SECTION A (25marks)

Answer all questions

  1. Name one source of the history of Kenyan community during pre-colonial period
  • Oral tradition
  • Anthropology
  • Linquistics
  • Genetics
  • Written sources
  • Archeology                                                                                                                             1×1=1 mk
  1. Name one city state that developed on the Kenyan coast by 1500 AD
  • Mombasa
  • Gedi
  • Sofala
  • Vumba
  • Lamu
  • Kilwa e.t.c.                                                                                                                             1×1=1 mk
  1. State two reasons why the Akamba participated in the long distance trade
  • Their land was unsuitable for agriculture
  • Their land was centrally situated between the coast and the interior making it possible for them to
  • High demand for ivory
  • Availability of trade goods
  • They were skilled traders                                                                                                       2×1=2 mks
  1. State one negative effect of the Indian Ocean trade before 1500 AD
  • Importation of goods led to decline of local industries
  • Led to destruction of wild life due to increased demand for ivory
  • East Coast was exposed to foreigners who eventually colonized the region
  • It increased inter – communal warfare due to the demand of slaves
  1. Name the Nandi leader during their resistance to the British colonial rule

– Koitalel Arap samoei                                                                                                           1×1=1mk

  1. State two effects of the land alienation on the Africans
  • Led to widespread poverty among Africans
  • Led to development of the squatter system
  • Africans were pushed into created reserves and marginal areas
  • Led to overcrowding in reserves
  • Led to misery, low wages and poor working conditions among Africans                            2×1=2 mks
  1. Name two chartered companies that acquired colonies in east Africa
  • I.B.E.A. Co
  • G.E.A Co                                                                                                                                2×1=2 mks
  1. State two factors which undermine the performance of local authorities in Kenya
  • Inadequate funds – to finance them services
  • Lack of administrative autonomy since the ministry of local government has wide powers above
  • Tax evasion- by individuals and organizations which pose a problem for their operations
  • Mismanagement due to lack of qualified staff/ nepotism/ tribalism
  • Population pressure which puts a lot of strain to the local authorities making it impossible to provide adequate social services e.g. water, housing e.t.c.
  • Size of local authority – the power given to the minister to upgrade local authorities has been misused whereas some are too small and too poor to undertake responsibility expected of them



  1. Name the British governor that was involved in the drafting of the Kenyan multi-racial

constitution in 1954

Lyttleton                                                                                                                                         1×1=1

  1. State two reasons why the Kenyan prisons are categorized
  • Gender sensitivity/ sex
  • Age
  • Different crimes committed
  1. Identify two types of local authorities in Kenya
  • County councils
  • City councils
  • Municipal councils
  • Town councils
  • Urban and area councils                                                                                                         2×1=2 mks
  1. State one function of the Orkoiyot in the pre colonial Kenya
  • Settled disputes
  • Presided over religious functions
  • Maintained law and order
  • Blessed warriors before going to war
  1. Give two reasons why the British used direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya
  • Had enough manpower
  • Most Kenyan communities resisted colonial rule
  • Most communities had decentralized system of government except the Wanga
  • Had capital                                                                                                                             2×1=2 mks
  1. State two ways one can become a Kenyan citizen
  • By birth
  • By registration
  • Naturalization                                                                                                                         2×1=2 mks
  1. State two challenges facing the free primary education in Kenya
  • Congestion/ over crowding in schools
  • Delays in disbursement of funds
  • Inadequate teachers
  • Corruption/ mismanagement of funds meant for free primary education                            2×1=2 mks
  1. Give the main function of the Kenya anti corruption commission of Kenya (KACC)

To investigate cases of corruption and make public the findings                                         1×1=1 mk

  1. Who appoints the district commissioner in Kenya

The President



  1. (a) Describe the social organization of the mijikenda during the pre colonial period
  • It was clan based
  • Lived in fortified villages/ kayas
  • People had defined roles
  • Had social ceremonies such as planting and harvesting
  • Practiced polygamy and payment of dowry
  • Believed in supreme being known as Mulungu
  • Worshipped ancestral spirits
  • Had prophets and medicine men
  • Practiced circumcision                                                                                                           7×1=7 mks

(b) Explain the effects of Bantu migration and settlement in Kenya

  • Led to increase in population in the regions they settled
  • Spread iron working into the regions and other communities like the Luo adopted the art
  • Led to trading activities e.g. agikuyu and Maasai, Abagusii and Luo
  • Led to exchange of knowledge i.e. Bantu adopted age set system and practice of circumcision from the cushites
  • Enrichment of languages due to word borrowing
  • Led to cultural interaction of Bantu hence assimilated some Southern Cushites and some Bantu were assimilated by Nilotes and Cushites
  • Led to displacement of some communities e.g. the Gumba and athi
  • Led to intermarriages with other communities                                                         8×1=8 mks
  1. (a) Identify five grievances of the kikuyu central association against the British colonial

government in Kenya

  • Releases of harry Thuku
  • End of Kipande system
  • Return alienated land of the Agikuyu
  • Demand for African representation in Legco
  • An elected Kikuyu paramount chief
  • Increased educational opportunities for Africans                                                     5×2=10 mks

(b) Describe at least five roles played by Ronald Ngala in the struggle for independence in Kenya

  • He joined the coast association (CAA) in 1947 which expressed the problems and hopes of the Mijikenda people
  • He was a founder member of the Mombasa african Democratic Union
  • He also helped to form the Kilifi African Peoples Union
  • In 1957 he was elected to the Legco to represent coast rural constituency
  • He was the treasurer of AEMO
  • AEMO forced the colonial government to introduce the Lennox- Boyd constitution of 1958
  • He was instrumental in the formation of KADU to defend the interests of the minority African groups against possible domination by KANu
  • He became the president of KADU
  • He attended the first Lancaster House Conference to discuss the independence
  • He supported and called for the release of detained leaders
  • 1960, he was appointed minister for labour, social security and adult education
  • 1961, KADU under the leadership of Ngala formed the 1st independence government
  • In 1962 he became minister of state for constitutional affairs
  • In 1963 he was elected to the House of representatives as a member of Kilifi 5×2=10 mks
  1. (a) State five factors that contributed to the growth of Nairobi city in Kenya
  • Availability of water
  • Construction of the Kenya- Uganda railway – it acted as a railway depot
  • Was centrally placed- acted as intersection of different transport routes
  • Trading activities
  • Establishment of administrative posts/ military posts
  • Good climate suitable for farming and settlement
  • Cool temperatures which favoured the European settlement
  • Flat land suitable for railway workshops hence encouraged settlements                             5×1=5 mks

(b) Explain the positive effects of urbanization to Kenya

  • Created employment opportunities for many Africans
  • Led to formation of tribal/ social welfare associations
  • Promoted national integration
  • Led to small entrepreneurship e.g. traders to earn a living
  • Led to rise of trade unions to promote the welfare of workers
  • Led to cultural interaction
  • Created market for agricultural products in the surrounding environment
  • Industries expanded due to availability of labour                                                     5×2=10 mks



  1. (a) State five features of early political associations in Kenya between 1919-1935
  • They were ethnic based
  • Their grievances were quite similar
  • They did not advocate for independence but clamored for better living conditions and an end to colonial exploitation
  •  They did not attract a large following
  • They were led by mission educated young men
  • Non- militarial
  • Formed in response to social economic problems                                                                5×1=5mks


(b) Explain five factors that promoted the growth of African nationalism in Kenya between

1945 and 1963

  • African participation in the 2nd world War
  • Indians and Burmas independence in 1947 and 1948 respectively, gave nationalists a strong urge to fight for their liberation
  • KAU mobilized Africans against colonial office to institute constitutional changes
  • African elected members in the Legco put pressure through their organization AEMO
  • Ghana’s independence in 1957 under Kwameh Nkrumah championed the cause of nationalist struggle through Pan Africanism
  •  Formation of national political parties such as KANU, KADU and APP intensified the struggle
  • Jomo Kenyatta played a great role of trying to unite Kenyan against colonial rule
  • British labour party took over power after 1945 and its policies were against colonization
  • Maumau activities- made Africans more determined to achieve independence through oathing



Answer any two questions

  1. (a) What factors led to the development of multi-party democracy in Kenya in the early 1990
  • Western aid conditions – a number of countries made it clear that they would grant aid only to developing countries that embraced democratic policies and pluralistic politics
  • Unification of Germany – it marked the end of the cold war and communism USSR lot her power in the world leaving USA to promote its political ideology of advocating liberal democracy throughout the world
  • Political changes in the USSR e.g. some of her republics broke away from the union and started independent governments. These developments spelt change for Kenya
  • Multi- party having been successful in other countries e.g. Zambia
  • Pressure from the church e.g. Rev Njoya, Bishop Muge and Bishop Henry Okullo
  • Dissatisfaction with the 1988 general election that were alleged to have been rigid due to the queuing system
  • KANU’s response to criticism e.g. those who criticized the government for corruption and other ills were arrested and others expelled from KANU
  • Pressure from lawyers and journalists
  • Saitoti review committee report of 1990. as a result of the recommendations section 2A of the constitution was reviewed reverting the country to a multi- party democracy

(b) Explain how the existence of many parties has promoted democracy in Kenya

  • They provide Kenyans with an opportunity to join parties of their choice
  • They promote accountability and transparency in the government
  • They mobilize people to participate in democratic process as well as development
  • They create public awareness on certain issues e.g. referendum
  • They help provide an alternative perspectives on parliamentary debate on certain issues like children’s rights and environment sell alternatives ideas to the citizens
  • They check the excesses of the government by letting the public know the ills being done by the government e.g. Anglo- leasing scandal
  • They lay more ground for training the future leaders                                                           5×2=10 mks


  1. (a) Give three symbols of national unity in Kenya
  • The flag
  • National anthem
  • Loyalty pledge
  • Coat of arms
  • National awards                                                                                                                      3×1=3 mks

(b) Explain six factors which promote national unity in Kenya

  • National languages i.e. Kiswahili and English
  • Education – pupils are drawn from different ethnic groups to interact freely in public and private schools
  • The constitution – protects all Kenyan from any form of discrimination based on race, colour, tribe e.t.c.
  • Intermarriages, sports and games
  • Equal distribution of resources e.g. hospitals, schools
  • National philosophies e.g. Harambee and Nyayoism call unity among different ethnic communities to pull together their resources for development- they emphasize peace, love and unity
  • Urbanization
  • The institution of the presidency – he represents and protects all Kenyans             6×2=12 mks
  1. (a) state five ways through which the Kenyan government raises its revenue
  • Direct taxes e.g. paye, stamp duty and capital gains tax
  • Indirect taxes e.g. sales tax, custom duty, excise duty, VAT
  • Sale of government bonds and treasury bills
  • Profit acquired by parastatals
  • Charges on provision of government services e.g. water, electricity, medical treatment
  • Land rates levies on land paid by citizens and companies as rent
  • House rent from government buildings
  • Fees/ levies on fuel and mining fees paid by millers
  • Court fines
  • Tourism fees paid as entrance to game reserves and national parks                                    5×1=5 mks

(b) Describe ways in which the parliament in Kenya controls government expenditure

  • Public investment committee ensures that public finance is spent for the intended purpose
  • Before any money is allocated to the government ministries and departments, it has to be approved by parliament
  • Government estimates have to be approved by parliament after they are prepared and presented by the minister for finance on budget day
  • All supplementary estimates must be approved by parliament and it also demands an explanation when money has to be returned to the treasury
  • Parliament requires all government expenditure to be audited and the audited reports presented to it for scrutiny and debate. This is done by the public Accounts Committee


Leave a Comment