HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
TIME 2 ½ HOURS
QUESTIONS & MARKING SCHEME
SECTION A (25 MARKS)
- Name two types of Australopithecus. (2mks)
- Australopithecus Anamensis.
- Australopithecus Afarensis.
- Australopithecus Africanus.
- Australopithecus Robustus | Boisei.
- Identify one community that belong to the plain Nilotes. (1mks)
- Mention two importance of age-set among the Nandi community during pre-colonial period. (2mks)
- It provided unity.
- It provided warriors to defend the community.
- It gives a sense of belonging/identity.
- Give two ancient documents that contained the historical information about East African coast before the 7th (2mks)
- The Graeco– Roman Documentary.
- ThePeriplus of the Erythrean Sea.
- The writings of Claudia Ptolemy known as “Geography”.
- Document of Arab Merchants like Ibn Batuta and al Masudi.
- Mention one peaceful method of conflict resolution. (1mks)
- Arbitration / use arbitrator/court to solve the conflict.
- Diplomacy /Negotiation – making the two conflict parties to come to understanding.
- Legislation- using of law/legislation passed by parliament to solve conflict.
- Use of elders- two conflicting parties come before the elders and come up with solution/ agreement.
- Religious actions- use of religious leaders to solve conflict.
- Community policing- use of local people to help in solving conflict / ensure peaceful co- existence.
- Mediation/use of mediators
- State one function of the constitution. (1mks)
- It provides legal ground on which laws are made.
- It spells out powers of the government and its relation to the people governed.
- It spells out the rights and duties of citizens.
- It spells out punishment for lawbreakers
- Identify two rights of the old member of the society. (2mks)
- To participate in the national affairs.
- To pursue their personal development.
- To live in dignity and respect.
- To receive reasonable care from family and state.
- Name the person who came up with the indirect rule policy used in Kenya by the colonial government. (1mks)
- Captain Fredrick Lugard.
- State two problems faced by the independent schools and churches in Kenya during the colonial era. (2mks)
- Harassment by missionary and colonial government.
- Lack of trained personnel’s.
- Lack of funds.
- Leadership wrangles.
- Competition with missionaries.
- Identify the main borne of contention between KADU and KANU in the eve of independence. (1mk)
- KADU was for the federal constitution | Majimbo while KANU was for the Unitary government.
- Outline two guiding principles of the electoral system in Kenya. (2mks)
- Freedom to exercise political rights.
- 2/3 rule (i.e) not more than 2/3 of elective positions come from the same gender.
- Fair representation of persons with disabilities.
- Universal suffrage where all adults have right to vote and equality of votes.
- Free and fair election based on secret ballot.
- Independent and transparent elections
- Give one reason why Kenya adopted the National Philosophy of African socialism after independence (1mks)
- To create a new society different from colonial one.
- To create a just and human society.
- To create united and free country with democratic rights and freedoms.
- State two components included in the budget estimates in the National Budget. (2mks)
- The revenue required.
- The source of revenue.
- The projects intended to carry out.
- Mention one member of the County Executive Committee. (1mks)
- County Governor.
- Deputy County Governor.
- Members appointed by the Governor/county executive committee members.
- Highlight two roles played by the trade unions in the struggle for independence. (2mks)
- The improved working condition for workers.
- They provided alternative forum which kept the spirit of nationalism burning when political parties were banned.
- They looked for international community support by exposing oppression experienced under colonial government.
- They prepared trade unionist to become leaders in political association which fought for independent/ training ground for political leaders.
- They assisted those who fought for independence.
- They educated people on their political rights.
- State the main reason why the 1957 elections are important in the history of Kenya.
- It was the first elections where Africans were elected as members of Legco by fellow Africans.
- Who is the chief administrator and accounting officer of parliament? (1mks)
- The clerk of the parliament.
SECTION B (45 MARKS)
- (a) Give three communities that belong to the coastal Bantus. (3mks)
(b) Discuss six effects of the migration and settlement of the Cushites in Kenya. (12mks)
- Increased warfare for control of limited resources e.g the conflict between Somali and Oromo.
- Displacement of some communities who had settled in the region earlier e.g the Bantu.
- Cultural interaction with the neighborse.g the Bantu learnt about age-set and circumcision from the Cushites.
- Intermarriages among neighboring communities.
- Redistribution of population in the region where they settled.
- Assimilation and absorption of some communities.
- Enrichment of languages due to borrowing of words from neighboring communities.
- Increased trade in the regions they occupied as they traded with their neighbors.
- Population increase in the areas they settled.
- (a) Identify five positive impacts of the Portuguese rule at coast of East Africa. (5mks)
- The Portuguese introduced new crops e.g sweet potatoes, pawpaw etc.
- Built fort Jesus which is today used as a museum andtourist attraction..
- Introduced birds dropping as manure and crop rotation.
- Added some words to Kiswahili e.gMeza and Mvinyo/vocabulary/improved language.
- Introduced Portuguese architecture which was used to build houses by coastal people.
- During their rule,the Kenyan coast developed strong ties with Indians
- They tried to introduce Christianity at the coast.
- Led to the opening up of the coast to other European powers.
(b) Explain five Negative effects of the Indian Ocean Trade. (10mks)
- Decline of local industry due to importation of better goods from Europe and Asia.
- Destruction of wildlife especially elephant due to increased demand for ivory.
- High demand of slaves led to increased warfare among communities as they tried to capture slave for sale.
- Slave trade led to draining away of able bodied people from East Africa which led to underdevelopment of the region.
- The trade led to exposure of East Africa to Europeans which eventually led to colonization.
- The trade led to loss of African culture and adoption of Swahili culture at the coast.
- Depopulation of the interior after the capture of many slaves
- (a) Highlight five results of the Akamba reaction to the British rule in Kenya. (5mks)
- Loss of independence.
- Land alienation for Europeans settlement.
- Loss of lives as many people were killed during the resilience.
- Destruction of properties e.g villages.
- Loss of livestock through confiscation by the British.
- Heavy taxation.
- Recruitment into kings African Rifles.
- Rise of wealth class traders especially those that collaborated with the British.
- Spread of Christianity.
- Enmity between those who collaborated and those who resisted.
(b) Discuss five methods used by the colonial government to obtain labour for the white settlers. (10mk)
- Use of master servant ordinance that made it an offence for Africans to evade duty/laws.
- Low wages ensuring that Africans were lowly paid and thus remained permanently servants to Europeans.
- Forced recruitment whereby Africans were forced to work for the Europeans
- Use of Native ordinance which made sure that all male adults were registered to facilitate labour recruitment.
- Creation of reserves where Africans enjoyed limited resources, thus forced to work for the Europeans.
- The Kipande system that prevented Africans from deserting from their white employers.
- Africans were prohibited from growing of cash crops to ensure that they could only get cash by working for settlers.
- Confiscation of their livestock which made African poor and thus seek employment from their white seller.
- Taxation e.g hut tax and poll tax which made the Africans to work and get money to pay these taxes.
- (a) Give three political parties that were formed after 1945 which were involved in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (3mks)
- KAU – Kenya African Union.
- KANU – Kenya African National Union.
- KADU – Kenya African Democratic Union.
- APP – Africans People’s Party.
NB; NAMES MUST BE WRITTEN IN FULL
(b) State and Explain six challenges facing culture and sports in Kenya since independence. (12mks)
- Inadequate facilities- lack of recreational and sports facilities/stadia/studios especially in rural areas.
- Poor remuneration – Those people involved in music, sports, drama are poorly paid.
- Exploitation on royalty payments: Those involved in music industry, arts and drama are exploited through payments imposed on them.
- Inadequate funds – lack of adequate funds to enhance cultural programmes.
- Piracy – there is piracy of local artist work thus denying them income.
- Misappropriation of funds/ corruption ;money meant for culture have been misappropriated by those in the high positions
- Nepotism when selecting teams/ players
- Lack of well established structures for nurturing talents
SECTION C (30 MARKS)
- (a) Give five characteristics of a good constitution. (5mks)
- Clarity – a good constitution ought to spell out its content clearly.
- Comprehensive- it should be comprehensive and address issues in details to avoid misunderstanding.
- Flexible – it should be flexible to accommodate any change in the state.
- Bill of rights: it should state clearly the bills of rights of the citizens.
- Durable: it should last for a reasonable time without requiring amendment.
- Amendment: it should have provision for amendments and state clearly which sections can be amended and which ones cannot be amended.
(b) Discuss five factors that promotes national integration in Kenya. (10mks)
- The constitution: it creates a unitary state and protects all citizens against discrimination on whatever basis as well as guaranteeing equality of all citizens.
- Education – schools bring together children from different ethnic communities and make them think of themselves as Kenyans. The school curriculum also stresses more on the importance of unity.
- Fair distribution of resources – this helps the citizen to feel one as they share resources fairly and also the development of all parts of the country.
- Social economic interaction- people interact in many ways like inter-community marriage | playing games | trade | working together etc. all this helps to promote unity.
- National currency – the use of a common currency in business transaction and payment for employed people make people united.
- National language – the use of Kiswahili as a national language helps people to communicate freely and share ideas which promote unity.
- National philosophies: the use of national philosophies such as African socialism, Harambeesm and Nyayoism promotes unity.
- National symbols : sharing of common national symbols i.e national flag, national anthem, the coat of arms and the public seal make people united.
- Government institution – the government institution like the legislature, judiciary and the executive serves all people equally thereby promoting unity.
- National events and days: the national days like Mashujaa day, Jamuhuri day Madaraka day and events such as music and drama festivals bring people from different ethnic communities together thus promoting unity.
- The presidency serves as a symbol of national unity
- (a) Identify threeNational Security Organs in the Kenyan government (3mks)
- The Kenyan Defense Forces (KDF)
- The Kenyan National Intelligent Service (KNIS)
- The Kenya Police Service (KPS)
(b) Explain six powers of the President of Kenya according to the new constitution of 2010. (12mks)
- He is the commander in chief of the defense forces.
- Has power to exercise executive authority of the republic.
- Has power to uphold and safeguard the constitution and the sovereignty of the republic.
- Power of mercy or pardoning persons convicted of an offence.
- Power to nominate, appoint or dismiss cabinet secretaries, judges of superior courts and state officers whom the constitution require the president to appoint.
- Power to confer honors to the distinguished people in the republic of Kenya.
- He is the chairperson of the National Security Council.
- He has powers to assent/ veto bills before they become law
- (a) State five importance of the Government Budget. (5mks)
- It enables the government to explain to the public the tax structure.
- Enables the government source revenue for its programmes.
- It enables the government to identify ways to spend its revenue without wastage.
- It helps the government to prioritize its development projects.
- It helps to provide valuable information to those who want to invest in the country.
- It creates confidence among the foreign countries and the donors like World Bank, International Monetary Fund etc.
- It helps the government to evaluate its performance and improve where necessary.
- It enhances accountability and transparency of the government in the eyes of the people.
- It ensures that there is balance in the country’s revenue and expenditure thus avoiding deficits.
- It helps the government to set aside some funds in case of emergencies.
(b) In which five ways does the National Government control the use of public finance?
- Ensuring that at the beginning of every year a budget is prepared showing the estimate of revenue and the expenditure.
- Parliament passes legislation prescribing how National Government may borrow money.
- The cabinet secretary in charge of finance report to the relevant committee on the use of money, debt and the progress of the repayments of loans.
- Parliament passes legislation to ensure expenditure control, transparency and ensure implementation of the government programmes.
- Cabinet secretary for finance has powers to stop the transfer of funds to a state organ in event of mismanagement.
- The government have established a system of open tendering for procurement and disposal of goods and services.
- The controller of budget supervises on the implementation of the budget and makes a report to parliament after every four months.
- The auditor general audits government ministries and departments and submit report to the parliament.
- The principal secretaries are accountable to the National Assembly for financial management within the ministries.
- The Ethics and Anti- Corruption Commission investigates and recommend those who mismanage public funds to be prosecuted in the court of law.
- The public accounts and public investiments committees are established by parliament to ensure proper use of public funds.