Home Teachers' Resources MOKASA KCSE JOINT HISTORY EXAMS & MARKING SCHEMES PP1

MOKASA KCSE JOINT HISTORY EXAMS & MARKING SCHEMES PP1

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

TIME 2 ½ HOURS

QUESTIONS & MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1. Name two types of Australopithecus.             (2mks)
  • Australopithecus Anamensis.
  • Australopithecus Afarensis.
  • Australopithecus Africanus.
  • Australopithecus Robustus | Boisei.
  1. Identify one community that belong to the plain Nilotes.             (1mks)
  1. Mention two importance of age-set among the Nandi community during pre-colonial period.                         (2mks)
  • It provided unity.
  • It provided warriors to defend the community.
  • It gives a sense of belonging/identity.
  1. Give two ancient documents that contained the historical information about East African coast before the 7th             (2mks)
  • The Graeco– Roman Documentary.
  • ThePeriplus of the Erythrean Sea.
  • The writings of Claudia Ptolemy known as “Geography”.
  • Document of Arab Merchants like Ibn Batuta and al Masudi.

 

  1. Mention one peaceful method of conflict resolution.             (1mks)
  • Arbitration / use arbitrator/court to solve the conflict.
  • Diplomacy /Negotiation – making the two conflict parties to come to understanding.
  • Legislation- using of law/legislation passed by parliament to solve conflict.
  • Use of elders- two conflicting parties come before the elders and come up with solution/ agreement.
  • Religious actions- use of religious leaders to solve conflict.
  • Community policing- use of local people to help in solving conflict / ensure peaceful co- existence.
  • Mediation/use of mediators
  1. State one function of the constitution.             (1mks)
  • It provides legal ground on which laws are made.
  • It spells out powers of the government and its relation to the people governed.
  • It spells out the rights and duties of citizens.
  • It spells out punishment for lawbreakers
  1. Identify two rights of the old member of the society.             (2mks)
  • To participate in the national affairs.
  • To pursue their personal development.
  • To live in dignity and respect.
  • To receive reasonable care from family and state.
  1. Name the person who came up with the indirect rule policy used in Kenya by the colonial government.             (1mks)
  • Captain Fredrick Lugard.
  1. State two problems faced by the independent schools and churches in Kenya during the colonial era.             (2mks)
  • Harassment by missionary and colonial government.
  • Lack of trained personnel’s.
  • Lack of funds.
  • Leadership wrangles.
  • Competition with missionaries.

 

  1. Identify the main borne of contention between KADU and KANU in the eve of independence.                                                 (1mk)
  • KADU was for the federal constitution | Majimbo while KANU was for the Unitary government.
  1. Outline two guiding principles of the electoral system in Kenya.             (2mks)
  • Freedom to exercise political rights.
  • 2/3 rule (i.e) not more than 2/3 of elective positions come from the same gender.
  • Fair representation of persons with disabilities.
  • Universal suffrage where all adults have right to vote and equality of votes.
  • Free and fair election based on secret ballot.
  • Independent and transparent elections

 

  1. Give one reason why Kenya adopted the National Philosophy of African socialism after independence             (1mks)
  • To create a new society different from colonial one.
  • To create a just and human society.
  • To create united and free country with democratic rights and freedoms.
  1. State two components included in the budget estimates in the National Budget. (2mks)
  • The revenue required.
  • The source of revenue.
  • The projects intended to carry out.
  1. Mention one member of the County Executive Committee.             (1mks)
  • County Governor.
  • Deputy County Governor.
  • Members appointed by the Governor/county executive committee members.
  1. Highlight two roles played by the trade unions in the struggle for independence. (2mks)
  • The improved working condition for workers.
  • They provided alternative forum which kept the spirit of nationalism burning when political parties were banned.
  • They looked for international community support by exposing oppression experienced under colonial government.
  • They prepared trade unionist to become leaders in political association which fought for independent/ training ground for political leaders.
  • They assisted those who fought for independence.
  • They educated people on their political rights.
  1. State the main reason why the 1957 elections are important in the history of Kenya.

(1mks)

  • It was the first elections where Africans were elected as members of Legco by fellow Africans.
  1. Who is the chief administrator and accounting officer of parliament?             (1mks)
  • The clerk of the parliament.

 

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

  1. (a) Give three communities that belong to the coastal Bantus.             (3mks)

1×3=3

(b) Discuss six effects of the migration and settlement of the Cushites in Kenya. (12mks)

  • Increased warfare for control of limited resources e.g the conflict between Somali and Oromo.
  • Displacement of some communities who had settled in the region earlier e.g the Bantu.
  • Cultural interaction with the neighborse.g the Bantu learnt about age-set and circumcision from the Cushites.
  • Intermarriages among neighboring communities.
  • Redistribution of population in the region where they settled.
  • Assimilation and absorption of some communities.
  • Enrichment of languages due to borrowing of words from neighboring communities.
  • Increased trade in the regions they occupied as they traded with their neighbors.
  • Population increase in the areas they settled.

 

2×6=12

  1. (a) Identify five positive impacts of the Portuguese rule at coast of East Africa. (5mks)
  • The Portuguese introduced new crops e.g sweet potatoes, pawpaw etc.
  • Built fort Jesus which is today used as a museum andtourist attraction..
  • Introduced birds dropping as manure and crop rotation.
  • Added some words to Kiswahili e.gMeza and Mvinyo/vocabulary/improved language.
  • Introduced Portuguese architecture which was used to build houses by coastal people.
  • During their rule,the Kenyan coast developed strong ties with Indians
  • They tried to introduce Christianity at the coast.
  • Led to the opening up of the coast to other European powers.

1×5=5

(b) Explain five Negative effects of the Indian Ocean Trade.                      (10mks)

  • Decline of local industry due to importation of better goods from Europe and Asia.
  • Destruction of wildlife especially elephant due to increased demand for ivory.
  • High demand of slaves led to increased warfare among communities as they tried to capture slave for sale.
  • Slave trade led to draining away of able bodied people from East Africa which led to underdevelopment of the region.
  • The trade led to exposure of East Africa to Europeans which eventually led to colonization.
  • The trade led to loss of African culture and adoption of Swahili culture at the coast.
  • Depopulation of the interior after the capture of many slaves

2×5=10

 

 

  1. (a) Highlight five results of the Akamba reaction to the British rule in Kenya. (5mks)
  • Loss of independence.
  • Land alienation for Europeans settlement.
  • Loss of lives as many people were killed during the resilience.
  • Destruction of properties e.g villages.
  • Loss of livestock through confiscation by the British.
  • Heavy taxation.
  • Recruitment into kings African Rifles.
  • Rise of wealth class traders especially those that collaborated with the British.
  • Spread of Christianity.
  • Enmity between those who collaborated and those who resisted.

1×5=5

(b) Discuss five methods used by the colonial government to obtain labour for the white settlers. (10mk)

  • Use of master servant ordinance that made it an offence for Africans to evade duty/laws.
  • Low wages ensuring that Africans were lowly paid and thus remained permanently servants to Europeans.
  • Forced recruitment whereby Africans were forced to work for the Europeans
  • Use of Native ordinance which made sure that all male adults were registered to facilitate labour recruitment.
  • Creation of reserves where Africans enjoyed limited resources, thus forced to work for the Europeans.
  • The Kipande system that prevented Africans from deserting from their white employers.
  • Africans were prohibited from growing of cash crops to ensure that they could only get cash by working for settlers.
  • Confiscation of their livestock which made African poor and thus seek employment from their white seller.
  • Taxation e.g hut tax and poll tax which made the Africans to work and get money to pay these taxes.

 

2×5=10

  1. (a) Give three political parties that were formed after 1945 which were involved in the struggle for independence in Kenya.             (3mks)
  • KAU – Kenya African Union.
  • KANU – Kenya African National Union.
  • KADU – Kenya African Democratic Union.
  • APP – Africans People’s Party.

NB; NAMES MUST BE WRITTEN IN FULL

1×3=3

(b) State and Explain six challenges facing culture and sports in Kenya since independence.                                                                                                       (12mks)

  • Inadequate facilities- lack of recreational and sports facilities/stadia/studios especially in rural areas.
  • Poor remuneration – Those people involved in music, sports, drama are poorly paid.
  • Exploitation on royalty payments: Those involved in music industry, arts and drama are exploited through payments imposed on them.
  • Inadequate funds – lack of adequate funds to enhance cultural programmes.
  • Piracy – there is piracy of local artist work thus denying them income.
  • Misappropriation of funds/ corruption ;money meant for culture have been misappropriated by those in the high positions
  • Nepotism when selecting teams/ players
  • Lack of well established structures for nurturing talents

2×6=12

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

  1. (a) Give five characteristics of a good constitution.             (5mks)
  • Clarity – a good constitution ought to spell out its content clearly.
  • Comprehensive- it should be comprehensive and address issues in details to avoid misunderstanding.
  • Flexible – it should be flexible to accommodate any change in the state.
  • Bill of rights: it should state clearly the bills of rights of the citizens.
  • Durable: it should last for a reasonable time without requiring amendment.
  • Amendment: it should have provision for amendments and state clearly which sections can be amended and which ones cannot be amended.

1×5=5

 

(b) Discuss five factors that promotes national integration in Kenya.                    (10mks)

  • The constitution: it creates a unitary state and protects all citizens against discrimination on whatever basis as well as guaranteeing equality of all citizens.
  • Education – schools bring together children from different ethnic communities and make them think of themselves as Kenyans. The school curriculum also stresses more on the importance of unity.
  • Fair distribution of resources – this helps the citizen to feel one as they share resources fairly and also the development of all parts of the country.
  • Social economic interaction- people interact in many ways like inter-community marriage | playing games | trade | working together etc. all this helps to promote unity.
  • National currency – the use of a common currency in business transaction and payment for employed people make people united.
  • National language – the use of Kiswahili as a national language helps people to communicate freely and share ideas which promote unity.
  • National philosophies: the use of national philosophies such as African socialism, Harambeesm and Nyayoism promotes unity.
  • National symbols : sharing of common national symbols i.e national flag, national anthem, the coat of arms and the public seal make people united.
  • Government institution – the government institution like the legislature, judiciary and the executive serves all people equally thereby promoting unity.
  • National events and days: the national days like Mashujaa day, Jamuhuri day Madaraka day and events such as music and drama festivals bring people from different ethnic communities together thus promoting unity.
  • The presidency serves as a symbol of national unity

5X2=10

  1. (a) Identify threeNational Security Organs in the Kenyan government             (3mks)
  • The Kenyan Defense Forces (KDF)
  • The Kenyan National Intelligent Service (KNIS)
  • The Kenya Police Service (KPS)

1X3=3

 

(b) Explain six powers of the President of Kenya according to the new constitution of 2010.                                                                                                                                 (12mks)

  • He is the commander in chief of the defense forces.
  • Has power to exercise executive authority of the republic.
  • Has power to uphold and safeguard the constitution and the sovereignty of the republic.
  • Power of mercy or pardoning persons convicted of an offence.
  • Power to nominate, appoint or dismiss cabinet secretaries, judges of superior courts and state officers whom the constitution require the president to appoint.
  • Power to confer honors to the distinguished people in the republic of Kenya.
  • He is the chairperson of the National Security Council.
  • He has powers to assent/ veto bills before they become law

2×6=12

  1. (a) State five importance of the Government Budget.             (5mks)
  • It enables the government to explain to the public the tax structure.
  • Enables the government source revenue for its programmes.
  • It enables the government to identify ways to spend its revenue without wastage.
  • It helps the government to prioritize its development projects.
  • It helps to provide valuable information to those who want to invest in the country.
  • It creates confidence among the foreign countries and the donors like World Bank, International Monetary Fund etc.
  • It helps the government to evaluate its performance and improve where necessary.
  • It enhances accountability and transparency of the government in the eyes of the people.
  • It ensures that there is balance in the country’s revenue and expenditure thus avoiding deficits.
  • It helps the government to set aside some funds in case of emergencies.

1×5=5

 

(b) In which five ways does the National Government control the use of public finance?

(10mks)

  • Ensuring that at the beginning of every year a budget is prepared showing the estimate of revenue and the expenditure.
  • Parliament passes legislation prescribing how National Government may borrow money.
  • The cabinet secretary in charge of finance report to the relevant committee on the use of money, debt and the progress of the repayments of loans.
  • Parliament passes legislation to ensure expenditure control, transparency and ensure implementation of the government programmes.
  • Cabinet secretary for finance has powers to stop the transfer of funds to a state organ in event of mismanagement.
  • The government have established a system of open tendering for procurement and disposal of goods and services.
  • The controller of budget supervises on the implementation of the budget and makes a report to parliament after every four months.
  • The auditor general audits government ministries and departments and submit report to the parliament.
  • The principal secretaries are accountable to the National Assembly for financial management within the ministries.
  • The Ethics and Anti- Corruption Commission investigates and recommend those who mismanage public funds to be prosecuted in the court of law.
  • The public accounts and public investiments committees are established by parliament to ensure proper use of public funds.

2×5=10

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