2 ¾ Hours
KENYA HIGH SCHOOL
POST MOCK EXAMINATIONS
Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
INSTRUCTION TO CANDIDATES
This paper consists of two sections A&B.
Answer ALL questions in section A. In section B Answer QUESTION 6 and ANY OTHER TWO questions.
All answers must be written in the answer sheets provided.
This paper consists of 3 printed pages.
Candidates should check the question paper to ensure that all the pages are printed as indicated and no questions are missing.
Answer ALL questions in this section.
- (a) Define weather (2marks)
(b) State five factors considered when siting a weather station. (5marks)
- (a) State two ways that make it possible for geographers to study the earth’s interior. (2marks)
(b) State 3 changes that may occur in a rock after it has undergone metamorphism. (3marks)
- (a) Differentiate between folding and faulting. (2marks)
(b) Citing an example on each period, state 4 orogenesisperiods in fold mountain formation. (4marks)
- (a) Differentiate between a spring and a well. (2marks)
(b) State three ways by which springs develop. (3marks)
- Give two ways in which mulching improves soil. (2marks)
Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section
- Study the map of Homabay (1:50,000) sheet 129/2 provided. Answer the following questions.
- (i) Calculate the area of the part of Olambwe Valley National Reserve shown on the map.
(Give your answer in square kilometers). (2marks)
(ii) What is the length of the Homa Bay municipality boundary? (2marks)
(iii) Give six figure grid reference for the secondary trigonometric section on the Ruri Hills. (2marks)
(iv) Draw a rectangle that measures 10cm by 15cm to represent the area enclosed by Eastings 51 and 59 and Northings 33 and 45. On it mark and name the following features.
- Lake Victoria
- Ranyambala forests
- Secondary trigonometric station
- River Ogongo (5marks)
- Using evidence from the map, state three functions of Homabay town (3marks)
- (i) Name three types of vegetation shown on the map. (3marks)
(ii) Identify three settlement patterns found in the area covered by the map. (3marks)
- Describe the relief of the area covered by the map. (5marks)
- (a) Define the term vulcanicity (2marks)
(b) Give four characteristics of a composite volcano. (4marks)
(c) Describe how a lava plateau is formed. (4marks)
(d) Explain four negative effects of vulcanicity. (8marks)
(e) You intend to carry out a field study of an area affected by vulcanicity.
- Give four sources of information that you would use in the preparation for the study (4marks)
- Give three factors that would make it difficult for you to collect accurate data during the field study. (3marks)
- (a) Give three agents of weathering (3marks)
(b) Describe frost action as a process of weathering. (4marks)
(c) Explain how an exfoliation dome is formed. (5marks)
(d) Explain 3 factors that influence the rate of mass wasting. (6marks)
- State four slow types of mass wasting. (4marks)
- Give three positive effects of mass wasting. (3marks)
- (a) (i) State three factors that influence transportation of materials in the sea. (3marks)
(ii) Draw a simple well labeled diagram of a sea wave. (3marks)
(iii)Give three ways in which islands are formed. (3 marks)
(b) Explain the following processes of wave erosion.
- Hydraulic action (3marks)
- Solution (2marks)
(c) Describe the formation of a spit. (5marks)
(d) Explain 3 economic importances of coastal landforms. (6marks)
- 10. (a) State four physical factors that contribute to development of deserts. (4marks)
(b) Give four characteristics of desert landscape. (4marks)
(c) Explain three factors that influence wind transport in the desert. (6marks)
(d) Describe how a deflation hollow is formed. (4marks)
(e) You carried out a field study in a desert landscape.
- State four preparations for your study. (4marks)
- List three water depositional features you identified. (3marks)
KENYA HIGH EXAMINATIONS
Answer ALL questions in this section.
(a) Weather is the condition of the atmosphere of a given place over a given period of time/ shot period of time. (3 marks)
(b) Five factors considered when siting a weather station.
- Secure place; should be sited in a secure place to avoid vandalism and theft.
- The site should be away from obstruction (e.g. buildings, vegetation).
- The site should be relatively flat and free from flooding.
- The site should be in an open space where there’s free flow of air.
- The site should have a wide view of surrounding landscape and sky.
(a) Ways that make it possible for geographers to study the earth’s interior.
- By studying seismic shock waves
- Through study of volcanic lava flows
- Through study of rocks on the moon and meteorites
- Through very deep mining drilling. (1 x 2 = 2mks) any 2 points
(b) Changes that may occur in a rock after it has undergone metamorphism
- New minerals are formed
- Rocks change in hardness
- The rock change in physical appearance
- Rock particles become compacted
- Minerals recrystalise further. (1 x 3 = 3mks)
(a) Differentiate between folding and faulting.
- Folding is the bending of crustal rocks due to earth movements while
Faulting is the breaking / fracturing of crustal rocks due to tectonic forces.
(b) 4 orogenesis periods in fold mountains formation.
- Charnianorogeny: e.g. African block, Laurentian shield, Russian platform & Deccan Plateau.
- Caledonian Orogeny: e.g. Akwapim hills, Scottish Highlands
- Hercynian Orogeny: e.g. Cape ranges, Appalachian Mtns, Ural
- Alpine Orogeny: e.g. Atlas, Alps, Himalayas, Rockies & Andes Mountains. (1 x 4= 4mks)
(a) Differentiate between a spring and a well.
- A spring is a place on the surface of the earth where underground water flows out onto the surface while
- A well is a relatively deep hole in the ground which is dug by people for the purpose of getting water.
(1 x 2 = 2mks)
(b) Ways by which springs develop.
- When a permeable rock lies on top of an impermeable rock.
- When the hilly country rocks are well jointed.
- When a dyke acts as a dam
- When limestone rocks (escarpments) overlie impermeable rocks.
- When gently sloping layers of permeable rock alternate with layers of impermeable rock.
Any 3 (1 x 3 = 3mks)
(a) Two ways in which mulching improves soil.
- Enhancing infiltration / reduce run off.
- Protect soil against splash erosion
- Enable soil to regain fertility / add humus to soil
- Enable moisture retention / reduces excess evaporation. Any 2 pints ( 1 x 2 = 2mks)
(a) (i) 21km2 2marks
(ii) 6.2 km 2marks 4fig (1mk)
(iii) 517 388 2marks 6fig (1mk)
(b) Using evidence from the map, state three functions of Homabay town
- Industrial centre Ginnery
- Health centre Hospital
- Educational centre Schools/ nursing training, farmers training centre
- Transport centre Roads / Pier
- Communication centre Post office
- Trading centre Market Any 3 ( 3×1=3mks)
NB: The point should be qualified (evidence) to earn a mark
(c) (i) 3 types of vegetation
- Papyrus swamp
- Scrub (3 marks)
(ii) Settlement patterns
- Dispersal (3 marks)
(d) Describe the relief of the area covered by the map.
- The area between Easting 51 and 54 is hilly as indicated by the presence of Ruri Hills
- The West of the area covered by the map is flat as indicated by widely spaced contour.
- There are rivers valleys around Ruri Hills
- Around Olambwe East the region is very steep as indicated by dense contours.
- The land is plainsland around Olambwe Valley national reserve.( 1 x 5 = 5mks)
- Definition of vulcanicity
- It’s the processes through which solids, liquids, gaseous and molten materials are forced out of the earth’s interior or are intruded into the earth’s crust. (1×2 = 2 marks)
- Four characteristics of a composite volcano.
- Has vertical vent / pipe/ fissure
- Composed of alternating layers of ash / lava
- Its conical in shape / steep sided
- Has side vents
- Its made up of acidic lava / viscous lava
- Has conelets / parasitic cones
- At the summit, it may have caldera / crater / plug. (4 x 1 = 4mks)
- How a lava plateau is formed.
- Formed when magma reaches the earth’s surface through fissures / vents
- Lava is ultra basic / low intensity
- Lava flows over a long distance spreading over a large area before cooling.
- Lava cools slowly forming an extensive lava platform bounded by steep slopes.(4 x 1 = 4mks)
- Four negative effects of vulcanicity.
- Volcanic eruptions can result in loss of lives
- Volcanic eruptions can destroy property
- Weathered volcanic rocks / materials e.g. ashes and granite can result in infertile soils.
- Volcanic features like mountains create barriers to transport and communication
- The rugged nature of volcanic landscape discourages economic activities e.g. agriculture and settlement.
- Volcanic eruptions produce poisonous gases e.g. sulphur Co2 which pollute the environment / threaten human life.
- Volcanic mountains create a rain shadow effect which discourage farming activities
- Recent lava flows have immature soils which are not suitable for farming.
- Volcanic eruptions and related hazards cause panic and affect people psychologically / inhibit development.
- Dust particles from volcanic eruptions absorb and scatter solar energy, lowering global temperatures; resulting to health problems to man.
- Volcanic eruptions may cover / burry minerals making mining difficulty and expensive.
(4×2 = 8 marks)
- (i) Four sources of information that you would use in the preparation for the study
- Written materials / magazines/ newspapers / text books
- Photographs / films
- Resource persons
- Electronic media e.g. T.V / radio (4 x 1 = 4mks)
(ii) Three factors that would make it difficult for you to collect accurate data during the field study.
- Fear of eruptions
- Inaccessibility of some areas due to piled up lava
- Inadequate information because people have been evacuated
- There may be restrictions to access the area. (3 x 1 = 3mks)
- Three agents of weathering
- Heat / temperature
- Water / rainfall / moisture
- Wind (3 x 1 = 3mks)
- Frost action as a process of weathering.
- Occurs where temperatures are within the freezing point
- When temperatures rise, snow melt and water enters the crack in the rock
- When temperatures drop, the water freezes, expands and widens the cracks
- Continued process of freezing and thawing lead to break up of rocks.(4 x 1 = 4mks)
- Explain how an exfoliation done is formed.
- High temperatures during the day causes rocks to expand
- At night temperatures are low hence rocks contract
- Repeated expansion and contraction cause stress on the rocks hence cracks develop.
- Eventually, the outer layer peels off leading to rounded mass of rock known as exfoliation dome.
- Further wind action may smoothen the surfaces.
(5 x 1 = 5mks)
- 3 factors that influence the rate of mass wasting.
- Steep slopes increase the rate of mass wasting
- The heavier the material, the faster the movement of the material
- The higher the rainfall the faster the movement of the material
- Bare surface increase the rate of the movement of the material
- Earth movements trigger movement of materials
- Human activities e.g. mining / farming / construction accelerate the rate of materials movement.
(3 x 2 = 6mks)
- Four slow types of mass wasting.
- Soil creep
- Talus creep
- Scree creep
- Rock creep (4 x 1 = 4mks)
- Three positive effects of mass wasting.
- Create scenery that attract tourists for foreign exchange
- It facilitates deposition of rich soils for agriculture in the low lands
- Landslides create barriers across river courses / valley leading to formation of lakes.
- It causes slope retreat encouraging human activities (3 x 1 = 3mks)
- (i) Three factors that influence transportation of materials in the sea.
- Ocean currents
- Tidal currents
- Strength of waves
- Nature of materials
- Depth of water
- Slope of the coast / shore
- alignment of the coast Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks
(ii) A simple well labeled diagram of a sea wave. 3marks
(iii)Three ways in which islands are formed.
- Volcanic eruption
- Accumulation of coral into coral reefs
- Submergence of an upland coast
- Deposition across the bays / river mouths / lagoons
- Erosion of head lands(any 3 x 1 = 3mks)
- (i) Hydraulic action
- Action caused by the force of moving water in form of waves
- Involves direct wave force where the pounding force of the wave causes shattering of rocks on the cliff /causes compression of air in the cracks.
- As the wave retreats, the air expands explosively.
- Gradually the rock disintegrates. Any 3 x 1 = 3mks
- Is the process where sea water dissolves soluble minerals in the rock which are in contact with it on the sea side and bed.2 x 1 = 2mks
- Formation of a spit.
- It forms on a shallow shore at a point where there is a change in the angle of the coastline
- Sand and shingles are deposited from the headland seaward by long shore drift / oblique waves.
- Continued deposition leads into accumulation of materials seawards.
- With time, an elongated ridge of sand and shingles with one end attached to the mainland and the other projecting into the sea called a spit is formed. Any 5 x 1 = 5mks
- 3 economic importances of coastal landforms.
- Coastal rocks e.g. coral limestone are used in building and construction
- Limestone rock is used as a raw material in cement industries
- Coastal features like coral reef attract tourist who bring in foreign exchange
- Fiord and rias provide suitable sites for construction of the harbours / breeding of fish
- Marine life is used in education and research
- Mud flats and mangroves swamps are drained and used for rice cultivation / mangrove forests are exploited to provide poles for construction
- Extensive coastal plains provide suitable sites for human settlements and agriculture. Any 3 x 2 = 6mks
- Four physical factors that contribute to development of deserts.
- Continentality / distance from large water bodies
- A place being located in an area with descending winds / anticyclones
- Rain shadow effect
- Prolonged droughts
- Cold ocean currents
- Prolonged / persisted high temperatures
- Climate change / global warming
- Persistent offshore / dry winds / cold winds Any 4 x 1 = 4 mks
- Four characteristics of desert landscape.
- Most of the ground is bare / scanty vegetation
- Total absence / partial surface water
- Wind is dorminant leading to desert sand storms
- Land surface is covered by fine sand / stones / rock outcrops
- Galleys / badlands are common
- Thin soils
- Little organic matter.Any 4 x 1 = 4mks
- Three factors that influence wind transport in the desert.
- Speed and the force / strength of the wind
- Nature of the load / either light / heavy
- Intervening obstacles e.g. dead animals , twig or rock
- Water mass / rain / moisture. Any well explained 3 x 2 = 6mks
- How a deflation hollow is formed.
- A pre-existing depression /localized fault is exposed to wind erosion.
- Wind eddies remove the unconsolidated materials by with deflation
- Weathering aids in breaking down the exposed rock
- Wind abrasion excavates the depression by eroding the rock along weak lines
- The depression is deepened and widened as a deflation continues to remove the loose materials leading to formation of a large depression known as deflation hollow. Any 4 x 1 = 4mks
- (i)Four preparations for your study.
- Seeking permission
- Conduct a reconnaissance
- Formulate / adjust hypothesis and objectives
- Choose methods of data collection
- Assemble necessary tools / materials
- Prepare a working schedule
- Divide the students into groups
- Discuss the topic in class
- Literature reviewAny 4 x 1 = 4mks
(ii) List three water depositional features you identified.
- Salina / playa
- Alluvial fans / cones
- Bajadas3 x 1 = 3mks