1. a) State five factors that promote national unity in Kenya.
  • Constitution
  • Education
  • National language
  • Social economic interactions
  • Equal distribution of resources
  • National philosophies
  • National symbols of unity e.g. National flag

Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

  1. b) Explain five methods of conflict resolution.
  • Negotiation – discussion between two parties or people who are trying to reach an agreement.
  • Arbitration – This is provided by the Kenyan laws. Arbitrators.
  • Diplomacy/conciliation – negotiations between individuals to create understanding and room for reconciliation.
  • Legislation – passing of laws that controls conflicts. It criminalizes activities that lead to conflicts.
  • Traditional society – elders of communities raising their experience to resolve a conflict.
  • Religious action – Religious figures are called upon to resolve political, social & economic conflicts and give guidance on the emerging social trends and issues.
  • Court action/litigation – parties take other parties to court for arbitration.
  • Policing – used to maintain law and order. Presence of police help to control crime that bring about conflicts.
  • International agreements – International agreement on security or sharing of Natural resources e.g. Egypt & Kenya on waters of R. Nile.
  • Mediation – A situation where a person who is not involved in a dispute tries to reach two conflicting parties reach an agreement.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks



11.What is conflict resolution?   (1mk)

  • refers to the process of settling disputes. 1×1 = 1mk



  1. Give the main reason why Kenya’s celebrate Kenyatta day as a national holiday
  • To commemorate the day Kenyatta and other leaders of KAU were arrested by colonial government
  • To remind us of the sufferings and blood shed by our people in the struggle for independence

1 x 1 = 1mk



  1. Give one way in which the institution of the presidency promotes National Unity (1mk)

–           The President as head of state and government unites all Kenyas.

  • All Kenyans look upto one President for protection.             1 x 1 = 1mk



  1. State one way in which the Kenyan constitution promotes national unity. ( 1 mk)
  2. i) Guarantees equal opportunities for all Kenyans.
  3. ii) Provide protection to individuals against any form of discrimination / bill of right.

iii)       Provide for unitary government.                                                        ( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)



  1. One way in which the constitution promotes national unity

-Guarantees equal opportunity to all Kenyans

-Provides protection to individuals against any form of discrimination     2×1=2mks

  1. One level of conflict (1mk)

-Individual verse individual

-Group verse group

-Individual verse state

-Group verse state

-State verse state     1×1= 1mk

  1. b) Explain five reasons why national integration is important

-To develop national unity in spite of the differences if each communities

-For economic and social development as people unite their effort             towards the development of various    economic activities

-To promote peaceful co-existence of different tribes as people accept their culture differences /    intercultural tolerance

-Enables the country to develop a sense of national direction as national goals are             communicated  to the             people and also enable people todevelop unified goals for the             nation

-Enables the country to achieve an easier, more efficient and accurate communication

-Reduces conflicts based on ethnicity religion / race hence less wars, deaths and property destruction.

-Ensures political stability / security

-Eliminates suspicion among citizen of different tribes /religion /political thus eliminates tribalism, nepotism or corruption.

– Encourages a sense of nationalism and patriotism       (5×2=10mks)    well explained

ANS 15, 18, 24b DIST 8.


  1. Why is it important to have cultural activities in Kenya today.             (1mk)
  2. i) They entertain people
  3. ii) They educate the masses

iii)       They unite the people

  1. iv) They promote patriotism
  2. v) They create employment
  3. vi) They preserve African culture.                                     Any 1×1 = 1mk
  4. Celebration for gaining internal sef-governance/Madaraka Day.

Give the major historical significance of first June in Kenya.                                           (1mk)

ANS 14, 16 DIST 9


  1. State one way in which the Kenyan constitution promotes national unity 1mk)
  2. It ensures equal opportunities to all Kenyans
  3. It provides protection to individuals against any form of discrimination
  4. It provides for a unitary system of government
  5. All Kenyans are subjected to the same constitution of law Any 1×1 = 1mark
  1. Give two ways through which conflicts can  be resolved peacefully          (2mks)
  1. Diplomacy / negotiation
  2. Arbitration
  3. Litigation
  4. Mediation
  5. Legislation / parliament passes laws to control conflict Any 2×1 = 2 marks
  1. a) Identify five symbols of national unity in Kenya                                          (5mks)
  1. National flag – signifies one nation
  2. National award
  3. National anthem
  4. Loyalty pledge
  5. Court of arms

5×1 = 5marks

  1. b) Discuss the steps that have been taken by the Kenyan government to promote national integration since independence                (10mks)
  2. Development of national symbols e.g. flag, anthem etc
  3. Declaring Kiswahili a national language
  4. Promotion of Harambe spirit which unites all Kenyans and promotes a sense of belonging
  5. Introduction of The Nyayo philosophy of peace, love and liberty
  6. Use of one constitution which promotes equality of all Kenyans before the law
  7. Promotion of games, sports and cultural activities within the general public and in leaning institutions
  8. Abolition of ethnic organizations and groupings
  9. Promotion of a National Public Service where civil servants can serve anywhere in the country

Any 5×2 = 10marks

ANS 13, 14, 22 DIST 10


2.i)  It encourages the rich and the poor to exploit other members of the society.

  1. ii) It widens the gap between the rich and the poor in the society thus creating enemity    and

iii) It leads to mismanagement of resources / economy .

  1. iv) It breeds other vices such as hatred , individualism and injustice.
  2. v) It promotes a skewed / unbalanced  distribution of national resources.(1 x 1 = 1mk)
  3. a) –   Greed

–   Exploitation of the poor by the rich.

–   Nepotism

–   Tribalism

–    Racism

–    Irresponsible statements by leaders.

–    Religious differences

–    Thirst for power

–    Political differences / ideological differences

–    Trade union disputes / industrial disputes.                 (5 x1=5mks)

  1. b) i) Negotiation – creation of understanding between 2 parties.
  2. ii) Arbitration – disagreement is solved by a neutral person

iii) Mediation – involves a third party who is not part of the conflict.

  1. iv) Court settlement – dispute is taken to court/ litigation.
  2. v) Out of court settlement – dispute is handled out of court
  3. vi) Traditional society / use of elders – involves use of customary law by the elders.

vii) Religious action – Handled by church elders.

viii) Policing – presence of the police help control crime.

  1. ix) Compromise – Opposing parties take a middle ground. (5×2=10mks)

ANS 2, 22 DIST 11

  1. State two importance of national integration.
  2. i) It create unity for national integration
  3. ii) It promotes peaceful co-existence and stability i.e. different tribes and races.

iii) It provides national direction as it sets national goods.

iv ) It promotes patriotism and nationalism.

  1. v) It enhances communication among the people since it involves an official language of



24.(a)  State five ways in which conflicts can be prevented in Kenya.                              (5mks)


  • Able leadership
  • Respecting other peoples rights and freedoms
  • Having a good constitution
  • Respecting the principles of democracy
  • Having proper electoral process
  • Equitable/fair distribution of resources.
  • Maintenance of law and order
  • Having a responsible media.

5 x 1 = 5mks


ANS 24a DIST 14


  1. – Individual vs Individual

– Individual vs state

– Group vs state

– state vs state 2×1 = 2mks



22b.- Constitution

– National language

– Education

– Fair distribution of resources

– One president

– Games and sports

– Social and economic interactions

– Employment opportunities

– National motto

– Urbanization

– Symbols of national unity

– National activities and holidays

– Mass media                                                                                                  (6 x 2=12mks)

ANS 22a DIST 17


20b. Describe six steps that can ensure a successful and peaceful resolution of

conflicts (12 mks)

  • Identification of the conflict – the conflicting parties should recognize

that a conflict exists

(ii)       Arbitrator must be accepted by all

  • Diagnosis on the causes of the conflict
  • Scrutinizing of the grievances
  • Determination of the extent to which the conflict has progressed
  • Examination of options for conflict resolution, aiming at the best long term solution
  • Implementation of the solution by the parties involved
  • Both parties to accept the outcome, failure to which an alternative should be sought.
  • The arbitrator should make a follow up.

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