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LIVESTOCK HEALTH III (LIVESTOCK DISEASES)- AGRICULTURE NOTES

LIVESTOCK HEALTH III (LIVESTOCK DISEASES)

This topic entails:

  • Description of causes and vectors of the main livestock diseases.
  • Protozoan diseases
  • Bacterial diseases
  • Viral diseases
  • Nutritional diseases
  • Signs of each stated livestock disease
  • Stating predisposing factors where applicable
  • Control measures of livestock disease
  1. Name two diseases that affect female animals only
  • Mastitis
  • Milk fever
  1. What is a vaccine?
  • An active disease pathogen reduced in strength /virulence or killed and is introduced into an animals body to induce immunity
  1. a) Define the term notifiable disease in cattle
  • A disease that once noticed prompts an urgent need for informing the relevant authority.
  1. b) Name four notifiable diseases of livestock
  • Rinderpest
  • Anthrax
  • Rift valley fever
  • New castle  disease
  • mad cow disease
  • Black quarter
  • Foot and mouth diseases
  • Lumpy skin disease
  • Rabies

 

  1. State three signs of anthrax disease observed in the carcass of cattle
  • Blood does not clot
  • No rigor mortis after death
  • Stomach swells/ bloat
  • Darkened blood oozes out through the natural opening

 

  1. Differentiate between active immunity and acquired passive immunity
  • Active immunity – animal producing antibodies
  • Acquired/ passive immunity – external source of immunity

 

  1. List three causes of ruminal tympany (Bloat) in ruminant animals
  • Lack of fibre in the diet
  • Feeding on succulent feeds e.g. lush grass
  • Rapid production of gas ( methane) in the rumen
  • Fermentation of feeds in the rumen
  • Obstruction of the oesophagus by food e.g. potatoes

 

  1. List two symptoms of bloat attack in cattle
  • Constipation
  • Immobility
  • Digestive complications
  • Distension of the left side of the abdomen due to gas accumulation
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Profuse salivation
  • Animal lies down and is unable to rise up
  • Grunting and kicking at the belly
  • Death within hours due to pressure on blood vessels, heart and lungs

 

  1. State one chemical used in relieving a ruminant animal of bloat
  • Epson Salt
  • Methyl silicon
  • Mixture of turpentine and vegetable oil         

 

  1. Name two diseases of poultry that are controlled by vaccination
  • New castle
  • Fowl pox
  • Fowl typhoid
  • Gumboro
  • Marek disease

 

  1. Name the casual organism for foot rot disease
  • Fusiformis spp/ Fusiformis necrophorous/ Fusiformis nodosus

 

  1. Give four pre disposing factors of foot rot disease in sheep
  • Overgrown / untrimmed hooves
  • Tick infestation between hooves
  • Muddy / filthy living / grazing areas
  • Presence of sharp objects e.g. stones

 

  1. Give two symptoms of foot rot in sheep
  • Swollen foot
  • Lameness
  • Pus and a rotten smell from the hoof
  • A sheep kneels while grazing if the front feet are affected
  • Sheep spends most of the time lying down if the hind feet are affected
  • Emaciation due to lack of feeding

 

  1. State two control measures of foot rot in sheep
  • Trimming overgrown hooves regularly ( reject cutting hooves)
  • Treating affected sheep to avoid spread
  • Isolating sick animals from healthy animals
  • Keep grazing land free from sharp objects
  • Use disinfectant in footbath e.g. copper sulphate solution / formalin
  • Keep animal house dry
  • Avoid grazing sheep on swampy areas

 

  1. Discuss Foot Rot disease under the following sub headings
  2. a) Causal Organism
  • A bacterium/Fusiformis species

 

  1. b) Predisposing factors
  • Dirty and overgrown hooves/ untrimmed hooves
  • Presence of injurious objects e.g. stones, nails
  • Injuries /wounds on hooves
  • Muddy / filthy living / grazing areas
  • Invasion of hoof by other organisms e.g. tick bites and nematodes which cause injuries.

 

  1. c) Symptoms of attack
  • Animal limps as it walks
  • Foot infected is swollen
  • Infected hoof produce pus
  • Foul smell is produced from the infected hooves
  • Animal may become lame in severe cases / inability to walk.
  • Infected foot feels hot upon touch
  • Lack of appetite / anorexia
  • Animal become emaciated/ weak/ loss of condition
  • Animal graze when kneeling in case forelegs are infected
  • When all legs are infected, the animal graze when lying down

 

  1. d) Control Measures
  • Treat wounds on hooves using appropriate antibiotics
  • Let the animals walk on appropriate foot bath
  • Isolate infected animals from healthy ones
  • Ensure the environment of the animal is not damp and muddy
  • Practice hoof trimming regularly
  • Treat sick animals with appropriate antibiotics.
  • Graze animals in areas free from sharp objects.
  • Move healthy sheep to dry clean areas.
  • Walk sheep on footbath with appropriate chemicals solution e.g. formalin and blue vitriol
  • (copper sulphate)

 

  1. State six symptoms shown by poultry when suffering from Newcastle disease
  • Birds have difficulty in breathing
  • Loss of appetite / Anorexia
  • Paralysis / Staggering motion
  • Yellowish , watery greenish diarrhoea
  • Drop in production
  • Production of soft shelled eggs
  • Often birds have their beaks and wings down/Drooping wings
  • Birds produce a harsh granting raspy sound when breathing
  • Beaks remain wide open and neck are stained
  • Birds become dull
  • Birds stand with eyes closed all the time
  • Nasal discharge which forces birds to shake head to clear it

 

  1. Discuss Newcastle disease under the following sub headings
  2. a) Casual organisms
  • Virus

 

  1. b) Signs of attack:
  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • Beaks remain wide open and necks are strained
  • Birds stand with eyes closed all the time.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Nasal discharge which force the birds to shake their heads to clear it.
  • Birds walk in a staggering motion since the nervous system is affected.
  • Often the bird have their heads and wings drooping,
  • Birds produce watery greenish diarrhoea.
  • Eggs laid have soft shells

 

  1. c) Control Measures:
  • Vaccination during the first six weeks and then two to three months later.
  • Kill the infected birds and burn them.
  • Obtain stock from reputable source

 

  1. Give four predisposing factors of mastitis disease in cows.
  • Mechanical injury to the udder.
  • Old age of animals
  • Unhygienic conditions
  • Incomplete milking of cows
  • High level of milk production
  • Genetic factors
  • Pendulous udder /teat hang too low
  • Stage of lactation/ late stage of lactation.

 

  1. State four symptoms of mastitis in a dairy cow
  • Death of the infected quarter may result.
  • Milk has a salty taste and there are flakes particularly the fore milk.
  • Blood or pus in milk
  • Pain in the udder or teats/ Animal rejects suckling or milking and kicks due to pain
  • Swollen or inflamed under
  • Rise in body temperature
  • Clots in milk or turns watery
  • Drop in milk yield.

 

  1. Discuss mastitis disease under the following sub-headings:
  2. a) Causal organism
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Staphylococcus urens

 

  1. b) Predisposing factors.
  • Age- Older animals that are lactating are affected
  • Stage of lactation period- Affects during early or late lactation
  • Udder attachment- Large and pendulous udders are at risk
  • Incomplete milking.
  • Mechanical injury.
  • Poor sanitation- Poor hygiene leads to infection
  • Poor milking technique- Pulling teats makes the sphincter muscles of the udder weak and loose
  • Sex
  • Hereditary factors
  • Level of production/high producers are more prone to mastitis than low producers
  • Genetic factors – some breeds are more susceptible to mastitis than others

 

  1. c) Symptoms.
  • Milk contains pus, blood, thick clots and turns watery
  • Swollen udder and teats/ cow kicks when udder is touched/ Pain on udders
  • Death of infected quarter
  • Milk has a salty taste
  • Small clots/ flakes in milk

 

  1. d) Control and treatment
  • Empty affected quarter of udder and treat with antibiotics.
  • After milking, use teat dip on every quarter.
  • Use right milking technique
  • Observe strict cleanliness.
  • Dry cow therapy/ infusing a long acting antibiotics into the teat canal when drying off the cow
  • Use strip cup to detect infection.
  • Use separate udder cloths for each animal.
  • Treat open wounds immediately
  • Remove sharp objects from grazing land to avoid udder infection

 

  1. State two practices which are carried out to control mastitis in lactating cows
  • Proper milking technique
  • Administering dry cow therapy
  • Complete milking
  • Infected cows should be milked last
  • Open wounds on the teats should be treated immediately

 

  1. a) Name the causative organism of contagious abortion
  • Brucellus abort – Cattle
  • Brucellus suis – Pigs
  • Brucellus malitensis – sheep and goats

 

  1. b) Give four symptoms of contagious abortion in cattle
  • Retained after birth
  • Sterility in cows
  • Spontaneous abortion
  • Yellowish – brown, slimy discharge, odourless discharge from the vulva after abortion

 

  1. c) State three methods of controlling contagious abortion in cattle
  • Use of artificial insemination (A.I).
  • Vaccination against the disease in young animals
  • Avoid contact with the aborted foetus
  • Blood tests of all breeding animals before mating
  • Cull, slaughter infected animals

 

  1. Name the causal agent of black quarter disease in livestock
  • Clostridium chauvei

 

  1. Discuss black quarter under the following sub-headings:-
  2. a) Animal affected
  • cattle, sheep, goats

 

  1. b) Casual organism
  • Clostridium chauvei

 

  1. c) Symptoms of disease
  • Rise in body temperature
  • Lameness and  swelling of  upper part  of  limbs,  making animals  lie on side
  • Swollen shoulders  on either side of  body, chest or  back,  formation of gas under skin
  • Difficulties in breathing
  • Muscle appear black and spongy
  • Grunting and grinding of teeth
  • Failure to chew cud
  • On exposure  to air, muscle of  body rapidly  darken

 

  1. d) Control measures
  • Annual vaccination using  black  quarter  vaccine
  • Burning of   carcass
  • Carcass should not be  skinned or  opened
  • Cleaning and treating  of  all wounds  with antiseptics

 

  1. State two symptoms of Coccidiosis infection in poultry.
  • Diarrhoea with varying nature watery whitish – brown or blood stained
  • Dysentery /blood in faeces
  • Emaciation
  • Ruffled feathers
  • Dullness with drooping wings
  • Sudden death

 

  1. Name four ways of controlling Coccidiosis in the farm
  • Isolation of infected animals
  • Avoid filthy, unhygienic animal surroundings
  • Avoid common dunking points for livestock from different farms
  • Avoid overcrowding in poultry houses
  • Provision of coccidiostat in feeds and water
  • Use of portable calf pen

 

  1. Discuss Coccidiosis disease under the following headings:-
  2. a) Causal organism
  • Protozoan/coccidian elmeria/coccidia spp)

 

  1. b) Livestock species attacked
  • Poultry
  • Calves
  • Young rabbits
  • Kids
  • Lambs

 

  1. c) Symptoms of attack
  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery /blood in faeces
  • Emaciation
  • Ruffled feathers
  • Dullness with drooping wings
  • sudden death in birds, rabbits and kids

 

  1. d) Control measures
  • Isolation of infected animals
  • Avoid filthy, unhygienic animal surroundings
  • Avoid common dunking points for livestock from different farms
  • Avoid overcrowding in poultry houses
  • Provision of coccidiostat in feeds and water
  • Use of portable calf pen

 

  1. State four predisposing factors of scour in calves
  • Unhygienic condition in the house of the young ones/ Poor sanitation
  • Feeding the calves on cold milk
  • Lack of colostrums
  • Feeding at irregular intervals
  • Over feeding.

 

  1. a) Give four symptoms of milk fever
  • Dullness
  • Body functions i.e. urination, defecation of milk and milk secretion stops
  • Stomach contents are drawn into mouth, causing lung fever
  • Complete loss of appetite
  • Muscular twitching
  • Walking in staggering manner
  • Animal lies down on its side most of the time
  • Animals lies on sternum with head twisted on one side
  • General paralysis/ inability to more or arise
  • Breathing becomes slow and weak
  • Stiffening of the whole body
  • Head turned back
  • Animal fall down and becomes unconscious
  • Sudden death.

 

(b) State two methods of controlling milk fever

  • Feed animal on diet/ mineral salts rich in calcium
  • Give intramuscular injection of calcium and phosphorus 2-3 days before calving down
  • Partial milking on known cases
  • Cull susceptible animal

 

  1. a) What causes milk fever in dairy cows?
  • Low calcium level in the blood/ high milk yield without calcium replenishment

 

  1. b) Name two animals that may suffer from milk fever
  • Goats
  • Pigs
  • Sheep

 

  1. Discuss milk fever (parturient paresis) under the following sub-headings
  2. a) Cause
  • Low calcium level in the blood / high milk yield without calcium replenishment

 

  1. b) Predisposing factors.
  • Low calcium level in the blood
  • High producing cows in first few months of lactation
  • Increase in the magnesium and sugar level in the blood

 

  1. c) Symptoms
  • Dullness
  • Body functions i.e. urination, defecation of milk and milk secretion stops
  • Stomach contents are drawn into mouth, causing lung fever
  • Complete loss of appetite
  • Muscular twitching
  • Walking in staggering manner
  • Animal lies down on its side most of the time
  • Animals lies on sternum with head twisted on one side
  • General paralysis/ inability to more or arise
  • Breathing becomes slow and weak
  • Stiffening of the whole body
  • Head turned back
  • Animal fall down and becomes unconscious
  • Sudden death.

 

  • d) Control and treatment
  • Intravenous injection of calcium borogluconate
  • Feeding animals with calcium salt two months before calving down
  • Partial milking on known cases

 

  1. Discuss East Coast Fever (E.C.F) under the following sub-topics:
  2. a) Animal attacked
  • cattle

 

  1. b) Causal organisms
  • Protozoa/Theileria parva

 

  1. c) Vector
  • Brown ear tick / Rhipicephalous appendiculatus

 

  1. d) Incubation period
  • 15 days.

 

  1. e) Symptoms of attack
  • Fever/ high temperature
  • Animal salivates profusely/ Excessive salivation
  • Lachrimation/ tears from eyes
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Haemorrhages in vulva/ mouth
  • Coughing
  • Sight impairment/ Poor vision/Corneal opacity
  • Swollen lymph nodes especially around the base of the ears shoulder
  • Reduction in production.
  • Loss of appetite
  • Dullness

 

  1. f) Control and treatment
  • Regular spraying/ dipping/ hand dressing with acaricide to kill the vector organism/ticks
  • Fencing/ rotational grazing
  • Treatment using appropriate drugs/antibiotics

 

  1. List three control measures of East coast fever (E. C.F)
  • Control ticks by dipping / spraying/Rotational grazing /Hand picking / deticking and killing/Hand dressing/Burning pastures
  • Double perimeter fencing.
  • Slaughtering all affected cattle
  • Provide chlorotetracycline and oxytetracycline drugs as feed supplement

 

  1. Explain ten measures used to control livestock diseases
  • Proper feeding
  • Animals fed on balanced ration adequate in quantity and quality are strong and able to resist diseases
  • Proper breeding and selection
  • Animals selected that are free from diseases or resistant to diseases will prevent transmission of diseases
  • Proper housing and hygiene
  • Animals houses should be built to meet construction requirement e.g. ventilation, space, drainage, leak proof, lighting and will prevent and protect animals from contracting diseases
  • Isolation of sick animals
  • Is separation and confinement of animals from health ones while undergoing treatment, this prevents spread of the diseases
  • Imposition of quarantine
  • Is restriction of movement of animals and their products from and into affected areas, thus prevents spreads of diseases
  • Prophylactic measure and treatment
  • Involves use of drugs before disease attack to prevent occurrence e.g. use of coccidiostat to control Coccidiosis, drenching to prevent helminthes
  • Also involve vaccination, spraying with appropriate acaricide and treatment to restore good health
  • Slaughtering affected animal
  • Highly infection and contagious diseases e.g. Rinderpest, new cattle foot and mouth animals should be slaughtered and carcasses will dispose to prevent spread
  • Use of antiseptics and disinfectants
  • Applied on skin to kill pathogens or clean livestock to maintain hygiene
  • Drenching / deworming to control internal parasites
  • Practice proper milking techniques to avoid mastitis.
  • Avoid physical injuries to animals caused by sharp objects
  • Prevention of stress factors.
  • Carrying out fencing of the farm to keep away strange animals from the farm which may spread diseases
  • Culling – to prevent spread of contagious) disease

 

  1. Explain the general methods of Disease control in livestock
  • Proper hygiene- animals house must be hygienic
  • Proper housing – to provide suitable conditions for animal
  • Proper spacing in houses – to avoid risks of overcrowding
  • Well ventilated house- for free circulation of air
  • Leak proof house- to avoid dampness
  • Well sheltered house- to avoid cold draughts
  • Proper disposal of carcasses by burning or burying  to avoid spread of diseases
  • Proper nutrition- to avoid nutritional diseases
  • Proper breeding – to select and breed healthy animals
  • Use of quarantine- to avoid spread of diseases
  • Isolation- to facilitate treatment and avoid spread of disease by a sick animal
  • Culling- removing sickly animal from the herd after they recover
  • Vaccination- to prevent attack by a disease
  • Use of prophylactic drugs- used in feeds and water to prevent infection
  • Slaughtering of diseased animals and disposed off to prevent spread to healthy ones.
  • Treatment of sick animals- to return to good health
  • Keeping proper farm records on animal health – to predict attack
  • Control of vectors- to prevent protozoan diseases
  • Use of antibiotics – against bacterial diseases
  • Use of antiseptics – to dress wounds
  • Deworming – to eliminate endo – parasites
  • Hoof trimming – Prevent dirt accumulation / filth in the hoof hence control foot rot disease

 

  1. Describe the control measures of disease in livestock, for each control measure give an example of a disease controlled
  • Use prophylactic drugs-animals are given drugs routinely to control certain diseases
  • Use of antiseptics and disinfectants for cleaning poultry houses or calf pens to
  • control disease e.g. scours
  • Quarantine during an outbreak of certain diseases e.g. foot and mouth
  • Isolation animals suffering horn infectious diseases e.g. scours are not allowed to mix with others
  • Mass & slaughter / cull animals suffering from certain dangerous diseases e.g. anthrax
  • Vaccination -animals usually vaccinated against certain diseases e.g. black quarter
  • Control of vectors-diseases carrying parasites e.g. tsetse flies are controlled by spraying the bush to control diseases like Nagana
  • Use healthy breeding stock/ AI prevent the spread of diseases like brucellosis
  • Proper nutrition well balanced diet to be provided to animals to prevent nutritional diseases e.g. anaemia in piglets
  • Drenching/ control of internal parasites e.g. roundworms
  • Keep resistant type of livestock e.g. zebu to prevent occurrence of E.C.F
  • Proper housing to prevent diseases like pneumonia
  • Foot trimming to prevent foot rot/removal of sharp objects
  • Feed animals with dry roughages before feeding them succulent roughages to minimize occurrence of bloat /other nutritional disorders

 

  1. a) Give the method used in introducing a vaccine to poultry against fowl typhoid
  • Injection/ Intramuscular injection

 

  1. b) State two other methods introducing vaccines to livestock
  • Orally
  • Inhalation
  • Through cloaca in poultry
  • Inhalation through the nose

 

  1. State four major routes of administering vaccines in day old chicks
  • Nostrils
  • Mouth
  • Eyes
  • Under the skin (sub cutaneous)

 

  1. Explain four major causes of lamb mortality from birth to weaning
  • chilling
  • scours
  • internal parasitic infestation
  • loss of mother/lack of foster  parents
  • inadequate mother’s milk/malnutrition
  • crushing by t he  mother

 

  1. What organism causes Brucellosis in dairy cattle?
  • Brucella abortus

 

  1. Describe brucellosis under the following sub headings
  2. Causal organism
  • Bacterium/Brucellus abortus

 

  1. ii) Transmission
  • sexually transmitted/it  is a breeding diseases

 

iii) Symptoms

  • Premature birth/spontaneous abortion
  • yellowish slimy  and odourless discharge through  the vulva
  • retained afterbirth/placenta
  • the cow may become  barren
  • Bulls have low libido and orchitis/ inflamed testes

 

  1. iv) Control measures
  • use of healthy semen/bull/Al
  • proper disposal of foetus  and carcass  
  • Use of artificial insemination
  • Cull and slaughter the infected animals
  • Vaccination of all young animals against the disease
  • Avoid contact with aborted foetus
  • Cleanliness in animal house must be maintained
  • Carry blood test for breeding animals in order to detect the infected ones

 

  1. Name the causative organism of the Gumboro disease.
  • Birna virus

                                                                                   

  1. State one way by which each of the following practices help in disease control
  2. Proper feeding
  • Prevents deficiency diseases
  • Imparts resistance to diseases         

 

  1. Proper housing
  • Prevents draughts/ colds wind
  • Prevents dampness due to proper drainage and ease of cleaning         

 

  1. a) Name two diseases in cattle that may be spread through breeding/mating
  • Brucellosis /contagious abortion/ bang’s diseases
  • Leptospirosis
  • Scrotal hernia

 

  1. b) State two practices that may be carried out to control breeding diseases among cattle.
  • Artificial insemination
  • Treatments
  • Proper selection

 

  1. a) Name the cause of fowl typhoid.
  • Bacterium / Salmonella gallinarum   

 

  1. b) list common symptoms of fowl typhoid
  • Dark green diarrhoea

 

  1. Describe the symptoms of diseases that can be observed from the faecal matter. Give an example in each case
  • Hard dung in cattle – constipation /anaplasmosis
  • Yellow green diarrhoea in poultry- new castle disease
  • Diarrhoea with blood stains – Coccidiosis in poultry
  • Dark green diarrhoea – fowl typhoid
  • Presence of eggs or cysts in the dung in cattle – worm infestation

 

  1. a) Name the causative organism of Pneumonia in calves
  • Bacterium/mycoplasma mycoides

 

  • b) Give two predisposing factors to Pneumonia in calves
  • Poor ventilation
  • Over crowding
  • Age of the animal
  • Dampness/chilliness in the animal house/Wet conditions
  • Dirty conditions
  • Poor nutrition

 

  • c) State two symptoms of Pneumonia in calves
  • Severe respiratory problems
  • Abundant mucous nasal discharge
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Dullness
  • Loss of appetite/anorexia
  • Abnormal lung sound/bubbling sound/hissing sound/ gurgling sound.
  • Coughing due to congestion of bronchioles
  • Where land is not accessible by a tractor
  • Irregular shaped pieces of land
  • Where the cost of hiring a tractor is high
  • Where tractor for hiring one not available/very steep slopes

 

  1. Give two signs that would indicate a cow has died of anthrax
  • Absence of rigor mortis/no stiffness.
  • Dark watery blood oozing from natural openings.
  • Excessively blown stomach.
  • Blood does not clot.

 

  1. Discuss anthrax disease in cattle under the following subheadings
  • a) Causal organism
  • Bacillus anthracis/ bacteria

 

  1. b) Symptoms
  • Absence of rigor mortis/no stiffness.
  • Tar like blood /Dark watery blood oozing from natural openings.
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Extensive bloat after death
  • Presence of blood in faeces and milk
  • Shivering
  • Sudden death and fast decomposition
  • Blood does not clot.
  • High temperature

 

  1. c) Control measures and treatment
  • Animals should be vaccinated using blanthax
  • Impose quarantine in infected areas
  • Proper disposal of carcass
  • Disinfect animal house e.g. with formalin
  • Do not open carcass if suspected of the disease
  • Proper inspection of meat.
  • Large doses anti anthrax serum
  • Treatment of wounds

 

  1. Discuss bloat disease under the following sub-headings.
  2. a) Species of the animals affected by the disease
  • Cattle
  • Sheep
  • Goats

 

  • b) Causes of the disease
  • Obstruction of the oesophagus due to bulky food particles such as potatoes, carrot, mangoes
  • Abnormal pressure exerted on the oesophagus by swelling in the wall of the chest
  • Indigestion – caused by an accumulation of gases due to paralysis of the rumen and the value at the entrance
  • Feeding animals on feeds containing a lot of pasture legumes cabbage leaves and lush pasture
  • Abrupt change in feeds given to animals/ from very dry feeds to very succulent feeds.

 

  1. c) Symptoms of the disease
  • Distension of the left side of the abdomen due to gas accumulation
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Profuse salivation
  • Animal lies down and is unable to rise up
  • Grunting and kicking at the belly
  • Death within hours due to pressure on blood vessels, heart and lungs

 

  1. d) Control measures of the disease
  • Provide dry roughages just before feeding the animals on green and succulent or wet pasture
  • Feed animals on wilted grasses and pasture legumes

 

  1. e) Treatment of the disease
  • Treatment measures
  • Exercise the sick animal by walking it around & up-hill
  • Use medicinal oils as defrothing agents such as liquid paraffin
  • Epsom salt can be used to empty the stomach
  • A stomach pump can be inserted into the rumen through the oesophagus
  • In extreme cases Trocar and canula or sterilized sharp knife is used to pierce through the skin of the rumen
  • Methyl silicone injection

 

 

  1. a) What is the causal organism of Anaplasmosis in cattle?
  • A protozoa / Anaplasma marginale

 

  1. b) State two symptoms of Anaplasmosis
  • Fever/high temperature
  • Sudden drop in milk production
  • Anaemia/paleness in the gums eyes (lips) jaundice/ Pale mucous membrane
  • Constipation/Hard dung
  • Anorexia/loss of appetite
  • Reluctant/inability to move
  • Animal becomes aggressive.

 

  1. Outline ways in which diseases can spread from one animal to another
  • By ingestion of contaminated feed and water.
  • By carrying agents e.g. vectors, utensils, sacks and grass animal attendant.
  • By abrasion on body of affected animals/contact
  • Through wounds
  • Through inhalation of pathogens

 

  1. Give two reasons for laying soft membranes shelled eggs by layers
  • Lack of phosphorus/calcium in feeds.
  • Sickness

 

  1. State five importance of keeping livestock healthy
  • Give high quality production with high market value
  • Fast growth rate/early maturity to ensure long productive life
  • Economical to keep-saves expenditure on veterinary services and drugs
  • Produces healthy products-no risk of transmitting Zoonotic diseases to human beings
  • High yields-hence high profits/returns
  • Fetch good market prices hence high returns
  • Have longer lifespan i.e. economic life
  • Have high fertility rate and reproduce more and faster
  • Give more draft farm power e.g. during ploughing.
  • Do not become a source of infection to other animals
  • Enable the fulfilment of farm operations , budgets and plans

 

  1. Give two ways by which proper nutrition helps to control livestock diseases
  • Helps to prevent nutrient deficiency diseases
  • Gives the livestock ability to resist diseases

 

 

  1. Name four livestock nutritional diseases
  • Milk fever
  • Oesteomalacia / rickets
  • Pica
  • Grass tetany / staggers / hypomagnesaemia
  • Enzootic neonatal ataxia / sway back disease
  • Parakeratosis

 

  1. a) Define the term Zoonotic diseases
  • Are diseases that are transmitted from animal to man or from man to animal

 

(b) Name two Zoonotic diseases.

  • Anthrax
  • Brucellosis
  • Rabies
  • Tuberculosis
  • Rift valley fever
  • Bird flu (avian flu)
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Mad cow disease

 

  1. Discuss the disease trypanosomiasis under the following sub titles.
  2. a) Causal organism.
  • Protozoa/Trypanosoma species (trypanosome)
  1. b) Animal attacked
  • Cattle, man, sheep, goats, donkeys, pigs, horses and wild animals.

 

  1. c) Mode of transmission
  • Vector borne by tsetse fly

 

  1. d) Symptoms
  • Anaemia
  • Loss of appetite
  • Intermittent fever
  • Abortion in females
  • Oedema
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Loss of hairs at the tail end
  • General weakness / emaciation
  • Dullness
  • Decline in milk production / yield
  • Coat cracked/coat is rough
  • Lachrimation causing blindness.

 

  1. e) Control.
  • Keep resistance
  • Confine game animals in parks
  • Control tsetse flies by regular spraying with acaricide
  • Restrict animals movements from mixing with wild game
  • Effective control of tsetse flies
  • Treat the animal with trypanocidal drugs to curb spread of the protozoa through the vectors.

 

  1. Name two cattle diseases caused by virus
  • Foot and mouth
  • Rinderpest
  • Yellow fever
  • Rift Valley fever
  • Rabies
  • Blue tongue
  • Lumpy skin
  • Ephemeral fever

 

  1. The illustration below shows a dairy cow suffering from a disease three days after calving down. The cow went down with its head turned back and was unable to stand.

 

 

  • Which disease did the cow suffer from?
  • Milk fever/paulurient peresis/hypocalcaemia

 

  • State two ways of preventing the disease you have identified in (i) above.
  • Give feeds rich in minerals (Ca2+, P2O5) starting from the last 2 months of gestation/steam up.
  • Give vitamin D injection a week before parturition.
  • Dry off the cow sufficiently.

 

  1. Discuss Foot and Mouth disease under the following headings:
  2. a) Casual organisms
  • Virus/ virus types O, A, C/ south African types– SAT1, SAT2, SAT3,  / Asian type 1

 

  • b) Livestock species attacked
  • Cattle
  • Pigs
  • Goats
  • Sheep

 

  1. b) Mode of transmission and incubation period
  • Through contaminated litter, machinery feet, infected saliva& feeds, vaccines, garbage

 

  1. c) Symptoms of attack
  • Profuse salivation
  • Blisters which are painful around the mouth and hooves of the feet leading to lameness
  • Drop in milk production in lactating cows
  • Sharp rise in temperature/ high fever
  • Emaciation
  • Complete loss of appetite
  • Diarrhoea
  • Kicking of feet

 

  • Control measures
  • Vaccination every six months
  • Quarantine where there is an outbreak/Regulations of livestock movement by issue of movement permits
  • Slaughter and destruction of carcass
  • Isolation of farm animals from wildlife
  • Strict hygiene to avoid contamination.
  • Burn/ bury dead animals

 

  • Name two non-infectious causes of livestock diseases.
  • Poor nutrition.
  • Physical injuries.

 

  • Name two livestock diseases controlled through quarantine.
  • Black quarter.
  • Foot and mouth.

 

  • List two routes through which pathogens can enter the body of an animal.
  • Skin pores.
  • Nose
  • Mammary glands.
  • Navel/umbilical cord.
  • Genital/reproductive organs.

 

  • a) Describe African swine fever disease  under the following;
    • Animals affected
  • Pigs                (1mark)
    • Causal organisms
  • Virus (Irido virus)                (1mark)
    • Symptoms of attack
  • Rise in temperature upto 400C – 410C
  • Lack of appetite
  • Animals become depressed
  • Animals become weak
  • Animals start coughing
  • Nosal discharge
  • Diarrhea
    • Control measures
  • Vaccine animals in case of an outbreak
  • Imposition of quarantine
  • Kill and dispose affected animals
  • Double fencing to keep wild animals

 

  • 23(a) Describe the procedure followed when using the hypodermic syringe and needle to administer liquid drugs to cattle.
  • Fix the needle to the syringe
  • Withdraw the right amount from the bottle
  • Remove air/bleed needle
  • Disinfect site
  • Insert needle and push butt to release drug
  • Remove the needle
  • Release the animal.

 

  • (b) Outline six reasons for maintaining livestock in good health.
  • Increase quality of livestock products/work outputs/regular breeding
  • Increase quantity of livestock products/yields
  • Reduce spread of diseases
  • Increase profits/reduce costs of production
  • Increase productive life of livestock.

 

  • Name the two diseases which are controlled by one vaccine in livestock.
  • Anthrax and blackquater.

 

  • Describe foot rot disease in sheep management under
  • Cause
  • Bacterium fusiformis species / fusiformis nodusus / F. necraforus/F. spirochitis

 

  • -Lameness / inability to walk
  • Swelling of affected feet
  • Wounds and ulcers / pus / foul smell in affected areas
  • -Anorexial of appetite
  • Loss of weight / emaciation.

 

  • Control
    • Trim hooves regularly
    • Keep grazing land free from sharp objects
    • Avoid swampy / dump conditions
    • Apply footbath using disinfectant e.g copper Sulphate solution

 

  • How does each of the following practices help in controlling diseases among livestock.
    • Fencing
  • Prevents intrusion of other animals that may spread diseases

 

  • Hoof trimming
  • Prevent dirt accumulation / fith in the hoof

 

  • Vaccination
  • Imparts resistance to disease s

 

 

  • List four predisposing factors of livestock diseases
  • Species
  • Breed
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Skin colour

 

  • The diagram below illustrate a dairy suffering from a disease condition
    • Identify the disease
  • Mastitis

 

  • Name the tool used to detect the disease in (i) above
  • Strip cup

 

  • State any two control measures for the disease
  • -Use of antibiotic
  • -Complete milking
  • -Correct technique of milking
  • -Clean milk man

 

 

 

  • State two ways by which proper feeding contributes to disease control in poultry.                (1mk)
  • Improves production
  • Helps prevent deficiency diseases
  • – Enhances resistance to diseases ( ½ x 2 = 1 mk)

 

  • Give four qualities of a good vaccine.                (2mks)
  • Imperting long life immunity on a single dose
  • Easy to administer
  • Has no side effects
  • Compactible with other vaccines
  • Has long keeping life
  • Immunity imperted is as good as natural immunity

 

                                                                                                        ( ½ x 2)

  • (a) Outline the ways in which diseases can spread from one animal to another.(4 marks)
  • contact
  • ingestion of contaminated food
  • air
  • During mating.
  • Through contaminated equipment

 

 

  • (a) Discuss the factors that may predispose livestock to certain diseases.
  • Skin colour
  • Age of the animal
  • Sex of the animal
  • Species of the animal
  • Breed of the animal
  • Environmental factors
  • Housing conditions
  • (c) Describe the general methods of controlling livestock diseases.
  • Vaccination
  • Hygiene
  • Isolation
  • Quarantine
  • Use prophylactic drugs
  • Proper carcass disposal
  • Culling
  • Proper feeding
  • Proper housing
  • Dipping / spraying
  • Drenching / dosing / deworming

 

  • Use the diagram given below to answer the questions that follows:
R
S

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Name the routine practice carried out on the part labeled R.
  • 20 (a) (i) Debeaking

 

  • Give two reasons for carrying out the practice named in a (i) above
  • To control egg eating
  • To control cannibalism

 

  • (i) Name one disease that affect the part labeled S
  • (b) (i) Fowl pox

 

  • State two control measures of the disease named in b (i) above
  • – Vaccination
  • Use vitamin supplements to promote fast manufacturing of blood.
  • Control any opportunity infections that may occur due to immunosuppression.
  • (b)         Describe the symptoms of diseases that can be observed from the faecal matter
  • Give an example in each case (8mks)
    • Hard dung in cattle – constipation anaplasma
  • Yellow green diarrhea in poultry- new castle disease
  • Diarrhea with blood stains – conccidiosis in poultry
  • Dark green diarrhea – fowl typhoid
  • Presence of eggs or cysts in the dung in cattle – worm infestation. 8mks

 

  • Differentiate between antibiotics and antibodies.                                                                                    (1mk)
  • Antibiotics are chemical substances (drugs) that kill biotic agents e.g. bacteria, protozoa while antibodies are proteineus chemical substances produced within the body that fight against the entry and multiplication of biotic factors.
  • (a) List six routes through which pathogens can enter the body of an animal.                              (6 marks)
  • Oral ( mouth), broken skin ( wounds), nasal, ocular ( eyes), anal, ears, reproductive organs, umbilical cord (6×1=6mks)

 

 

  • 18 Below is an illustration of an activity carried out to detect an infection of the udder before milking. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Identify the equipment labeled U in the illustration above
  • Strip cup
    • State Two changes in milk that would be observed if the udder illustrated above is infected by a disease detected by equipment identified in (a) above

 

  • Pus in milk/ blood in milk
  • Tiny clots

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