Home Teachers' Resources KCSE REVISION HISTORY & GOVT PAPER 2(311/2)

KCSE REVISION HISTORY & GOVT PAPER 2(311/2)

REVISION HISTORY & GOVT. PAPER 2(311/2)

SAMPLE  1

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 2

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION

  1. State two limitations of archaeology as a source of historical information.  (2mks)
  2. State two distinct features of homo eretus. (2mks)
  3. Identify one use of bronze in ancient Benin. (1mk)
  4. State one way in which the industrial revolution in Britain promoted the British colonization of Africa.                                                                                                           (1mk)
  5. Identify two disadvantages of petroleum. (2mks)
  6. State the main reason that contributed to the growth of Meroe as an urban center . (1mk)
  7. Give two characteristics of the Macadamized roads.  (2mks)
  8. Name one verbal way of sending messages during the early times. (1mk)
  9. State two conditions that one had to fulfill in order to become fully assimilated in French west Africa .                                                                                               (2mks)
  10. Give two privileges which members of the British parliament enjoy .                   (2mks)
  11. Give the difference between written and unwritten constitution .                  (1mk)
  12. Name the main European nation which was responsible for the outbreak of the first world war. (1mk)
  13. Give the main principle of the non aligned movement in the world . (1mk)
  14. Identify two houses that constitute the United States Congress.   (2mks)
  15. Identify one weapon used during the Cold War. (1mk)
  16. State the main role of the United Nations Habitat .              (1mk)
  17. Mention two characteristics of common wealth countries .                 (2mks)

SECTION B (45MARKS)

ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS 

  1. (a) What factors influenced early man to begin domestication of plants ? (5mks)
  2. (b) Discuss the factors which promoted plantation farming in Europe during the Agrarian Revolution. (10mks)
  3. (a) Why were African slaves in high demand during the triangular trade? (3mks)

(b) Explain six reasons for the decline of the Trans-Atlantic trade.                  (12mks)

  1. (a) Name three communities in Tanganyika who participated in the Maji Maji rebellion of 1905-1907 . (3mks)

(b) Explain six reforms that were introduced by the Germans after the maji maji rebellion.                                                                                                                                            (12mks)

  1. (a) State five causes of nationalism in Mozambique . (5mks)
  2. (b) Describe the problems faced by the nationalists in Mozambique . (10mks)

 

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

 

  1. (a) Identify five feature of the social organisation of the Shona during the pre-colonial period.  (5mks)

(b) Describe the political system of Mwene-Mutapa Kingdom during the pre-colonial period.

(10mks)

  1. (a) State three objectives of the Arusha declaration of 1967 in Tanzania. (3mks)
  2. (b) Explain six economic challenges, which Tanzania has faced since independence

(12mks)

  1. (a) Name three political parties in India.  (3mk)
END
END

(b) Describe the powers of the Indian president .                                                           (12mks)

 

MARKING SCHEME

SAMPLE  1

311/2

 

SECTION A   (Answer all questions in this section (25mks)

 

  1. – Expensive source of information

–           Difficult to tolerate archaeological sites

–           Time consuming

–           Some artifacts and fossils are fragile

–           Some times it is  difficult to determine the date of fossils                           2×1=2 mks

  1. – Had a high thinking capacity

–           Walked upright

–           Had refined speech/ small jaws

–           Had the ability to grasp objects

–           Was thicky and heavy build                                                                           2×1=2 mks

  1. – Making of royal regalia

–           Making ornaments/ decorations

–           Making weapons

–           For religious purposes

–           Making of statutes of rulers                                                                           1×1=1 mk

  1. – Britain wanted colonies as sources of raw materials for the British industries

–           The British wanted markets for their industrial goods

–           The British wanted to invest their excess capital in Africa                          1×1=1 mk

  1. – It is expensive to transport

–           Prospecting for oil is quite expensive

–           Oil may affect the environment                                                                     2×1=2 mks

  1. – Iron ore                                                                                                           1×1=1 mk
  2. – All weather roads

–           Wide and straight

–           Good drainage

–           Smooth surface

–           They are durable                                                                                             2×1=2 mks

  1. – Blowing horns/ trumpets

–           Screaming/ making noise                                                                               1×1=1 mk

  1. – Ability to speak French

–           Literacy in French

–           Served in the French civil service/ army

–           Must have accepted Christianity

–           Monogamous/ one wife                                                                                  2×1=2 mks

  1. – Freedom of speech

–           Freedom from harassment within precincts of parliament e.g. arrest

–           Protection against arrest for civil offences for a period of forty days before and forty days after session of parliament                                                                                        2×1=2 mks

  1. – Written constitution is in formal document

–           Unwritten constitution does not exist in one formal document                    1×1=1 mk

  1. – Germany                                                                                                         1×1=1 mk
  2. – The principle of neutrality/ isolation policy                                                 1×1=1 mk
  3. – Senate

–           House of representatives                                                                                2×1=2 mks

  1. – Propaganda

–           Economic sanctions

–           Economic/ military assistance to enemies of the opposite side                   1×1=1 mk

 

  1. – The UN habitat deals with human settlement and housing                           1×1=1 mk
  2. – Use English as a common language

–           Members maintain cultural ties e.g. games

–           Co operate in the field of education

–           Recognize the queen as the head

–           Share common democratic institutions

–           Have common military traditions                                                                  2×1=2 mks

SECTION B (45 MARKS) (Answer  three  questions from  this section)

  1. a) –           Need to have reliable food supply

–           Need to replace tedious hunting and gathering

–           Invention of farming tools

–           Due to settled life by man

–           Rapid increase in population                                                             5×1=5 mks

  1. b) –           Invention of machines

–           Industrialization which provides fertilizers, markets e.t.c.

–           Clearing of more land

–           High demand for raw materials by industries

–           Scientific research/ invention

–           Land consolidation

–           Land enclosure system                                                                       5×2= 10 mks

  1. a) –           Available/ large numbers

–           Strong/ energetic

–           Resistant to many diseases

–           Provided cheap labour                                                                                    3×1=3 mks

  1. b) –           Use of machines in USA during the industrial revolution

–           British economists like Adam Smith argued that free labour was more economically productive than slave labour

–           Some European argued that if Africans were retained in their mother lands they could provide market for the manufactured goods

–           Development of legitimate trade replacing the slave trade

–           Others felt that if the Africans were not enslaved they could produce raw materials for the Europeans

–           American civil wars, which led to the closure of the American slave markets

–           American independence from Britain, which deprived Britain of profits

–           Anti – slavery movement pioneered by the missionaries on the humanitarian grounds

6 x 2 = 12mks

  1. a) –           Zaramo Ngindo, Pogoro, Ngoni, Luguru, Mpunga, Bena, Ndendeule3x1=3 mks
  2. b) – Communal cotton growing was stopped and Africans were encouraged to plant their

own to earn profit

–           Forced labour on settler farms was abolished

–           Corporal punishment was discouraged and settlers who mistreated their workers were punished

–           Better educational and medical services for Africans were introduced

–           Africans were incorporated in the administrative of the region as Akidas and Jumbes

–           A new governor was posted to Tanganyika

–           A department in charge of colonial affairs was created in the German government to look into German E.A

–           The new governor banned or censured newspapers that favoured settlers against Africans

–           Extra taxation of Africans was rejected by the new governor

–           Kiswahili was accepted as the official language                               6×2=12 mks

 

  1. a) –           The Portuguese replaced African leaders by their own appointees

–           Land alienation

–           They forced Africans to pay taxes

–           Portuguese settlers did not respect African culture

–           Introduction of forced labour

–           The Portuguese practiced racial discrimination

–           Africans were denied freedom of expression

–           The brutality and cruelity of the police                                             5×1=5 mks

  1. b) –           Shortage of basic needs e.g. food, clothes

–           Internal divisions due to ideological differences and selfish ambitious

–           Competition from rival guerilla movements

–           Assassination of Frelimo leader Edward Mondlane

–           Cruel methods in fighting the sympathizers

–           Apartheid regime in SA and UDI in Zimbabwe combined forces with the Portuguese

–           The church was against the activities of nationalists                                    5×2=10 mks

SECTION C (30 MARKS) (Answer  two  questions from  this section)

  1. a) –           Believed in one God called Mwari/ supreme creator

–           Worshipped their God through ancestral spirits

–           Priests came from the Rozwi clan

–           Had sacred  shrines

–           Practised polygamy

–           Lived in stone buildings                                                                     5×1=5 mks

  1. b) –           It was a kingdom/ empire led by the king/ emperor

–           It was hereditary

–           The king was assisted by queen mother head drummer, sister emperor principal, military commander, head door keeper and head cook

–           Priests acted as spies of the emperor/ king

–           Emperor was a military leader

–           Vasal states were ruled by chiefs who paid tributes (provinces) to the king

–           Royal fire was a symbol of unity

–           Emperor controlled trade                                                                   5×2=10 mks

  1. a) –           To promote self reliance

–           To build a socialist society/ Ujamaa

–           To ensure equal distribution of resources

–           Nationalize means of production                                                       3×1=3 mks

  1. b) –           Poor transport and communication network

–           Inadequate resources

–           Costly war with Uganda (1978- 1979)

–           Inadequate funds/ capital

–           High inflation rates/ devaluation of currency

–           Nationalization of key factors of production/ failure of Ujamaa policy

–           Food shortages

–           External debt increased

–           Collapse of E.A.C in 1977                                                                 6×2=12 mks

  1. a) –           Congress party

–           Bharatiya Janata Party

–           Communist party in India

3×1=3 mks

  1. b) –           Powers to dissolve parliament

–           Powers to declare an emergency in a state

–           Powers to assent or veto a bill

–           Commander in chief

–           Powers to appoint state governor and supreme court judges

–           Appoints the P.M

–           Symbol of national unity                                                                   6×2=12 mks

 

 

 

 

SAMPLE PAPER 2

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 2

SECTION A ( 25 MARKS)

ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION

  1. State the major disadvantage of films as an electronic source of historical information                         1mk
  2. Identify three stages of evolution according to Charles Darwin.             3mks
  3. Name two inventions that facilitated the development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia.             2mks
  4. What was the major contribution of Lord Viscount Townsend in modern farming?1mk
  5. Name two western Sudanese Kings credited with promoting Trans-Saharan Trade. 2mk
  6. Identify the major limitations of using wind as a source of energy in early times. 1mks
  7. Mention two ways through which the attainment of independence in Ghana contributed to the liberation of other African countries from colonial rule.                                     2mks
  8. List two ways in which indirect rule negatively affected traditional leaders in Nigeria.                         2mks
  9. Which was the main reason for the convening of the 1884 – 1885 Berlin conference?             1mks
  10. Name two war tactics that Samori Toure used to resist the French.             2mks
  11. Mention one way in which one can become a member of the Houseof Lords in Britain.                         1mks
  12. What was the policy of appeasement?             1mks
  13. Identify two founder members of the Non-Alligned movement.             2mk
  14. Identify one military alliance formed during the cold war.             1mk
  15. Which is the greatest social challenge facing African Nations today?             1mks
  16. State two advantages of a federal system of government.             2mk

 

SECTION B ( 45 MARKS)

 

ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION

 

  1. a) List five factors that facilitated the development of agriculture in USA before 1800.                                                                                                                                                   5mks
  2. Describe five major inventions and discoveries by Europeans in the field of agriculture.

10mks

  1. a) State  three duties of the Lukiiko in Buganda Kingdom.                                     3mks
  2. b) Discuss six factors that contributed to the growth of Buganda Kingdom                       12mks
  3. a) Give five reasons why the British used indirect rule to administer Northern Nigeria.                                                                                                                                                           5mks
  4. b) Why did indirect rule fail in Southern Nigeria?                          .                       10mks
  5. a) State three factors for the rise of Pan-African movement.                                  3mks
  6. b) Why is the Manchester Pan-African Congress of 1945 regarded as the turning point in the history of the movement? 12mks

 

SECTION C ( 30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section

 

  1. a) Discuss the causes of the second World War.                                                             15mks
  2. a) State five functions of the USA Congress.                                                           5mks
  3. b) How are the powers of the president limited in the USA?                                 10mks
  4. a) Mention the major political developments in Tanzania since independence.            7mks
  5. b) Outline major social challenges faced by Tanzania since independence.                       8mks

 

 

 

 

MARKING SCHEME

SAMPLE PAPER 2

311/2

  1. State the major disadvantage of films as an electronic source of historical information (1mk)

–     Film is acted and gives unrealistic exaggeration of events

 

  1. Identify three stages of evolution according to Charles Darwin       (1mk)

–     Mutation

–     Natural selection

–     Isolation

–     Adaptation                                                                                                1×3=3mks

  1. Name two invention that facilitated the development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia (2mk)

–     The ox-drawn plough

–     The seed drill or machine planter                                                            2×1

 

  1. What was the major contribution of Lord Viscount Townsend in modern farming (1mk)

–     He developed a four-course crop rotation (the Norfolk system)

  1. Name two Western Sudanese Kings credited with promoting Trans- Saharan Trade (2mks)

–     Mansa Musa of Mali

–     Askia Mohammed of Songhai

 

  1. Identify the major limitations of using wind as a source of energy in early times(1mks)

–     It relies on nature, which makes it unreliable

  1. Mention two ways through which the attainment of independence in Ghana contributed to the liberation of other African countries from colonial rule                                                             (2mks)

–     Ghana motivated other African countries to intensify their independence struggle

–     Nkrumah played a leading role in the foundation of the Organization of African Unity (O.A.U) which pressurized for decolonization

–     Ghana provided financial assistance to African Liberation Movements

–     Ghana allowed African nationalist to establish military bases in the country

–     Nkrumah hosted some Pan African Conferences Where he met and encouraged liberation movement                                                                                                      2×1=2mks

  1. List two ways in which indirect rule negatively affected traditional leaders in Nigeria (2mks)

–     Their duties like collecting taxes and recruitment of labour made them unpopular before their

own subjects

–     They lost their independence to the British                                             2×1=2mks

  1. Which was the main reasons for the convening of the 1884 – 1885 Berlin conference ?(1mk)

–     To set up rules to allow the colonial powers to divide Africa without resorting to war

1×1=1 mk

 

  1. Name two war tactics that Samori Toure used to resist the, French       (2mks) –          Guerilla warfare

–     Scorched – earth policy                                                                            2×1=2mks

  1. Mention one way in which one can become a member of the House of Lords in Britain       (1mk)

–     By being appointed by the British Monarch

–     By inheriting

–     By virtue of one’s distinguished position of service in society              1×1=1mk

  1. What was the policy of appeasement ?

–     It was a policy where by the Western European countries i.e. Britain, France and the USSR gave

in to Germany’s demands                                                                              1×1=1mk

 

  1. Identify two founder members of the Non- Aligned movement                   (2mks)

–     Jawaharlal Nehru, Indian prime minister

–     Marshall Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav president

–     Dr. Ahmed Sukarno, Indonesian president

–     Gamal abdel Nasser, Egyptian president

–     Chou En –Lai, Chinese prime minister                                                   2×1=2mks

  1. Identify one military alliance formed during the Cold war                                     ( 1mk)

–     The North Atlantic Treaty  Organization (NATO) –formed by the USA and her allies

–     The (War Saw) Pact –established by the Soviet Union and her Eastern European Allies                                                                                                                                                          1×1=1mk

 

  1. Which is the ngreatest social challenge facing African nations n today?                   (1mk)

–     The HIV/ AIDS pandemic                                                                              1×1=1mk

  1.     State two advantages of a federal system of government                                                             (2mks)

– Enables member states to benefit from the federal pool of resources

–       Member state enjoy a joint defense force

–       State can easily tackle their common problems jointly other than individually

–       Enables different states to live together while retaining their distinct identities

–       Provides a wider market for goods as each state accesses the market in sister state

–       Facilitates trade through a single currency and through elimination of tariffs

2×1=2 mks

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

  1. a) List five factors that facilitated the development of agriculture in USA before 1800 (5mks)

–           The presence of indigenous crops

–           Enter pricing European emigrants

–           Existence of fertile soils that supported different types of crops

–           Slave labour was abundant to work

–           The climate was suitable for different crops and animals

–           Immigrants from Europe brought new farming methods and crops       1×5=5mks

  1. b) Describe five major inventions in the discoveries by Europeans in the field of agriculture (10mks)

-Invention of the modern fertilizer industry by a German, Justus Liebig

–           Invention of the mechanical thresher by Andrew Meikel made harvesting easy

–           Invention of the seed drill by Jethro Tull eliminated seed broadcasting.

–           Lord Townsend recommended the use of Norfolk crop rotation system

–           Experiments on breeding in animals were done by Robert Bakewell. This has increased yields in animal products

–           Nicholas Appart, a French confectioner developed the canning process to preserve perishable farm products                                                                                                     5×2=10mks

18.a)  State three duties of the Lukiiko in  Buganda Kingdom                                                         (3mks)

–           Advising the kabaka

–           Was the final court of appeal

–           Making laws

–           Assisting the Kabaka in general administration

–           Collected taxes and planned its use                                                               3×1=3mks

  1. b) Discuss six factors \that contributed to the growth of Bugandda Kingdom (12mks)

–           It had strong leaders e.g. kabaka, Mutesa I

–           Trade with the coast created wealth

–           Had good climate that promoted farming

–           Soils around L. Victoria were suitable for crop growing

–           Her small size at first made administration easy

–           She had a strong army for expansion and defense

–           The Ganda tradition specified social roles. Women did farming while men got involved in outdoor activities –politics, carpentry, bark –cloth making                        6×2=12mks

19.a) Give five reasons why the British used indirect rule to administer Northern Nigeria                         (5mks)

–           The British lacked enough European manpower to effectively administer the vast region

–           It was much cheaper to rule using the African rulers because little salary would be paid to them

–           It was an attempt to avoid/ reduce African resistance against colonial rule

–           There was poor transport and communication network that made it difficult for British official to work efficiently

–           Indirect rule had been applied in Buganda and India and had succeeded, so they wanted to try it in Nigeria too

–           In Northern Nigeria, there existed a well established system of government based on Islamic law (Sharia)                                                                                                            5×1=5mks

  1. b) Why did indirect rule fail in Southern Nigeria ?             (10mks

–           There was lack of unity in the south because of the existence of many ethnic groups with different religious, cultures, languages and social-political system

–           The British gave the Yoruba Obas excessive powers and this caused resentment and discontent among the people

–           The British appointed warrant chiefs who were not popular with the people. Majority of them were mission educated young men who lacked traditional legitimacy as leaders –the elders opposed them

–           The people were opposed to direct taxation and forced labour. They resisted leading to violent riots in 1918 and 1929

–           The literate elite deeply resisted the practice of appointing traditional leaders as chiefs while leaving out the educated men                                                                                   5×2=10mks

  1. a) State three factors for the rise of Pan – African movement                         (3mks)

–           Slavery and slave trade which made Africans to suffer seriously

–           Colonialism in Africa. Africans were subjected to many ills e.g. forced labour, land alienation, taxation, poor wages, corporal punishment, rape and murder

–           Racism in the New world also promoted Pan –African Movement

–           European imperialism in the late 19th century

–           Reactions by educated blacks in the Americans against racist claim by whites that Africans were destined to slavery.                                                                                              3×1=3mks

  1. b) Whys is the Manchester Pan- African Congress of 1945 regarded as the turning point in the history of the movement ?                                                 (12mks)

–           It was attended by African representatives e.g. Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Leopold Senghor of Senegal, e.t.c.

–           The African representatives made great contributions and discussed issues related to political and economic status of the Africans in Africa

–           The African representatives agreed that they would go back to Africa and lead their countries to independence

–           The congress called for the immediate decolonization of Africa and ultimate unification of independent African states

–           It was suggested for the first time that if the colonial powers were not ready to give independence willingly, force would be used

–           The conference expressed that before long, the peoples of Asia and Africa would have broken their chains of colonialism

–           The conference made demand for universal suffrage and condemned European capitalism

6×2=12 mks

SECTION C (30 MKS)

  1. Discuss the causes of the Second World War

–           The growth of nationalism in Germany, Italy and Japan. These powers wanted to acquire more

territories at the expense of peace

–           The great depression of the 1930s caused much economic hardships in Europe

–           Violation of the Versailles treaty by Germany

–           The policy of appeasement adopted by Britain and France encouraged aggression by Germany and Italy

–           The weakness of the League of Nations. Germany took advantage and re –militarized

–           Emergence of dictators –Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin

–           The system of alliance e.g. the Berlin –Rome –Tokyo Axis threatened peace and increased mistrust

–           The ambitious Hitler. His great ambition was to make Germany strong by breaking the terms of the Versailles peace treaty. He also wanted to create living space for German race by exterminating inferior races                                                                     8×2=16mks

22.a)    State  five functions of the USA Congress                                                                            (5mks)

–           It acts as a check on the executive arm of the government

–           It approves taxation measures and ensures that government expenditure is properly used

–           It makes laws

–           It amends laws

–           The senate, which is part of the congress, is the only that can give approval to treaties

–           It appoints commissions of inquiry to investigate problems of national importance

–           It approves the appointment of senior civil servants e.g. ambassadors

–           It reflects the collective aspirations and interests of the American people5x1=5mks

  1. b) How are the powers of the President limited in the USA                                                            ( 1mk)

–          The people he appoints to the executive positions have to be approved by Senate

–           The congress can refuse to approve the use of government funds for foreign policy which it disagrees with e.g. war

–           He can be impeached by the Congress if his conduct while in office is not satisfactory

–           His actions can be declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court hence negating his decisions

–           The constitution limits presidential term of office to 8 yrs (two-four-terms)

–           All his actions and speeches are closely monitored by the media

–           Public opinion e.g. through opinion polls, the actions of the president are checked, when the polls are used to reflect the wishes and feelings of American people5x2=10mks

23.a)  Mention the major political developments in Tanzania since independence                                     ( 7mks)

–           Tanzania became a republic with an executive president in 1962

–           In 1964 was a revolution by dissatisfied Africans in Zanzibar who resented domination by Arabs

–           In April 1964 Zanzibar and Tanganyika emerged in a union to form Tanzania. Nyerere became president of the united Republic of Tanzania and Abeid Karume became vice president

–           In 1977 the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro –Shirazi party merged to form Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) which became the ruling party of Tanzania

–           In 1967 Nyerere launched ujamaa (socialism) through the Arusha Declaration. The ideology guided Tanzanians political, economic and social strategies on development

–           Vice president Abeid Karume was assassinated in 1972 and was succeeded by Aboud Jumbe

–           In 1973 CCM began plans to transfer the capital city from Dar-es-salaam to Dodoma

–           The East African community collapsed in 1977 due to ideological differences between president Nyerere, Amin of Uganda and Kenyatta of Kenya

–           In 1979 Tanzania went to war with Uganda after Ugandan troops invaded the kagera province of Tanzania. Nyerere helped to overthrow president Amin and restored president Obote

–           President Nyerere retired in 1985 and Ali Hassan mwinyi succeeded him

–           Tanzania adopted multi –party politics in 1945 and Benjamin Mkapa of CCM was elected president

–           In 2006 Tanzania witnessed another peaceful handover of power after general elections, Mkapa handed over to Jakaya kikwete of CCM as Tanzanian’s fourth president.7×1=7mks

  1. Outline major social challenges faced by Tanzania since independence                   (8mks)

–           An influx of refugees from Rwanda and Burundi due to ethnic hostilities and political instability

–           High literacy levels over –emphasis on adult education meant many remained illiterate

–           Inadequate housing due to high poverty level

–           The policy of one-man one-job as per the Arusha declaration left many school leavers un-employed

–           High rate of crime due to mass rural-urban migration

–           HIV/ AIDS and other killer diseases due to inadequate health facilities

–           Increased threats of terrorism as witnessed in the bombing of the American Embassy in Dar-es-salaam in 1998

–           Increasing population which is putting a strain on social amenities

–           Peddling of drugs is an increasing problem                                                  8×1=8mks

 

 

SAMPLE  3

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 2

311/2

SECTION A (25MKS)

ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

  1. What is political history as an area of study in history.             1mk
  2. State two secondary sources of information on History and Government.                          1mk
  3. Which one Stone Age period is associated with the domestication of animals by Man. 1mk
  4. Identify two social consequences of early agriculture in both Egypt and Mesopotamia. 2mks
  5. State two factors behind the development of Trans-Atlantic trade.             2mks
  6. Identify two uses of the invented wheel in China.             2mks
  7. What type of information can one derive from the internet.                         2mks
  8. State two advantages of electricity as a source of energy.             1mk
  9. Enumerate two consequences of scientific inventions on Medicine.                         2mks
  10. Identify two factors in Africa which facilitated the process of European colonization. 2mks
  11. State two economic impacts of the partition of Africa.             1mk
  12. State one reason why Kabaka Mutesa II of Buganda collaborated with the British 1mk
  13. Identify two reasons why Samori Toure was finally defeated by the French?             2mks
  14. Name two nationalist Parties that fought for independence in Mozambique.                    2mks
  15. State two qualifications for presidential candidates in India.                         2mks

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

  1. a) Identify five areas of study that an historian is interested with in Anthropology.                        5mks
  2. b) Explain the advantages of archaelogy as a source of history and government.              10mks
  3. a) What five factors helped the U.S.A to emerge as a world industrial power.                  5mks
  4. b) Discuss the problems hindering industrialization in the Third world.                            10mks

 

  1. a) Identify five factors that led to early urbanization in Africa.                                          5mks
  2. b) Explain the functions of Nairobi as an urban centre in Africa.                                       10mks

 

  1. a) State five factors behind African nationalism in Mozambique.                                      5mks
  2. b) Explain the challenges that Mozambique nationalists experienced in their struggle for independence.                                                                                                                                                     10mks

SECTION C ( 30 MARKS)

Answer any TWO questions from this section.

 

  1. a) State five members of the commonwealth in West and South Africa.                            5mks
  2. b) Explain five ways in which the commonwealth countries have benefited from the Organisation.                                                                                                                                                  10mks
  3. a) Identify five organs of the New East African community.                                              5mks
  4. b) State and explain the challenges that E.A.C is facing                                                     10mks
  5. a) Enumerate the functions of the electoral commission of India (E.C.I)                           5mks
  6. B) Explain the powers and functions of the British Prime-minister.                                              10mks

 

 

MARKING SCHEME

SAMPLE  3

311/1

SECTION A (25 MKS)

  1. Political history

            This is studying the way people were governed or ruled and administrative structure of government                                                                                                                                                      1 mk

  1. Secondary sources of information on history and government
  2. i) News papers               iii)       Periodicals
  3. ii) Magazines                  iv)       CD’s
  4. v) Video                          vi)       Cassette tapes                                       Any 2×1=2 mks
  5. The period is referred to as New Stone Age or Neolithic period        1 mk
  6. Social consequences of early agriculture in Egypt and Mesopotamia
  7. i) Population increase
  8. ii) Settled life (Permanent settlement)
  • Started enjoying leisure time
  1. Devt of religion (worship systems)
  2. Devt of urban centres
  3. Social classes emerged as per specializations e.g. land owners, potters, black smiths

Any 2×1=2 mks

  1. Factors behind the devpt of Trans- Atlantic trade:
  2. Establishment of plantations and mines in new lands increased the demand for slaves
  3. European countries had positive links with W. Africa where they obtained goods such as ivory, gold and palm oil, Trans- Atlantic trade strengthened it
  4. African leaders such as kings and chiefs were interested with the European goods such as clothes, firearms, glasses e.t.c. hence many willed to sell their people and prisoners so as to obtain the said goods
  5. Demand for raw materials by European industries led to a demand for slaves in America. Therefore slave labour became a requirement in the production of raw materials to meet the demand
  6. Trans- Atlantic trade became profitable to the businessmen and thus made them to invest a lot of money in it
  7. The building of larger ships which could carry large cargo such as slaves boosted the interest in T.A.S.T                 Any 2 points x 1=2 mks
  8. Uses of invented wheel in China
  9. i) Used it to produce fine porcelain vessels
  10. ii) Soldiers used the horse   drawn war chariots to fight their enemies

iii)       Carts drawn by buffaloes transported both goods and people             Any 2×1=2 mks

  1. Information from internet

            –           News bulletins

–           Games e.g. football, wrestling, chess

–           Research material in any defined field e.g. political science, psychology, medicine, education e.t.c.

–           Shopping lists

–           Bookings in international hotels, Game parks, reserves e.t.c.  Any 2 points x1 =2 mks

  1. Advantages of electricity as a source of energy

–           Various sources are used to obtain electricity e.g. water, petrol, atomic and nuclear, geothermal sources

–           It is easily and conveniently controlled from one switch

–           It is easily distributed to various users by control and regulatory switches

–           Electric cables can be installed to specific requirements e.g. lighting, cooling, heating, transport and communication machines                                Any 2x ½ each =1 mk

  1. Consequences of scientific inventions on medicine

–           Dangerous and epidemic diseases have been reduced. Research to find cures for many human diseases such as AIDS and strains of cancer are going on

–           Today in hospitals within theatres surgical operations are done in a cleaner, safer and less painful way than before

–           Vaccines invented have found wide application in the entire world as a way of controlling the spread of killer diseases

–           Heart, kidney and liver transplants are now possible

–           Plastic surgery is improving face looks in both men and women

–           Childless couples are able to have babies (test tube babies) through external fertilization

–           With improved science, causes of disease were identified to certain bacteria and germs, e.g. anopheles mosquito carries parasites that cause malaria

–           Bacterial germs that cause cholera, tuberculosis and anthrax have been isolated – clowing

  1. Factors for the emergence of Jo’berg as a modern urban centre in Africa

–           Population growth

Population growth of whites, colonials, Indians and blacks. By the end of the 19th  century, the population of Johannesburg had risen to about 166,000, since then it has continued to grow steadily

  • Industrial devpt

Minerals such as coal were obtained from coal fields at Wit Bank and Benom. Iron ore for industry was mined nearby. Besides gold, the Witwatersrand mines also produce industrial diamonds and uranium, other industries include motor vehicle, radio, television, food processing, textiles, metal working, jewellery manufacture e.t.c.

  • Developed infrastructure

The city is served by an international airport the Jan Smuts Airport which handles international and internal air traffic. It is also served by rail and road transport to other cities within S. Africa.

  • Govt policy:

This initiated policies favoured industries and encouraged their establishment in Jo’berg. The govt seized African land, turning them to squatters forcing them to move to the city in search for work

The cheap labour provided by black people easily met the city’s labour needs. Many dormitories were constructed for Africans contributing to the structural expansion of the city

Any 2 points x1=2 mks

  1. Factors in Africa which facilitated the process of European colonization

–           Lack of solidarity, unity, cooperation among African states due to inter-state conflict and rivalry

–           Lack of material and financial resources, the Africans were unable to sustain protracted military invasion

–           The activities of European explorers and missionaries exposed African conditions to Europeans. They knew far more about Africa and its interior, resources, the strength and weakness of its states and societies

–           Political weakness of African states favoured European colonization since most states were small in size

–           Military and technological inferiority against superior European weaponry

(Any 2×1=2 mks)

  1. Economic impact of the partition of Africa

–           It speeded up the economic growth of the European countries. They acquired raw materials, labour, markets, thus enhancing growth of their industries

–           Europeans colonized Africa and developed their colonies. Hence they established exploitative economic measures e.g. land alienation, taxation and forced labour

–           The colonial powers introduced money economy when they created agriculture, trade and industry, transport and communication to benefit the colonial masters

–           Partition made Africa, even after independence to continue with closer economics ties with Europe. Hence this has created over dependence on Europe for financial and technical support

Any 2x ½ =1 mk

  1. Why Kabaka Mutesa II of Buganda collaborated with the British

–           He had the desire to reduce the power and influence of Muslims who were already a menace politically in Buganda

–           He wanted to obtain maximum benefits from the Europeans in terms of educational and health facilities

–           He was interested with the British supplying him with firearms so as to equip his soldiers

–           He wanted to obtain trade goods from the E.A coast e.g. daggers, glassware, spices, cloth e.t.c.

Any 1 point x1=1mk

  1. Reasons for Samori Toure’s defeat

–           Lack of support from other African leaders e.g. Sekou Ahmadu of Tukolor and Tiebba of Sikasso to fight the French. They saw him as a threat to their influence

–           Widespread famine and hunger because of the long war in Samori’s kingdom made him unpopular with his people who decided to support the French

–           After the 1884 conference, other European powers stopped the supply of arms to Samori’s soldiers

–           Samori’s call for British support against the French was turned down by the British

–           Samori’s armoury and his goldmines at blue were taken by the French2x ½ =1 mk

  1. Nationalist parties that fought for independence in Mozambique

–           National Democratic Union of Mozambique (UDENAMO)

–           African Union of Independent Mozambique (UNAMI)

–           Mozambique national Union (MANU)

–           Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO)

  1. Qualification for presidential candidates in India

–           He/ She must be a citizen of India

–           He/ She should be at least 35 years old

–           He/ She should be qualified to be elected as a Mb. Of parliament

This means that one should also meet the requirements of a parliamentary candidate

(Any 2×1=2 mks)

 

 

 

SECTION B: (45 MKS)

  1. a) Five areas of study that an historian is interested with in anthropology

–           Rites of passage- birth, naming, initiation, marriage and death ceremonies

–           Everyday things- types of food, methods of cooking, eating habits, dressing styles

–           System of worship- sacrifices, offerings, prayers e.t.c.

–           Economic activities- farming, trade, crafts

–           Forms of government (monarchial, democratic, dictatorial)                                    5×1=5 mks

  1. Advantages of Archeology as a source of information on History and government
  • Information may be more accurate because it involves analysis of real materials and remains
  • Archeology provides information not found in written records, new archeological evidence keeps on coming up in archeological fields thus increasing archeological knowledge
  • Unlike other sources archeology has a sense of time and dates. Where and when archeological remains e.g. fossils and artifacts were found and the number of years the fossil existed
  • Historical information derived from archeology are factual or real objects because one can feel, touch and even manipulate the fossils
  • Archeological information or records are more permanent in comparison with other sources, for example many fossils have been uncovered which are over 50,000 years ago yet the same fossils have been preserved Any 5 well explained points x2mks each total 10 mks

 

  1. a) Factors for the emergence of USA as a world industrial power

–           Good economic programmes e.g. ‘The New Deal’ on economic recovery programme that created employment through public works, road building, dams, schools, afforestation

–           Political stability. Since its independence in 1779 America has enjoyed relative peace and political stability

–           USA was assisted by Britain which had industrialized earlier with finances and technical know how. USA possessed the raw materials which are vital for industry. For example Iron ore and copper for the manufacture of steel and generation of electricity

–           The discovery of petroleum that has provided a source of power in the industries. It helped in generating capital

–           The USA has a large and wealthy population which provides domestic market for her manufactured goods

–           Rich enterprising immigrants from countries like Japan, Germany, and Britain invested their capital and skills in industry

–           Technological advances and inventions by Americans e.g. Wright brothers (Aeroplane). Alexander graham bell. Telephone) e.t.c.

 

  1. b) Problems hindering industrialization in the third world

–           Lack of technological know- how

This is lack of skilled manpower may be because of poor education systems that don’t consider vocational training, technical and scientific training important. Hence many third world countries lack experts in medical, technological, computer and chemical fields

–           Poor transport and communication system

This has hindered transportation of raw materials to the industries and the finished goods to the market. On the other hand exploitation of natural resources has not been possible. Many roads, railways, airports and airways were established during the colonial period

–           Political instability

Lots of coups and civil wars have been witnessed in many third world countries. This has stagnated industrial and agricultural devt

–           Competition from developed countries

Industrialized C’s produced high quality and cheap goods which out compete the low quality goods produced by many third world C’s. Apparently many third world C’s do not protect their home industries because of their poor economic policies

–           A large population in the third world have a low purchasing power because of poverty. Many people don’t have enough money to buy even the locally produced goods

–           There’s no leadership

This has resulted in the formulation of poor economic policies and even if good policies are formulated, they remain on paper, not put into practice. A lot of corruption has led to misappropriation of countries wealth

–           There is scant foreign investment because the political environment in many third world countries is unfavourable to foreign investments

 

 

  1. a) Factors that led to early urbanization in Africa

–           The Neolithic revolution in Africa led to improved food production. It created stability and led man to begin a more settled life in settlements that later developed into towns

–           Many settlements were located near water sources such as rivers to ensure adequate supplies of water for irrigation and domestic uses

–           Urban centres also developed a long major trade routes and cross-roads for example, the Trans Saharan trade centres e.g. Timbuktu, Jenne Walata e.t.c.

–           Harbours and ports where ships stopped to replenish their supplies of fresh food and water developed into urban centres

–           The early centres of religion attracted population concentration and some of these, for example in Yoruba land developed into urban centres

–           Some early urban centres e.g. Meroe developed into urban centres because of the growth and development of the early small scale industries such as mining

–           The need for security encouraged people to settle in protected centres some of which developed into towns

–           Some administrative centres of the pre- colonial kingdoms in Africa developed into urban centres

 

  1. Functions of Nairobi as an urban centre in Africa
  • It’s the capital city of Kenya and houses all the govt offices for the executive, state house, Legislature- (parliament) and judiciary- high court and court of appeal
  • It’s an educational centre for the three public universities Nairobi university, Kenyatta university and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology and four private universities (day star, catholic, Nazarene and the united states international university), are situated within its environs
  • The city is a business hub for many Kenyans who deals with a chain of wholesale, supermarket and retail shops e.g. Nakumatt, Uchumi, Tusker e.t.c.
  • The city is an international centre, the headquarters of both united Nations environmental programme (UNEP) and human habitation (Habitat)
  • Nairobi also hosts many international conferences at the Kenya international conference centre (KICC) and the many five star hotels in the city
  • It’s an industrial city housing so many industries in the industrial area e.g. British American Tobacco, East African industries, and the house of manji. There are garments, leather and motor vehicle assembly plants
  • Nairobi hosts several international meetings e.g. UNCTAD conference in 1975, All Africa Games 1987, OAU heads of state and government summit (1981). Other regular meetings held in Nairobi have included the Igad and comesa heads of state. Trade fairs, ASK Nairobi International Show have continued to draw business people to Nairobi

 

  1. a) Factors behind African nationalism in Mozambique

–           The Portuguese oppressive rule

–           Abuse of African human rights such as flogging workers

–           Discrimination at places of work

–           Subjecting the Africans to unbearable working conditions

–           Suppression of African dockworkers strike of 1947 with considerable loss of life and destruction of property

–           Land alienation. There was high settlement of whites whose no. rose from 85,000 in 1959 to 130,000 in 1970. This denied Africans their ancestral fertile lands and thus agitated against it

–           Racialism was greatly witnessed in Mozambique where the Africans were pitied against the whites, the whites took over the jobs that had been traditionally African i.e. semi- skilled areas. Africans were prejudiced against because of their skin colour

 

  1. Challenges experienced by Mozambique nationalists in their struggle for independence
  • They were denied Western Aid. It led them to turn to the Chinese, Russians and Yugoslavia for aid
  • Shortage of basic needs e.g. clothes and food in liberated areas made peasants to migrate and withdraw their support for the nationalists movement especially the FRELIMO party
  • The Catholic Church in support of the Portuguese colonial rule became hostile to the nationalist movement. They branded FRELIMO as terrorists. Hence many Mozambicans feared being Mbs of the movement and thus withdrew its support
  • The detention and assassination of FRELIMO leaders for example mondlane reduced the impetus for the struggle for independence in Mozambique. It’s only when Samora Machel took leadership that nationalist activities advanced further
  • Tribalism or ethnicity stroke a big blow to nationalism in Mozambique. The country is made up of Several ethnic communities. Apparently the issue came to rest when FRELIMO fighters were mixed up.

SECTION C

  1. a) Members of the common wealth in West and South Africa

            –           Botswana

–           Gambia

–           Nigeria

–           Namibia

–           Swaziland

–           Lesotho

  1. Ways in which the commonwealth countries have benefited from the organization
  • The org. has provided a forum for member states. States to air their views with one voice on international issues
  • Mb states have received technical know how through the provision of experts and advisers in various fields e.g. agricultural personnel
  • Mb states have conducted trade among themselves with relative ease and thus has helped them to develop their economies
  • The developing Mb states of the organization have acquired skilled Manpower through the provision of scholarships and setting up of the training programme by the developed states e.g. Canada and Britain
  • Mb states have been able to interact with one another through activities such as the common wealth games and exchange programme, cultural interaction e.t.c.
  • The common wealth has promoted friendship and understanding among Mb states through conferences such as the common wealth heads of govt meetings
  • It has enhanced democratization process in developing Mb states of the organization through sending observers to monitor democratization activities e.g. general elections in Gambiat.c.
  • The developed Mb. States have provided financial aid to the developing Mb states of the organization and this has promoted economic development among the latter. Britain, Canada and Australia do provide economic assistance to many third world countries within the common wealth
  1. a) Organs of the New East African Community

The Treaty that established the East African community in 1999 outline the main organs as:-

  1. i) The summit of Heads of State
  2. ii) Sectoral committees
  • The Secretariat
  1. Council of Ministers
  2. East African court of justice
  3. Coordinating committee
  • East African Legislative assembly
  1. Challenges facing the new established EAC
  • Cattle rustling conducted across the borders. In fact many deaths of innocent people have been reported. Kenya- Uganda border where the karamojong and the Pokot keep on waging war against each other is one of the known challenges facing EAC
  • Because of mistrust that existed in the initial formation of the community in 1970’s the Mb’s have yet to agree on all the formalities of the federation. Since 2000 it is still taking long to achieve
  • Kenya is still being suspected just like in 1970’s that it’s likely again to be the dominant partner. Therefore Tanzania and Uganda are threading cautiously
  • The East Africa Community has a very weak secretariat in terms of organization, finance and human resources
  • Some EAC members are also Mb’s of other regional bodies. For example Tanzania is a Mb of SADC (Southern Africa development Cooperation) and Uganda is a Mb of COMESA i.e. Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
  • There is poor infrastructure i.e. transport and communication networks linking the three EA countries. Road network is quite poor giving rise to a few buses plying across the borders. The railway transport is no longer operational
  • Other factors keep on straining the relations between the three EA countries for instance fishing, where Kenyan fishermen are frequently arrested and their fishing equipments confiscated by Uganda and Tanzania They accuse them of entering illegally into their territorial waters
  • There’s inadequate funds to run the administrative work of the East African community. The remittance of money to use is slow because Mb states are poor
  • Member states of East African community have currencies which have varied values which makes transactions cumbersome. Apparently there are plans to get a common currency
  • The tax system in the three East African countries has not been harmonised

 

  1. a) Functions of electoral commission of India (ECI)

–           It appoints the election officials such as the presiding officers in charge of the polling stations

–           It publishes the code of conduct to be maintained before and during the election period

–           Regulating the election expenditure each party and candidate does this through enhancement in the areas of observation where the observers keep a watch on the amount of money spent

–           Keeping and updating the voters register. They add new voters to the register

–           Conducting and regulating all the election procedures in India at the national and state levels, for the election of the President, vice president e.t.c.

–           Facilitating proper media coverage of the election process, registered national and state parties enjoy these privileges. Hence the electoral commission uniformly distributes the time given by the all India radio

–           Ensuring that elections are conducted in a fair and free manner. Observers are appointed to observe the casting and counting of votes

–           Deciding the polling days for the various constituencies

–           Preparing the polling stations by availing electronic voting machines, ballot boxes, ballot papers, polling booths

–           Solving party differences caused by frequent alliances, mergers and splits

–           It determines the status of a party after registration and categorise it. There are three types of parties in India

  1. a) Registered National or State parties
  2. b) Registered unrecognized parties

–           Registering political parties

  1. b) Powers and functions of the British prime Minister

–           He/ She is the head of government in Britain invited by the monarch to form the govt after his party wins

–           Appoints and dismisses ministers but with the consent of the monarchy

–           The prime minister prepares the monarchial speech to be read during the opening of a parliamentary session

–           He/ She is in charge of the House of Commons i.e. lower house made up of elected Mb’s of parliament

–           Prime minister can request the monarch to dissolve parliament before its five year term of office is over

–           He/ She can change laws because he or she has the support of the majority in the parliament

–           The prime minister recommends to the monarchy the names of candidates to be appointed to seniour judicial offices e.g. Lords, chief justice, royal commissions and those to be conferred with civil honours and distinctions

–           He or she presides over the meetings of the cabinet

–           Disputes between different ministries and ministers are settled by prime minister

–           He/ She is in charge of appointments for example he/ she appoints civil servants and permanent secretary      (Any 5 well explained points, 2 marks each point total 10 mks)

 

 

SAMPLE  4

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 2

311/2

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all the questions in this section for the answer booklet provided

  1. Name two printed sources of written materials (2 Marks)
  2. Give two features of Kenyapithecus (2 Marks)
  3. State two importance of the domestication of cattle by the early man. (2 Marks)
  4. List one method of irrigation used in the ancient Mesopotamia (1 Mark)
  5. Identify two social features of the Buganda Kingdom during the pre colonial

Period                                                                                                                           (2 marks)

  1. List two items of trade acquired from Europe during the Trans Atlantic slave

trade                                                                                                                             (2 Marks)

  1. What was the contribution of William Morton to medical science? (1 Mark)
  2. Give two inventions that led to the Agrarian Revolution in America (2 Marks)
  3. State one reason why African slaves were more attractive than the others

from the British colonies.                                                                                              (1 Mark)

  1. List two uses of horns as medium of conveying message during the ancient times             (2 Marks)
  2. Why was the Odwira festival vital in the Asante Kingdom? (1 Mark)
  3. Identify one method used by the British to administer their colonies in Africa (1 Mark)
  4. Name any two founder members of the Axis powers during the second world war             (2 Marks)
  5. What was the main aim for the formation of the United Nations Organization? (1 Mark)
  6. Which event promoted USA to join the second world war? (1 Mark)
  7. Identify two weapons which were used during the cold war (2 Marks)

 

SECTION B (45 Marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

 

  1. a) Identify three stone Age or palaeolithic periods (3 Marks)
  2. b) Describe the way of life of the early man during the last phase of Stone Age

period                                                                                                                           (12 Marks)

18 a)     Give three disadvantages of mobile phones                                                                    (3 Marks)

  1. b) Discuss the positive impact of telecommunication                                                         (12 Marks)

 

  1. a) State three political events in Europe which promoted the scramble and partition

of Africa                                                                                                                       (3 Marks)

  1. b) What were the causes of Chimurenga war of 1896 – 1897?                                             (12 Marks)

20 a)     Identify three economic activities of the Asante Empire during the pre colonial

Period                                                                                                                           (3 Marks)

  1. b) Describe the political organization of Shona Kingdom                                                   (12 Marks)

 

SECTION C

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

 

  1. a) List three minerals that has led to rapid industrialization in South Africa.             (3 Marks)
  2. b) Explain the factors that led to industrialization in Brazil                                                            (12 Marks)

 

  1. a) Name three personalities who have been secretary general of the United Nations

Organization.                                                                                                                (3 Marks)

  1. b) Discuss six challenges that the United Nations Organizations faces in promoting

world peace                                                                                                                  (12 Marks)

 

  1. a) Identify three political parties in India (3 Marks)
  2. b) Describe how the government of India is organized                                                             (12 Marks)

 

 

MARKING SCHEME

SAMPLE   4

311/1

SECTION A

  1. Name two printed source of written materials.
  1. Books
  2. Journals
  • Novels
  1. Plays
  2. Newspapers
  3. Magazines
  • Newsletters
  •                 (2×1=2mks)
  1. Give two features of kenyapithecus.
  2. Small Creatures
  3. Weight between 18-36kg
  • Bigger Brains
  1. Small Canine
  2. Biped/Walked (Upwright)In Two                   (2×1=2mks)
  3. State importance of the domestication of cattle
  4. Provide food ie milk, meat.
  5. Hides or skin used as beddings
  • For communication ie the horns
  1. Hooves and bones used as containers.
  2. Used to pull carts for transportation.
  3. Used to plough land for farming.                 (2×1=2mks)
  4. List one method of irrigation used in Mesopotamia
  5. i) Basin irrigation
  6. ii) Canal irrigation.         (1×1 =1mk)
  7. Identify two social features of the Buganda kingdom during the pre- colonial period.
  8. It was a stratified society/ social classes eg Royal family, chiefs and Commoners/peasants.
  9. Believed in the existence of many gods or deities
  • The creator god was Katonda
  1. Believed in the existence of ancestral spirits.
  2. They had special people ie medicine men, prophets, mediums.
  3. Worshiped in shrines
  • Kabaka was also semi divine /religious leader.
  • There existed sorcerers called Balopo.
  1. They offered sacrifices to their gods.                    (2×1=2mks)
  2. List two items of trade acquired from Europe during the Trans Atlantic slave trade.

i).        Cloth

  1. ii) Guns
  • Ammunitions
  1. Knives
  2. Enamel bowls
  3. Metal bars
  • Spirits
  • Glassware
  1. Jewellery
  2. Sugar
  3. Fire arms            (2×1=2mks)
  4. What was the contribution of William Morton to medical science?

i).        He discovered the use of Ether to ease pain during surgical operation.                (1×1=1mk)

  1. Give two inventions that led to the Agrarian revolution in America.

i).        Steel plough by John Deere 1837.

ii).       Mechanical reaper Cyrus MC Cormick.

iii).      Canning and refrigeration in 1939.                                                                        (2×1=2mks)

  1. State one reason why African slave were more attractive than the other from the British colonies.

i).        They were available in large numbers.

ii).       They were cheaper to use than European labour and American Indians.

iii).      They were immune to both European and tropical diseases.

  1. iv) They appeared more stronger and therefore suitable to manual labour. (1×1= 1mk)
  2. List two uses of horns as medium of conveying messages during the ancient times.

i).        During funerals

  1. ii) To summon people for meetings.

iii).      When war was declared against opponents/Enemies

  1. iv) During weddings ceremonies.                     (2×1 = 2mks)
  2. Why was the Odwira festival vital in the Asante Empire?
  3. i) It brought people together to promote unity.             (1×1=1mk)
  4. Identify one method used by the British to administer their colonies in Africa.

i).        Signing treaties

ii).       Military force.

iii).      Africans were lured with gifts or treachery.

iv).      Used chartered companies to rule Africans.                                                     (1×1=1mk)

  1. Name any two founder members of the axis powers during the Second World War.

i).        Germany

  1. ii)

iii).      Japan                                                                                                                  (1×1=1mk)

  1. What was the main aim for the formation of the United Nations Organization?

i).        To maintain international peace and security /prevents he out break of future wars.

(1×1=1mk)

  1. Which events promoted United State of America to join the Second World War?

i).        In 1941 Japan without warning attacked the American fleet at Pearl Habour in Hawaii

(1×1=1mk)

  1. Identify two weapons which were used during the cold war.

i).        Propaganda/ Espionage

  1. ii) Economic sanctions.
  • Financial aids to enemies of the opposite side.
  1. Military support to the allies of the enemy                                     (2×1=2mks)

 

SECTION  B                     ANSWER THREE QUESTIONS ONLY.

 

17.a)    Identify three stone Age or Paleolithic period.

  1. Old Stone Age (Lower Paleolithic)
  2. Middle stone Age (Middle Paleolithic /Mesolithic)
  • New stone Age (Upper Paleolithic/Neolithic)       (Any 3×1=3mks)
  1. b) Describe the way of life of the Early man during the last phase of stone Age period.
  2. Better tools known as microlith wee made.
  3. Better shelter from tree branches and grass were made.
  • Huts were decorated with paintings of animals
  1. Ate cooked food from game meat, fish.
  2. He gathered fruits and obtained food crop from farms
  3. Man grew crops and kept animals.
  • Man also established permanent settlement.
  • People lived in groups with rules and regulations setting up a government.
  1. Religion also emerged.
  2. Specialized skills such as basketry, pottery and iron working developed.
  3. Trade also developed.                    (6×2=12 mks)

18.a)         Give three disadvantages of mobile phones

  1. May lead to radioactive rays /cancer
  2. Addictive effect ie computers and other programmers
  • Has promoted immorality/phonographic dissemination.
  1. Are expensive/ limited to a number of people.
  2. It has promoted International terrorism ie fraud, drug trafficking.
  3. Noise pollution if the volume is not controlled.                                                       (3×1=3mks)
  4. Discuss the positive impact of telecommunication.
  5. Faster communication then before leading to increased interaction /reduced distances/global village.
  6. Enhanced information management as computers are used to store information.
  • Mass entertainment through radios, T.V,cinemas, music and plays are usually used for enjoyment.
  1. They transmit live pictures thus bringing reality to viewers.
  2. Cultural exchange and understanding has been enhanced as people watch and appreciate other people’s culture.
  3. Have promoted water and air transport as ships and Airplanes use these devices to send signals to guide captains and pilots.
  • Have largely made world trade and business more effective/ efficient/improve business transactions.
  • Has enable organizations, Government institutions and individuals access to information and programmes at any time.
  1. Security systems has been improved by using radio and radio calls to combat crimes.
  2. Modern warfare has been revolutionized as soldiers cash get information/ satellites used to guide missiles.
  3. Accessibility to remote areas /dissemination of information to distribute relief food and services to the affected /disaster zones.
  • It has promoted space exploration
  • It provides employment opportunities.
  • Has contribute to economic development through revenue collection as taxes are collected from the licensing of service operation.                                     (12×1=12mks)

19 a)    State three political events in Europe which promoted the scramble and partition of Africa.

  1. Unification of colony after 1870-71.
  2. Need for prestige/ national glory.
  • French activities in W-Africa and the Congo alarmed others powers.
  1. King Leopold II of Belgian created the Congo Free State.
  2. Public opinion forward the acquisition of colonies.
  3. Egypt was of strategic important to European because of Suez Canal built by British.
  4. b) What were the causes of Chimurenga war of 1896-97?
  5. Loss of independence.
  6. It led to loss of land.
  • The people resisted forced labour.
  1. Hut tax was introduced in 1884 was brutally collected.
  2. The shona resisted because they hated the company’s interference with their trading rights.
  3. The company’s move to confisticate the Ndebele’s cattle.
  • The Ndebele resented the recruitment of the Shona in the native police force.
  • Natural calamites such as drought, famine.
  1. The rise of religious leaders like Kakubi and Nehanda who provided good leadership.
  2. The company officials took away chiefs powers to punish the people .they were brutal and even flogged chiefs in public.                                             (Any6x2=12mks)

20 a).   Identify three economic activities of the Asante Empire during the pre colonial   period.

  1. They grew crops.
  2. Kept animals ie cattle
  • They practiced iron – working
  1. The exchange their products with the neighbours/trade.
  2. Practiced craft/weaving.
  3. Hunters and Gathering was practiced.
  •                                                    (3×1=3mks)
  1. b) Describe the political organization of the Shona Kingdom.
  2. Ruled by the Emperors.
  3. Emperor was the head of state.
  • Emperorship was hereditary.
  1. The king was semi-devine /religious leader.
  2. Believed in ancestral spirits.
  3. The king used the priest as a link between him and the people.
  • There was a royal fire which symbolized unity.
  • The Empire was divided into provinces ruled by lesser chiefs.
  1. The king was assisted by the senior officials such as court steward, treasurers, commander in chief of the army, Queen mother, Emperors sister, 9 principal wives, chief drummer and cook.
  2. The lesser chiefs paid tributes to the king.
  3. The king had a standing army.
  • It has a centralized system of government.
  • The king had spies.
  • He was the commander in chief of the armed forces.                               (12×1=12mks)

 

SECTION  C :ANSWER TWO QUESTION ONLY

  1.   a)List three minerals that has led to rapid industrialization in South Africa.
  2. Iron
  3. Lead
  • Zinc
  1. Bauxile
  2. Tin
  3. Uranium
  • Chromium
  • Manganese
  1. Phosphate
  2. Gold
  3. Mica
  • Asbestos
  • Diamond
  • Silvers
  1. Platinum
  • Vandadium
  • Tungsten                                                              (3×1=3mks)

b).        Explain the factors that led to industrialization in Brazil.

  1. Availability of minerals i.e iron ore, Bauxite, Gold
  2. It has plenty of raw materials eg coffee, sugarcane,
  • The presence of power ie H.E.P, oil, Coal, Petroleum.
  1. High population to provide necessary labour/ installed labour.
  2. It had a large internal/domestic market.
  3. She obtained foreign aid from USA,Canada, Britain for the development of her heavy industries.
  • He external trade with European nations led to rapid industrialization.
  • It had good transport system such a roads, railway lines, steamship on rivers Amazon.
  1. European immigrants provided skilled labour.
  2. Availability of adequate fertile land for agriculture.
  3. Local industries were protected from foreign exploitation through custom duties.
  • Abolition of slave labour provided farmers slaves to provide cheap labour.
  • Foreign investment by USA and Europe was encouraged.
  • Good banking and insurance polices generated more capital.
  1. Good government polices by president Getulio Varges which protected domestic industries through protective policies.                                       (12×1=12mks)
  2. a) Name three personalities who have been secretary General of the United Nations organization.
  3. Trygve lie
  4. Dag Hammarskjoid
  • V thank
  1. Kurt Waldheim
  2. Javier Perez de Cueller
  3. Boutros Ghali Boutros
  • Kofi Anan                           (3×1=3mks)
  1. b) Discuss six challenges that the Unite Nations organization faces in promoting world peace?
  2. Members have different forms of ideologies.
  3. They are sovereign states and d serve the interested of their nations at the expense of UNO’S interests.
  • Lack of sufficient funds with which to carry out its work effectively.
  1. Lack of the machinery to enforce its decision such as an army.
  2. UNO is dominated by he permanent members of the security carried with the VETO power.
  3. The existence of deep routed conflict between regional states ie Arab- Israeli conflicts Sudan, Rwanda / Burundi etc.
  • UNO members are also members of the regional or international organization ie NATO, NAM, African Union, Arab league.                                      (6×2=12mks)

23 a)    Identify three political parties in India.

  1. The congress party
  2. The communist party
  • The Bharatiya Janata party
  1. National conference party
  2. The Akali Dal
  3. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)                                      (3×1-3mks)
  4. Describe how the government of India is organized.
  5. It has a federal system of government.
  6. Power is shared between the state government and the union government.
  • The president is elected for a term of 5years and share power with the prime minister.
  1. The prime minister is usually appointed from the leader of the political party with the majority seats in parliament.
  2. The prime minister is the head of council of ministers and government.
  3. It has a bicameral legislative namely the council of state and the house of people.
  • The prime minister is usually appointed from the leader of the political party with the majority seats in parliaments
  • Each state is headed by the governors appointed by the president.
  1. Each state has its own constitution guiding internal affairs.
  2. The office of the president is largely ceremonial
  3. The prime minister is answerable to the union parliament which is made of the two houses.
  • There are union court and state courts.
  • It has many political parting ie the congress communication partners.
  • There is an independent electoral commissioner of India.
  1. The executive arm comprises of the president, prime minister, cabinet and civic servants.
  • The vice president is elected to a 5years term by both houses and presides over the upper house of parliament.                                               (12×1=12mks)

 

 

SAMPLE  5

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 2

311/2

SECTION A ( 25 Marks)

Answer ALL questions in this section.

  1. State two methods of irrigation that were used in Ancient Egypt.             (2mks)
  2. Identify two early forms of written messages.             (2mks)
  3. Give two duties of the Emirs in Nigeria during the colonial period.             (2mks)
  4. State two functions of the international court of justice of the league of Nations. (2mks)
  5. State two features of the commonwealth countries.             (2mks)
  6. What was the main source of power during the early stages of industrial Revolution in Europe.             (1mk)
  7. Identify two roles played by the Tuaregs during the Trans-Saharan trade.             (2mks)
  8. Name the military pact formed by the communist East during the cold war period. (1mk)
  9. Name two countries which were dominions of Britain.             (2mks)
  10. Identify two powers of Indian President.             (2mks)
  11. Give two economic activities of the early man during the Old stone Age period. (2mks)
  12. State two reforms introduced by the Germans after the Maji maji rebellion in Tanganyika.                         (2mks)
  13. Identify two terms of Buganda Agreement of 1900.             (2mks)
  14. Give one method used by  Ghanaian Nationalist in their struggle for independence.                                                                                                                                                            (1mk)

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer any THREE questions from this section

 

  1. a) State five factors that led man to start domesticating plants and animals.            (5mks)
  2. b) Explain the results of Agrarian Revolution in Europe.                                        (10mks)

 

  1. a) State three important routes during the Trans-Saharan trade.                             (3mks)
  2. b) Explain six causes of the decline of the Trans-Atlantic trade.                            (12mks)

 

  1. a) State three reasons why the Lozi collaborated with the British during the colonization of Africa.                                                                                                                                   (3mks)
  2. b) Explain six effects of the Lozi collaboration with the British.                           (12mks)

 

  1. a) Give three factors that led to the scramble and partition of Africa.                    (3mks)
  2. b) Explain the immediate effects of the partition of Africa.                                               (12mks)

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer any TWO questions from this section

 

  1. a) State three methods that UNO uses in its efforts to achieve world peace.            (3mks)
  2. b) Explain six challenges that have faced UNO in its effort to achieve world peace.                                                                                                                                                (12mks)

 

  1. a) State three advantages of a Federal system of Government.                               (3mks)
  2. b) Explain how the powers of the President of U.S.A. is checked.                          (12mks)

 

  1. a) Explain three functions of the Lukiiko of Buganda Kingdom.                            (3mks)
END
  1. b) Explain the political organization of Buganda Kingdom before colonial period. (12mks)

 

 

 

MARKING SCHEME

SAMPLE   5

311/2

 

  1. State two methods of irrigation that were used in Ancient Egypt.                           (2mks)

– Basin

– Shadof.                                                                                                         (Any pts x1= 2mks)

 

  1. Identify two early forms of written messages                 (2mks)

– Pictures/ drawings

– Stone tablets

– Parchments                                                                                                   (any 2pts x 1 = 2mks)

 

  1. Gives two duties of the Emirs in Nigeria during the colonial period.
  • The collection of taxes.
  • Recruited labour for public works.
  • Controlled the existing legal system in courts.
  • Maintained law and orders.
  • Appointed village heads.

 

  1. State two functions of the international court eg justice.             (2mks)

– Interpretation of treaties

– Settlements of international disputes.                                                          (Any 2pts x 1 = 2mks)

 

  1. State two features of the Common wealth countries.                     (2mks)

– Use English as a common language.

– Maintain cultural ties through commonwealth games.

– Members co-operate  in the field education through exchange programmers.

– Members recognise the monarchy of England as the Head of common wealth

– Members have a common monarchy  tradition based on the British military system.

– Members share a common democratic institution from British eg parliamentary systems of government, judiciary and civil service.                                                               (Any 2 pts x1 = 2mks)

 

  1. What was the MAIN source of power driving the early stages industrial Revolution in Europe            – Coal                                                                                                                                      (1mk)

 

  1. Identity two roles played by the Tuaregs during the Trans-Saharan trade.                                   (2mk)

– Provided food and water.

– Provided accommodation.

– Directed the trades across the desert.

– Guarded the traders/ security.

– Acted as interpreters.                                                                                   (Any 2pts x1=2 mks)

 

  1. Identify the military pact formed by the communist East during the cold war period

– WARSAW Pact                                                                                            (1pt x1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Name two countries which were dominions of British.                              (2mks)

– Canada

– Australia

– New Zealand

– South Africa.                                                                                                (Any 2pts x1= 2mks)

 

  1. Identify two powers of Indian President.                              (2mks)

– Power to disolve parliamentary.

– Power to declare a state eg emergency.

– Power to assent/ veto bills

– He is the commander in chief of the armed forces.

– Appoint state Governors and Supreme Court judges.

– Appoints the prime minister.

– Symbol of  national unity.                                                                           (Any 2pts x1=2mks)

 

  1. Give two economic activities of early manduring the Old Stone Age period                     (2mks)

– Making tools

– Hunting wild animals

– Gathering wild fruits and roots.

 

  1. State two reforms introduced by the Germans after the Maji maji rebellion in Tanganyika.

– Forced labour and taxation abolished.

– Africans were involved in the administration.

– Improvement of African health and education services.

– Corporal punishment was abolished.

– Kiswahili became the official language.

– Censuring of newspapers that supported settlers against Africans.                       (Any 2pts x1=2mks)

 

  1. Identify two terms of Buganda Agreement of 1900.

– Boundaries

– Government

– Land

– Finance.                                                                                                        (Any 2ptsx1=2mks)

 

  1. Give one method used by the Ghanaian nationalists in their struggle for their independence.

– Protests and demonstrations.

– Public political rallies.

– Trade unions.

– International forums eg UN, Pan African movement.

– Constitutional negotiations.                                                                        (Any 1ptx1=1mks)

 

SECTION B

  1. a) State five factors that led man to start domesticating plants and animals.       (5mks)
  • Diminishing hunting grounds.
  • Hunting and gathering was tiresome.
  • Competition for food between man and animals.
  • Climatically charges that affected vegetation.
  • Availability of indigenous crops
  • Increase in population.
  • Migration of animals.
  • Natural calamities that destroyed vegetation e.g bush fire, floods etc       (Any 5pts x1=1 mk)

 

  1. b)      Explain the results of Agrarian Revolution in Europe.                        (10mks)
  • Landless – poor peasants were displaced from their land.
  • Steady food supply – there was increase in food production.
  • Population increase – with enough food the population increased.
  • Development of industries – agriculture provide raw materials to be processed by industries.
  • Development of Trade; Excess farm produce was sold locally and externally.
  • Social stratification – some people became rich leading to a class of wealthy people.
  • Lead to scientific development in the field of agriculture eg research.
  • Displaced peasants moved to urban centres. And other  countries                                         (Any 5pts x2=10mks)

 

  1. a) State three important trade routes during the Trans Sahara trade.                                (3mks)

– Sijilimasa – Taghaza – Audhaghost

– Tunis – Ghadames – Ghat – Agades – Gao

– Sijlimasa – Timbuktu – Gao

– Tripoli – Fezzan – Burnu.                                                                            (Any 3pts x1=3mks)

 

  1. b) Explain six causes of the decline of the Trans-Atlantic trade                            (12mks)

– Invention of machines which replaced human labour.

– American war of independence left Britain without market for slaves.

– The French revolution which advocated liberty, equality and brotherhood by missionaries.

– Economists argued that slaves were less productive.

– Anti-slavery movement spearheaded by missionaries.

– Abolition of slave trade in U.S.A.

– Closure of slave markets in America after the American civil war.          (Any 6pts x2=12mks)

 

  1. a) State three reasons why the lozi collaborated with the British.                                    (3mks)

– Protection from external enemies.

– Influence of Khama of the Ngwato.

– Desire to have western civilization.

– Desire to gain material wealth.                                                                   (Any 3pts x1=3mks)

 

  1. b) Explain six effects of the Lozi collaboration with the British.                                (12mks)

– Los of independence / introduction of colonial rule.

– The Lozi became colonial agents.

– The Lozi lost their land.

–  Lewanika was made a paramount   chief.

– The Lozi were subjected to forced labour.

– Tax was imposed on the Lozi.

– Spread of Christianity in the Lozi territory.

– Transport and communication network was developed.                             (Any 6pts x2=2mks)

 

  1. a) Give three factors that led to the scramble and partition of Africa.                                (3mks)

– Need for raw materials.

– Source of market.

– To settle excess population.

– To invest excess capital.

– To spread Christianity.                                                                                            (Any 6pts x2=12)

 

  1. b) Explain the immediate effects of the partition of Africa.                                              (12mks)

– Introduction of colonial rule.

– Creation of boundaries/ dermacation of boundaries

– African rulers lost their power / authority.

– Some African communities resisted the colonial.

– African rulers who collaborated gained fame.

– Christianity was spread.

 

– Loss of lives through resistance.                                                                 (Any 6pts x2=12mks)

 

 

SECTION C

19        a) State three methods used by UNO in its efforts to achieve world peace.                         (3mks)

– Use of peace-keeping mission to conflicting areas.

– UN observers  envoys, mediators are sent to negotiate arbitrate between the opposing groups.

– Impose economic sanctions.

– Use of international court of justice to settle disputes.                              (Any 3pts x1= 3mks)

 

  1. b) Explain six challenges that have affected UNO in its effort to achieve world peace    (12mks)

– Ideological differences between countries.

– Inadequate funds for its operations.

– Lack of machinery / armed force to enforce its policies.

– The use of Veto powers by the super power has undermined the operations.

– Constant border / regional conflicts.

– Loyalty to other organization eg A.U.

– National interests in some countries.

– Rise terrorism.

– Different levels of economic development in some countries.

– National disasters which has strained the UNO financial kitty.                 (Any 6pts x1=12mks)

 

  1. a) State three advantages of a federal system of Government .                                          (3mks)

– Enhances trade.

– Different states are able to co-exist.

– Smaller states benefits from joint defense.

– Enables several state  to come together and work as one political unit.

– States solve their own problems.                                                                 (Any 3ptsx1= 3mks)

 

  1. b) Explain how the powers of the president is checked

– The congress approve all the appointment of civil servants.

– The mass media checks on the president through monitoring.

-The president serves  for a two year term.

– The congress approves all foreign treaties

– The president can be impeached ifhis conduct is not good.

-The congress approves all economic aid to other countries.

– He cannot dissolve the parliament.

– Pressure groups can check on the president’s conduct.                              (Any 6pts x2=12mks)

 

  1. a) State three function of the Lukiiko in Buganda kingdom.                                                      (3mks)

– Advised the Kabaka on matters affecting the kingdom.

– In charge of collecting taxes.

– Added as a final court of appeals.

– Helped the Kabaka to administer the kingdom.

– Made important decisions.

– Represented the interests of the people.                                                      (Any 3ptsx1=3mks)

 

  1. b) Explain the political organization of Buganda kingdom before colonial period.                  (12mks)

– The kingdom was centralized.

– The kingdom was headed by a king called the Kabaka.

– The Kabaka was the commander in chief of the army.

– The Kabaka acted as the final court of appeal.

– Kabaka position was hereditary.

– The kingdom had a council of ministries. Omulamuzi (Chief justice) Katikilo (prime minister)

And Omuwanika (Treasurer).

–  The kingdom was divided in counties  called Sazas under saza chiefs.

– The counties  were divided into sub-counties  called Gambolola under Gombolola chiefs.

– The kingdom had an army that defended the kingdom.

  • The Kabaka was assisted by the Prime minister ( Katikiro) in his administration
  • The kingdom had a parliament called Lukiiko
  • Sub- counties were divided into panshes ( milukas)

 

 

SAMPLE   6

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

311/2

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer ALL questions in this section.

  1. State two available tangible evidence that researchers use to determine the origin or date of man.

(2 mks)

  1. State two ways how early man evaded predator.             (2 mks)
  2. State two sub – species of homosapiens.             (2 mks)
  3. Give two results of the development of the steamship in Europe.             (2 mks)
  4. Identify two social problems brought about by industrial revolution in Europe.             (2 mks)
  5. Identify the uses of bronze in ancient Benin Kingdom.             (2 mks)
  6. Mention two social reasons that made the Europeans to colonise Africa.             (2 mks)
  7. Mention two emerging health problems facing the world organization (WHO)             (2 mks)
  8. Identify two ways in which Samori Toure acquired fire arms.             (2 mks)
  9. State two considerations that the colonists took into account in determining colonial administration.                                                                                                                       (2 mks)
  10. State the hereditary head of the British political system.             (1 mks)
  11. Identify Democratic Republic of Congo first prime minister.             (1 mk)
  12. Identify two permanent members of United Nations organization with veto powers. (2 mks)
  13. Which bloc collapsed in the cold war in 1990 – 1991.             (1 mk)

 

SECTION B (45 Marks)

  1. a) List five items that archaelogists use to reconstruct the activities of the pre-historic people.                                     (5 mks)
  2. b) What were the effects of neolithic revolution on early society? (10 mks)
  3. a) How did the Sumerians benefit from the invention of the wheel.             (5 mks)
  4. b) State the functions of Cairo (5 mks)
  5. c) What were the effects of local trade. (5 mks)
  6. a) Identify any three nationalists who promoted the growth of nationalism in Ghana.

(3 mks)

  1. b) Explain six factors that contributed to the development of nationalism in Ghana.             (12 mks)
  2. a) Describe the social organization of the Shona during the pre – colonial period. (5 mks)
  3. b) Explain the political organization of the Mwene Mutapa Kingdom during the pre-colonial                                                                                                                          (10 mks)

SECTION C (30 Marks)

Answer any three questions from this section

  1. a) Give five reasons why the First World War was referred to as the greatest war ever fought by 1914.                                                                                                                           (5 mks)
  2. b) Explain the effects of the cold – war. (10 mks)

20        a) State the characteristics of the commonwealth nations.

  1. b) Explain why the PAN-AFRICAN movement took long to be established in Africa.(10 mks)
  2. a) Identify three political parties represented in the us congress. (3 mks)
   
  1. b) Explain the functions of the prime minister in Britain. (12 mks)

 

MARKING SCHEME

SAMPLE  6

311/2

 

SECTION A.

  1. Two available tangible evidence that researchers use to determine the origin or date of man (2mks)
  • Fossils
  • Carbonized seeds
  • Garments

 

  1. Two ways how early man evaded predators (2mks)
  • Lived in tree tops and caves
  • Used fire to frighten wild animals
  • Used dogs for protection
  • Developed an upright posture which enabled him to see on impending danger
  • Made tools that he used to kill or frighten predators

 

  1. Two sub-species of Homo sapiens (2mks)
  • Cro – maggnon
  • Neanderthal man
  • Rhodesian man

 

  1. Two results of the development of the steamship in Europe (2mks)
  • Led to increased use of coal
  • Expansion of international trade
  • Increased use of water transport
  • Led to improvement in water transport

 

  1. Two social problems brought about by industrial revolution in Europe (2mks)
  • Unemployment caused increased increase in crime rate
  • Congestion in town due to rural urban migration

 

  1. Uses of bronze in ancient Benin kingdom (2mks)
  • Making statues
  • Decorate swords
  • Used as trade commodity
  • Making tools e.g. axes, hammers
  • Used to shape stones for building pyramids

 

  1. Two social reasons that made the Europeans to colonize Africa (2mks)
  • Christians missionaries wanted to spread Christianity into Africa
  • The humanitarians wanted to stop slave trade.
  • Population explosion in Europe led to the need for where to settle their surplus population

 

  1. Two immerging health problems facing the world health organization (2mks)
  • I.V / A.I.D.S
  • Rapid population growth outstretching health facilities
  • Malnutrition in third world countries
  • Severe anti – respiratory syndrome (S.A.R.S)

 

  1. Two ways in which samori Toure acquired fire arms (2mks)
  • By manufacturing locally
  • From organized raids on enemies
  • From trade with the British

 

  1. Two consideration that the colonialists took into account in determining colonial administration (2mks)
  • Personnel on ground
  • Finance
  • Attitude of the colonized
  • Existing systems on the ground

 

  1. The hereditary head of the British political system (1mk)
  • Queen or king

 

  1. The first democratic republic of DRC
  • Patrice Lumumba

 

  1. Two permanent members of United Nations organization with veto powers (2mks)
  • Britain
  • France
  • Russia
  • USA
  • China

 

  1. The eastern bloc / the communist bloc led Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

 

SECTION B

Answer any three questions from this section

 

  1. (a) list five items that archaelogists use to reconstruct the activities of the pre-historic people. (5mks)

they could use the remains of

  1. charcoal
  2. weapons
  • tools
  1. art work
  2. garments
  3. beads
  • seeds
  • coin
  1. pottery

 

(b) what were the effects of neolithic revolution on early society?

  1. led to security in long term food supply
  2. occasioned specialization and division of labour
  • increased volume of trade
  1. led to the development of irrigation farming
  2. population grew
  3. led to urbanisation
  • increase labour product
  • led to complex social and political institution developing
  1. development of industries related t,o agriculture

 

  1. (a) how did the sumerians benefit from the invention of the wheel (5mks)
  2. it was used in transportation of the people and goods
  3. it was used in carts and horse drawn chariots carrying soldiers
  • it was used in making pottery
  1. it was used on shadoofs, pulley system of drawing water
  2. it was used in wagons and carts that led to better development of roads
  3. it was used in turning water mills
  • it improved sporting activities

 

(b) state the functions of Cairo town (5mks)

  1. it is an education centre
  2. it is a commercial centre
  • a religious centre
  1. it is a transport centre
  2. it is a centre for administration
  3. it is an industrial centre
  • it is a medical schools

 

(c) what were the effects of local trade (5mks)

  1. it developed friendship between the trading communities
  2. intermarriages resulted from the transaction of local trade
  • communities were able to acquire goods that they didn’t produce
  1. it led to the growth of small urban centres
  2. it enforced the development of languages
  3. a) Any three nationalists who promoted the growth of nationalism in Ghana (3mks)
  • Kwame Nkrumah
  • Akuffo Ado
  • William Ofori
  • Ako Adsei
  • B Danguah

 

  1. b) Six factors that contributed to the development of nationalism in Ghana (12mks)
  • Influence from the ex-world war servicemen – the African soldiers in the second world war had realized that the European was not in invariable they thus desired for independence
  • The ex-service men were not compensated with jobs and land as promised. This infuriated them and made them rise again white supremacy
  • The educated elite were able to articulate the grievance of the people of Ghana. examples were Nkuruma and Danguah
  • African were against European domination of the economy
  • Land alienation for European farmers and government projects led to nationalistic aspirations among Africans hence formation of aborigines rights protection society
  • Chiefs who represented Africans in the legco were elected only by fellow chiefs
  • Africans complained of under-representation in the legco

 

18.a) the social organization of the Shona during the pre-colonial period (5mks)

  • The shona believed in one all powerful god whom they called mwavi /lesa /mulungu / mlimo
  • They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits whom they consulted from time to time
  • The shona communicated with the spirits through mediums/oracles
  • The priest presided over religious functions such as offering sacrifices to God
  • Shona elders were highly respected
  • Priests came from Rozwi clan
  • They had sacred places of worship /shrines
  • They were organized in clans
  • They lived in circular stones houses
  • It was a polygamous society
  • It was a patriachial society
  • It was an exogamy society
  • Names of clans/people came from animals e.g. the monkey

 

  1. b) Political organization of the Mwene Mtapa kingdom during the pre-colonial period (10mks)
  • The empire was ruled by an emperor /king who was both head of state and government
  • The office of the emperor /king was hereditary
  • The emperor/king was assisted in administering the empire by the queen mother,headrummer,emperor sister, emperor nine principal wives the chancellor and military commander
  • The emperor /kingdom was divided into provinces which were ruled by lesser kings/chiefs who were directly answerable to the emperor
  • The emperor controlled trade activities whose revenue was used to sustain the empire and the army
  • Priests acted as a link between the people and the emperor
  • The emperor controlled trade activities whose revenue was used to sustain the emperor inspired for the emperor
  • The emperor was military leader
  • The emperor was a religious leader/chief priest/semi divine
  • The royal fire was an important symbol of national unity the fire was kept on and would only be allowed and would only be allowed to go when the emperor died

 

SECTION C – 30MARKS

  1. (a) Give five reasons whyn the first world war was referred to as the greatest war ever fought by 1914 . (5mks)
  • Numerous state were involved
  • A huge size of armed forces was assemblied and used in the combat
  • Lethal weapons never seen before were used e.g machine guns, poisonous gas, aircrafts and armed tanks
  • Immense resources, both financial, economic and human were put in use
  • There was colossal loss of life
  • The war occasioned massive destruction of properties.

 

(b) Explain effects of cold war (10mks)

  • Struggle for dominance seriously undermined world peace and security
  • Divide the world ,in blocks characterized with hostility, suspicion and mistrust among nations
  • Caused the development of science and technology as nations raced for the production of deadly weapons
  • Occasioned the split of territories e.g North and south Korea
  • Witnessed the alliance both economic and political e.g nato, comesa and the Warsaw part
  • Caused many crises in the world e.g the Korean and Vietnam and the canal crisis
  • Brought about the spread of both communism and capitalism to various parts of the world
  • Led to the formation of NAM by those nations who never wished to be drawn into the cold war crisis

 

  1. (a) State the characteristics of the common wealth nations
  • Members are former British colonies
  • Have close economies
  • English as an official language is used
  • Technical and cooperation among its members
  • There are cultural ties
  • Regular meetings of leaders are held
  • Its educational system is based on the British system
  • Its preliminary system is inherited from the British
  • The queen is the symbolic head
  • Common military based on the British military system of its members
  • Constitutions adopted are also similar

 

(b) Explain why PAN-AFRICAN movement took long to be established in Africa. (10mks)

  • There were very few Africans representatives mostly students abroad or those living in exile
  • Africans were not allowed to organize movements opposed to colonial rule
  • Divide and rule policy hindered Africans unity
  • Lack of effective communication among Africans in various colonial territories to exchange ideas
  • Lack of support by too independent countries i.e Liberia and Ethiopia
  • Those under the French were pre-occupied with the acquision of French citizenship and privileges that came with it
  • Africans were more concerned with pressing issues such as land alienation, forced labour and taxation
  • Lack of suitable values to hold conference in Africa until Ghana gained independence and provided one

 

21.(a) Identify three political parties represented in the US congress. (3mks)

  • The Democratic party
  • The Republican party
  • The party of independence candidates

 

(b) Explain the functions of the prime minister in Britain (12mks)

  • Appoints and dismisses cabinet ministers neither the consent of the monarch.
  • Chairs cabinet meetings
  • Is the leader of the house of commons
  • Is the chief executive in the British government
  • Initiate both domestics and foreign policies
  • Represents Britain in international forums
  • Recommends to the foreign the appointment of senior civil servants such as the chief justice, higher commissioner e.t.c

 

 

SAMPLE  7

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 2

311/2

SECTION 1 ( 25 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section .

 

  1. What is Social History?             (1mk)
  2. Identify the main contribution of John Deere to the development of Agriculture in the United States of America.                         (1mk)
  3. Give two advantages of the currency method of trade.             (2mks)
  4. What are the advantages of the use of radio over newspaper in modern society? (2mks)
  5. State two factors that facilitated scientific revolution in Europe from the 14th century.                         (2mks)
  6. State the main way in which the establishment of the customs union contributed to industrialization in Germany.             (1mk)
  7. State two factors responsible for the decline of Merowe as an urban centre.            (2mks)
  8. Give the main economic activity of the Baganda in the 19th Century.             (1mk)
  9. Give two reasons why the Berlin conference was convened in 1884.             (2mks)
  10. Identify two ways in which European nations ensured effective occupation of their colonies in Africa.                         (2mks)
  11. Identify two treaties that Lewanika signed with the British.             (2mks)
  12. Name two political parties that contributed to the struggle for independence in Ghana.             (2mks)
  13. What was the immediate cause of the second world war.             (1mk)
  14. State the main function of the trusteeship council of the united Nation organization.             (1mk)
  15. Identify the main socio-Economic challenge in Africa since independence.             (1mk)
  16. State two requirements for a presidential candidate in the United States of America.             (2mks)

 

 

 

 

SECTION B ( 45 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section.

 

  1. a) Give five disadvantages of the traditional system of farming in Britain before 18th century.                                                                                                                            (5mks)
  2. b) Explain five changes that marked the agrarian revolution in Britain.                (10mks)

 

 

  1. a) What are the limitations of road transport.                                                          (3mks)
  2. b) Explain the impact of modern road transport.                                                     (12mks)

 

 

  1. a) Give three reasons why Kabaka Mutesa welcomed the missionaries in Buganda.                                                                                                                                                (3mks)
  2. b) What were the impact of Buganda  collaboration with the British.                    (12mks)

 

 

  1. a) State five causes of nationalism in Ghana.                                                          (5mks)
  2. b) Explain the role played by African National Congress (A.N.C) in the struggle for majority rule in South Africa.                                                                                                            (10mks)

 

 

 

SECTION C ( 30 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this question.

 

 

  1. a) State five problems of the non-aligned movement.                                             (5mks)
  2. b) What were the effects of cold war?                                                                      (10mks)

 

 

  1. a) Mention three differences between the former organization of African Unity (O.A.U) and the present African Union.                                                                                            (3mks)
  2. b) What challenges led to the collapse of East African Community in 1977.            (12mks)

 

 

  1. a) What are the constitutional powers of the president of India?                            (5mks)
  2. b) Explain the advantages of the federal system of government in the United States of America.                                                                                                                 (10mks)

 

 

 

 

 

MARKING SCHEME

SAMPLE 7

311/2

SECTION A (25MARKS)

  1. What is social History?
    • Is Historical information on peoples way of life i.e cultural practices, religious beliefs, literature, taboos and dressing.                         1 x 1=1mk
  2. Identify the main contribution of John Deere to the development of agriculture in the united states of America

–           Invented the steel plough                                                                   1 x 1=1mk

  1. Give two advantages of the currency method of trade.

–           Money can be easily carried

–           Money can easily value both goods and services.

–           Money can be easily divided into smaller units.                               2 x 1=2mks

  1. What are the advantages of the use of radio over the newspaper in modern society

–           Radio can transmit information to all parts of the world

–           It is cheaper to use a radio than to buy a newspaper everyday.

–           Radio can be used by both illiterates and the literates

–           One radio can serve many people at the same time.

–           Radio can spread an urgent massage over a wide area within a short time.    2 x 1=2mks

  1. State two factors that facilitate scientific revolution in Europe from the 14th century

–           Renaissance time made people to develop interest in research/ learning.

–           Governments and individuals financed scientific research.

–           Need to solve common problems like food shortages, diseases e.t.c

–           Religion failed to answer all questions.                                                        1 x 2=2mks

  1. State the main way in which establishment of the customs union contributed to industrialization in Germany.

–           It harmonized tariff charges amongst all the Germanic states and spured a free

flow of trade.                                                                                                 1 x 1=1mk

  1. State two factors responsible for the decline of Merowe as an urban centre.

–           the rise of axum

–           Desertification in the region.                                                                         2 x 1=2mks.

  1. Give the main economic activity of the Baganda in the 19th century.

–           Agriculture                                                                                                     1 x 1 1mk

  1. Give two reasons why the Berlin conference was convened in 1884.

–           To lay down the rules for Africas partition

–           To forestall conflicts amongst Europeans during Africa’s partition.

–           To settle dispute over the Congo- Niger regions.

–           To harmonize European views on slave trade.                                              2 x 1=2mks

  1. Identify two ways in which European nations ensured effective occupation of their colonies in Africa.

–           By constructing operational bases/ administrative posts.

–           By constructing transport network

–           By constructing schools and hospitals.                                                          2 x 1=2mks

  1. Identify two treaties that Lewanika signed with the British.

–           Harry Warre treaty of 1889

–           The Lochner treaty of 1890

–           The Lawley treaty of 1898

–           The Coryndon treaty of 1900                                                                         2 x 1=2mks

  1. Name two political parties that contributed to the struggle for independence in Ghana.

–           Convetion peoples party (C.P.P)

–           United Gold Coast convention (U.G.C.C.)

  1. What was the immediate cause of the second world war.

–           Germanys / Hitler’s attack on Poland.                                                           1 x 1=1mk

  1. State the main function of the trusteeship council of the united nations organizations.

–           It was responsible for the running of the trusted territories which were still under

the colonial rule.                                                                                            1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Identify the main economic challege in Africa since independence

–           Poverty.                                                                                                          1 x 1=1mk

           

  1. State two requirements for a presidential candidate in the United States of

America (U.S.A)

 

  • One must be an American citizen by birth
  • One miust be 35 years and above.
  • One must have lived in the U.S.A for at least 14 years.             2 x 1 = 2mks

 

 

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

  1. a) Give five disadvantages of the traditional system of farming in  Britain before

18th  century.

–           A lot of land was left fallow / not fuly utilized.

–           Lands were small and discouraged the use of machines

–           A lot of land was wasted by cattle and foot paths that criss crossed the farms.

–           Allowed easy spread of livestock diseases and uncontrolled breeding in livestock.

–           Broadcasting method of planting led to wastage of seeds.                           1 x 5=5mks

 

  1. b) Explain five changes that marked the agrarian revolution in Britain.

–           Fallows were  abolished and available lands used effectively.

–           Introduction and use of fertilizers in farms

–           Introduction of crop rotation

–           Use of farm machineries like the seed – drill and horse drawn hoe.

–           Inter cropping to retain land fertility

–           Selective breeding of livestock

–           Fencing of farms / enclose system.

–           Use of pesticides and herbicides to crop/ livestock diseases and weeds.

–           Increased Agricultural research by institutions like the royal Agricultural society.                                                                                                                                      2 x 5=10mks

  1. a) What are the limitations of road transport?

–           Roads cannot cross over the oceans and seas.

–           Modes used in roads carry limited goods compared to rail and water transport.

–           It’s prone to more accidents

–           Suffers congestion from traffic.

–           Become impassable in rainy season if not all weather road.

–           Construction of all-weather road is expensive.                                             1 x 3=3mks

  1. b) Explain the impact of modern road transport.

–           Has promoted domestic and external trade

–           Has enhanced exploitation of natural resources.

–           Has led to development of towns.

–           Earns industrialized countries a lot of foreign exchange through the sales of motor vehicles

–           Road transportation services have created many job opportunities.

–           Has increased social interrractions amongst the people.                  2 x 6=12mks

 

 

  1. a) Give three reasons why Kabaka Mutesa welcomed the missionaries in Buganda.

–           He wanted his people to acquire western education, medicine and technology.

–           Wanted to counter the influence of Muslims and traditionalists through the missionaries.

–           He wanted to be protected against Bunyoro.

–           He wanted protection against Khedive Ismail at Egypt.

–           He wanted to trade with the Europeans and acquire firearms.          1 x 3=3mks

 

  1. b) What were the impact of Buganda collaboration with the British.

–           Enhanced the spread of Christianity in Buganda.

–           Intensified religious conflicts in Buganda after the death of Mutesa 1

–           Bunganda was able to keep off her enemies like Bunyoro.

–           Reduced the powers at Kabaka as more power was given to his court officials and the  Lukiiko.

–           Bunganda became a British  base from where the spread western education and commerce.

–           Buganda community got advantage over other tribes by attaining  earlier western education and involving in British administration.

–           Buganda community advanced economically than the rest.

–           Created political crisis in Bunganda i.e when Mwanga was dethroned and replaced with infant Daudi Chwa.                                                                                   2 x 6 =12 mks

 

  1. a)         State five causes of nationalism in Ghana.

–           Wide spread unemployment amongst the educated elite.

–           High rate of inflation

–           The educated elite who activated the people on their rights.

–           Denial of trade license to Africans willing to practice import/ export trade.

–           Forceful cutting of Africans Cocoa trees to control the spread of cocoa  diseases

1 x5 =5mks

 

  1. b) Explain the role played by African National congress (A.N. C) in the struggle for majority rule in south Africa.

–           Unified the blacks against the minority rule in south Africa.

–           Fought for civil rights of the blacks in South Africa.

–           Aired south Africans grievances against epartheid in the international fora.

  • Offered forum from south African blacks could air their grievances
  • Trained guerrillas to fight underground wars against apartheid.
  • Organized strikes / demonstrations and boycott against minority rule.
  • Wrote articles against apartheid
  • Negotiated with the white regime.             2 x 5=10mks

 

SECTION C (25MKS)

  1. a)         State five problems of the Non-Aligned movement

–           Lacks executive machinery to implement its decision

–           Ideological differences amongst members

–           Lack of funds

–           Conflict of interest amongst members.

–           Personality difference amongst USSR made it almost irrelevant.

–           Political instability amongst members                                                          1 x 5=5mks

  1. b) What were the effects of cold war?

–           Created mistrust and suspicion amongst nations

–           Led to arms race

–           Led to political crises e.g civil a wars in Korea and Vietnam

–           Threatened international peace and security.

–           Led to formation of N.A.M( Non aligned movement)

–           Led to formation of military alliances like NATO and WARSAW PACT .

–           Stimulated space science /space race.                                                                      2 x 5 = 10mks

 

 

  1. a) Mention three differences between the former organization of African

unity (O.A.U) and the present African Union (AU)

  • Unlike the OAU, the AU challenges the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of member states.
  • OAU was like an association of African heads of state, but the AU is like a union

of the African people.

  • Unlike the OAU, the African Union has an accountability mechanism.
  • Unlike the OAU, the AU has a broader development plan for Africag. through NEPAD.             ( 1 x 3 = 3mks)
  1. b) What challenger led to the collapse East African community 1977.

–           Uganda and Tanzania argued that it favoured Kenya.

–           Personality differences e.g. between Amin and Nyerere.

–           Ideological differences amongst the member states

–           Political instability in Uganda

–           National interests of members conflicted with community’s interests

–           Boundary closures e.g. between Kenya and Tanzania.                      ( 2 x 6 = 12mks)

  1. a)         What are the constitutional powers of the of the president of India?

–           Can dissolve parliament

–           Appoint state governors / supreme judges

–           Assents on veto bills.

–           Commander in chief of the armed forces

–           Can declare a state of emergency.

–           Is symbol of national unity.

–           Appoints the prime minister with the advice of parliament.            1 x 5=5mks          

  1. b) Explain the advantages of the federal system of government in the United States of America.
  • Enables all the states to live together but retain their identities.
  • The USA’S state now have greater economic viability.
  • All the states benefit from the federal pull of resources
  • Security for all the states is enhanced
  • Interests of smaller states / minorities are better protected.
  • Encourages free trade amongst the states
  • Offers greater force to tackle common problem of the United States. 2 x 5 = 10mks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAMPLE PAPER 8

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 2

311/2

SECTION A

Answer all the questions

  1. What was the name given to the tools used in the second phase of old stone Age? (1mk)
  2. Give two limitations of using electronics as a source of information in History and Government.             (2mks)
  3. Name the form of writing that developed in Egypt as a result of the development of early agriculture.             (2mks)
  4. Name any two major trade centres along the Trans-Saharan trade routes.             (2mks)
  5. Name the person who discovered the source of electrical energy by inventing the electrical dynamo             (1mk)
  6. Identify two ways in which poverty is an obstacle to industrialization in the third world countries.             (2mks)
  7. State two roles of the Lukiiko.                                                                         (2mks)
  8. In what way did USA assist West Germany recover from economic depression at the end of World War II.             (1mk)
  9. Identify one early metal that was used in Africa.             (1mk)
  10. Identify two roles of religion in the Chimurenga uprising of 1896 – 1897. (2mks)
  11. Give two types of Nationalism in South Africa in the 20th Century.             (2mks)
  12. Identify two political parties that participated in Ghana’s struggle for independence.             (2mks)
  13. State two achievements of the revived East African Community.             (2mks)
  14. Identify two ways one can become a member of the House of Lords in Britain. (2mks)
  15. Give one characteristic of the cold war.             (1mk)

SECTION B ( 45 MARKS)

Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. a) In what ways has the study of history benefited us.                                             (8mks)
  2. b) What problems face archaeologists in their work of rewriting history using unwritten sources?                                                                                                                 (7mks)
  3. a) State five factors that led to the abolition of slave trade.                                                (5mks)
  4. b) Discuss five economic consequences of the Trans-Atlantic trade on the people of West Coast of Africa.                                                                                                 (10mks)
  5. a) Give three advantages of the use of the bicycle as a mode of transport.             (3mks)
  6. b) Explain the importance of space exploration to man.                                         (12mks)
  7. a) identify five problems encountered by nationalists in South Africa.                  (5mks)
  8. b) What factors promoted African Nationalism after 1945.                                                (10mks)

 

SECTION  C ( 30 MARKS)

Answer any TWO questions from this section in the Answer Booklet provided

  1. a) Outline five features of direct rule in Zimbabwe.                                                            (5mks)
  2. b) Explain the problems associated with indirect rule system of government.            (10mks)
  3. a) Name three countries which formed the triple Entete before the outbreak of the First World War.                                                                                                                                (3mks)
  4. b) Explain six failures of the League of Nations.                                                     (12mks)
  5. a) How has Non-Aligned movement influenced world politics.                              (5mks)
  6. b) Explain five ways the commonwealth member countries have benefited from the organization.                                                                                                       (10mks)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MARKING SCHEME

SAMPLE PAPER 8

311/2

           

                                                SECTION A (25MKS)

  1. Name given to the tools used in the second phase of old stone Age?                    (1mk)

–           Acheulian – after the site of St. Acheul in France.

  1. Two limitations of using electronics as a source of information in History and

Government .                                                                                                             (2mks)

  • Subject to bias / contain foreign materials .
  • May be inaccurate / give that which is appealing to the public.
  • Too expensive / most people can’t afford e.g. Tv, Radio’s
  • Some are unrealistic e.g acted films.             (2 x 1 =2mks
  1. Form of writing that developed in Egypt as a result of the development of early agriculture.                         (2mks)
  • Arithmetic
  •             2 x 1 = 2mks)
  1. Any two major trade centres along the Trans-Saharan trade routes.
  • Timbuktu – Kumbi Saleh.
  • Taghaza – Gao             (1 x 2 = 2)
  1. The person who discovered the source of electrical energy by inventing the Dynamo .
  • Michael Faraday.
  1. Two ways in which poverty is an obstacle to industrialization in the third world.
  • Low purchasing power thus lack of markets for industrial products.
  • Lack of capital to invest in industrialization .
  • Disease out-breaks e.g. HIV/AIDS. Taking toll of dependable work force.
  • Poor transport and communication.
  • Wars causes by competition for scarce natural resources.
  • Any other relevant point      ( 2 x 1 = 2mks)
  1. Roles of the Lukiiko.
  • Make laws.
  • Advised the Kabaka.
  • Represent people’s concers to the Kabaka.
  • Acted as the final court of appeal.
  • Directed collection to taxes and planned expenditure.
  • Carried out general administration (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  1. How USA assisted Germany to recover from economic depression.

–           Introducing the Marshal plan                                                                         (1mk)

–           One early metal that was used in Africa.

  1. – Bronze            – Copper

–           Gold                –Iron                                                                           (1 x 1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Two roles of religion in Chimurenga uprinsing of 1896 – 1897.
  • Religious leaders attributed natural calamites to the presence of whitemen.
  • They claimed Mwari (their god) hated whites.
  • Religious leaders promised the people immunity to British bullets if they remained united in fighting against the British                                     ( 2 x 1 = 2mks)

 

  1. Two types of Nationalism in South Africa.
  • British nationalism
  • Afrikaner Nationalism
  • African Nationalism ( 2 x 1 = 2mks)
  1. Two political parties that participated in Ghana’s struggle for independence.
  • United Gold Coast convention
  • Convention peoples party.

 

  1. Two achievements of the revived East African Community.
  • Reduction of political & military tension
  • Regional stability enhanced through consultative organs.
  • Military co-operation
  • Establishment of East African Legislative Assembly.
  • Common tarrif / Taxation system
  • Any other relevant             (1mk)
  1. Two ways one can become a member of the House of Lords in Britain.
  • Through nomination by the monarch.
  • When one holds hereditary parentage.
  • Through holding some senior position within the Church of England e.g. Archibishop

of Cantebury.                                                                                                  ( 2 x 1)

 

  1. One characteristics of the Cold war.
  • Competition in recruiting allies to both camps- USA and USSR.
  • Competition in giving aid to fighting group in different parts of the world.
  • Arms race.
  • Use of propanganda.
  • Competition in space race.
  • Use of spy system.             (1 x 1)

 

SECTION B ( 45MKS)

  1. Ways in which the study of history has benefited us (8mks)
  • To know our origin
  • To appreciate the culture of the people.
  • Interesting , intrinsic value.
  • To remove biases / prejudices we have about other people.
  • Offers critical analysis to historical data.
  • Instills a sense of patriotism (nationalism)
  • Fosters feelings for others /sympathy.
  • Intellectual fulfillment
  • Careers e.g. law,diplomacy, teaching and administration.
  • We appreciate why we need a government.
  • Acquisition of knowledge about the past.
  • To learn from past mistakes and achievements. ( 8 x 1 = 8mks)
  1. Problems faced by archaeologists in their work of rewriting history using unwritten sources.                                     (7mks).
  • The exercise is too expensive
  • Its dangerous and tedious. Animals like wild dogs can attack scientists.
  • Identification of the site is not easy because artifacts are buried.
  • Some artifacts may offer very little evidence.
  • Artifacts can be destroyed in the process of digging.
  • Dating of fossils is difficult.
  • Personnel are few hence more work.
  • Poor infrastructure in rural areas where their researches are mainly based.
  • Archaeologist may suffer from diseases caused by changes in climate.
  • Sometimes the climate of their residence differ from that of the place they are taking

research .This creates discomfort.                                                     ( 7 x 1)

 

  1. a) Factors that led to abolition of slave trade.                         (5mks)
  • Introduction and use of machines in industries and farms removed the need for slaves.
  • Leading economist argued than slaves were less productive than free people.
  • When America attained independence in 1776, Britain turned to Africa for raw materials.
  • Missionaries and other humanitarian groups argued that slavery was inhuman.
  • The French revolution of 1789 spread the ideas of liberty, fraternity and equality.
  • After the American civil are of 1865 the USA closed the American slave market and abolished slavery in America.                                                 ( 5 x 1)
  1. Economic consequences of the Trans- Atlantic trade on the people of the

West Coast of Africa.                                                                                   (10mks)

  • Economic decline since young men were taken away from Africa.
  • Trade links established between West Africa, Europe and America.
  • Decline of traditional industries e.g. basketry, because of the of European goods.
  • Destruction of property e.g. villages were burnt down and left in ruins
  • Decline of Trans –Saharan trade.
  • Development of cities e.g. Elmina, Dakar.

Fully explained (6 x 2 ) = 12mks

  1. a) –           It is cheap.

–           It is convenient

–           Easily used an narrow paths. 3mks

  1. b) Explain importance of space exploration to man.

–           Space probes and crafts continue to provide much information about

conditions in space in particular –weather.

  • Reports derived from weather satellite can act as warning systems. impending storm.
  • A scientific satellite known as Vanguard I sent back pictures which showed that the earth was slightly pear- shaped.
  • Communication satellites like the Telstar and Relay have made it possible to send television programmes and telephones calls over much longer distances.
  • In 1965 the US achieved another momentous feat in space communication.

The mariner 4 in a deep space probe sent back pictures of mars that were taken as it passed the planet

  • Some space exploration offers possibilities without limit. Planets themselves may have metals and other resources that men on earth need.
  • Information about outer space may make it possible to make rain and make long range weather forecast accurately.
  • Some scientists are optimistic that space research might make it possible for human beings to settle on some planets, so far we are not very definite about this.
  • Mankind can benefit from medicine prepared under ideal conditions on the planet namely dust free and germ free medicine.
  • Space exploration enhances technological development .
  • It facilities own understanding of the universe
  • It leads to improved manufacture of aircrafts, telescope and related machines
  • Contributed to development of advanced air force weapons.

Any six well explained points( 6 x 2 = 12mks)

 

  1. a) Problems encountered  by Nationalists in South Africa                             
  • Many nationalists were killed by the Apartheid regime in South Africa.
  • Many nationalists were harassed, arrested and detained.
  • Many nationalist were forced to flee the country and seek refuge in other African countries like Zimbabwe,Zambia , Angola ,Kenya & Tanzania.
  • African political parties were outlawed and the nationalists persecuted.
  • African journalists were harassed and their newspapers banned for reporting an apartheid.
  • Trade unionists and other leaders were perpetually intimidated by security agents.
  • Africans were confined Africans to the Bantustans based on their ethnic communities in order to separate African communities.
  • The pass laws were also used to curtail the freedom of movement, and to enable the Europeans to acquire cheap African labour.                                                 (5mks)
  1. b) Factors that promoted African Nationalism after 1945.             ( 10mks)

Internal factors.

  • Economic exploitation e.g. land alienation, law wages etc.
  • Taxation e.g. breast tax.
  • Colonialism interfered with African political institutions
  • Cultural discrimination by the colonial order.
  • Urban environment favoured growth of nationalism e.g. enable different communities to interact
  • Racial segregation.
  • Western education.
  • External factors
  • Many Africans who participated in world war.

SECTION C

  1. a) Five features of direct role in Zimbabwe.
  • Zimbabwe had a large number of European settlers
  • Many of the British settlers developed the attitude and consequently the belief that the territory was pre-ordained to be a white settler colony.
  • The territory was administered by a commercial company (BSAC) for a long period (1890 – 1923)
  • BSAC was headed by an administrator below whom was a long chain of European civil servants performing simple administrative duties. 3 x 1 = 3mks
  1. Problems associated with indirect rule.
  • It could not be applied where centralized government was absent.
  • The chiefs appointed in stateless societies lacked a natural basis and therefore suspicion and lack of confidence resulted.
  • Even among the highly centralized administrative areas such as the emirates of Nigeria, local people looked at indirect rule as curtailing the authority of local rulers therefore they resented it.
  • Inexperienced British officials interfered too much with the vital customs, practices and taboos of among the Asante .This brought further problems.
  • Different administrations had different views on the degree of indirect rule to be applied, making it difficult to draw a difference between advisory and supervisory role of colonial powers.
  • Language was a problem leading to the need for interpreter. Poor communication therefore made adaptation difficult.
  • Education of chiefs was necessary but took a long time and needed patience and fulfill knowledge which many Britons lacked.                                     (6 x 2 = 12mks)
  1. a) Three countries which formed the triple Entente before the outbreak of W.W.1
  • Britain
  • France

 

 

 

  1. Six failures of the league of nations.
  • In 1937, Japan defied the league by invading Manchuria in china.
  • In 1935,Benitto Mossolini invaded Ethiopia and pulled out of the League.
  • Germany violated the Treaty of Vassailles with impunity.
  • Nations continued to sign secret treaties in violation of the league of Nations terms.
  • Many countries associated the league with allies and therefore considered partisan.
  • S.A’s rejection of the league made it weak.
  • The league lacked a military wing to enforced its decisions
  • Nations continued to act as sovereign states and refused to take case to the ICJ.
  • Members refused to disarm and the league of Nations did not have the machinery to enforce disarmament.
  • The policy of appeasement led to aggression among members.
  • The league failed to stop the outbreak of WW-2 ( 6 x 2 = 12mks)

 

  1. a) How Non- Aligned Movement influenced world politics.
  • It has kept the third world countries from deep involvement in the cold war.
  • It has condemned interference by Big powers into the affairs of small nations.
  • It has attacked racial policies of South Africa and their control over Namibia and strings attached to aid.
  • It has resisted colonial interference in Africa.
  • They have kept their land and waters as a nuclear free zones and condemned nuclear weapons.
  • Through the U.N.O, they have influenced policies.
  • It has created peace and closer understanding between nations.
  1. Five ways the commonwealth member countries have benefited from the organization.

–           The nations have received technical know how through the provision of experts and advisers in various fields of Agriculture.

  • Developing member states of the organization have acquired skilled man power through the provision of scholarship and setting up of training programmes.
  • Members states have been able to interact with one another through activities such as Commonwealth games and exchange programmes
  • Member states trade among each other which has helped them to develop.
  • Develop member states have provided aid to their developing counterparts promoting economic development.
  • The organization has provided a forum for member states to air their views on international issues.
  • Organization has provided a mechanism of maintaining peace among member states.
  • Commonwealth has promoted friendship & understanding through conferences.
  • It has enhanced democratization in developing member states through sending observers to monitor such activities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAMPLE PAPER 9

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 1

311/2

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION

  1. Give two chemical dating methods used by Archeologists to reconstruct history. (2mks)
  2. Give two limitations of using written records as a source of African history. (2mks)
  3. Name two urban centres which developed as a result of early agriculture in Mesopotamia.                         (2mks)
  4. Identify one agricultural machine invented in Britain between 1701 and 1900. (1mk)
  5. State one common feature in cell phones.             (1mk)
  6. Apart from wood, name two other early sources of energy.             (2mks)
  7. Give two pull factors that facilitated European imperialism in Africa.             (2mks)
  8. Identify two roles of Asantehene of the Asante empire.             (2mks)
  9. State the contribution of religion in the maji maji rebellion.             (1mk)
  10. Why was Northern Nigeria a suitable ground for experimentation with indirect rule.(1mk)
  11. Give two ways in which Kwame Nkurumah contributed to the liberation struggle in Africa.             (2mks)
  12. Give the main factor that brought the cold war to an end.             (1mk)
  13. Give two short comings of the treaty of Versailles.             (2mks)
  14. Mention two benefits of international relations.             (2mks)
  15. Name the two houses of the British parliament.             (2mks)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION B. ( 45 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section

 

 

  1. a) Identify five factors that led to the development of early agriculture in Egypt.            (5mks)
  2. b) Explain the effects of early agriculture in Egypt.                                                            ( 10mks)

 

  1. a) Identify the role played by the Tuaregs in the Trans-Saharan trade.                   (5mks)
  2. b) Explain the results of the trans-Saharan trade in West Africa.                           (10mks)

 

  1. a) Name three leaders charged along side Nelson Mandela in the Rivonia trial of 1964 by apartheid regime in South Africa.                                                                           (3mks)
  2. b) Explain the role played by Nelson Mandela in the struggle for South African liberation.                                                                                                                               (12mks)

 

  1. a) State three factors that led to the formation of the common wealth of nations.            (3mks)
  2. b) Explain six benefits of the commonwealth of nations to its member states.            (12mks)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION C ( 30 MARKS)

ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

 

  1. a) State five causes of the second world war.                                                           (5mks)
  2. b) Explain five effects of the second world war.                                                      (10mks)

 

  1. a) State three problems facing the United Nations organizations.                          (3mks)
  2. b) Explain six ways in which the United Nations organization has tried to promote world peace.             (12mks)

 

  1. a) State the three types of elections in India.                                                                       (3mks)
  2. b) Describe how the government of India is organized.                                           (12mks)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MARKING SCHEME

SAMPLE PAPER 9

311/2

                                                SECTION      A         (25MARKS)   ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS.

  1. Give two chemical dating methods used by archeologists to reconstruct history.(2mks)

Radio – Carbon dating

Potassium – argon

  1. Give two limitation of using written records as a source of African history.              (2mks)

                        –           Some written records are inaccurate

–           Some of the records are not readily available for easy reference.

–           Written records are limited only to those who can read and write.

–           Some records have inadequate information.

–           Some records are written foreign languages hence difficult to interpret, translate

accurately and therefore not easy to be understood.

  1. Name two urban centres which developed as a result of early agriculture in Mesopotamia

                                                                                                                                                            (2mks)

                        Ur,

Uruk

Eridu,

Nippur.

Kish

Babylon.

  1. Identify one agricultural machine invented in Britain between 1701 and 1900    (1mk)

                        –           The horse drawn drilling machine by Jethro Tull.

–           The mechanical reaper by Patrick Bell.

–           The mechanical thresher by Andrew Meikles.

–           Tractors

–           Combine harvester.

  1. State one common feature in cell phones                                                                            (1mk)

                        –           Make / receive calls.

–           Have personal phone book.

–           Stores messages.

–           Ability to send / Receive S.M.S.

 

  1. Apart from wood, name two  other early source of energy                                               (2mks)

                        –           Wind

–           Water

 

  1. Give two pull factors that facilitated European impenialisation in Africa            (2mks)

                        –           Last resources e.g. minerals ivory etc.

–           Well developed trade / trade routes in the interior.

–           Navigable rivers.

–           Decentralized local communicates.

–           Frequent wars / intercommunity wars.

 

  1. Identify two roles of Asante here of the Asante empire                                        (2mks)

                        –           Head of government

–           Religious leaders

–           Supreme judge.

–           Commander in chief of the armed forces.

 

  1. State the contribution of religion in the Majimaji rebellion.                                  (1mk)

                        It boosted people morale and gave them courage to fight the Germans.

  1. Why was Northern Nigeria suitable ground for experimentation with indirect rule.  (1mk)

The area had a well organized centralized systems of government.

  1. Give two ways in which Kwame Nkrumah contributed to the liberation struggle in Africa

    (2mks)

  • Funded nationalists in other countries e.g. Ghana and Algeria.
  • Supported other African Leaders threats from their faced political threats from their former colonial master.
  • Championed trade unionism in in Africa
  • Attended pan- African congress 1945.
  • Convened pan- African conference thet led to the formation ofO.A.U.

 

  1. Give the main factor that brought the cold war to an formation of O.A.U.

Disintegration of the USSR.

  1. Give two short comings of the treaty of Versailles .                                              (2mks)

–           It blamed Germany solely for the cause of the war causing resentment and bitterness among the  Germans.

  • The interest of the colonial people were largely ignored by the world powers.
  • Italy was given a raw deal in the peace settlement.
  • USA refused to ratify the charter of the league of nations though she was behind it’s formation.

 

  1. Mention two benefits of international relations.                                                    (2mks)

            –           Enhance peace and security in the world.

            –           Promote understanding and unity.

            –           Encourage cultural exchange.

–           Help in getting collectives solutions to world problems.

–           promote economic growth through trade.

–           Developing countries get financial and technical assistance.

 

  1. Name the two houses of the British parliament.             (2mks)

            –           The horse  of commons.

            –           The horse of Lords.

 

 

                        SECTION      B.        (45MARKS)

ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION.

 

  1. a) Identify five factors that led to the development of early agriculture in Egypt.

                                                                                                                                                (5mks)

  • Water for irrigation from river Nile.
  • Existence of fertile silt deposits and mud which provided fertile soil for crop farming.
  • Egypt had a suitable warm climate for crop growing and ripening.
  • Availability of indigenous crops.
  • Political stability.
  • High population created need for more food and provided farm labour.
  • Use of shadow irrigation technology.
  • Availability of slave labour made crop farming a success.
  • The invention and use of implements which included wooden sticks ace, knives and wooden hues enabled the farmer t increase their yields.
  • The existence of writing in Egypt helped the Egyptians to keep accurate records of seasons and volume of food.
  1. b) Explain the effects of early agriculture in Egypt .             (10mks)

–           Led to rise of urban centres or towns in Egypt such as Memphi’s Akhetan Aswan and

            Trebe’s along the Nile valley.

  • Increased food production
  • Growth in population as food supply increased and become regular.
  • Led to emergence of government and related governing laws.
  • Led to the discovery of arithmetic geometry, writing and calendar.
  • It promoted trade among the Egyptians.
  • It promoted social stratification or classes in the Egyptian society.

 

17        a)         Identify the role played by the Tuaregs.                                                      (3mks)

            –           Guided trader across the desert

            –           Provided security to the traders

            –           Acted as interpreters between the Northern and southern traders.

            –           Supplied food and water to the traders.

            –           Protected and maintained the Oasis.

  1. b) Explain the results of the trans-Saharan trade in West Africa                  (10mks)

            –           Towns like Gao,Jenne and Timbuktu rose and develop

            –           Spread of Islamic education in west Africa.

            –           Wealthy merchants emerged

            –           West Africans and North Africans intermarried.

            –           Increased warfare as traders searched for slaves.

            –           Introduction of Islamic valves like dressing and eating habits.

            –           Introduction of Arabic architecture

            –           Development of empires like Mali and Songhai.

            –           Depopulation due to slave trade.

            –           Opened West Africa to the outside Africa.

 

  1. a) Name three leaders charged along side Nelson Mandela in the Rivonia trial of 1964

            by apartheid regime in South Africa                                                                        (3mks)

  • Walter sisulu
  • Andrew Mlangeri.
  • Ahmed Kathiada.
  • Govan Mbeki
  1. Explain the role played by Nelson Mandela in the struggle for South African

            Liberation.                                                                                                     (12mks)

  • He was a founder member of ANC youth league (Umkhunto we sizwe) which used violence to attain African liberation.
  • He was one of the people behind the 1953 proclamation of the freedom charter.
  • He was involved in defiance campaign e.g. boycotts. Protest against segregation laws.
  • He represented the Africans who found themselves in the wrong side of the law (legal representation.
  • Mobilized African support and worked hard to unite Africans
  • Visited parts of the world in a bid to acquire material support for liberation campaign
  • Mandela suffered imprisonment and detention – was jailed for 27 years.

 

  1. a) State three factors that led to the formation of the common wealth nations (3mks)

            –           To promote peace and understanding

            –           To promote development of poor member states.

            –           To help cooperate in matters of education, sport and economic development.

 

  1. b) Explain six  benefits of the common wealth nations to ite member states    (12mks)

            –           Financial / technical assistance to poor assistance.

            –           Nations have enjoyed understanding and co-operation.

            –           Members have sent peace-keeping forces.

            –           Members have been given scholarship to boost education.

            –           Boosted trade among member states.

            –           States have enjoyed social cultural interaction through sports.

            –           Promoted democracy and good governance through parliamentary meetings.

            –           promoted a forum to share views

            –           Have supported youth programmes

            –           Helped in the development of legal systems.

 

 

                        SECTION      C         30MARKS

            ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION.

 

20        a)         State five causes of the second world war.                                                  (5mks)

            –           The rise of Hitlers and his determination to restore German’s lost glory.

            –           The great depression of the 1930’s economic protectionism which increased international

                        tension.

  • The in ability of the league of nations to implement it’s resolutions and punish those who violated them encouraged the aggressors to persue their ambitions.
  • The unfavouarable conditions imposed on German by the treaty of Versailles humiliated her and encouraged her to impose grudges against the allied powers
  • The policy of appeasement practice by both Britain and France encouraged the dictators to carry out their acts of aggression
  • Establishment of alliances between major powers encourages aggression because of the feeling of mutual support.
  • Growth of nationalism made countries inward looking and therefore were not willing to participate in the international issues.
  • The rise of dictatorship in Europe in Hilter and Mussolini.

 

  1. b) Explain five effects of the second world war .             (10mks)

–           The war led to destruction of life and property.

           Germany was defeated and dismembered by the victorious powers.

           The balance of  power in Europe was changed with the emergence of USSR and USA as new super power.

           Communists governments were established in many parts of Eastern Europe through the influence of USSR.

           The war increased USA’s involvement I European affrairs.

           The war stimulated development of military technologies and industries.

           The war led to displacement of people who became refuges.

           European countries became more committed to the idea of maintaining peace in the world.

           The war left bitter feelings and mistrust among the fighting nations.

 

  1. a)         State three problems facing the united nations organizations.                  (3mks)

                        –           Many countries disregard the U.N.O resolutions in favour of their sovereignty.

–           It’s unable to stop aggressions and conflicts between individual countries when super

powers are involved.

  • Lacks sufficient funds to carry out it’s work efficiently e.g. peace keeping.
  • It lacks machinery to effect it’s decisions e.g.army.
  • It’s dominated by the five permanent members who have vote powers.
  • UNO members are also members of other organizations the interests of these organizations are not in accord with those of the UNO.

 

  1. Explain six ways which the united nations organization has tried to promote world peace.
  • Peaceful settlement of disputes – it encourages countries to seek peaceful solutions to their disputes.
  • Application of sanction to those countries that are seen to be a threat to world peace.
  • Peace keeping operations in areas of conflicts.
  • Promote international law by encouraging other countries to apply it to solve disputes.
  • The UNO has promoted peace by encouraging disarmament through it’s disarmament commission and other numerous specialized agencies.
  • Creation of general awareness about world peace.
  • Promotion of regional co-operation in different areas between different countries.

 

  1. a) State the three types of elections in India                                                   (3mks)

            –           Presidential.

            –           Parliamentary.

            –           Regional government elections.

 

  1. b) Describe how the government of India is organized.                                  (12mks)

            –           India has a federal system of government.

            –           Power is shared between the state government and the union government.

            –           The union government consists of the presidency, the legislative and the judiciary.

           The president is elected for a term of five years and shares power with the prime minister.

            –           There’s a prime minister who’s usually appointed from the leader of the political party

                        with the majority seats in parliament.

  • The prime minister is the head of council of ministers and government.
  • It has a bicameral legislative namely the council of states and the house of the people
  • Each state is headed by the governor appointed by the president.
  • Each state has it’s own constitution guiding internal affairs.
  • The office of the president is largely ceremonial.
  • The prime minister is answerer able to the union parliament which is made up of the house of the people and council of state.
  • There are union courts and state courts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAMPLE PAPER 10

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 2

311/2

SECTION A ( 25 MARKS)

Answer ALL questions

 

  1. What is oral tradition as a source of History.             (1mk)
  2. One main linguistic advantage Homo erectus had over the Homo Habilis was? (1mk)
  3. State the main reason why metallic substances were preferred for cutting. (1mk)
  4. What was the use of the speed wheel that was invented in Mesopotamia in 2500B.C?             (1mk)
  5. Give two contributions of the invention of the stream engine to industry in the 18th century in Europe.             (2mks)
  6. What was the significance of the Black stool in the ancient Ashante kingdom? (1mk)
  7. Name any two places where salt was obtained from during the Trans-Saharan Trade.             (2mks)
  8. In what ways did the industrial revolution contribute to the scramble and partition of Africa?             (2mks)
  9. Differentiate between pure democracy and indirect democracy.             (1mk)
  10. State any two economic privileges which were employed by the assimilated Africans in the four communes of Senegal.                                                                                      (2mks)
  11. Mention any two ways in which the railway facilitated industrial development. (2mks)
  12. State any two reasons why Kabaka Mwanga collaborated with the British.             (2mks)
  13. Name any two approaches used by the United Nations organization  to promote peace and security in conflicting regions.                                                                             (2mks)
  14. Mention any two states that were newly formed and became part of the state of Yugoslavia after the peace settlement of 1919-1920.                         (2mks)
  15. Name the organization that was replaced by the common market for eastern and Southern African states (COMESA)             (1mk)
  16. What is the name of the body that was formed under the auspices of African Unity (AU) in July 2001, in Lusaka Zambia?             (1mk)
  17. Besides the province of Katanga, mention any other province that seceded form Congo in 1960.                         (1mk)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION B ( 45 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section on the answer booklet provided.

  1. a) Enumerate any five reasons why man resorted to the domestication of plants and animals.                                                                                                                                  (5mks)
  2. b) Explain any five effects of the land enclosure movement on the peasant farmers in Britain.                                                                                                                               (10mks)

 

  1. a) Mention any three contributions of Louis Pasteur in the field  of medicine.            (3mks)
  2. b) Explain the various challenges facing industrialization in India.                                   (12mks)

 

  1. a) Give three ways in which African slaves were particularly attractive to Europeans during the Trans-Atlantic slave Trade.                                                                            (3mks)
  2. b) Discuss the profound negative economic effects of the Trans-Atlantic slave Trade on the communities of West Africa.                                                                                       (12mks)

 

  1. a) Outline briefly the hierarchy of the French colonial administration in Africa.            (5mks)
  2. b) Explain why the British indirect rule failed in Southern Nigeria.                                   (10mks)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION C ( 30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section on the answer booklet provided

 

 

  1. a) Outline any three roles of the traditional parliament of the Baganda?               (3mks)
  2. b) Describe the social organization of the Shona in the 19th century                      (12mks)

 

  1. a) Name any three Non-aligned leaders who convened the banding conference of April 1955.                                                                                                                             (3mks)
  2. b) Explain any six reasons why the Allied powers won the first world war.            (12mks)

 

  1. a) outline any five functions of the civil service in the federal government of the united states (USA)                                                                                                                            (5mks)
  2. b) Discuss the various constitutional powers of the president of the government of India.                                                                                                                                       (10mks)

 

 

MARKING SCHEME

SAMPLE PAPER 10

311/2

 

SECTION A (25MARKS)

 

            Answer all questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. What is oral tradition as a source of History?                                                         (1mrk)

–           Oral tradition as a source of History involves the study of historical information based on what has been handed down from one generation to another by word of mouth / verbally.                                                                                                                                      1×1=1

  • One main linguistic advantage Home Erectors had over the Home Habilis was? (1mrk)

–           Home erectus was able to communicate by speech.                                     1×1=1

3          State  the main reason why metallic substances were preferred for cutting               (1mrk)

–           Their cutting edges could easily be sharpened.                                             1×1=1

  1. What was the use of the spoked wheel that was invented in Mesopotamia in 2500B.C?(1mrks)

–           The spoked wheel was used for building war chariots / used on horse –drawn chariots.

1×1=1

  1. Give two contributions of the invention of the steam engine to industry in the 18th century in

            Europe.                                                                                                                                   (2mrks)

  1. It led to less use of fuel.
  2. Machines were able to operate efficiently / machines worked better.
  • It enabled industries to be located for from the sources of energy.
  1. It led to the establishment of more industries.             2×1=2

 

  1. What was the significance of the Black stool in the ancient Ashante Kingdom? (1mrk)

–           Symbolized the power of the omanhene in his state.                                                            1×1=1

 

  1. Name any two places where salt was obtained from during the Trans-saharan Trade.(2mrks)

            –           Taghaza

–           Taodeni

–           Bilma

–           Ghadames                                                                                                       2×1=2.

 

  1. In what ways did the industrial Revolution contribute to the scramble and partition of

            Africa?                                                                                                                       (1mrk)

  • Europeans developed interest for raw materials from Africa
  • Europeans needed markets for their industrial goods.
  • Europeans needed places to invest their excessive capital from the industries. 2×1=2.

 

  1. Differeciate between pure Democracy and indirect Democracy             (1mrk)

            –           Pure or Direct Democracy is where the people are directly involved and participate in

                        decision- making –while indirect Democracy is a type of Democracy where citizens exercise

their right in decision making not directly as individuals, but through their agreed

representatives.                                                                                              1×1=1

 

10        State any two economic privileges which were enjoyed by the assimilated Africans in the four

            communes of Senegal                                                                                                (2mrks)

  • They were exempted from forced labour.
  • They were allowed to work in France
  • They were exempted from paying taxes.                                                 2×1=2

 

  1. Mention any two ways in which the railway facilitated industrial development. (2mrks)
    • Industrial products were transported efficiently to markets.
    • Raw materials could easily reach industries.
    • Industrial workers were easily transported./ eased labour mobility. 2×1=2

 

  1. State any two reasons why Kabaka Mwanga collaborated with the British. (2mrks)

            –           He wanted protection from internal and External enemies eg religions groups like

                        traditionalists, muslims, catholics and protestants and / Banyovothreat/

  • He hoped to get military support from powerful Europeans.
  • He also denied to secure his position and safeguard the Baganda from interference.
  • He wanted the British to help hi m gain regional supremacy over the surrounding kingdoms as Banyore, Ankle and Toro.                                                             2×1=2

 

  1. Name any two approaches used by the united Nations organization to promote peace and

security in conflicting regions.                                                                                  (2mrks)

  • Dispatching of UN-peace- keeping missions to conflict areas.
  • Sending UN observes to conflict areas.
  • UN sends fact finding missions to conflict areas.
  • UN special evivoys and representatives are sent to negotiate or arbitrate for place between the opposing groups.
  • UN sanctions are imposed against states that defy the resolutions.
  • The international court of justice (ICJ) helps to settle disputes among states.
  • UN peace messengers are sent to encourage and co-ordinate efforts for the all movement of peace.
  • UN uses Non- governmental organizations(Ngos) to research for the cause and solutions of a conflict.                                                 2×1=2

 

  1. Mention any two states that were nearly formed and became part of the state of Yugoslavia after the peace settlement of 1919-1920.                                                 (2mrks)

            –           Bosnia

            –           Herzegovina

–           Matia                                                                                                              2×1=2

 

 

  1. Name the organization that was replaced by the common market for Eastern and southern

            Africa states (COMESA)                                                                                         (1mrk)

  • the preferential trade area (PTA)             1×1=1

 

  1. What is the name of the body that was formed under the anspices of African unity (AU) in

july 2001, in Lwaka Zambia?                                                                                    (1mrk)

–           The partnership for Africa Development (NEPAD)                          1×1=1

 

  1. Besides the province of Katanga, mention any other province that seceded from Congo in 1960.                                                                                                                          1mrk)

–           The province of Kasai.                                                                                   1×1=1

 

 

SECTION B (45 MARKS).

            Answer any three question from this section on the answer booklets provided.

 

  1. a)         E numerate any five reasons why man resorted to the domestication of plants and

                                    Animals.                                                                                                          (5mks)

  • The increase Human population, needed regular food supply Owing the fact that natural environment could not.
  • Climatic changes such as increased drought resulting into aridity, threatened not only plant life but also animals life. Man therefore had to develop an alternative regular source.
  • Competition for food developed among human beings and between animals. The result was inadequate wild food./ over hunting of animals /
  • Hunting and gathering was increasing over large tiresome as people had to wander over large areas to get adequate food.
  • At times, such calamities such as burn fires or floods destroyed vegetation or drove away wild animals.                                                             5×1=5

 

  1. Explain any five effects of the land Enclosure movement on the peasant farmers in

            Britain.                                                                                                           (10mrks)

  • The creation of large farms led to landlessness among the peasant farmers.
  • Peasant farmers sold off their land to the rich farmers because they could not afford to cultivate the land.
  • The land enclosure movement led to displacement of peasant farmers from their land and hence they migrated to towns / caused rural – urban migration/
  • The rural – urban migration of peasant farmers led to overcrowding in urban centres / congestion in urban centres./
  • The land Enclosure movement caused emigrations of the peasants to other countries such as USA, Canada , Australia, Newzland and South Africa.
  • The poor farmer were exploited as they had to sell their labour to to such farmers and to the factories. / Exploitation of the poor peasants labour force./ 5×2=10

 

  1. a) Mention any three contributions of Louis pasteus in the field of medicine.        (3mrks)

–           Discovered that bacteria (microbes) cause disease.

–           Proved that different diseases are caused by different bacteria.

–           He showed   how bacteria enters the body through the air we breathe and through water

and food.

  • He found that heat kills bacteria and could therefore prevent it’s growth.
  • Pasteur discovered that the process of pasteurization of liquid food, such as milk in 1870. pasteurization is a method of food preservation in which the product is heated to and maintained at a certain temperature eg 72°c for milk, specific times before being quickly cool.
  • He also discovered the cures for rabies, anthrax and snake bites.
  • He developed vaccines against small-pox, cholera and anthrax in 1881 and rabies in 1885.

3×1=3

 

  1. b) Explain the various challenges facing industrialization in India             (12mrks)

–           Competition from goods manufactured in the developed countries the developed nations

produce goods of high quality that those manufactured of the Indian industries.

  • High population in India requires the government to spare enough capital to feed the

people. The government spends  a lot of revenue in developing agriculture to feed her people.

  • High poverty levels.i.e Indan population is too poor and do not have adequate purchasing power for her manufactured goods./ the local market is therefore limited /
  • Lack of efficient communication and transportation infrastructure hence poor movement of goods and labour.
  • Natural calamites e.g drought and floods that destroy raw materials for industries.
  • Political conflicts eg with neighbouring Pakistan, and the civil unrest hinders industrial development.                                                             6×2=12

 

  1. a)         Give three ways in which African slaves were particulary attractive to Europeans

                                    during the Trans- Atlantic slave Trade.                                                       (3mrks)

  • They were available in large numbers.
  • They were found to be cheaper to use than Europeans labourers and American Indians.
  • African slaves were thought to be immune to both European and tropical diseases.
  • They appeared more strong and therefore suitable for manual labour. 3×1=3

 

  1. Discuss the profound negative economic effects of the Trans- Atlantic slave Trade on

            the communities of west Africa.                                                                   (12mrks)

  • Introduction of manufactured goods undermined the indigenous industries.
  • Led to the destruction African Indigenous technologies eg young men shipped away

were apprentices on iron smithing and medicine.

  • The enslavement of the people at their prime life meant that labour force needed for agriculture got depleted.
  • The Trans-Atlantic slave Trade led to the decline of Trans- Saharan trade in W.A now turned their attention to the coast as opposed to the Saharan desert.
  • The trade also led to the destruction of African property such as livestock farms, and harms during slave raids.
  • Brought economic disparity among the people of west Africa ie the African leaders
  • Leaders accumulated wealth eg the Asantehene of Asante and king of Dahomey.The economic disparities promoted hatred in w.Africa. / led to the emergence of class society in W.africa./                                                                         6×2=12

 

  1. a)         Outline briefly the hierachy of the French colonial administration in Africa (5mrks)

–           The Eight French colonies in west Africa were grouped into the Federation of French west

Africa (FWA).

  • The federation was governed by a governor- general based in Dakar, in Senegal. The

governor- general was answerable to the French minister for colonies in pairs, France.

  • Below the governor-general were the lieutenant – governors incharge of the constituent

colonies.

  • Each colony was divided into units called – cercles (provinces), each headed by a commandant decercle.
  • A cercle was farther divided into small districts, each headed by a chef de sub – division.
  • Below the chef de sub division were the African chiefs. In charge of Locations (chefs de cantion) and village (chefs de village) who were in charge of sub- locations.

 

 

 

 

 

-minister for colonies (paris)

 

 

-governor-general (in Dakar) –Head of federation.

                                               

– Lieutenant governors for colonies.

 

 

– Commandant de circle charge of circles (provinces)

 

 

-Chefs de sub – division (district)

 

– Chefs de canton (Location).

 

-Chefs de village (sub- location).

 

5×1=5(hierarchy well outlined or structured).

 

  1. b) Explain why the British indirect Rule failed in Southern Nigeria.                          (10mrks)

–         Southern Nigeria had many ethnic groups with diverse political and religious systems and

other cultural differences. It was therefore difficult to unite all of the under one Ruler.

–           The community resisted the powers and authority given the yorruba traditional leaders

(obas) by the Europeans.

–          The Egba community resisted paying taxes that were introduced eg violent riots in 1918

and 1929.

–         The appointment of Igbo leaders by the British without regarding elders legitimacy received

rebellions eg Mission educated young men were appointed to be chiefs against the wishes of

the community elders. / imposition of leaders by the Europeans./

–                       Languages barriers ie the English used by the young – educated leaders against the local

traditional languages brought linguistic problems and unity. Administration become difficult.

–                       In some places where the illiterate traditional leaders were appointed as chiefs attracted resentment from the educated Elites.                                                             5×2=10

 

 

SECTION C (30MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section on the answer booklet provided.

  1. a)       Outline any three roles of the Traditional parliament of the Baganda           (3mrks)

–         Advised the Kabaka on matters affecting the kingdom.

–         Represented the people‘s concern and needs to the Kabaka.

–         Assisted the Kabaka in settling disputes.

–         It directed the collection of taxes and planned for  expenditure of taxes.

–         It helped the Kabaka in general administration.

–         The Lukiko made laws for the Buganda kingdom.                                                      3×1=3

 

  1. b) Describe the social organisation of the shona in the 19th(12mrks)

–         The shona were ruled by a divine king (mwene mtapa)

–         Mwene mtapa was worshiped.

–         Had a religion based on the Mwari cult.

–         Had a supreme creator and supreme Being whom they called Mwari. / They were

monotheistis / existence of one god- mwari.

–         Had priests who led the worship of Mwari / priests offered sacrifices/

–         The Rozwi clan supplied priests for the community.

–         Priests had spiritual powers that enabled the community to dominate other communities in

Rhodesia.

–         Spiritual powers included warding off disease, epidemics and war and rainmaking.

–         Had different types of spirits eg vadzimn or family spirit and Mhondovo clain spirits.

–         Spirits were communicated to through an intermediary ie suikiro (departed family or clan

member)

–         The shona had national spirit known as chamiruka which settled clain disputes and

protected the people against injustices in the government.

–         Had kingship system based on patrilinear system (inheritance from the father)

–         Divided into  clains – who got names from animals eg monkey, leopard, elephant etc

–         Observed taboos eg it was a taboo to consume the meat of such animals where clans names

are.

–          The shona practiced polygamy – ie to have many members for the family

–         They also pracised exogamous marriage ie members married from outside their clan.

–         The shona lived in stone building eg the mapungubwe rains found in Zimbambwe.

6×2=12

 

            23          a)       Name any three Non- Aligned leaders who convened the Bandung conference of April

  1.                           (3mrks)

                          –         Tawahartal Nehrn of India.

–         Surkano of Indonesia.

–         Marhal Tito of Yugoslavia.

–         Gamal Nasser of Egypt.

–         Chon En-lai of China                                                                                                   3×1=3

 

  1. b) Explain any reason why the Allied power won the first world war.                          (12mrks)

–         They had more manpower than the central powers / out- numbered the allied powers.

–         The allied powers had more financial and industrial resources from their colonies and hone.

–         The Allies had powerful weapons that unmatched those of the central powers eg used tanks,

Aircrafts and battleships.

–         The Allies had sea power / their naval power enabled them to blockade the central powers

hence denying them essential supplies as food and war equipment.

–         The Allies had good political leadership eg Loyd georges, the British prime minister and

georges clemenceau, the French  prime minister who were focused and compentent.

–         The Allies were more united under general Foch.

–         The Allies had more trained solders than the central powers eg 1918 Germany lost most of

the troops because they were young and inexperienced.

–         Withdrawal of some contries from the central powers eg Italy and Turkey from the war,

further weakened the central powers.

–         The Allies attracted a longer spectrum of support paticulaly when Germary invaded the

neutral state of Belgium.

–         The entry of the USA into the war on the side of Allies further fatigued the central power and were defeated.                                                                                                          6×2=12.

 

 

 

        24              a)       Outline any five functions of the civil service in the federal government of the united

                                    states America.(USA)                                                                                                 (5MRKS)

–         Implements government policies.

–         Explains and interprets government policies.

–         Helps in the collection of government Revenue.

–         Advises politicians in matters of policy formulation.

–         Provides continuity between the government and the next after general elections.

–         Draws up development plans and government Budget.                                              5×1=5.

 

  1. b) Discuss the various constitutional powers of the president of the government of India

                                    (10mrks)

                          –         Has powers to dissolve the parliament.

–         He has the power to declare a state of emergency in a state and rule that state by Decree.

–         He has the power to assent or veto a Bill. However the veto may be overcome if both

Houses repass the Bill.

–         Nominates 12 members of the upper House (Rajya sabha).

–         He is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

–         He has powers to appoint state governors.

–         He has powers to appoint supreme court Judges.

–         He appoints the prime minister with the advice from the parliament.

–         The president is the major symbol of National unity                                                            5×2=10

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