1. Name two types of Australopithecus.             (2mks)
  • Australopithecus Anamensis.
  • Australopithecus Afarensis.
  • Australopithecus Africanus.
  • Australopithecus Robustus | Boisei.
  1. Identify one community that belong to the plain Nilotes.             (1mks)
  1. Mention two importance of age-set among the Nandi community during pre-colonial period.                         (2mks)
  • It provided unity.
  • It provided warriors to defend the community.
  • It gives a sense of belonging/identity.
  1. Give two ancient documents that contained the historical information about East African coast before the 7th             (2mks)
  • The Graeco– Roman Documentary.
  • ThePeriplus of the Erythrean Sea.
  • The writings of Claudia Ptolemy known as “Geography”.
  • Document of Arab Merchants like Ibn Batuta and al Masudi.


  1. Mention one peaceful method of conflict resolution.             (1mks)
  • Arbitration / use arbitrator/court to solve the conflict.
  • Diplomacy /Negotiation – making the two conflict parties to come to understanding.
  • Legislation- using of law/legislation passed by parliament to solve conflict.
  • Use of elders- two conflicting parties come before the elders and come up with solution/ agreement.
  • Religious actions- use of religious leaders to solve conflict.
  • Community policing- use of local people to help in solving conflict / ensure peaceful co- existence.
  • Mediation/use of mediators
  1. State one function of the constitution.             (1mks)
  • It provides legal ground on which laws are made.
  • It spells out powers of the government and its relation to the people governed.
  • It spells out the rights and duties of citizens.
  • It spells out punishment for lawbreakers
  1. Identify two rights of the old member of the society.             (2mks)
  • To participate in the national affairs.
  • To pursue their personal development.
  • To live in dignity and respect.
  • To receive reasonable care from family and state.
  1. Name the person who came up with the indirect rule policy used in Kenya by the colonial government.             (1mks)
  • Captain Fredrick Lugard.
  1. State two problems faced by the independent schools and churches in Kenya during the colonial era.             (2mks)
  • Harassment by missionary and colonial government.
  • Lack of trained personnel’s.
  • Lack of funds.
  • Leadership wrangles.
  • Competition with missionaries.


  1. Identify the main borne of contention between KADU and KANU in the eve of independence.                                                 (1mk)
  • KADU was for the federal constitution | Majimbo while KANU was for the Unitary government.
  1. Outline two guiding principles of the electoral system in Kenya.             (2mks)
  • Freedom to exercise political rights.
  • 2/3 rule (i.e) not more than 2/3 of elective positions come from the same gender.
  • Fair representation of persons with disabilities.
  • Universal suffrage where all adults have right to vote and equality of votes.
  • Free and fair election based on secret ballot.
  • Independent and transparent elections


  1. Give one reason why Kenya adopted the National Philosophy of African socialism after independence             (1mks)
  • To create a new society different from colonial one.
  • To create a just and human society.
  • To create united and free country with democratic rights and freedoms.
  1. State two components included in the budget estimates in the National Budget. (2mks)
  • The revenue required.
  • The source of revenue.
  • The projects intended to carry out.
  1. Mention one member of the County Executive Committee.             (1mks)
  • County Governor.
  • Deputy County Governor.
  • Members appointed by the Governor/county executive committee members.
  1. Highlight two roles played by the trade unions in the struggle for independence. (2mks)
  • The improved working condition for workers.
  • They provided alternative forum which kept the spirit of nationalism burning when political parties were banned.
  • They looked for international community support by exposing oppression experienced under colonial government.
  • They prepared trade unionist to become leaders in political association which fought for independent/ training ground for political leaders.
  • They assisted those who fought for independence.
  • They educated people on their political rights.
  1. State the main reason why the 1957 elections are important in the history of Kenya.


  • It was the first elections where Africans were elected as members of Legco by fellow Africans.
  1. Who is the chief administrator and accounting officer of parliament?             (1mks)
  • The clerk of the parliament.



  1. (a) Give three communities that belong to the coastal Bantus.             (3mks)


(b) Discuss six effects of the migration and settlement of the Cushites in Kenya. (12mks)

  • Increased warfare for control of limited resources e.g the conflict between Somali and Oromo.
  • Displacement of some communities who had settled in the region earlier e.g the Bantu.
  • Cultural interaction with the neighborse.g the Bantu learnt about age-set and circumcision from the Cushites.
  • Intermarriages among neighboring communities.
  • Redistribution of population in the region where they settled.
  • Assimilation and absorption of some communities.
  • Enrichment of languages due to borrowing of words from neighboring communities.
  • Increased trade in the regions they occupied as they traded with their neighbors.
  • Population increase in the areas they settled.



  1. (a) Identify five positive impacts of the Portuguese rule at coast of East Africa. (5mks)
  • The Portuguese introduced new crops e.g sweet potatoes, pawpaw etc.
  • Built fort Jesus which is today used as a museum andtourist attraction..
  • Introduced birds dropping as manure and crop rotation.
  • Added some words to Kiswahili e.gMeza and Mvinyo/vocabulary/improved language.
  • Introduced Portuguese architecture which was used to build houses by coastal people.
  • During their rule,the Kenyan coast developed strong ties with Indians
  • They tried to introduce Christianity at the coast.
  • Led to the opening up of the coast to other European powers.


(b) Explain five Negative effects of the Indian Ocean Trade.                      (10mks)

  • Decline of local industry due to importation of better goods from Europe and Asia.
  • Destruction of wildlife especially elephant due to increased demand for ivory.
  • High demand of slaves led to increased warfare among communities as they tried to capture slave for sale.
  • Slave trade led to draining away of able bodied people from East Africa which led to underdevelopment of the region.
  • The trade led to exposure of East Africa to Europeans which eventually led to colonization.
  • The trade led to loss of African culture and adoption of Swahili culture at the coast.
  • Depopulation of the interior after the capture of many slaves




  1. (a) Highlight five results of the Akamba reaction to the British rule in Kenya. (5mks)
  • Loss of independence.
  • Land alienation for Europeans settlement.
  • Loss of lives as many people were killed during the resilience.
  • Destruction of properties e.g villages.
  • Loss of livestock through confiscation by the British.
  • Heavy taxation.
  • Recruitment into kings African Rifles.
  • Rise of wealth class traders especially those that collaborated with the British.
  • Spread of Christianity.
  • Enmity between those who collaborated and those who resisted.


(b) Discuss five methods used by the colonial government to obtain labour for the white settlers. (10mk)

  • Use of master servant ordinance that made it an offence for Africans to evade duty/laws.
  • Low wages ensuring that Africans were lowly paid and thus remained permanently servants to Europeans.
  • Forced recruitment whereby Africans were forced to work for the Europeans
  • Use of Native ordinance which made sure that all male adults were registered to facilitate labour recruitment.
  • Creation of reserves where Africans enjoyed limited resources, thus forced to work for the Europeans.
  • The Kipande system that prevented Africans from deserting from their white employers.
  • Africans were prohibited from growing of cash crops to ensure that they could only get cash by working for settlers.
  • Confiscation of their livestock which made African poor and thus seek employment from their white seller.
  • Taxation e.g hut tax and poll tax which made the Africans to work and get money to pay these taxes.



  1. (a) Give three political parties that were formed after 1945 which were involved in the struggle for independence in Kenya.             (3mks)
  • KAU – Kenya African Union.
  • KANU – Kenya African National Union.
  • KADU – Kenya African Democratic Union.
  • APP – Africans People’s Party.



(b) State and Explain six challenges facing culture and sports in Kenya since independence.                                                                                                       (12mks)

  • Inadequate facilities- lack of recreational and sports facilities/stadia/studios especially in rural areas.
  • Poor remuneration – Those people involved in music, sports, drama are poorly paid.
  • Exploitation on royalty payments: Those involved in music industry, arts and drama are exploited through payments imposed on them.
  • Inadequate funds – lack of adequate funds to enhance cultural programmes.
  • Piracy – there is piracy of local artist work thus denying them income.
  • Misappropriation of funds/ corruption ;money meant for culture have been misappropriated by those in the high positions
  • Nepotism when selecting teams/ players
  • Lack of well established structures for nurturing talents



  1. (a) Give five characteristics of a good constitution.             (5mks)
  • Clarity – a good constitution ought to spell out its content clearly.
  • Comprehensive- it should be comprehensive and address issues in details to avoid misunderstanding.
  • Flexible – it should be flexible to accommodate any change in the state.
  • Bill of rights: it should state clearly the bills of rights of the citizens.
  • Durable: it should last for a reasonable time without requiring amendment.
  • Amendment: it should have provision for amendments and state clearly which sections can be amended and which ones cannot be amended.



(b) Discuss five factors that promotes national integration in Kenya.                    (10mks)

  • The constitution: it creates a unitary state and protects all citizens against discrimination on whatever basis as well as guaranteeing equality of all citizens.
  • Education – schools bring together children from different ethnic communities and make them think of themselves as Kenyans. The school curriculum also stresses more on the importance of unity.
  • Fair distribution of resources – this helps the citizen to feel one as they share resources fairly and also the development of all parts of the country.
  • Social economic interaction- people interact in many ways like inter-community marriage | playing games | trade | working together etc. all this helps to promote unity.
  • National currency – the use of a common currency in business transaction and payment for employed people make people united.
  • National language – the use of Kiswahili as a national language helps people to communicate freely and share ideas which promote unity.
  • National philosophies: the use of national philosophies such as African socialism, Harambeesm and Nyayoism promotes unity.
  • National symbols : sharing of common national symbols i.e national flag, national anthem, the coat of arms and the public seal make people united.
  • Government institution – the government institution like the legislature, judiciary and the executive serves all people equally thereby promoting unity.
  • National events and days: the national days like Mashujaa day, Jamuhuri day Madaraka day and events such as music and drama festivals bring people from different ethnic communities together thus promoting unity.
  • The presidency serves as a symbol of national unity


  1. (a) Identify threeNational Security Organs in the Kenyan government             (3mks)
  • The Kenyan Defense Forces (KDF)
  • The Kenyan National Intelligent Service (KNIS)
  • The Kenya Police Service (KPS)



(b) Explain six powers of the President of Kenya according to the new constitution of 2010.                                                                                                                                 (12mks)

  • He is the commander in chief of the defense forces.
  • Has power to exercise executive authority of the republic.
  • Has power to uphold and safeguard the constitution and the sovereignty of the republic.
  • Power of mercy or pardoning persons convicted of an offence.
  • Power to nominate, appoint or dismiss cabinet secretaries, judges of superior courts and state officers whom the constitution require the president to appoint.
  • Power to confer honors to the distinguished people in the republic of Kenya.
  • He is the chairperson of the National Security Council.
  • He has powers to assent/ veto bills before they become law


  1. (a) State five importance of the Government Budget.             (5mks)
  • It enables the government to explain to the public the tax structure.
  • Enables the government source revenue for its programmes.
  • It enables the government to identify ways to spend its revenue without wastage.
  • It helps the government to prioritize its development projects.
  • It helps to provide valuable information to those who want to invest in the country.
  • It creates confidence among the foreign countries and the donors like World Bank, International Monetary Fund etc.
  • It helps the government to evaluate its performance and improve where necessary.
  • It enhances accountability and transparency of the government in the eyes of the people.
  • It ensures that there is balance in the country’s revenue and expenditure thus avoiding deficits.
  • It helps the government to set aside some funds in case of emergencies.



(b) In which five ways does the National Government control the use of public finance?


  • Ensuring that at the beginning of every year a budget is prepared showing the estimate of revenue and the expenditure.
  • Parliament passes legislation prescribing how National Government may borrow money.
  • The cabinet secretary in charge of finance report to the relevant committee on the use of money, debt and the progress of the repayments of loans.
  • Parliament passes legislation to ensure expenditure control, transparency and ensure implementation of the government programmes.
  • Cabinet secretary for finance has powers to stop the transfer of funds to a state organ in event of mismanagement.
  • The government have established a system of open tendering for procurement and disposal of goods and services.
  • The controller of budget supervises on the implementation of the budget and makes a report to parliament after every four months.
  • The auditor general audits government ministries and departments and submit report to the parliament.
  • The principal secretaries are accountable to the National Assembly for financial management within the ministries.
  • The Ethics and Anti- Corruption Commission investigates and recommend those who mismanage public funds to be prosecuted in the court of law.
  • The public accounts and public investiments committees are established by parliament to ensure proper use of public funds.


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