself.
A player should not enter the court before
releasing the ball.
2. TOSS-UP/THROW-UP
This is awarded incase of:
1. Simultaneous infringements – 2 opposing
players committing same offence.
2. Simultaneous offside – when one player
interferes with the ball.
3. When two opposing players claim possession
of the ball – holding the ball at the same time and
struggling for it.
4. Incase of serious injuries or illness (stoppages)
5. When the umpire cannot tell who has
committed the offence.
6. Incase of external interference.
7. Technical problems e.g. ball bursting
Conditions to be observed
1. Two opposing players stand at a distance of 1m
facing each other and their own goal line.
2. Their hands should be straight and alongside
their body.
3. The ball should be tossed at a height not more
than two feet.
4. The shoulder of the shorter player should be
considered when tossing the ball.
5. The players can bat or catch the ball only when
it is coming down.
3. FREE PASS
Awarded incase of infringement occurring within
the court – except with simultaneous offside
Examples of infringement include:
Over third
Offside
Internationally kicking the ball
Repossessing the ball i.e. double catch
Faulty centre passes.
Scoring from outside goal area
Rolling the ball to a team mate.
Conditions to observe
i. The umpire blows the whistle and indicates kind
of infringement.
ii. Opponent should be 0.9m away from
iii. Play the ball after the umpire’s signal within
three seconds.
iv. Obey the footwork rule
v. Any other player allowed playing in that area
can take a free pass.
11
4. PENALTY PASS/PENALTY SHOT
This is awarded incase of:
1. Obstruction – A player defending the ball at a
distance of less that 0.9m.
2. Contacts – Body contacts: charging, stripping,
pushing, holding and blocking e.t.c
– Ball contacts – a player contacting the opponent
with the ball
3. Intimidation – This is when the player uses
threatening gestures against the opponent.
4. Interfering with the goal post – G.K shaking the
goal post when G.S is set to shoot.
SKILLS
A. THROWING
1. Chest Pass
Teaching points
 Both hand at a chest height level
supporting the ball. Thumbs pointing each
other and the rest of the fingers spread
behind the ball, elbows points outwards.
 Pass the ball as you push by the use of both
hands.
 Follow though by a step forward and by
lifting the body weight in the direction of
the throw.
2. Overhead pass
Teaching points
Ball is held in two hands either
i. Directly above the head
ii. Slightly forward of the head
iii. At rear of the head
Ball propelled with a forceful flexing and weight
placed over the front foot.
Teaching points
Used in a congested space to at full defence.
May be passed with one or two hands, grip same
as chest pass.
Ball directed towards the floor either:
i. Just behind the feet of the tight defence
ii. Approximately two thirds of the way between
the sender and receiver.
TYPES OF PASSES
1. One handed straight shoulder pass
Teaching points
 Hands spread evenly behind the ball
 Body turned sideways
 Weigh the body on the back foot.
 Palm cupped and the thumb spread to
support the ball.
 Throwing arm is thrust from the shoulder
with follow through of body weight.
 Both hip and shoulder should rotate to the
side and forward during the throwing.
 A flick of the wrist will give speed to flight
of the ball.
2. One handed high shoulder pass
Teaching points
 Same as straight shoulder pass but:
 Weight should be behind, fingers spread
out behind the ball.
 Throwing arm thrust forward from the
elbow and shoulder.
 Direct the ball in upward direction over the
head of an opponent
 Follow through.
3. Chest pass
Teaching points
 Ball held in hands closer to chest
 Weight behind the foot. (See chest and
bounce pass)
4. Overhead bounce pass
 Same as overhead and bounce pass except
the bounce come from a different angle.
5. Underarm (sling) pass
 Like shovelling
 Flight the ball in wrist height high or lower
and direct.
 Used for short passes
 Ball travels fast
 Follow through.
12
B. CATCHING
1. Two handed catch
Teaching points
Hands firm and stretched towards the ball.
Fingers opened and relaxed
Arms recoiled to pull the hands
The whole arm and body side give the direction of
the flight of the ball so that catch is ‘soft’ and
almost noiseless. If hands and arms are rigid,
fingers can be damaged.
GYMNASTICS
This is a systematized forms of exercise designed
to produce particular effect to the body.
Skilful performance of the basic human movement
e.g walking, rolling, vaulting, springing e.t.c
Qualities of a good gymnast
Should be physically fit
Disciplined
Committed/dedicated
Interested
Knowledgeable/conversant
Willing to learn
Sympathetic
Possessing sportsmanship attributes
Aims of gymnastics
 To exploit human potential talents
 To develop physical fitness for individual
 To make proper use of leisure time
 To make proper use of locally available
materials
 Help to correct body defects e.g. lard Isis,
scoliosis e.t.c.
 To promote emotional development
 To promote sportsmanship spirits e.g.
co-operation, discipline, sharing.
 Improves body system e.g. circulatory,
respiratory, digestive e.t.c
 Helps form career opportunity
 It lays foundation for other sporting
activities.
Problems encountered while teaching gymnastics
Lack of equipment/facilities
Negative attitudes by pupils, parents, fellow
teachers, society e.t.c
 Lack of sufficient time for practice
 Lack of role models in the society.
BRANCHES OF GYMNASTICS
There are three branches of gymnastics. These
include:
1. Traditional/informal
2. Modern/formal
3. Olympic/Acrobatic
1. TRADITIONAL / INFORMAL
This branch deals with the skills as performed by
the gymnast. It is categorized into two:
a) Balance
b) Agilities
a) Balance
This is the ability to hold the body still or
stationery without any movement. It is the state of
body equilibrium.
i) Static/non – locomotor
No movement once the body is balanced
Examples include:
 Head stand
 Hand stand
 Crouch balance
 V balance
 Crab stand
 Elbow plant
 Swan/plane balance
ii) Dynamic/locomotor
In this case once you the balance you can make
some movement.
Examples include:
Crab walk
Tiger/fore arm balance
Hand walking
Counter balance
This is a kind of a balance where an individual
require a partner or group of partners to support.
Examples include:
 Should balance
 Knee balance
 Pyramid
13
Pyramid
This is a grouped balance having a triangular or
colonial shape.
Conditions for a good pyramid
 Should have a strong, broad base and a
sharp apex.
 Should be composed of 16 participants
with varied body sizes, heaviest at the
bottom and lightest at the apex.
 The service of the spotter is highly
required when building and breaking the
pyramid
 Hips and shoulders give the strongest
support when building the pyramid.
 The taller the pyramid the higher the marks
scored.
Pyramids form the climax of the gymnastic
competition.
Gymnastic movements that can be used to
disembark the pyramid are:
 Backward or forward roll
 Headspring or neck spring
 Cat wheel
 Summersaults
b) Agilities
These are fast moving gymnastic activities or
skills that are done with a lot of ease.
Categories of agilities
1. Rolls
 Forward roll
 Dive forward roll
 Tank roll
 Backward roll
 Judo roll
 Side roll
2. Vaults
 This is a movement of going over or
jumping over an obstacle or an object.
 Through vault
 Fence vault
 Astride vault/leap frog
 Side vault
 Overswing vault
 Gate vault
 Thief vault/ window
Progressive stages of performing vaults
 Approach ——- short run
 Take off —– breaking contact with the
ground
 Flight —– being in air
 Landing —- making contact with the
ground
3. Springs
These are movements of turning the body part
from one point to another either in the air or over
an obstacle.
 Headspring
 Neck spring
 Cat spring
 Hand spring
 Arab spring
4. Tumblings
 Cartwheel
 Forward somersault/ flick flack
 Backward somersault/ flack flick
 Arab spring
 Round off
 Up start
2. MODERN / FORMAL GYMNASTICS
This branch deals with the themes of educational
gymnastics and factors of movements
A. Themes of educational gymnastics
i) Weight transfer
This is shifting or transferring of the body weight
from one body part to another.
Examples
Walking – from one leg to the other
Cat wheels – Leg to hand and to other leg
Hoping – from leg to the same.
ii) Resilience
This is the amount of spring, bounce or elasticity
of the body when landing or taking off.
Importance
To avoid body shock thus preventing body
injuries.
To create beauty in the movements
Good landing
Landing with balls of the foot
Land with feet apart
Land on a stable and even ground
Hands stretched out for balance
Knees slightly bend
14
iii) Space awareness
Personal space – space occupied by the body
cylinder.
General space – Unoccupied space where the body
can move.
iv) Balance and counter balance. (Refer to types
of balance – page 13)
v) Twisting and turning:
Turning
This is when the whole body including the feet
moves round as one.
Twisting
This is when at least one part of the body is fixed
on the ground while the remaining parts rotate/
move around.
B. FACTORS OF MOVEMENTS
1. Weight
The body weight determines the quality of the
movement. Can be described as heavy, medium
and light. The heavier the body the clumsy the
movement.
2. Space
(Ref. to themes of education – page 13)
3. Time/flow
Time is used to measure the speed of movement.
Movement can be described as either very fast,
moderate and very slow. Flow of movement can
be described as:
Free flow: Movements that cannot be stopped or
held at one point once they start.
Bound flow: Movements that can be held at one
point once they are start.
Other terms of movements
1) Level:
Can be described as high, medium or low
2) Direction
Can be described as forward, upward, sideways,
Backwards and downwards.
3) Progression
This is how work is build up
4) Movement sequence
This is comparatively complete movement
Made up by combining small short movements
In a sequence manner, e.g.
 Head springs
 Through vaults
 Astride vaults
5) Curling
Body parts being taken or brought to the centre of
the body.
6) Stretching
When the body parts are taken away from the
body centre i.e. legs and hands
7) Symmetrical movement
This is when the corresponding parts of the body
i.e. hand and legs are used to do the same thing at
the same time.
8) Asymmetrical movement
Corresponding parts of the body are not used to do
the same thing at the same time.
SAFETY PRECAUTION WHEN TEACHING
GYMNASTICS
 Ensure adequate and appropriate warm up
before starting the activity.
 Demonstration should be very clear.
 Instructions/explanations should be very
clear.
 Maintain discipline of the highest order.
 Provide adequate space.
 Ensure pupils have appropriate uniform
 Avoid using faulty apparatus
 Proper timing of the activities i.e. avoid
activities when it is extremely too hot or
slippery
 Avoid using faulty facilities e.g. grounds
with stones
 Avoid involving sing pupils
 Activities should be related to pupils’ age
APPARATUS USED IN GYMNASTICS
 The horse
 Bars
 Ropes
 Tables
 Vaulting boxes
 Spring board/take off board
 Chairs and stools
 Old tyres
 The hoops
Adjusting gymnastics competitions
Points to look at:
Entry in the arena. The entry should be in
gymnastic movement or skills.
Teacher and the leaders’ appearance. They should
have uniforms, which looks a bit confident,
knowledgeable e.t.c
Table interpretation.
Continuity and progression i.e. does one part
follow another (sequence) in mount
15
Teacher’s creativity
Improvisation and use of apparatus.
Skill mastery
Timing – for the timing you are given 10 min to
complete.
Exit from arena.
ATHLETICS
16
STRUCTURE OF ATHLETICS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TRACK EVENTS FIELF EVENTS ROAD RACES COMBINE EVENTS OFFICIALS
SPRINTS
MIDDLE
DISTANCE
LONG
DISTANCE
Walk
races
JUMPS
High
Jump
Pole
vault
Throws
Discuss
Shot put
Tripple
jump
Javelin
Harmmer
Marathaon
Cross
Country
Pentathlon
Heptathlon
Decathlon
Marksman
Announcers
Lap scorers
Walk judges
Chairman
Org. Secretary
Referee
Guest steward
Technical manager
Chief timekeeper
Chief track judge
Chief field judge
Chief recorder
Umpires
Marshals
Statler
Blackboard officials
ATHLETICS TRACK
Home straight Lane 1.22m( width)
Common finishing line
HISTORY OF ATHLETICS
Started in Greece as a funeral site or religious
ceremony and later became part of life the Greeks.
During these festivals the sacrifices to heroes and
lesser gods were followed by feasting, dancing
songs and exhibitions of agilities of strength and
skills in the form of competition.
The important festival was held in Olympia in 776
B.C. which was known as Olympic games.
ATHELETICS TRACK
The length of the track is 84.39m and the width is
73m. Have two parallel lines and two curved
bends. The shape of the track is elliptical.
PARTS OF THE TRACK
1. Kerb line
The innermost line if the athletics track.
2. Kerb distance
This is the distance measured following the Kerb
line.
3. Track distance
This is the distance across the lane. The first lane
is measured 30cm from the kerb line and the rest
are measured 20cm from every line.
4. Home straight
This is the final stretch towards the finishing line.
5. Lane
This space in between consecutive lines and the
distance is 1.22m.
6. Change over box
This is a 20m zone along the lane with which the
batons should be changed.
7. Acceleration zone
A 10m zone just before the nearer boundary of the
change over box where the competitor receiving
the baton can move to gather momentum before
receiving the baton.
Formula for kerb distance
Kerb distance = 2L + ПD
17
Kerbline
84.39 m
73m

Factors to consider when selecting site for
athletics track.
Level/flatness of the ground
Adequate space where the track can fit all the
lanes.
Free from obstacles e.g. stumps
Avoid waterlogged areas (swampy areas)
Direction of both sun and wind.
The area should be accessible.
Standard track has 8 lanes measured from inside.
TRACK EVENTS
These are running events done on the athletic
track. They include:
1. Sprints races
2. Middle distance races
3. Long distance races
4. Walk races.
SPRINTS
These are short races normally referred to as
explosive events. They take short time to
complete. Also referred to as anaerobic in nature
because they require little oxygen for producing
energy.
The events include:
100m
 110m hurdles
 200m
 400m
 4 x 100m
 4 x 400m
Characteristics of sprint events
 They take very short time to perform.
 They involve strength, power and speed.
 They are anaerobic in nature. Less
oxygen and energy
 They result to oxygen debt. Twice as more
oxygen than supply.
TYPES OF STRAT IN TRACK EVENTS
1. Crouch start
The body assumes crouch position or shape. Used
in starting all the sprint events.
There are three types of crouch start.
(a) Elongated
The knee of the rear foot is opposite the ankle of
the leading foot.
(b) Medium/bullet start
The knee of the rear foot is opposite the toe of the
leading foot.
(c) Bunch start
The toe of the leading foot and the toe of the rear
are 12 inches apart. The competitor looks as if he
is seated down.
2) Straight start
This is whereby the competitors are on a straight
line e.g. 100m, 110m hurdles, for men and
women.
3) Curve start
This is whereby the competitor assumes a curve
formation when starting the competition e.g. all
long distance races.
4) Staggered start
This is where each competitor starts from a stagger
on his/her lane. It is used in all events where the
competitor is required to keep his/her lane
throughout the race. Also where the competitors
are going round the curve.
5) Standing start
Competitors start the race on standing position.
This is used in long distance events and road races.
PROCEDURE FOR THE CROUCH START
1) The starters command
The starter gives the command “on your marks”.
The competitors take their positions on their lanes.
The rear foot kneels down depending on the
crouch start. The hands are stretched alongside
the body. Eyes focused forward so that they are
not caught unaware.
2) Second command “set”
The rear foot is straightened and the weight is
transferred to the leading foot. Eyes focused
forward.
3) Third command “go”
The starter starts the race when the competitors are
motionless.
Rules governing the start of the track events
Assuming full or final set position on the
command “on your marks/set.”
Not disturbing a fellow competitor by sound or
any other means after the command “on your
marks”
A competitor should not leave his mark with hands
or foot after the command “on your marks”.
For all short races up to and including 400m,
starting blocks should be used.
NB/ If a competitor commits two consecutive
faults, he is warned for the first one and
disqualified for the second one.
18
RELAY RACES
1) Shuttle relay
This is where a competitor runs from one straight
to another and back before he passes the baton to
another.
A
2) Medley relay
This involves different competitors in a team
covering different distances. It’s mainly for
enjoyment and for both genders e.g. 100m >>>>
200m>>>>400m e.t.c
3) Circuit relay
This is where the competitors run round track and
each member of the team covers the same
distance. We have two types of circuit relay:
(1) 4 x 100m
(2) 4 x 400m
Rules governing relay races
1. The baton shall be carried by the hand
throughout the race.
2. The baton shall be passed literally to next.
Should not be hurled or thrown.
3. The passing of the baton shall take place
within the change over box.
4. A competitor after passing the baton shall
not escort the fellow competitor but waits
for the area to clear and then leave the
track.
5. In 4 x 100m and 4 x 400m, first round the
competitor shall maintain his/her lane
throughout.
6. Each team shall have 4 competitors and
shall wear identical uniforms.
7. For a team to win, the last competitor must
have a baton with him/her.
8. The competitor receiving the baton is
allowed to move within the change over
box but beyond the acceleration zone. i.e
10m.
Anchor leg
This is the member in the relay team who covers
the last stretch or the final round in the relay.
 Characteristics of anchor leg
 Must be very fast runner
 Good at receiving the baton.
 Good at finishing.
MIDDLE AND LONG DISTANCE EVENTS
They include:
 800m
 1500m
 3000m steeple chase
 5000m
 10000m
 Walk races
Characteristics of middle and long distance
events.
They take longer time to perform.
They involve both cardio-vascular and muscular
endurance.
They are aerobic in nature.
Sometimes may result to fatigue ( accumulation of
lactic acid along the muscles).
General rules governing the track events
A competitor shall maintain his/her lane when the
track evens demands so e.g. 200m, 400m e.t.c
A competitor shall not obstruct his or her opponent
e.g. pushing, blocking the way e.t.c.
A competitor shall not run inside the track or
move out of the track and come back again to
resume the race.
A competitor shall overtake to the right of the
opponent unless there is enough space to the left.
Each competitor shall wear a number and color
allocated to his/her team. At the end, points shall
be awarded as follows:
Position Points
1 7
2 5
3 4
4 3
5 2
6 1
7 0
All competitors shall be registered by the recorder.
Running shall be done anticlockwise. This is
because it is easier to negotiate curves on the left
as opposed to right.
Timing of the events.
This is taken from the smoke on the flash of the
pistol or any approved starting apparatus to the
moment any point of the torso comes over the
flashing line.
19
Every competitor shall be timed by three time
takers and in the event of the times disagreeing the
middle time taken.
HURDLING EVENTS
These are events where the competitor runs over
an obstacle placed along the course e.g.
100m/110m hurdles.
Rules governing hurdling events
A competitor shall only clear those hurdles that are
on his lane.
A competitor shall not trail his leg around the
hurdles.
A competitor shall not deliberately knock down
the hurdles.
When sub standard hurdles are being used, a
competitor shall only be allowed to knock down a
maximum of three hurdles. When standard
hurdles are being used then there is no limit to be
knocked down.
Do not avoid any hurdle.
Specification for a hurdle
Overall width 120 cm
Length of the base 70 cm
Depth of the top bar 70 mm
Thickness of the top bar 10-25mm
Minimum total weight 10 kg
Distance specifications SEX
RACE Height
Of
Hurdles
From
Start
to
1
st
hurdle
Distance
Between
Hurdles
From
Last
hurdle
To
finish
MEN
110m 1.67m 13.72 9.14 14.02m
400m 0.914m 45m 35m 40m
WOMEN
100m 0.84m 13m 8.5m 10.5m
400m 0.762m 45m 35m 40m
Steeplechase
Ways of clearing steeplechase hurdles include:
Step over – Jump over
Vault over – Climb over
Run over
Types of hurdles to be cleared are:
i. Dry hurdle
ii. Wet hurdle
Getting number of hurdles cleared
Dry hurdles = No. of lapse x 4
Wet hurdles = No. of lapse
FIELD EVENTS
JUMPS
1. Horizontal jumps
In a situation where there are more than 8
competitors, each competitor shall be given three
chances after which the best 8 shall proceed to the
next round. This first round is call preliminaries.
The competitor with the best jump shall be
declared the winner. In championship meetings a
qualifying competition of three trials is held
preceding competition.
Rules governing horizontal jumps
A competitor shall take off from a single foot.
A competitor shall not apply any form of
summersault.
After landing a competitor shall not leave the
landing pit from the runaway.
The jump shall not count if the competitor takes
from beyond the take off point.
After commencing the jump, a competitor shall
have no contact between his body and the ground
outside the runway.
A competitor shall not place any checkmarks on
the runway.
Do not touch the ground outside the area nearest
the take off.
A competitor shall not use hand weights or grips
of any sort.
How to take measurement
The tape measure shall be perpendicular to the
take off point.
The zero (0) mark of the tape measure shall be at
the nearest point of contact with the landing area.
The reading shall be taken from the inner edge of
the take off board.
20
Breaking a tie
Incase of two competitors tying, the competitor
with the second best jump shall be declared the
winner. If the tie remains then the competitor with
the third best jump shall be declared the winner. If
the tie remains then each of them is given three
more chances.
5.5m
40.45M
13m RUNWAY
1.22m
Take off board
(1.22m x 20cm)
Specification for triple jump
5.5m
40.45M
1m RUNWAY
1.22m
10m
Take off board
(1.22m x 20cm)
Specifications for long jump
Progressive stages
i. Approach
This is a short run before take off to gain
momentum
Errors during approach
Contact with the ground outside the runway
Taking off before gathering full momentum
Inconsistent pace of strides.
Take off
This should be single foot take off.
Errors during take off
Stepping beyond the take off board
Taking off far much behind the take board.
Stepping on the take off board using the wrong
foot
Not balancing the vertical or horizontal motion
during take off.
Take off foot is the foot that remains longer in
contact with the ground. The other foot is known
as the power foot.
ii. Flight
This is when the body is in air.
Errors during flight
Somersaulting
Assuming an upright shape while in air
iii. Landing
This is making contact with the ground from air.
Errors during landing
Contact with the ground outside the pit.
Touching behind the area of contact during
landing.
Styles of jumping
1. Hitch kick
During the flight he makes a scissor like
movement.
2. Float/sail
During the jump the legs and the hands are
stretched a head of the body.
3. Hung
The legs are folded backwards as arms cycle in air.
The triple jump has three distinct phases i.e. the
hop, step and jump.
A competitor is allowed to land between the take
off board and the landing area without penalty
provided that he:
i. Lands first on his take off foot.
ii. Lands secondly on the opposite foot.
iii. Does not permit the sleeping leg to touch the
ground during any phase the jump before the final
landing.
All other aspects same as long jump.
Equipment
1. Tape measure
2. Pegs
3. Scorecards
4. Flags – Red for no jump
– White for jump accepted
5. Rake/Jembe
2. VERTICAL JUMPS
Rules governing vertical jumps
1) Failure is recorded if the athlete
Dislodges the bar, directly or indirectly
Touches the ground including the landing area
Beyond the plane of the uprights without first
Clearing the bar.
21

Landing
Pit
2) A competitor shall not be permitted to use the
runway or take off area for practice purposes once
competition begins.
3) The bar shall never be raised by less than 2cm
unless there is a tie or one competitor only
remaining.
4) A competitor may commence jumping at any
given height above the minimum height.
5) 3 consecutive failures disqualify a competitor
regardless of the height at which they occur.
6) A competitor is permitted to place checkmarks
on the runway, takeoff and use handkerchief at the
poles for sighting.
7) A competitor shall take off from both of his foot
and shall not apply any form of somersaulting.
8) The competitor shall complete the event in one
and half minutes.
Breaking a tie in vertical jumps
Consider the competitor with the least jump at the
height where they tie.
Consider the competitor with the least total
failures.
If the tie remains consider the competitor with the
least total jumps.
If the tie still remains then a jump off is awarded
i.e. the bar is lowered or raised by less than 2cm
and the tying competitors given chance to jump.
Taking measurement
The distance between the ground and the upper
most part of the cross bar at its lowest point is
measured with a steel tape.
a) High Jump
The competitor lower there centre of gravity their
bodies over the cross bar in order to reach
optimum height.
Styles of high jump
i) Orthodox/scissors
Weight above the bar
ii) Western roll
Take off foot is the landing foot
iii) Straddle
Landing is on the back or the shoulder and
upper back.
iv) Fosbury/flop
Landing is on the back or the shoulder and
upper back.
v) Eastern cut off
vi) Straight jump/direct jump
Equipment
Tow upright post
Crossbar
Pegs
Steel tape measure
Progressive stages/techniques
Approach from 350
– 400
or from a curve.
Take off – trunk upright at the bar level
Good flight
Proper landing.
Physical components of a good high jumper.
 Good height
 Good speed
 Strength
 Flexibility/agility
Specifications for high jump
i. Landing area
 Measure 5m x 4m
 Filled with sand.
ii. Take off area
 Should be levelled, well watered and
free from Pitting.
iii. Runway
 Should permit an approach run of 18m
at any angle on the take off side of
the pit.
iv. Uprights
 Must be rigid and placed at least 4m
apart.
 Supporting pegs 4cm wide and 6cm
extension in the direction of the
opposite upright.
v. Crossbar
May be triangular or circular in section.
Diameter 30mm and should be slightly longer
than 4m.
b) Pole vault
The competitor can forego a trial at certain
Right.
They are allowed to move uprights, forward
Or backward in preparation for the jump.
The competitor is not allowed to place the
Lower hand above the upper hand after the
Take off.
A pole may be touched by someone else other
Than the competitor when:
i) It is released and happens to fall away
from the bar.
ii) It lands outside the landing zone.
It is not a failure for a pole to fall underneath.
22
Why aluminium poles are preferred to fibreglass
poles.
 Aluminium poles do not bend
 Aluminium poles are made of metals
 Aluminium poles are safer in terms of
accidents
Physical components of a good pole-vaulter.
 Co-ordination
 Courage
 Speed
 Flexibility
Specification for pole vault
i. Landing area
Should be 5m2
filled with sand
ii. Take off
This is from specially constructed box
measuring 100cm x 60 cm (take of box). It is
sunken in the runway so that the upper edge is in
level with the surface of the runway.
iii. Runway
Should be between 40m and 45m long.
iv. Uprights
Be placed at least 4m apart.
v. Cross bar
Should be between 4.5m and 5.0m.
Differences between vertical and horizontal
jump.
Horizontal jumps Vertical jumps
Athletes compete for
distance
Athletes compete for
height
No obstacle to be
jumped over
There is an obstacle to
be jumped over
Preliminaries are held
then the best 8 proceed
to the next round
Once a competitor
commences the jump he
will continue up to the
point where he fails
THROWS
1. DISCUSS (Refer to figure 1 page 23)
Weight
For men —— 2kg
For women —– 1kg
Throwing styles
i. Standing style
ii. 1 ½ turns
Teaching points
Place discuss on the palm with the finger well
spread.
Grip the rim of the discuss with the fingertips
Support the discuss with the thumb.
Do the preliminary swings.
Release.
Rules for discuss
A competitor must complete the throw in 1 ½
minutes time.
The competitor should not leave the circle before
the implement lands.
Exit should be from the rear part of the circle
The discuss must land within the sector
The discuss must be thrown while within the
circle.
Competitor should not touch or step to the ground
outside the circle (should not step on the arc).
Materials for discuss
Tape measure – Pegs
Discuss – Stop watch
Score sheet – Flags (red and white)
Measurement:
The zero (0) mark is placed on the point of landing
then stretched up to the center of the circle. The
reading is taken at the outer edge of the scratch
line.
Breaking a tie.
Consider the second best throw.
If still remains consider the third best throw.
If the tie remains, competitors are given another
trial.
Factors contributing to good throw.
 The speed of the release
 The angle of the release
 The strength of the release
 Method of grip. Poor grip results into
wobbling.
2. SHOT PUT(Figure 2 page 23)
Weight
Men ———–4 kg
Women——– 2kg
Throwing styles
i. Standing styles
ii. Obrien style (gliding/sliding).
23
Rules
Same as discuss
Similarities between shot put and discuss
Both have sector of 400
In both exists is from the rear circle
Measurement taken the same way.
Breaking the tie same procedure
Duration for performance is the same i.e. 1 ½ mins
Differences
Shot heavier than discuss
Diameter longer than in shot put
In discuss we have 1 ½ turn method of throwing
while in shot put we have obrien method of
throwing.
In short put we have stop board while in discuss
we have metal rim.
In discuss we throw the discuss while in shot put
we put the shot.
3. JAVELIN (Figure 3 page 24)
Weight
Men —————- 800 gms
Women ————- 600gms
Rules for javelin
A competitor is not permitted to step on the curved
scratch line during, or after the throw.
A competitor must approach within the runway.
He must remain within the confines of the run way
and behind the scratch line until the implement has
landed.
Javelin should not land on the tail first.
Javelin must land within the sector (landing
sector)
The competitor must complete the throwing within
1 ½ minutes.
The competitor must retire from behind the scratch
line. Front Circle
Scratch arc
Metal rim
Rear
Circle Landing
sector
Extension
0.75m
Figure 1: Specification for discuss

Javelin must not be hurled or slung
Javelin must be held at the grip with one hand
Progressive stages
1. Grip
Cord of the javelin is placed on the open palm
Fingers wrapped around the cord.
Thumb parallel to the javelin shaft.
2. Carriage
Javelin placed parallel to the ear and above the
shoulder with the head slightly higher than the tail.
Hand and arm should be relaxed
3. Approach
Approach at a run to gain momentum
4. Release/recovery
Safety precautions
Should be thrown in one direction
Throwing should be done in order
Javelin to be thrown towards the wind
Spectators away from the throwing area
Should be carried from the landing area to the
throwing circle i.e. should not be thrown.
Should be carried in upward direction with head
pointing upwards.
4. HAMMER (Figure 4 page 24)
Weight —————- 7.26 kg
Overall length ———- 116 – 117cm
In a competition of more than 8 competitors,
preliminaries are organized where they select the
best 8 to proceed to next final round.
Incase of a tie, both preliminaries and final rounds
are considered.
The throwing should be done in a cage for the
purpose of safe.
. Front Circle
Stop board
Rear
Circle Landing
sector
Extension
0.75m
Figure 2. Specification for shot put
24

2.5m
400
2.25m
400

8m
Landing area
4m Runway – 40m
Arc – 34.950

Extension 0.75m
Figure 3: Specifications for javelin
Handle
Chain
Head
Figure 4: Specifications for hammer
ROAD RACES
Cross country
This is a team event where the team runs on the
countryside on different land terrain.
Distance in cross-country is determined by age
and sex.
It is determined as follows:
Senior men———- 12km
Junior men———– 6km
Senior women——- 8 km
Junior women —— 4 km
 For women you register between 6 & 8 out
of which only 4 scores for the team.
 For men you register between 7&9 out of
which only 6 scores for the team.
 The team with the lowest or the lest points
emerges the winner.
 To break tie consider the position of the
last competitor of each team and one who
is placed in a better position helps to break
the tie.
 Trophies awarded are individual trophies
and team’s trophy.
 The cross-country event usually ends in a
funnel placed in the athletics track. At the
funnel we have funnel judge.
 We have points men at various points to
show direction flags. Red indicates right
direction while white indicates left
direction.
2. Marathon
 Individual events done on the city streets.
We have two types of marathon i.e.
i. Full marathon ——- 42 km
ii. Half marathon——- 21 km
 After 15km you get refreshment points.
Water points are also placed after every
5km.
 Sponging is allowed in marathon
 Sponging and water points helps in
preventing dehydration.
 Differences between cross country and
marathon
Cross country Marathon
A team event Individual event
Individual and teams
trophy awarded
Individual and trophy
awarded
Distance vary with sex
and age
Is either full half distance
Is done in country side Is done in city streets
Finishing is done in a
funnel
Finishing is done on open
Refreshment and water
points not allowed
Refreshments, sponging
and water points are
allowed
A bit shorter distance i.e.
12,8,6,4
A bit longer distance i.e.
42,21
COMBINED EVENTS
1) Pentathlon
These are 5 events done by junior men and women
in one day.
Order of events
i. Long jump
ii. Javelin
iii. 200m
iv. Discuss
v. 1500m
2. Heptathlon
These are 7 events done by women in two
consecutive days
25
Order of events
Day 1.
 100m hurdles
 High jump
 Shot put
 200m
Day 2
 Long jump
 Javelin
 800m
Decathlon
These are 10 events done by men in two
consecutive days
Day 1
 100m
 Long jump
 Shot put
 High jump
 400m
Day 2
 110m hurdles
 Discuss
 Pole vault
 Javelin
 1500m
ORGANIZING MEETINGS AND THE
OFFICIALS IN ATHLETICS
 How to organize a meeting
 Set the date considering the season, time of
the year.
 Consider and arrange the venue.
 Consider the participation level i.e. junior
or senior.
 Types of events to be considered according
to the participants.
 Draw a list of officials needed during the
meeting.
Programme
 A programme must be drafted including
the number of events, competitor’s names,
times e.t.c
 Heats, quarters, semis and finals are to be
included in the programme.
 Indicate times when the events shall take
place.
Day of meeting.
 Officials should be there before the start of
the events.
 It should be known the times the events are
to take place.
 The clerk of the course to address the
officials before the start of the meeting.
 Evaluation of the meeting is done at the
end of the meeting.
 Send letters of acknowledgement to
officials and other helpers.
 Ensure safety of the apparatus and the
score sheet.
 Close and balance the accounts of the
meeting.
DUTIES OF THE OFFICIALS
1. Chairman (normally head of the institution)
 In charge of the meeting
 Sees the smooth running of the programme
 Checks on the officials and substitution
 Settles disputes.
2. Guest steward (normally deputy principal)
 Welcoming guests of honor and other
guest.
 Minds about there sitting and feeding
arrangements.
3. Organizing secretary
 Correspondence to other team officials
 Responsible for programmes
 Certification
 Invitation cards.
4. Technical manager
 Clerk of the course
 Ensure that lines, landing areas, runways
etc are marked.
 Ensure that stationery and equipment are
available.
 Check if the weights of the implements are
appropriate.
5. Referee
 Settle any dispute
 Decides when judges fail to agree
 Makes final decision
 Ensures that rules are followed
 Can disqualify competitors.
6. Chief timekeeper
 Assigns duties to other timekeepers
 Give signal to the starter when other
timekeepers are ready.
 Control other timekeepers and checks final
time.
26
Instruct other timekeepers to clear the watches
Fills in the scores card.
Checks the scores card before it goes to the
records.
Chief track judge
Assigns other track judges into different duties.
Control his officials
Signals the starter when judges are ready.
Check scores card before it goes to the records.
Makes final decisions on placing particular
competitors when watches have same reading or
disagree.
Helps to run the programme. He can change the
position of the event/track programme.
Consults the clerk of the course.
Ensure that the track is properly marked.
Ensure that there are record papers and other
stationery.
Ensure that all the equipment are available and are
in good order.
Chief field judge
Controls other field officials
Checks final judgement
Checks score card before it goes to the records
Ensures that all field areas are properly marked.
Ensure that all equipment are ready in good
condition.
Issues all forms for events.
He counter sign the forms and send them to the
chief recorder.
Overall authority in all field events.
Chief recorder
Record the results
Awards points
Position finalist.
Guides his assistants
Sports the broken records
Consults with the black board officials.
Umpires
Stay at all 4 truck corners
Check on the change over boxes of the baton
exchange in relay races.
Ensure athletes follow their lanes.
Check on the hurdles according to the rules
Communicate by use of flags once they notice any
infringements.
11. Starter
Start the track events
Signals to the chief track judge
Completely controls the track
Keeps programme running to the schedule
Records false by call alone but not by name.
Give the starting command.
12. Marksman/starter assistant
Assembles the athlete in their correct lanes
Assist the starter
Signal the starter when all are “on your marks”
Indicate false start and who is offender.
13. Marshals
Assembling the athletes to the starting point
Assist lane manager
Give competitors notice to prepare
14. Announcers
Calls athletes to start the events
Announce results
Announce new records set
Helps keep programme running
Silence spectators at the start of the race
Keep public informed of what is going on in the
field.
15. Lap Scorer
Minimum of two in the race
One shows the competitors how many laps to go.
The other shows the competitors laps gone.
16. Walk judges
Ensures that the athletes follow the walk rules
Chief walk judge disqualify the participants.
17. Prize and certificate steward
Ensure that certificates are awarded to the winners
after each event.
Makes proper arrangements for the trophies to be
awarded at the end of the day by the guest of
honor.
27
Refreshment steward assistant.
Provides drink during the meeting
Feed guests and officials after the meeting
First aider
Gives the competitors the necessary first aid.
Blackboard official
Continuous record of results on the blackboard for
guests and competitors to be kept informed.
Typist
Types the certificates as events are done.
JURY OF APPEAL COMPOSITION
Referee or chairman of the meeting
Chief track judge
Chief field judge
Clerk of the course or secretary
Overall man e.g. churchman.
The above group is formed when disputes that are
beyond the referee arises.
How a protest is lodged
It has to be in writing to the secretary or
organizing committee.
Should be made not more than 30 minutes after
the official announcing of the result.

THE COURT

Sideline (18m)

3m
There is non-refundable fee paid to the organizer.
The chairman calls the members of the jury for
final decision.
VOLLEYBALL
Historical background
The game was started by William Morgan, a
physical education specialist and director at Young
Men Christian Association (YMCA) in 1895 in
U.S.A. He first called this game Mintonette.
Latter the Y.M.C.A directors suggested that the
game should be called “Volley ball” because the
ball was volleyed back and forth across the net.
In the early stages of development 9 players on
each side were playing volley ball. The YMCA
drew the first formal rules in 1897.
During the First World War the American troops
introduced the game in Europe. U.S.A formed
amateur volleyball association in 1928 while the
Great Britain did the same in 1955. In 1946
volleyball was introduced in Olympic games both
for men and women.
In 1947 the international volleyball federation was
formed with its headquarters in Paris. In Kenya
we have Kenya Volleyball Association (K.V.A)

End line
28
5 4 2 1
6 Attack line 3 Centerline 3 Attack line 6
1 2 4 5
Sideline
Length of the court (18m)
Substitution takes place along this line
Team bench is located along this line.
End line
Width of the court (9m)
Service takes place along this line.
Center line
Subdivide the court into two equal parts
Net is fixed along this line
The two referees stand along and opposite this
line.
Prevents the player from entering the opponents
half.
Attack line
Subdivide one of the half of the court into two
parts i.e. front and back row. Front is marked 3m
from the centreline.
Playing positions
1. Right back player
2. Right front player
3. Center front player
4. Left front player
5. Left back player
6. Centre back player
Rules governing back players
They cannot participate in the block
They can spike provided they take off from the
back row plane.
Principle of rotation
Once the team gains the service the players move
one position in clockwise direction.
TEAM SIZE
A team is made up of 12 –layers, 6 main players
and 6 substitutes.
A team may register among the top players a
specialized defensive player known as libero
A team must have a captain.
The maximum number a team can substitute is 6.
Rules governing libero player.
(i) He shall wear a different color from the rest.
(ii) Shall be registered with the scorer.
(iii) Shall only replace the back court player.
(iv) Shall enter the court on the area between the
attack line and the base line.
(v) Shall not serve the ball at any given time
(vi) Shall not block the ball or play any ball above
the net
(vii) Can substitute the back court player as many
times as possible.
(viii) Shall only be substituted by a player who he
substituted.
(ix) Can not complete rotation
Qualities of a good libero player
(i) Very good in receiving the ball
especially the spiked balls.
(ii) Enduring/withstanding for long
(iii) Very fast in reaction.
BASIC EQUIPMENT
The ball
Spherical in shape
Circumference 65-67cm
Weather/synthetic casing with bladder inside
Weight 260-280 grams
The Net
Length 9.5m
Depth 1m
Should have a band with a cable inside to help in
tightening the net.
Heights – Men – 2.43m
Women – 2.24m
The Antennae
Measure 1.8m
Used to show aerial dimension of the volleyball
court.
The Post
Measure 2.55m
Fixed at 0.5m from the sideline.
When the ball is considered dead
(a) After the referees whistle
(b) Faulty service
(c) Ball lands out of the court
(d) Ball touching an object outside the court
(e) If a team makes more than three contacts
with ball before it crosses the net except
the block.
(f) When the ball is hand faulty
(g) If the ball touches the ground inside the
court during the play.
29
START OF THE GAME
The first time referee tosses a coin between two
captains and the winning captain has two options
to choose:
I. Choice of side
II. The first service
The other captain takes the remaining option.
SERVICE
The act of putting the ball into play by the right back
player anywhere along and outside the sideline.
TYPES OF SERVICE
1. Underarm (sling) service
Teaching points
Stand facing the net
Legs a stride with leg opposite the serving arm in
front.
Trunk and the knees slightly bent with more weight
on the rear leg.
Ball held at about knees level and slightly above.
The opposite arm with closed fingers swing
backwards and forward to hit the ball as you toss.
The opposite arm should be straight and make
contact with the inner part of the wrist.
Follow through as you transfer the weight from the
rear foot to the front foot.
Maintain the eye level coordination and aim at the
large position or position you want to serve the ball
to.
Overhead/tennis service
Teaching points
Stand same as underarm service
Ball held with straight-arm just above the knee of
the front foot.
Bring the ball up above and in front of the head. At
the same time swing the opposite arm upwards and
backward with the elbow facing forward.
With the trunk arched and more weight on the rear
foot, release the ball at maximum height of your
arm.
The opposite arm with fixed wrist and fingers
spread; hit the ball with heel of the palm for the ball
to make topspin.
Contact should be made at the back of the ball with
the arm making a follow through.
The whole trunk makes a follow through.
Windmill/Hook/Round house service.
Teaching points
The same as over arm except that the body makes an
anti-clockwise rotation of 180 degrees and face
backward making the right foot in front instead of
the left foot.
More weight in the front foot(right) with knees
slightly bent, release the ball at arm height and hit it
from the back.
Good service
This is when the ball is within the court.
Faulty service.
When the service is not acceptable or when the
player has committed a service fault.
Examples of faulty services
 Ball hitting the post
 B passing under the net
 Ball failing to reach opponents court.
 Ball touching a teammate before crossing the
net
 Failure to toss the ball
 Ball hitting the antennae
 Serving the ball when standing on the end
line or inside the court.
 Ball landing outside the court
 Exceeding three seconds with the ball after
the referee’s whistle.
Ace service
This is a very hard or difficult service that the
opponents cannot receive easily.
How to make ace service
1. Spinning the ball
Hitting the ball by side so that it comes rotating
2. Spike service
Jumping up high and hitting the ball with a lot of
force.
SUBSTITUTION
This is replacement of players. It is requested when
the ball is dead either by coach or the captain.
Rules governing substitution
a) The player must have registered in the line up
b) Done when the bail is dead
c) Done on the line of the first referee
d) The player to be replaced gets out first before the
substitute goes
e) Requested for either by the coach or captain.
30
i) Maximum of 6 substitutes is allowed per set.
ii) Must be conducted within the substitution zone.
b) Should not exceed 30 sec.
TYPES OF SUBSTITUTION
1. Legal substitution
This is when the team is utilizing the 6 registered
substitutes.
2. Illegal substitution
When the team has exhausted the 6 substitutes but
continue substituting.
It is when the team utilizes the unregistered player.
3. Compulsory/exceptional substitution
This is when substitutes have been exhausted yet
another player gets injuries. The referee may
authorize the coach to substitute another player.
TIME OUT
This is a brief interruption of the game or pause
requested by coach or captain for a technical talk.
Duration for time out is 30sec. Each team is
entitled to 2 time outs per set. It is requested when
the ball is dead.
During time out the coach is not allowed to enter
the court neither the players allowed to leave the
court.
TYPES OF TIME OUT
a) Teams time out
Requested by the coach or the captain
b) Official time out
When referee stops the game incase of:
1. Technical problems e.g.
Ball bursting
Loosening of the net
Breaking of the post.
2. External interference e.g.
Spectator invading the court
Bad weather – heavy rainfall
When lowering national flag
Disagreement between officials
c) Technical time out
This is given when playing the deciding set and
the first team reaches 8 points. The duration of
this time out is 1 minute.
THE PLAYING FORMAT
To win a point
A team wins a point when the opponents make a
playing fault.
Examples of playing fault
Double hit by individual player unless there is a
block.
Four hit by a team unless there is a block.
Positional fault (When the players are not in their
playing position when the ball is being served)
Rotational fault.
A player touching the net with or without another
opponent player
Front court player crossing the centreline
Ball landing inside or outside the court
Faulty service
Wrong substitution
Breaking time out rules
Back court player participating in block or spiking
while in the frontcourt.
Ball passing under the net.
Consequences of playing fault.
The serving team looses the point and chance to
serve.
Receiving team gains a point and chance to serve.
The receiving team looses a point when they make
a play fault thereby serving team continues to
serve.
How to win a set.
In a volleyball 5 sets are played. To win a set the
1
st team to reach 25 points with a leading margin
of a minimum of two points takes the set. Eg 25-
23, 25-21.
At the end of every set, teams changes sides.
Incase of deciding (5th) set, the first team to reach
15 points with a leading margin of a minimum of
two points takes the set. Team changes sides
when the first team reaches 8 points.
How to win a march
The team which wins more sets emerges the
winner.
OFFICIALS OF THE GAME
1. First named referee
He has the absolute authority over the game and
other officials.
His decision is final
He uses whistle to signify the beginning and end
of the game, a point, change of service e.t.c.
Awarding points and services gained
In charge of disqualification.
31
2. 2
nd named referee
Supervises control of substitution on the side of
lines
He takes note of the following:
Net faults
Crossing the centreline
Illegally crossing the attack line by backcourt
players.
Reaching over the net (over reaching)
Draws the attention of the first named referee of any
unsporting behaviour.
Notes players position at the start if the game.
Keeps check on all time outs.
Authorizes all substitutions.
3. The scorer
Positions himself opposite the first named referee.
Take note of all scores.
He notes all time outs, substitutions and any other
interruptions.
Before the sets, he takes names of all the players,
substitutes, captain, coaches.
Take care of the positions of players in the court and
ensure that the rotation order of the court is kept.
He supplies the referee with relevant information at
all times.
Referee assistants
They are four and they sit at each corner of the
court.
They note the serving faults.
Note the ball, which passes outside the net vertical
markers during the service.
Note the ball falling out of the court.
BASIC SKILLS IN VOLLEYBALL
1. Volley
This is the act of setting or passing the ball over
the net using two – handed overhead pass.
Teaching points
Wide base with legs comfortably apart to maintain
the balance.
Knees slightly bent with the body position under the
and eyes on the ball.
Arms almost stretched, fingers spread, palm facing
upwards with thumbs and first fingers almost
meeting.
The elbow bends as you receive the ball.
Flex your wrist and bend your knees as you receive
the ball in order to be able to accommodate the ball
comfortably.
Use your fingers mainly those of the thumb and the
two fingers.
The body almost immediately straightens after
receiving the ball on legs, fingers, arms and toes
thus putting the ball into play.
The body makes a pumping action by moving down
and up with the wrist flicking to make the ball move
fast.
2. Serving
The act of putting the ball into play from the serving
area of the court.
Teaching points
(Refer to types of services)
3. Spiking/smashing
This is the act of jumping in the air besides the net
and forcibly hitting the ball down into the
opponents’ side. The hands must not touch or pass
over the net.
Teaching points
 Take two running steps
 Jump of from both feet
 Take ensuring both hands backwards and
upwards to propel your body off the ground.
Factors contributing to good spiking
The take off should be with knee bent and trunk bent
The contact with the ball should be made at the
highest point of the jump with the trunk arched
backwards.
With fingers spread, wrist flexed, contact the ball
with the heel of the palm first and close with fingers
as in the case of the tennis service.
The ball should be hit with a maximum force to
make it move to the opponent court at a sharp angle.
4. Block
This is the wall of hands put by the opponents’ side
during the smashing of the ball.
Styles of blocks
i) Umbrella block
ii) Pun block
Types of blocks
a) One man block
b) Two men block
c) Three men block
Teaching points
Double feet take off at about two feet from the net.
32
 Arms fully stretched upwards and toss with
fingers.
 Knees slightly bend with fingers spread at
ear level.
 As the ball hits your hands, flick the wrist
downwards.
HANDBALL
THE COURT

 

 

This is a game played by two teams where a team
consists of 12 players with 7 players in the court
any one time and 5 players remaining substitutes.
One of the 7 players in the court is designed to be
the goalkeeper.
For a player or team to be allowed to participate.
i. He must have his/her name entered in the score
sheet.
ii. Should be present at the start of the game incase
of lateness of a player or official, he should notify
the table officials and his name is entered into the
score sheet.
The minimum number of players to start the game
is 5 and it can go down as the game progress.
Substitution
A substitute becomes a court player when the
player he is substituting leaves and he in turn
enters the court. A substitute can enter the court
as many times as possible (revolving substitution)
Rules governing substitution.
5. Dig
The method of retaining the ball when it comes
below the level of the waist of the player.
6. Set-up
This is the situation where the ball is volleyed for
smashing or spiking.

1. Can be done without the notification of
the referee provided a player is
registered.
2. Substitute should enter the court when
the player he is substituting has left the
court.
3. A player entering/leaving the court
should do so from within his team
substitution area. But this does apply
incase of injury.
4. The game cannot be stopped for
substitution to be done.
Duration of the game
For players 16 years and above, the game consists
of 2 halves of 30 minutes each and break of 10
minutes in between.
30 30

10
Timing starts at the referee signal for the initial
throw off and ends when the timekeeper’s signal is
released.
33
Side line

 

Goal
Line
(20m)

Goal lin e
Goal Free throw

4m line
goal keepers 9m
line/free throw line
centre line
7 line/penalty
mark
6m line/goal arc line

 

I
I
I
If the referee is not satisfied he retains the players
in the court and if there was an error the game
continues.
Breaking a tie
Incase of a tie an extra time is added 2 halves of 5
minutes each with break of 1 minute in between.
If it still stands duration of the same is added. If it
continues the tie is broken in accordance to the
rules of that particular game.
Time out
This is a temporary stoppage of the game
requested either by the captain or the coach
Obligatories
i. When a player is injured
ii. When coach has requested teams time
out.
iii. A stoppage for penalty throws
iv. When player is given suspension
Rates governing time out
A team is entitled to one time out each half.
Shall be requested by either by coach or captain.
Shall be requested by placing a green card on the
official table.
Pieces of equipment used in the game of handball
 Ball
 Upright posts
 Cross bar
 Net
Score sheet
The following information are entered in the score
Sheet
a) Name of players and team officials
b) Chronological order of the scores made by
each team.
c) Punishment given to each player e.g.
suspension, disqualification or exclusion.
d) Time at the start of the game
e) Name of the teams
Uniforms
 A pair of sports shoes
 Socks
 Shorts
Tshirts
Goalkeeper always should wear uniforms different
from other playmates and opponents.
Tshirts shall have conspicuous numbers both back
and front ranging from 1-20.
Numbers 1,12,16 are reserved for the goalkeeper.
Captain ear an armlet on the arm.
1. Goal line
 Measures 20m
 Forms width of the court
 Where the goal posts are fixed
 Confirms the score
2. 4m line.
 Also known as goalkeeper’s line.
Goalkeeper shall not go beyond this line
during penalty throw until the thrower shall
have released the ball.
3. 6m line
 Goal area line
 Marks the extent of the goal area
 Goalkeeper shall not move or cross the line
with the ball under his control.
 Goalkeeper shall not collect the ball
outside this line and comes back with it
inside the are.
 Goalkeeper shall not collect the ball lying
outside 6m line while he himself he is
within the area.
 Penalty is awarded to the attacking team if
a defender enters his goal area and by so
doing gains an advantage over the
opponent.
 Free throw is given to the defending team
if an attacker enters opponent’s goal area
with or without the ball.
 Goal shall not count if an attacker makes a
score while in contact with the ground
inside the 6m line.
 During free throw by the attacking team,
the defenders position themselves along
the 6m line.
5. 7m line
 Penalty mark
 During the penalty throw the thrower shall
not step on or over this line before
releasing the ball. Incase of infringement
by the thrower, a free throw is awarded to
the opponents at the 7m line.
6. 9m line
Free throw lineA long where all the free throws
shall be taken for infringements on the defenders
along the free throw zone.
34
During the penalty throw all the players apart from
the thrower and the goalkeeper shall be outside the
9m line.
7. Center line
Divides the court into 2 equal halves
Along where throw off is taken
All the players of the team taking the throw off
shall be along this line.
Along where substitution takes place.
8. Side line
40m long
Forms length of the court
Confirms a ball out of A ball is out of bound
when:
Comes into contact with the ground outside the
sideline.
Comes into contact with an object in contact with
the ground outside the sideline.
Along where substitution takes place next to the
centreline.
Along where substitution takes place next to the
centreline.
Along where the officials table and the
substitution bench are placed.
THROWS IN HANDBALL
1. Throw in
Awarded when the whole ball completely passes
over the sideline.
Conditions to be observed
Throw at the exact point where it went out.
Atleast one foot should step on the sideline.
Opponents 3m away from the ball.
Must be released within three seconds.
A player cannot pass the ball to himself.
No blowing of the whistle.
2. Penalty throw
Awarded when:
Goalkeeper enters his goal area with the ball or
takes it from the court to the goal area.
A court player internationally gives a back pass to
his G.K in the goal area.
A court player enters his goal area to gain
advantage of the ball.
When a clear chance of scoring has been spoiled.
Dangerous play.
Unwarranted whistle signal at the time when a
team had a clear chance of scoring.
Conditions to be observed.
Must be done 3 sec. after the referee’s whistle
Shot must be directed to the goal
The penalty thrower must not touch on or cross the
penalty throw line before the ball leaves his hand.
Other players to be beyond 9m line.
The G.K. should not move the 4m line till the ball
is released.
3. Free throw
Awarded incase of minor infringements of the
rules within the court e.g. illegal substitution,
double dribbling e.t.c
Conditions to be observed
Taken at the exact point where the infringement
occurred.
Ball must be released with 3 sec.
Opponents be 3m away from the ball
4. Goalkeepers throw
Awarded when the goalkeeper gains control of the
ball within the goal area.
A player throws the ball over the opponent’s own
goal line.
The ball is considered to be in play when it passes
over the goal area line.
No whistle for the throw.
5. Throw off
At the start of the game
Begin of the 2nd half
If a whole ball passes in between the upright posts
under the cross bar joining them (score).
6. Referee throw
Awarded when:
i. There is a simultaneous infraction
ii. When the referee is not sure of the
player who has committed the offence
iii. Technical problem e.g. basting of the
ball external interference e.t.c
iv. When lowering national flag
Conditions to be observed
Two opposing players stand facing each other,
hands alongside their body
Referee tosses the ball between the two opposing
players.
7. Corner throws
35
Awarded when the whole ball completely crosses
over the goal line having lastly been touched by
the defender (But not in between the two upright
posts) It is taken at the edge of the court where the
sideline meets the goal line. Conditions similar to
throw in.
Passive play
This is when a team keeps the ball in their
possession without making any recognizable
attempt to attack or to shoot on the goal.
Penalty for this is free throw.
PUNISHMENTS IN HANDBALL
1) Warning/Caution
Can be given verbally or through us of yellow
card. It is given when.
i) Time wasting
ii) Wrong approach to an opponent
iii) A persistent infringement.
2. Suspension
This is 2 minutes compulsory break given to
player due to:
a) repeat/persistent infringement concerning an
approach to an opponent
b) when a player is disqualified, he shall be
accompanied by 2 minutes suspension.
c) Infringement of the substitution rule.
d) Failure to release the ball or throw the ball
way after being penalized.
e) Rough play – directed to an opponent using
unnecessary force.
3. Disqualification
This is where a player is supposed to live the
court or the remaining period part of the game.
However one shall substitute after two minutes.
Occasions
At the third suspension.
Endangering the life of an opponent e.g. pushing
an opponent who is in air.
Unsportsman – like language.
Unregistered player entering the court/playing.
It is indicated by read card
Expulsion
This is where a player is supposed to leave court
for the rest of the game and shall not be
substituted. An expelled player shall be required
to leave the team bench and vicinity of the game.
It is indicated with 2 hands crossed above the
head.
Occasions
Assaulting a fellow player or an official
Spitting to a fellow player.
OFFICIALS IN HANDBALL
1. Court referee
 Shall start the game by blowing the whistle
during the throw off.
 Shall raise his hand to confirm a score
when a goal has been made.
 He shall penalize any infringement within
the court and incase of any disapproval
with the other referee, his decision shall be
final.
 During a penalty throw, he shall ensure
that the thrower does not step on the line.
Goal line referee
 Confirm the score by blowing two sharp
whistles when a goal is scored.
 Shall penalize any infringement along the
6m line.
Combined duties of the referees
 They shall run the game according to the
laid down rules and regulations.
 They shall inspect the facilities equipment
and players before the start of the game.
 They sign the score sheet at the end of the
game.
 They shall inspect the score at the end of
each half or any other time one feels like.
 They shall make the final decision in case
of any disapproval between the table
officials.
 They shall penalize the players according
to the laid down rules and regulations.
 They shall keep a record of scores and
shall confirm the score before approving
the score in the score sheet.
 One of them shall minister the toss-up of
the coin at the start of the game.
3. Time keeper
Shall take note of the time at the start of the game.
Shall make a signal at the expiration of the game.
He shall alert the court referee two minutes to the
end of a half of the game.
Shall time the two minutes suspension.
Shall stop the game clock as instructed by the
referee during time out:
Shall take note of any time wasted e.g. in case of
injuries or any other interruption and shall add that
time at the end of the particular half.
36
BASIC SKILLS
1. Passes
Similar to those used in net ball apart from over
arm pass which is only used in hand ball.
2. Shots
These includes dive shot, jump shot, set shot,
sling/under arm shot, standing shot, hook shot.
3. Dribbling
Constant bouncing of the ball on the ground by
use of one hand.
4. Dodging/faking/feinting.
This is provoking the opponent to go in the wrong
direction.
5. Blocking
Restricting movement of the opponent by using
various body parts e.g. chest (frontal blocking)
back (rear blocking) side (linear blocking)
6. Catching
Single and double hand catching
Qualities of a good keeper
 Courageous
 Flexible
 Good reaction time
 Very fast/swift
 Reasonably tall
 Disciplined
 Conversant with the rules and regulations
of the games
 Dedicated/committed.
 Strong
 Good grip of the ball.
 Good co-ordination.
SYSTEMS OF PLAY
Defence system
1. Man to man
A player is given a specific opponent to mark or
guard.
2. Zonal guard
Each player is given a specific area or region in
the court to guard.
3. Combined cover
This is the combination of both man to man and
zonal defence.
Attacking tactics
1. Simple first break
Only one player sprints forward to make a score
2. Complex first break.

More than one rushes forward to make attack.
3. Figure 8
This is an attack made by three players with the
ball at any given time. A player follows his or her
pass.
4. Posting
The use of a very tall player against short player.
He is given high pass that the other players cannot
touch then he scores
5. Screening
6. Overloading/piston movement.
Playing systems
i. 6:0 ii. 5:1 iii. 4:2 iv. 3:3 v. 3:2:1 vi. 2:3:1
METHODOLOGY
This is the scientific study of various teaching
approaches/methods done systematically.
Factors to consider while choosing teaching
method.
 Age of the learners
 Previous experience
 Equipment available
 Facilities available
 Nature of the skill or activity
 Time available
 Safety precautions
 Mental ability
 Physical ability
 Sporting season
 Weather
 Size of the class
 Class discipline.
METHODS OF TEACHING
1. Direct/formal method
Teacher dominates the class/teaching and
determines the activities to be done and the
apparatus to be used.
Merits
A lot of work is covered
It saves time
Discipline is maintained in the class
Teaching/learning is systematic
Avoids a lot of repetition
Class coaching is possible
Appropriate when dealing with young pupils who
have no previous experience.

37
Appropriate when dealing with large class but
apparatus are limited.
Apparatus not familiar with the pupils are not
neglected.
Injuries are minimized.
Demerits
 Activities/apparatus not familiar with the
teacher are neglected.
 Pupils do not progress at there own pace.
 Do not cater for individual difference e.g
physical and mental abilities.
 Pupils are passive and bored throughout.
 Pupils’ creativity/discovery are hindered
because they are not given the freedom.
 Does not promote self-confidence in
pupils.
 Does not express self-expression and
satisfaction.
2. Indirect/informal method
Pupils are given the freedom to select the
apparatus/activities of their choice. Role of the
teacher is supervise and provide apparatus.
Merits
 Enhances pupils’ maximum participation.
 Pupils progress at their own pace.
 Promote self confidence in pupils.
 Promote self-expression and satisfaction
 Caters for individual differences
 Promotes pupils discovery/creativity.
Demerits
 Class coaching not possible because pupils
are doing different activities
 Require more space/facilities
 Apparatus not familiar with pupils are
neglected.
 Take a lot of time
 A lot of apparatus/equipment is required.
 There is a lot of repetition.
 Class control discipline is not possible.
 Very little is covered.
 More injuries.
3. Limitation of on line method
Borrows advantages of both direct and indirect
methods of teaching.
4. Part method
This is when the whole skill is divided into various
components and each part is taught at a time.
Appropriate when dealing with complex skills e.g.
when teaching pole vault we have;
Grip>carriage>approach>plant>take off
flight>release>landing.
5. Whole method
This is applicable when whole skill cannot be
broken into parts e.g. fly spring, cartwheel e.t.c
6. Task method
This is when pupils are given assignment by the
teacher to accomplish within a given period of
time e.g. 10 press-ups within 5 seconds.
7. Discovery method
This is when the teacher presents a problem to the
pupils and gives them a chance to look for the
solution e.g. stopping the ball using the chest. The
problem will be to find other parts of the body that
can be used to stop the ball.
8. Reciprocal method
This is done in pairs. One performs the other
observes and later gives comments.
SCHEMES OF WORK
This is the break down of syllabus into smaller
teachable units done systematically spread over a
given period of time e.g. week, month, term or
year.
Purpose of scheme of work.
 Make teaching become systematic to avoid
repetition and lesson oversight.
 To consult various references in advance.
 To gather the lesson requirements in good
time
 To budget time properly.
 Professional requirement for inspection
and administrative purposes.
 Assist teachers during evaluation e.g.
pupils and self-evaluation.
Incase of new teacher he can comfortably fit into
the class (doesn’t break the continuity)
Types of schemes of work
1) General scheme of work
The contents of class activity and group activities
are taken from different topics e.g. gymnastics,
netball, athletics e.t.c
2) Specify topic based scheme of work
The contents of the class activity and group
activities are taken from same topic.
3) Theory scheme of work
This is when topics such as exercise and nutrition,
sports injuries, first aid, rules of the game,
Olympic education are taught in class.
PARTS OF THE SCHEME OF WORK
(The description is as per the new syllabus)
It has 9 columns.
i. Week
This is the week of the term
ii. Lesson
38
This is the lesson number for the specific week.
iii. Topic
The area where you derive the content e.g. net ball
gymnastics e.t.c.
iv. Content
This is the subtopic or the specific skill you are
dealing with e.g. in gymnastics we may have swan
balance.
v. Objectives
The behaviour change you expect from the
learners by the end of the stated duration i.e. a
period of about 30 or 35 minutes.
A good objective should have the following
characteristics:
 Should be specific
 Should be measurable
 Should be achievable
 Should be behavioural.
vi. Teaching/learning activities
Teaching activities are those that shall be
performed by the teacher during the learning
process while learning activities are those that
shall be performed by the learners during the
learning process.
vii. Resources
This shows the apparatus and the equipment that
will be used during the learning process.
viii. Reference
This shows materials used by the teacher as his
sources of information. They may include books,
magazines, newspaper e.t.c.
ix. Remarks
This column is filled after teaching. It shows
whether the lesson was taught or not and if not
taught must show the reasons as to why it was not
taught. If it was taught then must show whether
the objectives were achieved or not.
LESSON PLAN (New Syllabus)
This is a work schedule guiding the teacher on
what is to be taught at a given stage of the lesson
and the allocation of each stage. It guides the
teacher so that he does not go a stray.
Parts of the lesson plan.
A. Row headers
1. Introduction
This comprises of both introductory and
compensatory activities. It has 2 introductory and
3 compensatory activities.
Introductory activities
These are activities or exercises involving the
whole body. They should lively, motivating and
stimulating.
Purpose
 To give general warm up to the body
 For psychological/mental preparation
 Creation of interest/motivation
 Changes pupils mood from classroom to
field.
Compensatory activities
These are activities or exercise meant for specific
parts of the body to be used in a given skill. They
are supposed to be vigorous and lively.
Purposes
 To give further general warm up of the
body
 To give specific warm up of the body parts
that will be used in the skill to be learnt.
 To mobilize body joints and strengthen the
muscles.
To facilitate steepness in flexibility of the body
thereby reducing chances of injuries.
2. Development
This is where the teacher explains and
demonstrates the skill that appears in the content
column of the scheme of work.
3. Application
This is the practical stage where the pupils are
divided into group and are given chance to
practice the skill for proper mastery. The
teacher’s role is to supervise and to correct
mistakes.
Purpose of grouping.
 For practice of the new skill.
 Where rules and regulations of the game
are emphasized.
 Promotes spirit of sportsmanship.
 Promotes the spirit of sharing apparatus.
 Promote the spirit of co-operation.
 Promotes socialization.
 Give time for a teacher to attend
individual/group.
 Promote self-center of belonging.
Factors to consider when grouping pupils
 Nature of the skill
 Size of the class
 Apparatus available
 Space or facilities available
 Body size of the pupils i.e. height and
weight
 Physical abilities of the learners
 Mental abilities of the learners.
39
 Age of the pupils
 Past experience
 Gender/sex
4) Conclusion
This is the stage where pupils are involved in less
vigorous and less strenuous activities to cool the
body system.
Purpose
 For relaxation
 For cooling down the body system
 Changing pupils mind from the field to
classroom
 Psychological preparation for other
activities in the school.
 Where the teacher gives instruction for the
next lesson.
B. Column headers
i. Content
This shows activity/activities you will be doing in
that part.
ii. Objectives
This shows the reason why you are doing the
activity.
iii. Teaching/learning activities
This will show the teaching point of what you will
be doing in that part.
iv. Organization
This will show formation that you will use while
performing activity in that part.
v. Resources
This will show the apparatus and equipment that
will be used in that particular part.
vi. References
These are the sources of information to be taught.
vii. Resources
Comments on how activities were performed.
STEPS/STAGES OF TEACHING
PSYCHOMOTOR
1. Explanation
Factors to be considered
Good formation that the teacher and pupils can
easily see each other.
Explain only when pupils are attentive.
Explain systematically to avoid repetition
Explanation should be brief and precise
Use the language that pupils understand.
 Introduction of all vocabularies should be
done during the explanation stage.
 Teacher should be conversant with the
content.
 Pupils should not face direction of the sun.
2. Demonstration
 The skill is demonstrated by the teacher for
the pupils to have a mental picture of the
skill
Importance
 It enhances the comprehension of the skill
being taught i.e. what is seen is retained for
along time.
 Takes short time.
 Some skills can’t be taught without
demonstration.
 Can be used to compare different
movement.
 Help form good teacher/pupil relationship.
Instances when pupil demonstration is
preferred
 When the pupil is well conversant with the
skill than the teacher.
 When the teacher cannot perform the skill
because he or she might be unwell or not
changed.
 When the skill involved needs paring.
 When the pupils involved are too young to
pair with the teacher.
 When the teacher wants to pin point key
point key areas of demonstration.
Factors to be considered during demonstration
 Provide adequate space
 Good formation/organization.
 Adequate time.
 Avoid prolonged demonstration.
 Avoid wrong demonstration.
 Avoid using one pupil all the times.
3. Practical/participation
 Factors to consider
 Adequate apparatus.
 Adequate space.
 Adequate time.
 Close supervision of the pupils’ work.
 Correction from poor performance.
 Teacher to ensure maximum participation
by all pupils.
4. Exploration/discovery
This gives pupils opportunity to experiment with
the skill.
Purpose
Allows for self – satisfaction
Gives pupils self – confidence.
40
 Gives pupils freedom to handle and
manipulate the apparatus.
 Gives pupils sense of achievement
5. Evaluation
Meant to assess pupils’ acquisition of the skill
Methods of evaluation.
 Ask them to demonstrate.
 Let them explain oral questions or written
quizzes.
 Observe them during game situation.
 Project.
Ways of motivating children during the lesson
 Teacher must be interested/cheerful.
 Teacher must be actively involved.
 Teacher must be in correct P.E. uniforms.
 Supervise pupils.
 Praise for the correct performance.
 Teacher to give clear instructions.
 Good pupil/teacher relationship.
 Teacher to be confident.
Class control
 Pupils have freedom but to a limit.
 Use field markers to mark enough space.
 Use of voice i.e. clear, loud and
commanding.
 Teacher should have a good mastery of the
skill.
 Use appropriate language.
 Be firm in decision making/authoritative.
 Making trouble shooters group leaders by
giving them some responsibilities.
 Have a good working relationship with the
pupils.
IMPROVISATION
 The act of making or preparing an article
for use in learning process by use of locally
available materials to replace the real
article.
 Factors to consider when improvising
 Number or pupils in the class.
 The materials available.
 The cost involved.
 Durability of the item.
 The safety of the equipment.
 The functional utility of the item.
 The relevance of the apparatus involved.
 Importance of the apparatus.
 Makes the lesson formal.
 Ensure proper learning of the subject.
 Helps to maintain the interest.
 Trains co-ordination
 Improves quality of teaching
 Children master skill well by doing
 Children naturally enjoy playing with the
apparatus.
 Makes class control easier.
 Help prevent injuries.
Qualities of a good improvised item.
 Should resemble real object in shape size
weight and appearance.
 Should be safe to use and have no sharp
edges.
 Should be durable and avoid fragile ones.
 Should be pleasing to the eye.
 Should have proper gravity.
 Should suit the age of the pupils.
 Should be functional i.e. relevance to the
skill being taught.
Dangers of improvised items
 Are not durable
 Can cause injuries to the user
 They don’t motivate the learners as the real
ones.
 May not resemble the real one hence the
function may not be effective.
Care and storage of apparatus.
 P.E apparatus should be well looked after.
 Point pupils to carry them to and from the
field.
 Ones used for a particular activity should
be moved from the areas of operation to
save them from being stepped on.
 Apparatus should be well set so that pupils
can reach them so easily.
Factors influencing the occurrence of injuries
1. Old age due to less flexibility, elasticity,
strength, endurance, speed e.t.c
2. Insufficient warm up. This is concerned with
Raising body temperature with 20
c.
 Mobilizing joints and strengthening
muscles
 Mobilizing substances to be used in
production of energy.
 Prepare body tissue for proper ventilation.
 To stimulate hormone e.g. adrenaline and
non-adrenaline which help to suppress the
onset of fatigue.
 Prepare one psychologically and level of
conditioning.
3. Lack of adequate rest and pause. This makes
the glycogen depot to get exhausted and therefore
one suffers due to lack of metabolism or
accumulation of lactic acid.
4. Lack of balanced diet.
41
5. Nature of the game
6. Over dressing and under dressing
7. Experience on the sport
8. Sports specific techniques
9. Health status of the subject
10. Play grounds
11. Faulty apparatus
12. Poor demonstration/instructions.
Role of the teacher in prevention of injuries
 Group learners according to age and
learning
 ability.
 Teaching of correct technique.
 Ensure proper clothing.
 Always give ample time for
acclimatization to avoid heat stroke, heat
exhaustion e.t.c
 Should have knowledge of student medical
record, health status for him to have knowhow on how to treat them.
 Provide strict and proper supervision
during physical exercise activities.
 Ensure safe warm environment.
 Should have general knowledge on health
education.
 Educate pupils so that they can be able to
recognize dangers in equipment and
facilities.
Reasons for encouraging pupils to sit upright.
 To ensure that pupils are attentive.
 So that pupils can have very good view of
the teacher.
 To facilitate good blood circulation in the
body
 To avoid day dreaming/fantasy.
 Help in maintaining good class control.
 To facilitate good air circulation in the
body.
Importance of teacher’s self-evaluation.
(i) To check whether the method was appropriate
(ii) To find out whether the time was appropriately
used.
(iii) To check the effectiveness of the apparatus
used.
(iv) Help the teacher to prepare for remedial work
for the pupils.
(v) To check the safety of the apparatus used.
(vi) To find out how much the pupils have
mastered.
How to occupy sick pupils or disabled in your
class.
 You can use them as judges during
competition in the class.
 Use them to take care of the apparatus and
also distributing them.
 Use them to maintain discipline in the class
by helping you to identify those who are
misbehaving.
 Involve in some very light activities.
 Use them as group leaders to give
instruction to other pupils.
Factors considered when evaluating P.E.
program for a whole year.
1. Time
 Whether it was enough/was there any
wastage/was it used well.
 Time allocation for various topics.
2. Apparatus
 Were the apparatus enough?
 Were they appropriate for the level of the
learners?
 Were they bought or improvised?
 Did they cause injury?
3. Space
 Were the learners organized?
 Were the apparatus well spaced?
 Was there enough space between the
pupils?
4. Safety
Did the teacher ensure that the facilities and
equipment are safe for the pupils?
Is the teacher conversant with the first aid
knowledge.
Was there adequate teacher’s supervision?

42
BASKET BALL
The court
Sideline (28m)

Back
(Base)
line
(15 m)

Team’s bench Officials’ bench

Parts of the court
Centerline
 Subdivide the court into two equal halves
 The game starts along this line with jump
ball.
 Substitution takes place along this line.
Side line
 Length of the court (28 meters)
 Throw in takes place along this line
 Used for the purposes of substitution
 Team’s bench and official table located
along this line.
 It is the referee’s operation area
Base line
 Form width of the court (15m)
 Throw in can be taken along this line
 Its where back board is fixed
 Start of the game after score.
Center circle
Radius 1.9m
Where the game starts with the jump ball.

Restricted area

Team’s bench
 Used for penalizing common infringement
with jump ball.
Free throw line
 Where free throws are taken from
3 point line
It helps in demarcating 3 point and 2 point areas.
Restricted area
 No player is supposed to be in this area
during free throw.
 Unguarded attacking player is not
supposed to remain in the opponents’
restricted area without a ball for a period
exceeding three seconds.
Field goal area (2 point)
 Indicates when two points are awarded
when basket is scored.
3 point area
 Indicates when 3 point is awarded
Team’s bench
43
3 point line Field goal area Free throw lane
(2 point)
Centerline
Free throw
Line
Restraining of circles
R – 1.9 m 3 point field area
———–
——————

 This is where the substitute and the team
officials sit.
 Officials table
 This where the scorer timekeeper and 24
second operator sits.
 Marks
 Indicates line up when free throw is being
taken.
TEAM SIZE
A team is made up of 5 players.
The players should wear jerseys containing
numbers 4 – 15
DURATION
4 quarters of ten minutes each with a resting
period of 5 minutes. Incase of a tie, a period of 5
minutes is added.
ART OF TE GAME
It starts with jump ball at the center circle.
Procedure for jump ball.
Two opposing players at the center circle, each on
his side of the court. The rest of the players to be
outside the center circle.
Referee tosses the ball between the two and then
they jump to tap the ball outside the circle.
If one of the players commits a violation, the
opponent is given the ball for throw in on the
sideline.
Occasions when jump ball is administered
 Start of every quarter.
 Start of second half
 Start of extra period.
 Incase of common ball where it is
administered in any of the restraining
circles.
TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT
 Stop watch
 24 second operating device
 Score board
 Foul markers – numbers ranging 1-5
 Game clock
 Score sheet.
BASIC SKILLS
Catching
Passing
Shooting e.g. set shot, jump shot, stay up hook
shot.
Dribbling: This can be either low or high dribble.
Reasons for dribbling
 To beat an opponent
 To cover the space
 To create a good scoring chance when a
teammate is marked.
Faulty dribbling
 Double dribbling
 Dribbling using both hands simultaneously
carrying/lifting the ball.
 Pivoting
 Dodging/feinting/faking
SCORING
A score in basketball is called a basket.
A basket is considered to have been scored when a
live ball completely passes through the ring from
above.
A dead ball
After the score
Expiry of the time
Ball out of the court
When referee blows a whistle incase of a foul or
violation.
A live ball
When a ball is tapped outside the center circle
during a jump ball.
During free throw when the ball is disposed to the
player by the referee.
When the referee touches the ball during the throw
in.
Value of a basket
1 point – awarded during free throw
2 poins – awarded when score was made from
within goal area.
3 points – awarded when the score was made from
within the 3 point area.
Held ball
When two opposing players claim possession of
the ball at the same time and are struggling for it.
When the player holds the ball without dribbling,
passing or shooting for a period exceeding 5
seconds.
When the ball hangs between back board and the
ring.
44
TIME RULES
3seconds:
Unguarded player without a ball should not remain
in the opponents’ restricted area for a period
exceeding 3 seconds.
5 seconds:
A player should not exceed 5 seconds during
throw in when the ball has been touched by the
referee.
A player should not hold the ball without passing,
dribbling or shooting for a period exceeding 5
seconds.
A player should not exceed 5 seconds during free
throw when the referee has disposed the ball.
8 seconds
A team in control of the ball should make sure that
the ball moves from the backcourt to frontcourt
within 8 seconds.
24 seconds
A team should make an attempt to score at the
opponents’ basket within a period of 24 seconds.
30 seconds
A disqualified player must be substituted within
this time.
20 seconds
This is time for substitution.
1 minute
This is duration for time out.
Playing zones
G G
F F
C —— Center
G——- Guards
F——- Forwards
Playing systems
2:1:2
3:2
2:3
Attacking systems
Simple fast break
Complex fast break
Screening
Posting
Overloading
Disqualification
A player is disqualified after committing 5
personal fouls.
Must be substituted within 30 seconds.
Defence system
Man to man defence
Zonal defence
Combined cover
SUBSTITUTION
A team can substitute the whole team.
Substitution is effected when court player leaves
the court and the substitute enters
Must be done within 20 seconds
A disqualified player must be substituted within
30 seconds.
Substitution cannot be done during free throw
unless serious injury.
Procedure
The substitute reports to the official table and
gives signal for substitution.
The substitute then sits at the substitution bench.
When the ball is dead the scorer or timekeeper
signals the referee who authorizes substitution.
The substitute enters the court when the player
leaves the court.
TIME OUT
This is a period of interception of the game
requested by the coach or assistant coach for
technical talk.
Requested when the ball is dead.
Each team is entitled to one time out of minute
between 1st , 2nd , 3rd and extra time periods.
During the 4th period 2 time outs can be given to
each team.
Substitution can also take place during this time.
45
C
1. Violations
2. Fouls
1. VIOLATIONS
This is breaking of the rules when a players is
progressing with the ball i.e. offence committed
when a player is with the ball. They include:
 Breaking of time regulations.
 Back court play.
 Taking more than 2 steps with the ball i.e.
walking/travelling.
 Kicking the ball intentionally.
 Breaking the rules during jump ball.
 Throwing the ball out of the court.
 Breaking the free throw rule.
 Illegal dribble e.g. using two hands to
dribble simultaneously
 Lifting, carrying the ball.
 Double catch/repossessing.
Penalty for the violations
A throw in either from the back line or sideline is
awarded.
2. FOULS
This is the breaking of the rules concerning the
physical contact with an opponent or displaying
unsportsmanlike behaviours.
 Physical contacts
 Pushing
 Blocking
 Charging
 Holding
 Tripping.
Types of fouls
1. Technical fouls
These are fouls that are against the spirit of
games/unsportsmanlike behaviours.
They include:
 Changing the jersey number without
informing the referee.
 Entering as a substitute without referee’s
permission.
 Hanging on the ring.
 Failure to lift up hands when the foul has
been called upon you.
 Delaying the ball to be played e.g. during
throw in.
 Intimidating the opponent.
2. Personal fouls
Occur when a player intentionally contact an
opponent physically. 3 personal fouls lead to
disqualification and substitution.
Examples of personal fouls
1. Normal personal foul
When the player contact with an opponent
intentionally due to inexperience/poor skill
mastery.
2. Intentional foul
When a player deliberately contact the opponent
or when the player didn’t make any attempt to
prevent the contact.
3. Double foul
When two opposing players contact one another.
4. Multiple foul
When two or more teammates contact one another.
5. Disqualifying foul
Very dangerous foul/very serious unbearing
contact.
Penalty
Incase a player was in act of shooting and he
happens to be fouled and the score was successful
he is given points (2 or 3) and one free throw.
If the basket was not successful he is given 2 or 3
shots/throws.
Other personal fouls (not shooting foul) are
penalized with a throw in from the side or base
line.
Procedure for calling a foul.
 Referee blows the whistle.
 Give signal for the clock to be stopped.
 Indicate by raising his hand up that a foul
has been committed.
 Point at the player who has committed the
foul.
 The player acknowledges by raising his
hands up.
 Referee turns to the official table and
shows the number of the player who has
committed the offence.
 Indicate the kind of offence and the penalty
to be given.
 The penalty is taken.
SPORTS INJURIES
NEURO INJURIES (C.N.S & BRAIN)
1. UNCONSCIOUSNESS
46
The state of not being able to respond to a given
stimuli i.e. casualty is not aware or alert of what is
happening.
Causes
 Head knock
 Shock
 Heart attack
 Poison
 Drunkard ness
 Diseases of brain
 Shortage of blood in brain
 Lack of oxygen and blood supply
Stages of consciousness to unconsciousness
i) Full consciousness – The casualty is not to
respond to the stimuli e.g. feeling the paid when
touched.
ii) Drowsiness – The casualty is easily aroused but
relapses to unconsciousness.
iii) Stupor – Casualty aroused by a lot of
difficulties and information given is not reliable.
iv) Coma – The casualty cannot be aroused at all
Treatment
Place the casualty in a comfortable position i.e.
recovery/ coma position
Open the airway
Loosen the tight clothing
Resume artificial resuscitation (mouth to mouth,
mouth to nose, or chest compression e.t.c)
Treat for wounds
Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
2. STROKE
Caused by blood clot blocking the blood vessels to
the brain. Very common with people having high
blood pressure.
Signs and symptoms
Internal bleeding shown by
Blood shot eyes
Skin becomes pale
Blood coming out through the body openings
Stool/urine contains blood stain
Blurred speech
Loss of power on sensations in arms and legs
(paralyzed)
Treatment
Same as unconsciousness
3. HYSTERIA
This is caused by anxiety or too much worry
Treatment
Reassure the casualty
4. CONCLUSION
Caused by shaking up of the brain as a result of
falling or direct blow.
Signs and symptoms
 Unconsciousness
 Dizziness
 Headache
 Loss of memory
 Vomiting
 Nausea
 Weak pulse
Treatment
 Place the casualty in a comfortable position
 Keep the casualty awake
 Provide a fresh air
 Give adequate rest
 Give a lot of fluids to prevent vomiting
Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
5. COMPRESSION
Caused by pressure in the brain from the fracture
on the skull with the bone depressed or bleeding
and swelling within the brain.
Signs and symptoms
 Confusion
 Intense headache
 Slow noisy breathing
 Paralysis on one side of the body
 Unconsciousness
 Slow strong pulse
 Unequal pupils
 Dry and flushed face
 Twitching of the limbs
 Convulsion
Treatment
 Place the casualty in a recovery position
 Stop further bleeding
 Immobilize the broken bone
 Give the casualty cool fluids, adequate rest
 Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
6. SHOCK
This is when the blood pressure is very low
leading to collapsing of the body system.
47
Causes
 Good or bad news
 Stress
 Injuries
 Severe pain
 Nerve stimulation
 Severe illness
 Loss of the body fluids (bleeding or over
sweating)
 Dehydration
 Acute abdominal emergencies e.g.
 Rapture of appendix
 Heart attack
Signs and symptoms
 Cold dumpy skin
 Sweating
 Shivering
 Confusion
 Skin becomes pale
 Fast but weak pulse rate
 Shallow breathing
 Nausea
 Vision is blurred
 Restlessness
 Coma
 Stunned attitude leading to anxiousness
Treatment
 Remove the cause of the shock
 Rest the casualty either by sitting or lying
him with the legs higher than the head.
 Cover him but don’t make him feel too
warm
 Reassure the casualty by being calm and
confident.
 For minor shock give casualty warm drinks
 Provide room for breathing and fresh air.
 Loosen tight clothing
 Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
7. FAINTING (SYNCOPE)
This is a complete loss of consciousness due to
lack of oxygen in the brain.
Causes
– Injuries – Severe pain
– Lack of food – fatigue
– Horrifying sites – Illness
– Bad or good news
– Lack of enough oxygen in the brain
Signs and symptoms
Dumpy and cold skin – Dry lips
Face becomes pale – Sweating
Shallow breathing – Yawning
 Gradual unconsciousness
Treatment
 Rest the casualty on his back with the feet
slightly higher than the head to allow blood
flow from the brain
 Loosen tight clothing
 Keep away the crowd
 Sit the casualty on the chair and put his
head between the knees
 Hold his jaws and talk to him
 Fan the casualty to supply fresh air
 Place the casualty in a recovery position
 Dispose the casualty to the hospital
8. ASPHYXIA (SUFFOCATION)
This is a condition that a person suffer due to
inadequate supply of oxygen in the blood (brain
and tissue)
Causes
 Choking (obstruction of the airway)
 Strangulation
 Chest compression
 Electrical injury
 Poisoning
 Paralysis incases of a stroke
 Air pollution
 Drowning
 Carbon monoxide.
Signs and symptoms
 Rate and depth of breathing is rapid and
noisy
 Shallow breathing with froth
 Congestion around the neck
 Fits may occur
 Restlessness
 Unconsciousness
 Pale lips
 Increased heart rate
 Dizziness
 Casualty points at the mouth and the throat.
Treatment
 Remove the casualty from the cause
 Open the airway
 Loosen tight clothing
 Reassure the casualty
 Raise legs higher than the head
 Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
Methods of emergency resuscitation
1. Mouth to mouth resuscitation (Kiss of life)
Lie the casualty facing up
Tilt the head backwards
48
 Hold the jaws
 Breath to the mouth several times until you
see movement of the chest. The exercise
to continue up to a period of 10 minutes.
Why mouth to mouth may not be possible
Sometimes
 Incase the casualty is producing body
fluids through the mouth e.g. vomit blood.
 Incase there is serious injuries around in
the mouth.
 Incase the casualty is suffering from
contagious disease.
 Incase the casualty is facing downwards
2. Mouth to nose
3. Cardiac massage (Heart compression)
4. Nielsen Holger
ENVIROMENTAL INJURIES
High temperature
(a) Heat exhaustion
This condition occurs due to abnormal loss of salt
and water in the body in a very humid
environment. Water and salt is lost during
vomiting and diahroearing.
Signs and symptoms
 Moist skin
 Fatigue
 Dizziness
 Pulse faster but weak
 Muscle cramp
 Pale skin.
Treatment
 Place the casualty in cool area.
 Loosen tight clothing
 Place feet slightly higher than the head.
 Treat for shock
 Dispose to the hospital.
(b) Heat stroke
This is when the body is not able to loose excess
heat.
Causes
Exposure to very high temperatures
Signs and symptoms
 Restlessness
 Unconsciousness
 Flushed skin, dry and burning
 Pulse is faster and strong
 Temperature extremely high.
 Fits/convulsions may occur.
Treatment
 Place in cool area
 Apply cold applications
 Fan the casualty
 Raise the legs slightly higher than the head
 Loosen tight clothing.
(c) Sun burn
This caused by severe burn of the sun
Signs and symptoms
Skin is red, hot, tender, swollen and blistering
Treatment
 Sponging
 Sips of cold water
 Place the casualty in a cold area.
Low temperature
(a) Frost bite
 Damage to the body tissue caused by
exposure to extreme/severe cold. Blood
vessels contract reducing the blood supply.
 Signs and symptoms
 Skin becomes extremely cold
 Skin becomes numb
 Skin change colour to grayish
 Skin feels hard and stiff
 Loss of function.
Treatment
 Remove all cold and wet cloths
 Place the body in warm place
 Remove tight items e.g. rings, belts e.t.c
 Give hot fluids
 Dispose the casualty to the hospitals
(b) Hypothermia
This is dangerous lowering of the body
temperature caused by prolonged immersion in
cold water and general exposure to extreme cold.
Signs and symptoms
 Dizziness
 Severe headache
 Impair ness of muscular co-ordination
 Speech becomes blurred.
Treatment
Rap the casualty in a warm dry environment
Keep the victim a wake
Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
(c) Heat cramp
Caused by diminishing level of minerals in the
body
Signs and symptoms
Painful muscles
49
 Nausea
 Diarrhea
 Severe headache
Treatment
 Rest the casualty in a comfortable position
 Massage the muscles
 Place the casualty in a cool area
 Replace the fluid in the area.
BONE INJURIES
1. Fracture
This is cracking or breaking of the bone
 Causes
 Direct force
 Indirect force
 Muscular contraction/action.
Description of fractures
(a) Green stick
This is cracking of the bone due to body weight
Mostly common with children.
(b) Cross fracture
The bone is cut across
(c) Oblique fracture
The angle of breakage is 450
(d) Spiral fracture
The line of breakage has spiral shape
(e) Quashed fracture
The bone is severely damaged
(f) Avulsion
The bone moves out of its position
Types of fractures
1. Simple/closed
This is when the bone is injured and the
surrounding tissue is not interfered with i.e. no
would occurs.
2. Open/compound complicated
This is where the broken bon penetrates through
the skin injuring other body tissues e.g. muscles
and blood vessels
3. Multiple fracture
This is when body suffers more than one fracture.
Bone is broken at more than one point.
Signs and symptoms
Swelling and bruises
Pain
Tenderness
Deformity.
 Lose of movement and co-ordination
 Shock
 Bleeding
 Pale skin
 Temperature rises
Treatment
 Treat for shock
 Stop bleeding
 Treat for wounds
 Put the affected part on the splinters
 Immobilize the affected part
 Dispose the casualty to the hospital
JOINT INJURIES
1. Sprain
This is when the tendons and ligaments at the
joints are torn or twisted due to sudden turning of
the joint in a natural movement.
Signs and symptoms
 Tenderness
 Loss of movement
 Severe pain
 Change in skin colour
 Rise in temperature
 Treatment
 Support the joint in a comfortable position
 Treat for shock
 Elevate injured part
 Apply cold ice to control swelling, reduce
pain e.t.c
 Apply firm bandage at the joint
 Rest the joint with no active movement
 Dispose the casualty to the hospital
2. Dislocation/luxation
Displacement of one or more bones at the joint i.e
bones out of the alignment.
Causes
 Direct force
 Indirect force
 Muscular contraction/action
Signs and symptoms
 Bones not in the right place (deformity)
 Pain over the joint
 Bleeding due to tear of the muscles
 Swelling
 Affected part sensitive pressure and pain
 Tenderness
 Loss of movement
 Pale skin
50
SKIN/MUSCLES INJURIES
1. Wound
This is a break in continuity of the body tissue e.g.
skin.
Classification of wounds
(a) Open wounds: this is when there is a break in
the skin.
(b) Closed wound: this is when there is injury on
the underlying tissue.
Types of open wounds
(i) Abrasion
Caused by friction on the surface of the body.
Skin may be removed discoloration of the area and
bleeding e.g. sliding and tackling in soccer.
(ii) Incision/clear cut
The line of the cut is straight. Produced by sharp
cutting objects like knife, razor e.t.c
(iii) Laceration/torn
This is irregular breaking or tearing of the tissue
caused by a great force exerted on the body e.g. by
barbed wire.
(iv) Puncture/stabs
Caused by sharp objects piercing the skin creating
a hole in the tissue e.g. stepping on a thorn or nail,
being stabbed with a knife.
(v) Avulsions
This occurs when a tissue is forcibly separated or
torn from the victim’s body. There is a lot of
bleeding.
(vi) Contusions/bruises
This capillary bleeding beneath the unbroken skin.
This is caused by a knock or a blow by blunt
instrument. The blood vessels are torn and the
tissues are damaged.
Signs and symptoms
 Severe pain
 Swelling
 Rise in temperature
 Discoloration
 Skin becomes pale
 Treatment
 Rest in a comfortable position
 Cold application
(vii) Burns and scalds
Burns are caused by a dry fire or heat.
Scalds are caused by moist heat.
General treatment for all wounds
Remove all the impurities.
Wash the wound with warm soapy water
(should be running water).
Cover the wound with dressing e.g. cotton or
gauze
Place the bandage on the dressing
Immobilize the affected part.
Stop any bleeding
Treat for shock
Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
2. Bleeding
This is oozing of the blood from the wound or
injury.
Types of bleeding
i. External bleeding
a) Arterial bleeding
The blood spurts out and is bright red color due to
plenty of oxygen.
b) Venous bleeding
The blood flows out smoothly and is dark red in
colour due to less oxygen.
c) Capillary bleeding
The blood oozes out and is bright red in colour.
Pressure points
These are where arteries near the bone and can be
pressed to stop bleeding e.g. wrist/radial; base of
the neck/carotid, temple, elbow/radial vein, base
of the thigh/groin.
Signs and symptoms of external bleeding
 Face/lips become pale
 Skin cold and dumpy
 Casualty feels fainty/dizziness
 The pulse is rapidly becoming weaker
 Restlessness
 Shallow breathing
 Yawning
 Thirsty
Treatment
 Direct pressure on the affected part
 Indirect pressure on the affected part
 Cold applications e.g. ice cubes, cold spray
 Elevation of the affected part to reduce the
blood flow to the affected part.
 Cover the wound with sterilized dressings
 Immobilize the affected part
 Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
ii)internal bleeding
This is oozing of blood from internal body
organs/tissues without break of the skin.
51
Signs and symptoms
 Swelling on the affected part.
 Blood coming out from nose, ears and
other openings.
 Pain
 Blood shot eyes
 Skin is dark in colour
 Urine/stool containing blood.
 How the body naturally stops bleeding
 Lowering of the body temperature
 Blood pressure decreases
 Heart rate decreases
 Vasco constriction of the blood vessels
 Reduced supply of the blood to the
affected area.
Artificial treatment
 Elevation of the bleeding part to reduce the
blood flow to the wound
 Direct pressure on the affected part.
 Indirect
 Cold applications e.g. ice cubes
 Cover the would with sterilized dressings
 Immobilize the affected part.
 Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
3. Muscle cramp/muscle pull
Muscle cramp is sudden contraction of the muscle
fibres due to insufficient ions (salt) in the body.
Muscle pull is sudden overstretching of the muscle
fibres.
Causes
 Lack of enough salt intake
 Excessive sweating
 Improper training
 Overhauling if muscles i.e. warming and
cooling effect.
 Fatigue
 External forces e.g. knock, blow
 Inability to relax tight muscles
 Loose of function
 Swelling
Treatment
 Extend the affected muscles, pull both
muscle to allow contraction
 Encourage adequate fluids and salt intake
 Rest the muscles in a comfortable position
 Apply cold application
 Massage the affected area
4. Muscle tear
This can either be complete tear or partial tear
Causes
 Direct force on the muscle
 Indirect force (tension force)
 A cut by sharp object
Signs and symptoms
 Pain
 Cramp
 Swelling
 Depression
 Loss of function of the affected part
 Discoloration: due to internal bleeding
Treatment
 Apply ice to reduce pain
 Immobilize the affected part
 Secure the affected part with bandage
 Dispose the casualty to the hospital
5. Muscle soreness
This is pain along the muscles due to accumulation
of lactic acid.
6. Muscle strain
This is overstretching of a muscle beyond its limit.
7. Blisters
This is caused by rough surface/wearing of very
tight shoes
Treatment
 Cold application
 Never peel the blisters
FIRST AID
This is the first medical treatment given to the
casualty before disposing to hospital.
It is a skilled application of treatment given on the
occurance of injuries or sudden illness suing the
locally available materials and facilities.
First aid terminologies
a) Signs
This is what a first aider can be able to observe or
feel.
b) Symptoms
These are sensations/feelings experienced by the
casualty
c) Diagnosis
This is medical method of identifying a given
injury
d) Prognosis
This is the chance of survival
e) Treatment
These are the efforts and measures taken to cure
an illness/injury
f) Rehabilitation
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This is the effect aimed at restoring the person to
his normal place/restoring the injury part to its
normal position.
Objectives of first aid
 To sustain or save life
 To prevent the condition from worsening
 To promote recovery
 Relieve pain
Qualities of a good first aider
 Should be in a position to use common
sense
 Should be observant i.e. can be able to
detect the signs and symptoms.
 Should be gentle i.e. avoid rough handling
of the casualty.
 Should be resourceful i.e. should use
locally available materials
 Should be tactful i.e. should be calm to
avoid alarming the casualty.
 Should be explicit i.e. clear in the
instructions giving.
 Should be confident
 Should be sympathetic
 Should be perseverance i.e. continue with
the treatment to the end.
 Discriminative i.e. should be able to give
priorities.
The scope of first aide
1. Assessing the situation
Find out:
 The cause of the injury
 The dangers around
 Safety of both casualty and first aider.
2. Diagnosis
This involves identifying the injury
Methods of medical diagnosis
a) Inspection (observation)
Check for:
Bleeding, swelling, change of skin color, vomiting
and tenderness.
Auscultation (listening)
Listen to:
Heartbeat, breathing
(c) Palpation (touching)
You tough to feel:
Swellings, broken bones, rise in temperature,
tenderness e.t.c
d) Tapping
You tap the chest to find out whether there is
internal bleeding/water in the chest.
(e) Medical history of the casualty
You can check the available document; listen to
the story narrated by the conscious casualty or
story given by the people around.
Contents of first aid box
– Safety pins – Scissors
– Dressings – Methylated spirit
– Bandages – Clinical thermometer
– Pain killers – Disinfectant/antiseptic
– Glucose/dextrosal – Jelly
– Ice cubes – First aid book
– Tweezers – Ointments
Dressings
This is the immediate protective cover placed over
the wound e.g. cotton wool and gauze
Uses of dressings
 To protect the wound
 To prevent germs from entering the wound
 To absorb discharge e.g. pus/blood
 Protect further swelling
 Stop bleeding.
Bandages
These are thin woven materials used to hold the
dressings in place /putting the splints in position.
Examples include: gauze, elastic, adhesive, binder
of muslin, emergency bandages e.g. string,
triangular bandages.
Uses of bandages
 Used to hold dressings in position
 To support splints
 To stop further bleeding
 To carry the casualty
 To support the body part
 To immobilize the affected part.
NOSE BLEEDING
This is the loss blood from the body through the
nose due to internal injury.
Causes
 High blood pressure
 Internal injuries to the head
 Sharp objects entering the nose
 Change in altitude
 Sneezing (forceful blowing of nose)
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TRAINING
This is improving of components of physical
fitness.
Physical fitness components
Strength: force applied
Power: rate or speed of the force.
Agility: Ability to chance direction
Flexibility: rate of movement around the joint
Co-ordination: working together of the body
systems.
Speed: quickness to perform given task
Balance: ability to maintain body stability
Endurance: ability to work for long time without
being tired.
 Reaction time
 Methods of training
 Circuit training
 Internal training
 Fatleck training
 Cross country training
 Jogging
 Swimming
 Cycling
Benefits of training
For feeling better (well being)
Maintenance of the body weight
For health benefits (prevent psychosomatic)
Diseases e.g. stress, depression, hysteria e.t.c
Enhancement of physical capability
For relaxation
For enjoyment
Slowing down of the aging process
Correction of some body defects
Negative effects of over-training
Reduction of reaction time due to fatigue.
Muscles become hypertrophy (increase in size)
May bring some injuries e.g. wearing of bones due
to friction
The player become very aggressive (irritable)
Muscles become stale due to accumulation of
excess lactic acid.
Depletion of stored glycogen.
Fatigue (tiredness)
Decreasing of cognitive abilities
Reasons for having a rest/recovery period
To heal the injuries
So that the depleted glycogen in the muscles can
be restored.
Components of warm up program
Stretching and curling of the body parts
Specific activities related to the specific body parts
to be used.
Callisthenics – Exercise involving major body
muscles.
Merits of warm up
Increase body temperature by 20
c
Increase flexibility of the muscles
For proper distribution of blood in the body
Improve flexibility around the joints.
Prevention of injuries by warming up the muscles.
Improve co-ordination and accuracy.
Merits of cool down process
To bring the body to the resting state
To bring circulation to the normal
To improve elimination of lactic acid
For psychological preparation for other activities
To normalize respiratory systems.
Environmental factors affecting performance
Air pollution
Speed of wind
Altitude (shortage of oxygen)
Humidity
Atmospheric pressure
Factors influencing performance of an
individual
 Age – Drugs
 Physical fitness – Diet
 Heredity/genetics
 Facilities/equipment
 Climatic conditions
 Environmental factors (mentioned above)
 Psychological factor (motivation)
High altitude training
At higher altitude there is less oxygen as compared
to the lower altitudes. Athletes respond to this by
their bodies producing more red blood cells that
are consequently used in transporting oxygen to
the body parts. In this way they are capable of
running long distance events due to high amount
of oxygen carried in the tissues involved.
Atmospheric pressure is also limited at high
altitude. This explains why explosive events
(anaerobic) are
54
Performed better in high altitude (low air
resistance)
Why athletes move to high altitude for training.
To enhance proper transportation of oxygen to the
muscles.
To increase the RBC in the blood this helps in the
absorption of oxygen.
Increase total volume blood circulation in the
body.
Acclimatization – This is when a player moves to a
given climatic to get used to the condition of that
place (physiological adaptation).
Effects of training in high altitude areas
Breathing becomes deeper.
Volume of blood in circulation increases
The number of RBC increases thus improvement
of oxygen in the blood.
Increase in pulmonary ventilation, which help to
burn out of lactic acid.
Increase the muscles tissue.
Why Kenyans are so good in long distance
races
 Physique (body structure)
 Presence of role models
 Good climate
 Culture / tradition
 Serious training
 Improved training personnel
 Self motivation
 Diet
 Genetic inheritance
Phases of training
(i) Macro-cycle
This is entire training season form on-season to
off-season.
(ii) Meso-cycle
This is a training unit within a meso-cycle e.g. a
lay, a month or a week.
Training principles
(a) Specificity
The training is aimed at specific part of the body
to be used in the activity.
(b) Principle of reversibility
Re-training occurs rapidly when one stops
training.
(c) Principle of interference
Training of one component of fitness might
interfere with another component of fitness e.g.
training for endurance might interfere with
training for strength.
(d) Principle of cross transfer
An example of this is where running to develop
cardio-vascular endurance may also develop
muscular endurance.
(e) Principle of over load
This when the part of the body is worked beyond
normal (physiological stress).
(f) Principle of progression
This requires the over load or physiological stress
to be increased gradually or progressively in
stages.
Training pyramid
Off – season
Pre-season
On-season
Off-season
This period is normally called recovery/rest
period.
It is characterized by:
 Limited participation in specific sport
 Low intensity exercise.
During this season the participants are given
time to:
 Replace the energy consumed during the
competition time and also to allow for the
healing process to take place
 To break the monotony of the game
 To avoid effects of training.
Diet for off-season
 Carbohydrate to replace consumed energy
 Proteins and vitamins to repair worn out
tissues and healing injuries.
Pre-season
This is the season just before the competition.
The trainer should emphasize on physical
conditioning.
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of the body i.e develop component physical fitness
and skill development sports.
Diet
Carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins
On-season
This is the competition time where emphasis is
laid on quality performance. There is also
building of energy capacity and fine skill
development. It also involves psychological
preparation for events to come. The presence of
the coach is highly required.
Diet.
Foods containing all food nutrients.
EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY
 Effects of training/exercise to the growth
and development of all child.
 Improves physical fitness.
 Improve body posture
 Helps to correct defects at an early stage
before they become pronounced e.g.
lordiosis, kyophosis, knock-knee
 Help fasten growth of new body cells so
that the child grows up faster/increase of
red blood cells.
 Improves the character of the growing
child i.e. positive attitudes.
 Relaxation of the child’s mind, which
helps to reduce tensions, which can result
from psychological illness e.g. hysteria,
stress.
 Improves proper functioning of all the
body organs and systems.
 Progressively gain body co-ordination,
balance strength and control in movement.
 Getting rid of excess fat in the body.
Effects of training to human muscles
 Help to eliminate lactic acid
 Make the muscles to increase in size
(hypertrophy)
 Reduce stress within the muscles
 Muscles are able to operate for a longer
period of time without getting fatigue.
 Increases muscles strength.
 Muscles become tough and firm.
 Improves metabolism.
 Reduces muscles injuries.
 Dilation of blood vessels hence better
blood supply to muscles.
 Improve supply of nutrients to the muscles
Effects of training/exercise to human heart
 Increase in cardiac out put
 Decreases heart related diseases e.g.
hypertension, blood pressure.
 Cardiac reserves increases.
 Reduces heart rate, which is a good
indicator of cardio-vascular endurance.
 Increases stroke volume i.e. volume of
blood pumped per beat.
 Increase oxygen intake
 Strengthen heart muscles
 Reduces cholesterol in the heart.
 Improves functioning of the heart.
Effects of training in human lungs
 Proper ventilation of air within the lung
cavity i.e. gaseous exchange is improved.
 Respiratory muscles are strengthened e.g.
diaphragm, internal and external
intercostals muscles.
 Internal capacity improves
 Increase in volume of oxygen absorption in
the blood stream (total lung cavity)
 Minimizes respiratory diseases e.g. T.B,
Cold, Asthma.
 Improves residual volume i.e. the amount
of air remaining in the lungs after
breathing out.
 Breathing system becomes effective and
efficient.
Effects of training to human posture
 Improves postural defects e.g. cardiosis
 Maintains good posture
 Good postural appearance.
Factors affecting human posture
 Fitness level/conditioning
 Disease/illness
 Injuries
 Disability
 Bone structure
 Muscles structure
 Gender/sex.
BODY ANATOMY
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This is the study of body parts or organs e.g. skin,
bones, blood, joints, muscles etc.
BONES
These are the framework or structure of the body
Functions of the bone
 Gives the shape to the body
 Enables movement of the body
 Provide support to the muscles
 Manufacturing of red blood cells (in the
marrow)
 Protect delicate body organs e.g. skull
protect brain, ribcage protect lung and
heart.
 Act as shock absorber.
Types of bones
 Long bones
 Flat bones
 Irregular bones
 Short bones
SKIN
 This is the outer covering of the body.
 Functions of the skin
 Prevents micro-organism from entering the
body
 Protects delicate body parts
 Store excess fats in adipose tissue
 Absorb vitamin D, which is responsible for
the formation of the strong bones and teeth.
 Helps in regulation of body temperature.
 Protects the body from harmful ultra-violet
ray from the sun.
 Acts as excretory organ by removing waste
like sweat from the body.
 Acts as a sensory organ.
MUSCLES
These are the connective tissues in the body that
controls body movement through the process of
contraction and relaxation. They are made up of
fibres (elongated cells).
TYPES OF MUSCLES
(i) Stripped/skeletal/voluntary
Characteristics
They are und the control of will (CNS)
They are responsible for the co-ordinated
movement e.g. jumping, eating etc.
They have liberal capillary network.
Some of them are antagonistic in nature.
What determines the strength of a muscle
The strength of a muscle is determined by the
number of motor fibres activated at any one given
time.
Reciprocal enervation
This is where one group of muscles are relaxing
and the other group are contracting.
Muscular tone.
This is a case where voluntary muscle is
maintained in a state of tension to allow quick
response to the stimulus.
(ii) Unstripped/smooth/visceral/involuntary
Characteristics
 They are not under the control of CNS
 They are unstripped
 They are very sensitive to mechanical
stimulation.
 They work slowly over a long period of
time
 They are found in internal organs
 They don’t get tired easily.
 Examples include:
 Muscle of the alimentary canal, the eye,
blood vessels.
(iii) Cardiac muscles
These are muscles that make up heart.
Characteristics
 They are not under the control of will.
 Found in the walls of the heart.
 Can work on their own.
 Can maintain 2nd alternate relaxation
without nervous stimulation.
 They are capable of continuing to beat
even when taken out of the body.
Injuries occurring to muscles
-Muscles pull – Muscles strain
-Muscles cramp – Muscles soreness
-Muscles tear
BLOOD
Components of blood
(i) Plasma
(ii) Platelets
(iii) Blood cells
(iv) Fibrins
Functions of blood
Transportation of oxygen in the form of
oxyhaemoglobin.
Transportation of Co2 in the form of
carboxyhaemoglobin.
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 Contains white blood cells, which helps in
fighting infections.
 Transportation of food nutrients.
 It also transports enzymes and hormones to
parts where they are needed.
 Cools the body temperature due to heat
produced during the exercise.
 It has platelets, which helps in blood
clotting.
 Transports waste products.
JOINTS
This is where two or more bones meet.
Functions of the joint.
 Helps in body movement
 Helps in maintaining body balance
 Absorption of shock
Types of joints
a) Fixed/fibrous joints: these are
immovable joints e.g. skull, teeth.
SOCCER
THE FIELD PLAY
Touch line (110m)
Penalty area
16.5m Penalty arc

7.32m Goal Area
I
Penalty spot
Corner arc R-1m
1. Touch line/side line (110m)
Forms the length of the field
b) Slightly movable/cartilaginous e.g. the
vertebrae column
c) Freely movable joints/synovial joints are joints
which can move freely.
Types of synovial joints
(v) Ball and socket e.g. knee joint,
shoulder
(ii) Hinge joint: e.g elbow
(iii) Gliding joint: vertebral column
(iv) Pivot joint: at the neck, ulna and radius
(vi) saddle joint: lower jaw
Possible movement along the synovial joint
 Bending and flexion (reducing the angle
and the joint)
 Extension (increasing the angle along the
joint)
 Abduction – moving parts of the body
away from the body
 Rotation – movement around the axis
 Circumduction – combination of both
internal and external movement.
16.5m
5.5m

11m
Center circle 5.5m
R – 9.15m
Goal line
(75m)

Substitution takes place along this line
Used during throw in.
58
Where the reams bench and officials bench is
located.
Where the referee assistants operate from.
Center line
Subdivides the field into 2 equal halves.
Substitution takes place along this line.
Place kick takes place along this line
Indicates when the player is offside.
Center circle
Where the players are supposed to be during the
penalty shots.
Where place kick is taken
Goal line (75m)
Forms width of the field
Confirms the score
Where the goal post is fixed.
Indicates when a corner kick is to be awarded.
Goal area/box (5.5m x 18.32m)
This where the goalkeeper can’t be charged while
handling the ball.
Penalty area (40.32 x 16.5m)
Where the goalkeeper enjoys privileges e.g.
handling the ball.
The opponents should be outside this area during
goal kick.
The ball is considered to be in play once it moves
out of this area during foal kick.
If a player commits any of the ten penal offences
within this area then penalty kick is awarded to the
opponents.
Penalty are (R – 9.15m)
Helps to maintain the opponents away from the
goal at a distance of 9.15m during penalty kick.
Penalty spot
11m from the goal line where the ball is placed
during penalty kick.
MAIN LAWS OF THE GAME
LAW 1.
The ball
Spherical and made if leather or other suitable
materials.
Circumference between 68cm – 70cm
Weight between 410g – 450g.
2. Flag posts
Placed in all the 4 corners
Should be 1.5m high
3. Goal posts
Two upright posts measuring 2.44m
Cross bar measuring 7.32m. All the posts should
be painted black and white.
Net should be fixed for the purpose of:
(i) Confirming the score
(ii) Avoid a lot of disputes
(iii) Avoid wastage of time be preventing the ball
from going far.
LAW: 2
Players’ equipment
A player should not use any equipment or wear
anything that is dangerous to himself or another
player. Basic/compulsory equipment include
Jersey/shirt
Shorts
Stockings
Shin guards
Foot wear
Goalkeeper’s gloves
Each goalkeeper wears a colour that distinguishes
him from other players and the referee.
LAW 3
Number of players
A match is played with two teams each consisting
of players not exceeding 11 of whom one is
designed to be a goalkeeper. A match may not
start if either of the teams is having less than 7
players. Between 3 & 5 substitutions may be
made depending on the competition. The names
prior to the start of the game.
Any other player may change place with the
goalkeeper provided that:
The referee is informed the change is made
The change is made during a stoppage.
LAW 4:
Officials
Referee
Enforces the laws of the game
Ensures that the ball meets the requirement.
59
Controls the match with the assistant referees:
Ensures that the players equipment meet the
requirement.
Acts as a timekeeper and keeps the records of the
match.
Stops, suspends or terminate the match, at his
discretion for any infringement of the law.
Stops, suspends or terminate the match at his
discretions because of outside interference of any
kind.
Stops the match if a player is seriously injured and
ensures that he is removed from the field.
Allow the play to continue until the ball is out of
play of if a player is slightly injured.
Punishes more serious offences if a player
commits more than one offence at a time.
Takes disciplinary actions against a player guilty
of caution able and sending off offences.
Acts on the advice of assistant referee on the
incidents that he has not seen.
Restarts the match after if had been stopped.
NB/ Decisions of the referee regarding facts
concerned with the play are final.
Assistant referees
Two assistant referees are appointed whose duties
include indication of the following:
When the ball is out of the field of play, which
side is entitled to corner kick, goal kick and throw
in.
When a player may be penalized for being offside.
When substitution is requested.
When misconduct or any other incidence has
occurred out of the view of the referee.
(c) Match commission
He is the representative of the
federation/organization organizing the tournament.
He writes the report on how the game progressed
and incase of any incident he reports to the
federation.
(d) Fourth official (substitution referee)
Assist referee in general administrative duties e.g.
inspecting players’ equipment, facilities and
registering players.
He helps to enforce substitution.
Incase the center referee is incapacitated he can
take the whistle.
Qualities of a good referee
Physical fit
Conversant with the latest rules of the game
Good eye sight
Sympathetic
Friendly and cheerful
Firm in decision making
Should not be biased.
LAW 5
Duration of the match
The match lasts two equal periods lasting 45
minutes each.
Players are entitled to a resting interval of 15
minutes during half time. Allowances for time
lost is made in either period for all time lost
through:
Substitution
Assessment of injuries
Removal of injured players
Wasting time
During penalty kick.
LAW 6:
Start and restart of the play
A coin is tossed and the team that wins decides on
which goal it will attack in the 1st half. The other
team takes the kick off (place kick). The team
wins the coin takes the kick off in the 2nd half.
Place kick (kick off)
It is administered in the following instances:
At the start of the match
After a goal has been scored.
At the start of each period of the extra time where
applicable.
A goal may be scored directly from a place kick.
After a team scores a goal the other team takes the
kick off.
Procedure
All players at there respective halves of the field
of play.
Ball at the center spot.
The team starting lines up along the center b
within the center circle.
Opponents outside the center circle and must
maintain a distance of 9.15m from the ball.
Ball considered being in play once it moves
forward.
A player cannot pass the ball to himself.
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Drop ball
This is a way of restarting the match after a
temporary stoppage. The referee drops the ball at
the point where it was located.
Cases when awarded.
 When there is simultaneous offence.
 When there is technical problem e.g.
basting of the ball
 External interference e.g. spectator
invading the court.
 When referee is uncertain of the player
who has committed the offence.
 When the game was stopped due to bad
weather.
 When the game was stopped when
lowering national flag.
 Stoppage in case of injuries.
Procedures
Done at the point where the incident occurred.
Two opposing players stand facing each other and
hands straight along side their body.
Referee drops the ball down considering the waist
of the shorter player.
The ball is considered to be in play once it touches
the ground.
LAW 7
Ball in and out of play
Ball out of play
If it has wholly crossed the goal line or touchline
whether in air or on ground.
When play has been stopped by referee.
Bal in play
The moment referee blows the whistle for the
game to commence during place kick and throw
in.
When the ball hits the ground during drop ball.
When the ball moves forward during corner kick.
When ball hits goal post, corner flag, referee or
referee assistant who is standing in the field.
When the ball moves out of the penalty area
during goal kick.
LAW 8:
Method of scoring
A goal is scored when the whole ball passes over
the goal line in between the upright post and under
the cross bar. If both teams score equal
Number of goals or no goals scored, the match is
drawn.
For matches ending in a draw, competition rules
may state provisions involving extra time or other
procedure to determine the winner.
LAW 9:
OFFSIDE
Offside position
It is not an offence in itself to be in an offside
position.
A player is in offside position if he is nearer to his
opponents’ goal line than the ball and the 2nd last
opponent.
A player is not offside position if:
 He is in his own half of the field of play
 He is in level with the 2nd last opponent
 He is in level with the last 2 opponents.
Offences
A player in offside position is only penalized if , at
the moment the ball touches or is played by one of
his team mate, he is in the opinion of the referee
involved in active play by:
 Interfering with the play
 Interfering with the opponent
 Gaining an advantage by being in that
position.
No offences
There is no offside offence if a player receives a
ball directly from:
 Goal kick
 Corner kick
 Throw in
For any offside offence the referee awards an
indirect free kick at the place where the
infringement occurred.
LAW 10:
Fouls and misconducts
Fouls —these are offences due to a player
breaking the law of the game.
Misconduct – these are offences due to a player
displaying unsportsman like behaviour or playing
contrary to the game to the spirit of the game.
They are penalized as follows:
a) Direct free kick
Awarded to opposing team if a player commits
any of the following offences (ten penal offences)
 Kicking or attempt to kick an opponent.
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 Tripping or attempt to trip an opponent.
 Jumping at an opponent
 Charges at an opponent
 Strike or attempt to strike an opponent.
 Pushes an opponent
 Tackles an opponent making contact with
the opponent first before touching the ball.
 Holds an opponent.
 Spits at an opponent.
 Handles the ball deliberately (except
goalkeeper)
Penalty Kick
This awarded if any of the above offences are
committed inside a player’s penalty area
intentionally.
Procedure
 Ball is placed at the penalty spot.
 All other players outside the penalty are
except the kicker.
 Goalkeeper to remain stationary along the
goal line until the kick is taken.
 The ball should be kicked once and in
forward direction.
c) Indirect kick
This is awarded to the opposing team if a player,
in the opinion of the referee, commits any of the
following offences.
 Plays in dangerous manner.
 Impedes the progress of an opponent.
 Prevents the goalkeeper form releasing the
ball from his hands.
It is also awarded to the opposing team, if a
goalkeeper inside his own penalty area commits
any of the following offences:
 Takes more than 4 steps or 6 seconds while
controlling the ball with his hands before
releasing it from his possession.
 Touches the ball again with his hands after
it has been released from his possession
and has not been touched by any other
player.
 Touches the ball with his hands after it has
been deliberately kicked to him by a
teammate.
 Wastes time.
d) Disciplinary sanctions
Yellow card
This is shown when a player commits any of the
following offences.
Is guilty of unsporting behaviour.
 Shows dissent by word or action
 Persistently infringes the law of the game
 Delays the restart of the play
 Fails to respect the distance required when
play is restarted a corner kick or free kick.
 Enters or re-enters the field or play without
referee’s permission.
 Deliberately leaves the field of play
without referee’s permission.
e) Sending – off offences
Red-card
 This is shown to a player who commits any
of the following offences:
 Is guilty of serious foul play
 Is guilt of violent conduct.
 Spits at an opponent or any other person.
 Denies an opponent a goal or an obvious
scoring opportunity by deliberately
handling the ball (this does not apply to
goal keeper within his own penalty area.)
 Denies an obvious goal scoring
opportunity to an opponent moving
towards the player’s goal by an offence
punishable by free kick or penalty kick.
 Uses offensive, insulting or abusive
language
 Receive a second caution (yellow card) in
the same match.
LAW 11
Throw in
This method of restarting a play awarded when a
whole ball passes over the touchline either on the
ground or in the air. It is awarded to opponent of
the player who lastly touched the ball.
A goal cannot be scored directly from throwin.
Conditions to be observed:
 Should be taken at the point where it
crossed the touchline.
 Opponents should be 9.15m away from the
ball.
 The player cannot pas the ball to himself.
 Ball must be delivered from behind and
overhead.
 The thrower should note the field of play
before releasing the ball.
LAW 12
Goal kick
This is a method of restarting a play.
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It is awarded when the whole ball, having lastly
been touched by a player of the attacking team and
passes over the goal line either on the ground or in
air and the goal is not scored as per law 8.
Procedure
 The ball is placed on top of the goal area
line.
 All the opponents outside the penalty area.
 A goal may be scored directly from the
goal kick.
LAW 13
Corner kick
This is a method of restarting a play
It is awarded when the whole ball having last been
touched by a player of the defending team passes
over the goal line and a goal is not scored in
accordance with law 8.
A goal may be scored from corner kick.
Procedure
 The ball is placed at the corner arc.
 Opponents 9.15m away from the ball.
 Flag should not be removed.
 A player can’t be offside during corner
kick.
 A player cannot pass a ball to himself.
LAW 14.
Kicks from penalty mark (penalty shoot out).
Taking kicks from a penalty mark is a method of
determining a winning team where the competition
requires a winning team after the match have been
drawn.
Procedure
 Referee chooses the goal at which the
kicks shall be taken.
 Referee tosses a coin and the team for the
winning captain takes the first kick.
 Referee keeps a record of kicks taken.
 Each team takes 5 kicks alternatively.
 If both teams have taken 5 kicks and one
has scored more goals than the other could
score, even if it were to complete 5 kicks
no more kicks are taken.
 If after both teams have taken 5 kicks, both
have scored same number of goal, kick
continue until one team has scored a goal
more than the other from the same number
of kicks.
 Each kick is taken by a different player and
all eligible players must take a kick before
a player takes a second kick.
 All players except the player taking the
kick and the two goalkeepers must remain
within the center circle.
BASIC SKILLS OF THE GAME
1. GOALKEEPING
A good goalkeeper should have knowledge on the
following:
Panting: this when a goalkeeper catches the ball
and does not take 4 steps of 6 seconds before
tossing the ball in air and kicking it.
Narrowing the angle: this is moving from the goal
line towards the attacker with the ball.
Other skills require of a goalkeeper are diving and
grip.
2. HEADING
Heading skills that can be used by a player
include:
Side head
Forward head
Back head.
Reasons for heading
To score
To give a pass
To control the ball
3. PASSING
This is the application of small amount of force on
the ball in order to reach the other teammate. Part
of the foot used in passing include:
 Inside of the foot.
 Instep
 Toe
 Heel
 Outside of the foot.
Types of passes
 Wall pass
 Through pass
 Square pass
 Diagonal pass
 Inter pass
4. KICKING
This is the application of great force on the ball
using your foot to go up the field or to shoot.
Types of passes
a) Banana/curve/swerve.
b) Scissors/orthodox
c) Volley kick
Half — ball lands first, bounce and then hit.
Full—ball is hit before it lands
d) Chip/loft: raising over the goalkeeper.
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5. TACKLING
This involves getting the ball away from an
opponent.
 Styles of tackling
 Linear tackling
 Sliding
 Frontal
 Heading
 Rear.
6. DRIBBLING
This is moving with the ball under control by short
controlled taps.
Types of dribbling
Single leg/open
Double leg/closed
Reasons for dribbling
To advance with the ball
To give teammate room to open
To beat an opponent
To create a clear chance of scoring
To cover the distance.
7. SHIELDING/SCREENING

1. Goal keeper 7. Outside right
2. Right full back 8. Inside right
3. Left full back 9. Center forward
4. Left half back 10. Inside left
5. Center back 11. Outside left
6. Right half back
Formations (playing systems)
(i) Classic formation: 2-3-5
(ii) WM formation: 3-2-2-3
(iii) 4-2-4
(iv) Sweeper system: 1-4-3-2
(v) 5-3-2
(vi) 4-4-2
This is putting the ball away from the opponent by
leaning on the ball without causing obstruction.
8. BALL CONTROL
(a) Trapping
This is applied when controlling aerial balls
though the ball is not completely controlled. Parts
used in trapping the ball include: Head, shoulder,
thigh, heel, instep and sole.
(b) Stopping
Used to control the ball completely dead. Parts
used include; shoulder, instep, inside of the foot
and outside of the foot.
9. JUGGLING
Tapping the ball in air using several parts of the
body.
10. DODGING/FEINTING/FAKING
This is anticipating the opponent to go in the
wrong direction.
PLAY POSITIONS
Qualities of a good goalkeeper
 Reasonably tall
 Good reaction to time
 Courageous
 Swift
 Good grip
 Good eye sight
 Strong
Qualities of mid fielders
 Good ball dribbling
 Good ball distribution/passing
 Should be swift.
Qualities of full back
 Good timing/reaction time
 Enduring
 Good tackling technique
 Strong shots/kicks
Qualities of forward players
 Very fast
 Good accurate shots
 Good reaction time
 Good ball control.

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