1. (a) Give one cause of blossom end rot in tomatoes

(b)       State two methods of controlling blossom end rot in

tomatoes                                                                                  (2mks)

  1. State four factors to consider when grading tomatoes for fresh market.




  1. (a) State three advantages of keeping a herd of dairy cattle health.


  1. (a) State two reasons for maintaining livestock in good health. (2mks)

(b) Name two noticeable diseases in cattle. (2mks)

  1. State two ways by which proper feeding contribute to disease control in livestock. (1mk)
  2. Explain measures used to control livestock diseases. (12 marks)
  3. Give four ways in which diseases can spread can spread from one animal to the other within the farm.














  1. (a) Which livestock disease is transmitted by each of the following ticks?


(i)  Blue tick (Boophilous decoloratus)

(ii) Brown ear tick (Rhipicephalous appendicula tus)

(b)       How many hosts does the red-legged tick (Rhipicephalous averts)

require to complete its life cycle? (1mk)

  1. (a) State four signs of infestation by external parasites in livestock? (2mks)
  2. (a) State four signs of infestation by external parasites in livestock? (2mks)

(b)   Name the intermediate host for each of the following internal parasites.


Tape worm (Taenia solium) (ii) Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica)

  1. Describe the life cycle of a three- host tick. (8mks)
  2. State four non-chemical methods of controlling ticks in cattle. (2mks)
  3. Give four measures that should be taken to control tapeworms on the farm.










  1. What is a production ration as used in animal nutrition? (1mk)
  2. Name two groups into which vitamins are classified. (1 mk)
  3. State 3 factors that influence the amount of water intake by a farm

Animal.                                                                       (11/2 mks)

4                     (a)       Differentiate between a roughage and a concentrate feed in animal

nutrition.                                                                     (2mks)

(b)       State three ways in which a production ration may be utilized by

cattle.                                                                          (3 mks)

  1. Give four characteristics of a livestock roughage feedstuff.
  2. Outline four functions of proteins in the body of an animal. (2mks)
  3.             Outline four factors that determine the nutritional requirements in

Cattle                                                                                      (2mks)

  1. Give 4 functions of calcium in dairy cow. (2mks)
  2. State four factors that are considered when formulating a livestock

ration                                                                          (2 marks)

  1.             (a)       Explain the term “production ration” as used in livestock

productions.                                                    (1mk)

  1. b) State four factor which determine the amount of feed an animal

can consume.                                                  (4mks)

  1. State three reasons for feeding livestock. (11/2mks)





  1. (a)       How does crossbreeding improve livestock production.
  2.          State six signs that are likely to be observed when a cow is on heat
  3. State four disadvantages of natural mating as a method of breeding

in dairy cattle management.

  1. Define the term out crossing in animal breeding.
  2. The diagram below shows the reproductive system of a cow. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.







  1. a) i) Name the parts labeled A B and C.
  2. ii)        State the function of each of the parts labeled a and b
  3. b) (i)        Give two methods of mating in cattle

(ii)       How long is the oestrus cycle in cattle?

  1. Explain the term hybrid viqour as used in livestock production.
  2. Describe the factors a farmer should consider when selecting a young

female pig (Guilt) for breeding.

(a)       Define the following terms as used in livestock breeding.

(i)    Inbreeding

(ii)   Out crossing

(b)       Outline three disadvantages of artificial insemination in cattle


(c)       State three desirable characteristics to be considered when selecting a

heifer for milk production.

















  1. Name two kinds of livestock which can be castrated using a rubber ring.
  2. Give four reasons why bees may swarm from a hive.
  3. Below is a diagram of a sheep with some parts labeled A, B, and C. Study

the diagram and answer the questions that follow.









(i)        What operation is usually carried out on the part labeled A during a sheep’s early stages of life?

(ii)       Why is it necessary to carryout the operation in (i) above?

(iii)      At what stage of sheep should the operation in (i) above be carried out?

(iv)      Give two methods of carrying out the operation in (i) above,

(v)       Which operation is usually carried out on part labeled B

(vi)      What problem would occur if the operation in (V) above is not carried out?

(vii)     How should the sheep beheld when shearing wool around part labeled C?

  1. Why should smoke be used during harvesting of honey?
  2. State four reasons for culling breeding sows.
  3. (a) Define the term colostrums.

(c)         Explain three qualities that make colostrums suitable for newly

born calves.

(d)         Give three methods of feeding colostrums to a newly born calf.

  1. Give six signs a cow would show just before parturition.
  2. State four reasons for castrating male piglets.
  3. Give two qualities of creep feed that makes it suitable for piglets.
  4. State two reasons why it is necessary to place sugar syrup close to a


  1. State four routine management practices that should be carried out on a

lactating ewe.

  1. State six management practices in fish rearing.

12                    Give five signs, which indicate that a sow is about to furrow.

  1. State four conditions which would make it necessary to feed bees.
  2. State four management practices that should be carried out during the

mating season in sheep.

  1. Name four species of fresh water fish reared in Kenya.




  1. The diagram below represents a calf pen. Study it to answer the questions

that follow.













(i)        How high should the floor be above the ground level?

(ii)       Why should the floor of the calf pen be raised?

(iii)      Why should the parts of the pen marked p be open?

(iv)      State three factors that should be considered in sitting a calf pen?

2                      State two advantages of using wood in the construction of farm buildings

  1. Describe the construction of a rabbit hutch under the following sub-


  1. Give two reasons for treating timber to the used in construction of farm


  1. State one advantage and one disadvantage of using barbed wire instead of

plain wire for fencing paddocks.

  1. State two functions of ventilation in an animal house.
  2. a)         One of the recommended ratio of mixing ingredients for making

Concrete block is 1:3:4, Name ingredients represented by the

numbers 1, 3 and 4 in the mixture.

  1. b)         If stronger concrete blocks were to be made, name the ingredient

that would be increased.

  1. c) State three properties of concrete that make it suitable for

constructing farm buildings.

  1. d) In addition to concrete, name three other materials that would be

required to construct the floor of milking shed.

  1. State four features of a good maize granary.
  2. State two reasons why maintenance of farm structures is important.
  3. a)         State any four factors that would influence the sitting of a calf pen.
  4. b) State fur factors to consider when selecting materials for

constructing a calf pen.

  1. c) Give four maintenance practices that should be carried out on a

permanent calf pen.

  1. Give two practices, other than use of preservatives, that can be carried

out on wooden fencing posts to make them last long.

  1. State six features of an ideal calf pen.
  2. Outline any four maintenance practices that should be carried out in a deep

litter poultry house.

  1. Give two advantages of concrete blocks over timber as building materials.
  2. a)         State the uses of fences in farms.
  3.    b)         What factors would be considered when sitting a farm structures.
  4. a)         State four advantages of a hedge in a farm.
  5.            State four advantages of using a Kenya Top Bar Hive over log hive.
  6.           Outline two routine maintenance practices carried out on water tanks.
  7. a)         Explain the uses of various hand tools in the construction a Kenya

Top Bar Hive

  1. b)        Describe the procedure of erecting wooden posts for fencing.
  2. State three disadvantages of using steel in construction of farm buildings.















  1.            Give one way through which check dams control soil erosion.
  2.           State two ways by which trees help in soil conservation.
  3. State two reasons for carrying out soil conservation in a farm.
  4. State two ways by which grass cover help to conserve soil.
  5. State two ways by which inorganic mulch help to conserve water in the


  1. Define the terms;
  2. a) Forestation
  3. b) Re-a forestation
  4. Outline three factors, which may influence soil erosion.














  1. State four reasons why timely weed control is advisable in crop


  1. Give four ways of controlling weeds in a maize field. (2mks)
  2. PP2: Diagram & and H show weeds.
  3. i) Identify the weeds.     (2mks)
  4. ii) State the economic importance of the weed shown in diagram G


iii)       Why is it difficult to control weed in diagram G? (1mk)

  1. State six disadvantages of weeds in crop production (3mks)

5                     (i)        State four factors that contribute to the competitive ability of

weeds. (2mks)

  1. The diagram below represents a weed.








  1. i) Identify the weed (1/2 mrks)
  2. ii) Classify the weed according to its life span. (1/2 mark)

iii)       State one harmful effect of the weed to livestock. (1mk)

























  1. State four disadvantages of communal land tenure system.
  2. Give two ways in which land consolidation helps to improve farm


  1. State four objectives of land settlement which have been undertaken in


  1. Give two forms of collective land tenure system in


















  1. PP2

Below is a diagram of a bird labeled A. Which is a crop pest?











  1. i) Identify the pest
  2. ii) State two ways by which the bird causes loss in crops.

iii)       State four methods, which are used to control the pests.

  1. The diagram labeled D below shows a Kale crop invested by a pest


  1. i) Identify the pest.
  2. ii) What damage does the pest cause the crop?

iii)       State two methods of controlling the pest

  1. Give two methods of controlling the pest?
  2. State two cultural methods of controlling bollworms in a crop of cotton.
  3. Give two ways of controlling bacteria blight in cotton.
  4. State four factors that affect the effectiveness of a pesticide.
  5. a)         State two feeding habits of field insect pests.
  6.   b)         State two cultural methods of pest control in stored grains.
  7. Explain how various practices carried out in the field help to

control crop diseases.

  1. State three cultural ways of controlling nematodes in a field of bananas.
  2. a)         Define the term” Economic Injury Level” of a crop.
  3. b) Give two ways by which pesticides kills crop pests.
  4. c) State four disadvantages of chemical pest control in crop


  1. Give three harmful effects of pests in crop production
  2. State two cultural methods in controlling bollworms in a tomato crop.
  3. Give two possible causes of swelling on the roots of bean plants.









  1. Name two field pests and two diseases of millet.
  2. Why is it advisable to apply a straight nitrogenous fertilizer to a crop of

maize at a height of 30 – 45cm.

  1. Which disease causes a mass of dark spores on the flowering parts of


  1. State any four non – chemical methods of controlling storages

pests in a maize granary.

  1. List four insect pests of maize in storage.
  2. PP2 The diagram below labeled G, H, J and K shows different

stages of cotton fruit.












  1. i) Rearrange the label G, H, J, and K to show the correct sequence in

which the cotton fruit develops.

  1. ii) What would be the effect of attack by cotton boll worms at

the stage labeled K?

iii)       State two conditions that should be observed when harvesting to

ensure that cotton picked is of high quality.

  1. iv) Name the two products which are obtained after processing cotton.
  2. State four practices used to control maize streak in the field.
  3. i) State tow cultural methods of controlling pests in an

established field of sorghum.

  1. ii) List any four insect pests that attack maize in the field.
  2. Give four ways of controlling weeds in a field of maize.
  3. Give four control measures pf maize steak virus.












  1. State two advantages of establishing a mixed grass legume pasture

instead of planting a pure grass pasture.

  1. Give two disadvantages of overstocking in cattle production.
  2. State two roles of additives in silage making.
  3. a) Define the following term, (i) Under sowing (ii) Over sowing
  4. b) State three methods of controlling weeds in a pure grass pasture.
  5. c) Give three benefits of top dressing in the management

of grass pastures.

  1. State four ways by which a farmer can make efficient use of

a pasture crop.

  1. Give four factors that determined the nutrient content of hay.
  2. State four advantages of under sowing in pasture production
  3. Describe field production of Napier elephant grass under the

following sub-headings.

  1. i) Seedbed preparation
  2. ii) Planting

iii)       Fertilizer application

  1. iv) Weed control
  2. v) Utilization
  3. (a) List three pasture legumes grown in medium altitude zones.

(b)       Give three advantages of rotational grazing.

(c)       State three ways by which overheating can be prevented in

the process of making silage.

  1. State two advantages of proper stocking pasture management.
  2. Explain the following terms as used in pasture establishment.
  3. a) Seed Inoculation
  4. b) Over sowing



















  1. 1. List six routes through which pathogens can enter the body of an animal.
  2. State two methods of controlling rinder pest disease in cattle.
  3. Give four symptoms of Newcastle disease in poultry.
  4. State four predisposing factors to the occurrence of mastitis in dairy cattle.
  5. State any three symptoms of mastitis in dairy cattle.
  6. Name two notifiable diseases in cattle.
  7. State two measures that should be taken to prevent an outbreak

of Newcastle disease in poultry.

  1. PP2: The diagram below shows the head of a chicken having

symptoms of a poultry disease.

  1. i) Identify the disease
  2. ii) Give two reasons why the disease is of economic importance

to the farmer.

iii)       State any tow methods of controlling the disease.

  1. State four symptoms of foot rot in sheep.
  2. Name the causal agents for each of the following disease,
  3. i) Coccidiosis
  4. ii) Black quarter
  5. i) State two predisposing factors of foot rot in sheep.
  6. ii) Give three symptoms of anaplasmosis disease.
  7. Explain measures used to control livestock diseases. (12mks)
  8. Give two signs that would indicate that a cow has died of anthrax.
  9. a) Name the causal organism of brucellosis in cows    (1mks)
  10. b) Give two symptoms of brucellosis in cows.
  11. c) State four measures that should be taken to control brucellosis

in cattle.

  1. Give three methods of controlling rinderpest in cattle.
  2. Mention four symptoms of East Coast Fever in cattle.
  3. a) State the cause of milk fever in dairy cows.              (1mks)
  4. b) Give four symptoms of milk fever in dairy cows.
  5. c) State two methods of controlling milk fever.
















  1. Give three methods of controlling cannibalism in a flock of layers

in deep litter system.

  1. List four factors that should be considered when grading eggs

for marketing.

  1. a) Describe the artificial rearing of layer chicks from day old

up to the end of brooding.

  1. b) Describe the characteristics of a poor layer, which should be

considered during culling

  1. Outline any four maintenance practices, which should be carried out

in a deep litter poultry house.                                                                        (2mks)

  1. Give four conditions that reduce the quality of eggs for hatching. (2mks)
  2. Give four measures that can control egg eating by hens in a deep

litter system                                                                                        (2mks)

  1. a) State four observations on the behaviour of chicks which would

indicate that the temperature of a brooder is too high.         (4mks)

  1. b) Give four advantages of deep litter system of poultry keeping.


  1. List six qualities of eggs suitable for incubation (3mks)
  2. Describe the steps to be taken in maintaining hygiene in a

deep litter poultry house.                                                                   (5mks)





  1. (a) The diagram below is a cross section of part of a cows adder








Label on the diagram the parts marked k, I, m and n.                       (2mks)

(b)       i)         What is milk let down?                                              (1mk)

  1.        ii)        Which hormone stimulates milk let down.               (1mk)

(c)       State three practices which are carried out to control mastitis

in lactating cows.

  1. Describe the management of a dairy heifer calf from birth until

it is mature for first service.                                                  (20mks)

  1. a) Name any two characteristics of good quality whole milk. (1mk)
  2. b) State three advantages of artificial calf rearing.                   (3mks)
  3. State four qualities of clean milk. (2mks)
  4. a) Define the term colostrums                                                   (1mk)
  5. b) Explain three qualities that make colostrums suitable for newly

born calves.                                                                            (3mks)

  1. c) Give two methods if feeding colostrums to a newly born calf.


  1. State any six practices that would ensure clean milk production     (3mks)
  2.            State six marketing problems affecting dairy farming in Kenya.     (3mks)
  3. Describe the management of a dairy calf using artificial rearing method

from birth to weaning                                                            (20mks)



















  1. (a) States four advantages of farm mechanization                     (2mks)

(b)       Give the functions of each of the following parts of a mould board

plough.                                                                                    (4mks)

(i)        Mould board   (ii)       Share

(iii)      Frog                (iv)      Landslide.

(c)       Give two daily maintenance practices that should be carried out on

a mould board plough.                                                           (2mks)

  1. The diagram below is a tractor drawn implant hitched at the rear of the








(i)        Identify the implement                                                           (1mk)

(ii)       What is the method of power transmission for operating the

implement?                                                                             (1mk)

(iii)      State three maintenance practices that should be carried out on the

implement.                                                                             (3mks)

  1. a) Compare the use of an ox-drawn mould board plough with that of a

tractor-drawn mould board plough.                                       (9mks)

  1. b) Describe the maintenance practices that should be carried out on an

ox-drawn mould board plough                                               (6mks)

  1. c) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using tractor hire

service farming instead of owning and using your own tractors.


  1. a)         State two reasons of applying oil and grease on a rotary mower.


  1. b) State four maintenance practices required on a rotary mower

besides oiling and greasing.                                                            (2mks)

  1. c) State four factors that a farmer should consider before buying a

tractor for use as the source of power on the farm.               (2mks)

  1. a) Give two uses of ox –drawn harrow                                      (2mks)
  2. b) Give two maintenance practices of a ox-drawn tine harrow. (2mks)
  3. c)         State two advantages of an ox- drawn harrow over tractor-drawn

harrow.                                                                                    (2mks)

  1. Out line four maintenance practices of a disc harrow.          (2mks)
  2. a) State one method of increasing ploughing depth when using a disc

plough.                                                                                    (1mk)

  1. b) State two reasons for maintaining a disc plough,                  (2mks)
  2. c) State three advantages of farm mechanization.                     (3mks)
  3. a) State two functions of a coulter in a mould board plough.   (2mks)
  4. b)        Give three maintenance practices carried out on an 0x-drawn

trailer.                                                                                     (3mks)

  1. a) State two problems associated with tractor hire service that farmers

encounter.                                                                               (1mk)

  1. b) List four implements used to carry out secondary cultivation.


  1. a) State one condition under which a farmer would prefer to use an

ox-cart instead of a tractor-drawn trailer.

  1. b) Give three maintenance practices carried out on an ox-plough.





















  1. This is a system of farming in which one crop is grown in large scale.
  2. Characteristics of shifting cultivation.
  • When fertility of the soil goes down crops are not grown again until fertility is restored.
  • Plenty of land is available to the farming community
  • Practicable with annual crops not with the perennials.
  • Agricultural output from the whole system is low / subsistence production.
  • Input such as pesticides, fungicides, fertilizers are rarely used / build up of pests and diseases is avoided by periodic movements to the new lands.
  • Use of simple hand tools.
  • It is a source of food for the population.
  • Earns foreign exchange for the country
  • Provides market industrial goods.
  • Farmers earn a lot of income
  • Provides employment both directly and indirectly.


  • Providing market for industrial goods.
  • Providing raw materials that are used in industries.
  1. Limitations of pastoral farming
  • Drought and aridity Diseases and parasites.
  • Diseases and parasites
  • Attack by wild animal
  • Soil erosion due to over stocking
  • Poor pastures species
  • Inadequate land/over population.
  • Low production
  • Uncontrolled mating
  • Difficult to control parasites and diseases
  • Leads to overgrazing hence soil erosion.












  • Temperature/altitude
  • Prevailing winds
  • Soil types
  • Rainfall
  • Cause physical damage / breakages to crops (accept any physical damage)
  • Causes water stress / increases rate of transpiration in crops.
  • Spread crop pests, diseases and weeds.
  • Can cause stress to crops due to chilling caused by cold air.
  • Cause soil erosion leading to loss of soil fertility.
  • Encourage transpiration hence water and mineral uptake.


  • Rainfall intensity
  • Rainfall reliability
  • Rainfall distribution
  • Rainfall amount



  • Poor soil fertility due to lack of manure and fertilizer application.
  • Less rainfall/unreliable rainfall/too much rainfall.
  • Poor soil type leading to water logging or excess leaching.
  • Inappropriate pH/poor soil pH.
  • Pest attack
  • Poor weed control leading to competition.
  • Too high or low temperature / inappropriate temperature.
  • Excess wind that increase evapotranspiration/lodging of crop/floral abortion.
  • Inappropriate humidity, either too high or too low.
  • Extreme light intensity that may reduce photosynthesis / exhaustion of nutrients.
  • Inappropriate topography that may limit crop growth.
  • Hailstorm damage.
  • Decompose organic matter.
  • Help to aerate the soil
  • Atmospheric Nitrogen to nitrates.
  • Upon death and decay release plant nutrients.
  • Ploughing at the same depth season after season
  • Use of heavy machinery on wet soil.
  1. a)
  • Physical weathering
  • Biological weathering
  • Chemical weathering
  1. b)
  • Soil texture is the relative proportion of the different sized particles in the soil;
  • Soil structure is the genera appearance of the soil in relation to the arrangement of the individual soil particles.


  1. c)
  • Allows proper infiltration/drainage of water
  • Has good aeration.
  • It is not easily eroded.


  • Light intensity.
  • Light wavelength
  • Light duration / photosynthesis


  1. i) Capillarity in the three different soil samples.
  2. ii) G – Sandy soil

H – Loam soil

J – Clay soil

iii)       G – Rough and coarse texture

J – Fine textured

  1. iv) Addition of organic manure – Addition of lime
  2. a) Why soil is important to crops.
  • Supports plant life anchorage.
  • Provides nutrients and water
  • Contains organic matter, food for micro – organism
  1. b) Benefits of optimum soil temperature.
  • Increase the rate of bio chemical reactions hence breakdown of materials to form organic matter i.e. for every 10oC rate doubles.
  • Activates soil micro – organism especially the useful bacteria for nitrogen fixation,
  • Ensures maximum activities for bio chemical enzymatic reactions that bring about growth e.g. germination process.
  1. c) Factors of soil which influence soil productivity.
  • Good supply of plant nutrients and oxygen.
  • Good depth
  • Good drainage
  • Abundance of useful soil and organism
  • Adequate water retention.
  • Freedom from plant pests and disease causing agents.
  • Provide anchorage to crop roots
  • Provide nutrients to crops
  • Provide water to crops
  • Hold air/oxygen for crop growth.
  1. a)
  • Good aeration is necessary for root respiration.
  • Suitable for microbial activity
  • Easy to work on.
  • Raises soil temperature
  • Removes toxic substances e.g. sodium, iron and magnesium salts.


  • Enhance seed germination
  • Enhances plant growth.
  • Enhance soil microbial activities
  • Improves quality of crops e.g. Tea, pineapples.


  • Soil depth / drainage / aeration
  • Water holding capacity
  • Level of nutrients / cation exchange
  • Soil pH/ Soil borne – pests and diseases.
  • Improves soil structure
  • Reduces leading.
  • Improves water holding capacity
  • Increase cation exchange capacity
  • Improve nutrient status upon decomposition
  • Moderate soil temperature. Butter the soil pH.























  1. i)         – Riveting / flattening metal sheets / driving cold chisel
  2. ii) – Breaking / crushing hardcore / big stones

–  Driving wedges into wood.

    • N I – pipe wrench
    • N II – Adjustable spanner
    • N III – Ring spanner
  1. i) Holds different sizes of nuts and bolts.
  2. ii) NI is used for holding pipes during plumbing work.

iii)       Maintenance of NI – Lubrication of adjustable screw.

  1. a) i)  1 – Disc harrow

2 – Disc plough

  1. ii) Secondary cultivation / Harrowing
  2. b) i)  2 (Disc plough)
  3. ii) It is able to fide over obstacles, bouncing on its springs.
  4. i)   Smoothing rounded/curved edges of timber.
  5. ii)  To check verticalness of an upright object.
  6. Hacksaw / pipe cutter.
  • Cleaning it after use.
  • Lubricating the adjustment screw.
  • Sharpening the plane iron / blade
  • Tightening loose screws and nuts.
  • Proper storage
  • Replacing the broken parts.
  • Spirit level/trowel/float.
  • Plumb bob/plumb line.
  • Mason’s square/tape measure.
  • String/line/mason’s hammer
  • Mason’s chisel/bolster.
  1. (a)
  • A tenon saw is shorter
  • A tenon saw has a rigid flame at the back
  • Unlike a cross cut saw.
  • A tenon saw has more teeth per unit length
  • Than a cross cut saw.
  • A tenon saw is used in joinery work while the cross cut saw cuts wood across the grains.


  • Hold the work firmly.
  • Ensure the saw is in good working condition / straight blade / sharp teeth / well set teeth/firm handle.


  • proper storage after use
  • Oil the blade to avoid rusting
  • Sharpen the teeth
  • Set the teeth properly
  • Tighten the handle screws if loose / replace broken handle.
  • Soil type/ hardness of the soil
  • Vegetation covers of the field.
  • Cost of the tool. Skills required
  • Availability of the tool
  • Availability of capital
  1. When to use a Jembe and not a disc plough.
  • When the land is very steep.
  • Lack Technical skills in operation of disc plough
  • When size of land is too small
  • When capital is inadequate to acquire a disc plough.
  • When it is cost effective to use a Jembe.
  • When disc plough is not available.
  • When inadequate time is available
  • When land is rocky / stony.
  1. a)
  2. i) – Pruning / cutting crops

– Harvesting rice / grasses

  1. ii) Pruning

– Cutting vegetative materials for planting / harvesting flowers.


  • To avoid injury to the user.
  • To reduce repair / replacement cost
  • To increase their durability / life span
  • To make them more efficient.


  • Soil type/hardness of soil.
  • Vegetation cover of the field
  • Cost of the tool
  • Skill required / availability of the tool
  • Availability of capital.
  1. (i)

L – Monkey strainer / wire strainer.

M – Sash clamp

N – Dibber

O – Spoke


L – Touting fencing wire during fencing.

M – Holding pieces of timber together when joining them together. i

N – Making holes for transplanting. J

O – Smoothing curved/round edges of timber.

  1. Tools used.
  1. Monkey strainer/wire strainer.
  2. Steel/wood float
  • Drenching gun.
  1. Butter churner.
    • Hand saw/bow saw.
    • Claw hammer/plumb bob
    • Hole digger/soil anger/panga.
    • Ramming rod/builders trowel.
    • Soil scoop/spade/shovel.
    • Tape measure/mallet/garden line.
  1. (a) M – Sickle

N – Pruning saw

P – Float

Q – Garden trowel.

(b)       M – Harvesting rice/grasses

N – Pruning/cutting stems/branches in crops e.g. coffee citrus.

P – Spreading screed on concrete floors/wall

Q – Transplanting seedlings




  • To kill the weeds
  • Bury crop residues/organic matter into the soil
  • Loosen up the soil/facilitate rainfall infiltration/improve aeration/easy penetration of roots.
  • Control soil borne pests/diseases by destroying their life cycles.
  • Make subsequent operations easier.
  1. (ii)
  • Clean after use.
  • Hammer bent share
  • Replace worn out parts e.g. hooks, share.
  • Check, tighten loose nuts and belts during the day’s work
  • Oil shiny parts e.g. mould board, if of use.
  • Paint metallic parts e.g. handle, beam and braces, to prevent rusting.
  • Store properly in a shed.
  • To kill weeds
  • To bury organic matter/crop residual into the soil
  • To loosen up the soil/improve aeration/improve water infiltration/improve root penetration. To control soil borne pests/diseases.
  • To make subsequent operations easier.
  • Type of crop/rooting system of crop to be grown.
  • Type of implement available.
  • Type of soil.
  • Soil moisture content at ploughing time
  • Presence of certain weeds e.g. cough grass.
  • Source of power.
  • When the land steep
  • Lack of skill to operate the disc plough
  • When capital is inadequate to acquire disc plough
  • When it is cost effective to use a jembe
  • When there is adequate time.
  • Where the land is rocky/stony.
  1. (a)
  • Kills soil organisms.
  • Leads to loss of nutrients.
  • Destroys soil organic matter.
  • Leads to accumulation of some nutrients to toxic levels e.g. potassium.


  • Control weeds/control pests and diseases
  • Incorporate organic matter in the soil
  • Improve soil physical conditions/attain appropriate tilt
  • To make seedbed appropriate for growing certain crops e.g. in ridging.


  • Saves time/reduce cost of production.
  • Maintain soil structure
  • Minimizes soil erosion.
  • Minimizes root/tubers disturbance.
  • Less laborious/conserves soil moisture.
  •  Use of heavy machinery/implements when soil is wet.
  • Continuous shallow cultivation.
  1. Maintenance practices of a plough
  • Cleaning after work
  • Storing under shed
  • Tightening loose nuts and bolts
  • Replacing worn out parts/ repair broken parts.
  • Greasing moving / rotating parts
  • Oiling / painting for long storage.
  1. Destroy soil organisms
  • Loss of soil nutrients / loss of soil fertility.
  • Accumulation of some nutrients to toxic level e.g. potash.
  • Destruction of organic matter by oxidation / burning.
  1. Reasons for secondary cultivation
  • Control weeds
  • Control pests and diseases
  • Incorporates organic matter in the soil
  • Improves physical condition / form required tilth
  • Make appropriate tilth for planting certain crops e.g. ridging, rolling. leveling.
  1. Benefits of minimum tillage
  • Saves time and costs of production.
  • Maintains soil structure
  • Minimizes soil erosion.
  • Less laborious
  • Conserves moisture
  • Minimizes root damage.
  1. i)
  • Cost / expenses / when distance is short
  • Availability of skilled worker.
  • Disc harrow / rotavators
  • Spring tine harrow / rigid tine harrow / ox – tine harrow.
  • Spike toothed / peg – toothed harrow
  • Chain harrow / zigzag harrow
  1. Application of herbicides.
  • Use of mulch / timely cultivation
  • Use of cover crops
  • Uprooting / slashing / grazing to control weeds




  • Transporting in containers.
  • Piping / use of channels.
  1. Dams/ ponds, Tanks / containers
  • Draining the land / Any method of drainage.
  • Growing water tolerant crop e.g. rice
  • Ridging / making furrows.
  • Boiling water / filtration
  • Use or chemicals / chlorination / alum / soda ash
  • Aeration of water / sedimentation.
  1. a) Dams / weirs tanks / containers


  • Piping  / use of pipes
  • Use of channels
  • Use of containers by vehicles , animals
  • Centrifugal / rotor dynamic pump.
  • Reciprocating / piston pump
  • Semi – rotary pump
  • Hydram pump / hydraulic ram.
  • Rotary pump / hydraulic ram.
  • Quantity of the material / durability.
  • Size of the pipe / diameter / length
  • Working pressure / thickness of the wail.
  • Colour of the pipe of the pipe.
  1. a)
  • Type of soil
  • Type of crop to be grown
  • Source of water / quality of water
  • Size of land to be irrigated
  • Capital available / topography of land
  • Profitability / viability of the enterprise.


  • Water is evenly distributed over the required area
  • Less water is used / it more water economical.
  • Causes less soil erosion in sloppy areas compared to surface irrigation
  • Leveling of land is not necessary
  • Help to clean the plant for ease of transpiration / photosynthesis.
  • Soluble fertilizers can be applied with irrigation water more easily than in surface irrigation.


  • Use of sprinkler
  • Use of hose pipes
  • Use of watering cans.
  • Quality of material used for making the pipes / durability / resistance to rodent attack.
  • Size of pipes i.e. diameter / length.
  • Working pressure of the pipe / thickness of the pipe wall.
  • Colour of the pipe.
  • Centrifugal motor dynamic pumps
  • Piston / reciprocating pump
  • Semi rotary/Hydram
  • Rotary pump.
  1. Uses of water
  • For diluting / mixing chemicals used to control pests, diseases, weeds for watering livestock e.g. drinking.
  • Watering plants e.g. irrigation
  • In processing farm produce e.g. coffee, carrot hides.
  • Domestic use e.g. drinking cooking
  • For rearing fish.
  • Mixing concrete in construction
  • Recreation e.g. swimming pooling.
  • Cooking and running machine engines water treatment plant and process.
  1. a)
  • To remove bad smell/taste from water thus makes it fit for human consumption.
  • To kill disease causing organism that thrive in dirty water.
  • To remove solid particles/impurities.
  • To remove excess chemicals e.g. fluorine/that may cause hardness in water.


  • For diluting/mixing chemicals e.g. pesticides.
  • Acaricides, herbicides, fungicides.
  • For watering livestock.
  • For irrigation/watering crops.
  • For processing farm produce e.g. hides, coffee, carrots.
  • For washing farm tools equipment and farm structures e.g. animal houses.
  • For domestic use e.g. cooking, drinking, sewerage disposal.
  • For rearing fish.
  • Mixing concrete/mortar in construction.
  • Recreation purposes e.g. swimming pools.
  • For cooling/running machines


Stage I: Filtration at intake:       Water is made to pass through a series of sieves.

Sieves trap large solid impurities.

Stage II softening of water         Soda ash (sodium hydrogen carbonate is added into

the water).

Stage II coagulation and sedimentation             Alum/aluminum sulphate is added into the water. Alum facilitates coagulation and sedimentation of solid.

      Stage iv , filtration           Water is passed through a filtration tank, that removes all

solid impurities.

State v; chlorination        Small amounts of chlorine solution is added to the water chlorine kills pathogens disease causing organisms.

Stage vi storage                Treated water is stored in clean tanks before use/distribution.

  • Size of the farm
  • Type of enterprises in the farm
  • Source of water
  • Method of conveyance of water
  • It is water economical
  • Can use water under low pressure
  • Does not encourage fungal diseases
  • Discourage growth of weeds between the  crop rows
  • Repair/ replace  worn out parts
  • Regular cleaning
  • Regular painting to prevent rusting
  1. The water treatment process

Stage 1.          Filtration of an intake

Water is made to pass through a series of sieves where large particles of impurities are trapped

Stage 2           Softening of water

Water is let to circulate in a tank (open) and mixed with soda ash to soften it

Stage 3           Coagulation and sedimentation

Alum is added to water to facilitate sedimentation and coagulation. Water stays here for 36 hours


Stage 4           Filtration

Water passes into infiltration tank where all the remaining solid  particles are removed.

Stage 5           Chlorination

Filtered water enters chlorination tank where a small amount of chlorine is added to kill disease agents.

Stage 6.          Storage

Treated water is stored  before entering  distribution channels for use.

  • Furrow irrigation/ corrugate irrigation
  • Basin irrigation/ flood irrigation
    • Open ditches
  • Underground perforated pipes
  • French drains
  • Cambered beds/ pumping water
  • Breaking hard pans/ sub- soiling


  1. (a) Dams/ weirs/ streams/ river ponds/ lakes



  • Kill pathogens
  • Remove sediments
  • Remove bad smell/ taste
  • Remove chemical impurities


  1. Reasons for water treatment
  • To remove  bad smell  and taste
  • To kill harmful micro-organisms which thrive in dirty water e.g. bacteria.
  • To remove  solid  particles e.g. soil, sand sticks
  •  To remove excess chemical impurities e.g. fluorides  to soften water


  1. Benefits of farm yard manure
  • Improves  soil structure/ water holding capacity
  • Supplies more than  one  plant nutrient
  • Longer residual effect
  • Promotes microbial activities in the soil
  • Locally  available
  • Imparts a dark  colour to the soil  which  help in temperature  regulation
  • Buffers soil PH/ improves cation exchange capacity



  • Ability of a soil to produce  and  sustain high crop yields continuously by providing adequate moisture, nutrients, oxygen, space and freedom  from pests  and diseases damage.



  • Adequate depth
  • Enough aeration
  • Adequate  moisture
  • Sufficient  nutrients
  • Freedom from  pests and  diseases



  1. (a)


  • Foundation materials e.g. maize  stalks accept material that occur in abundance
  • Kitchen refuse, leaves
  • Farm yard manure/ any well rotten manure
  • Ash/ pottesic  fertilizer
  • Top soil
  • Leaves cover/ trash

(ii) Importance

  • Provide source of micro- organism
  • Enrich the manure with K and P.3
  • Provide food for  micro- organism that bring about decay


(b) (i) Sharp  pointed stick checks the  temperature of the  manure  during its formation to avoid over heating

(ii)       Prevent entry of too much water causing water logging, poor decomposition and  leaching of nutrients.


  1. (a)

(i)        A- Pit method

B- Heap system


  • Drainage/ free draining soils on site
  • Type of soil
  • Topography/ slope should be gentle


A crop is grown and then ploughed and incorporated into the  soil while it is still green


  1. (a)
  • Farm yard manure (FYM) improves soil structure/ improves soils water holding capacity.
  • Supplies a variety  of plant nutrients
  • Has a longer residual effect
  • Promotes microbial activities in the soil
  • It is locally/ easily available
  • Moderates the  soil pH/ increases cation exchange capacity



  • Species  of animal from which the waste is  collected
  • Food material eaten by the  animal
  • Material used as bedding
  • Method of storage  of the FYM
  • Age of  the animal  which  produces the waste matter
  • Age of the farm yard manure.



  • It is bulky hence difficult to apply/ laborious/ difficult to store/ handle
  • It has  less nutrients  per given  volume
  • May spread  weed seeds
  • May spread crop diseases e.g.  black scurf in potatoes
  • Releases nutrients slowly


  • Leaching/ soil erosion
  • Plant uptake
  • Volatilization/ burning/ denitrification


  • Leaching/ soil  erosion
  • Change of soil pH
  • Burning of land/ volatilization/ denitrification/ accumulation of salts
  • Fixation of  nutrients/ nitrogen lock up
  • Uptake  by plants/ weeds/ continuous  cropping
  • Soil capping/ formation  of hard  pan
  • Presence of  soil – borne  pests/ monocropping


  • Rapid growth rate
  • Production  of abundant foliage
  • Rich  in plant nutrients/ leguminous/ rich in nitrogen
  • Ability to decay quickly
  • Adaptable to wide range of conditions/ hardy.


  • Method  of storage
  • Degree  of decomposition
  • Type  of  organic  matter used
  • Presence/ absence  of non – biodegradable materials
  • Amount and type of inorganic fertilizers added.


  • Appropriate depth
  • Proper drainage/ good  water  infiltration
  • Well aerated/ good water holding capacity
  • Adequate nutrients/ correct  pH
  • Free from excessive infestation of soil borne pests and diseases.


  • Cultivation along the slopes/ across  contours/ along river banks
  • Continuous cropping with annual crops
  • Pulverization of soil  due to over- cultivation
  • Burning of vegetation/ overgrazing


  • Improves soil structure
  • Reduces  leaching
  • Improves water holding capacity
  • Increases microbial activities
  • Increases cation  exchange capacity
  • Improves nutrient  status upon decomposition
  • Burning of vegetation/ overgrazing













(i) Dromedary camelus dromedaries

  • Can stay for long  periods without water
  • Can  with stand extremes of temperature
  • Able to eat dry feeds
  • It has thick hide and deep  layer of subcutaneous which  insulates  in against effect of radiant  heat
  • Feet  have  large surface area  which  enable it walk  on sand without sinking


(iii)      Characteristics of indigenous cattle

  • More resistant to tick borne diseases/ trop diseases
  • Can withstand  high temperatures
  • Can survive  on poor  quality  pastures
  • Can walk long distance in search of pasture and water
  • Have lower feed and water intake


(iv)      Features of exotic beef cattle

  • Blocky/ square/ rectangular in shape
  • Low set/ short  legs
  • A fleshy body
  • Thick neck
  • Smaller udders
  1. (i) Jersey verses Friesian
  • Jersey requires less food.
  • Jersey are more tolerant to heat.
  • Jersey can survive on poorer pastures.
  1. Characteristics of goats that adopt them rid areas
  • Good foragers hence survive on poor pastures.
  • Ability to eat dry feeds
  • Heat tolerant tissues.

iii.   Ways of improving indigenous cattle production.

  • Cross breeding with exotic breeds with superior characteristics.
  • Supplementary feeding.
  • Proper control/prevention of livestock diseases.
  • (i) Jersey
    • Friesian
    • Are more resistant to tick-borne diseases/tropical diseases.
    • Can withstand high temperature.
    • Can survive on poor quality pastures
    • Can walk for long distances in search of pasture and water.
    • HAVE lower feed and water requirement.
    • Layers/Broilers/Dual purpose




  1. The four types of records that a farmer should keep
    • Field operations records.
    • Production records
    • Consumable goods inventory.
    • Permanent goods inventory.
    • If there is no inventory records.
    • Market records
    • Labour records
    • Breeding records.
    • Breeding records
    • Benefits of labour
  2. Reasons for keeping health record
    • For use in selection and culling of animals on health grounds.
    • Help to detect theft on the farm
    • Help in planning and making sound decision
    • Provide information for income tax assessment
    • Help to determine how creditworthy is a farmer.
    • Shows the assets and liabilities of the farmer
    • Determine the value of the farms.
    • Used in comparing performance between’ enterprises/seasons/different farms.
    • Help to solve disputes on the farm.
    • Provide a history of the farm
    • Help to determine terminal help trace history of diseases for better approach in treatment.
    • Show when to vaccinate, deworm.
    • Show costs on health of the animals in assessing/no fat ability of animals.

       3: Conditions under which opportunity cost is zero

Where there are no alternative enterprises to choose from/competing for resources available

This is the value of foregone best alternative/choice. When resources are free/unlimited.

  1. If there is no choice. When resources are free/unlimited.












They are highly soluble water/ easily leached/ no residual

Have a scorching/ burning effect on crops

They are highly volatile

5 kg of K2o is contained ii 100kg of 25: 10:5


Therefore 400kg of fertilizer contains 400×5=20kg


Help in Carbohydrate formation and translocation/plays role in plant metabolism

Assists in uptake on Nitrates from the soil

Imparts diseases resistance to crops

Strengthens straws of cereals

Formation of chlorophyll

Help neutralization of organic acids in plants.

  • Lodging in crops/ weak sterns
  • Scorching of leaf tips and margins.
  • Premature leaf fall.
  • Mottling/brownish spots on leaves
  • Stunted growth.
  • Leaching
  • Plant uptake.
  • Volatilization/burning
  1. (a)
      • Needed in protein synthesis.
      • Hastens vegetative growth in crops.
      • A constituent of the chlorophyll molecule
      • Increases the size of cereal grain
      • Regulates the availability of phosphorous and potassium.
      • Improves succulence in crops.



  • Chlorosis of leaves
  • Stunted growth.
  • Premature ripening of crops.
  • Premature leaf fall
  • Formation of purple pigments.
  • Lodging? Weak stems? over succulence of stems
  • Scorching of leaves
  • Delayed maturity.
  • Excessive foliage growth.
  • Cause blossom end rot in tomatoes
  • Amino acids/protein synthesis
  • Increase oil content and hormones
  • Needed in formation of chlorophyll.
  • Aid in Nitrogen fixation in legumes
  • Needed in carbohydrates metabolism.

Leave have purple pigmentation

Stunted growth

Poor root development

Lodging/weak stems in cereals

Poor seed and fruit formation

  • Broadcasting
  • Foliar application
  • Side/row/basal application
  • Fertigation
  • Hole placement/drilling
  1. a)

Macro nutrients are required by the plants in relatively large quantities, but macro nutrients are required in small quantities


  • Elongation of apices of roots and shoot,
  • Strengthens plant cell wall
  • Help in protein formation
  • Help in formation of the middle lamella
  • Used in cell division

































    • Early maturity of the crop
    • Plant assumes desired shape and size.
    • Possible to obtain two or more varieties of oranges on one root stock
    • Highly yielding.
    • Maintains parental genetic characteristics.
    • Possible to propagate seedless e.g orange varieties.
  2.  (a)
    • Seed economical
    • Easy to achieve correct spacing
    • Make subsequent operations easy


  • To obtain optimum plant population/efficient land use.
  • Avoid competition for resources.
  • Control spread of pests and diseases.
  • Makes subsequent operations easy/easy to mechanize.
    • Soil moisture content
    • Seed size.
    • Soil type.
    • Type of germination
    • Soil moisture content
    • Soil fertility.
    • Machinery to be used.
    • Intended use of the crop.
    • Growth habit
    • Prevalence of pests and diseases.
    • Cropping system used.
    • To enable the crop to smoothens.
    • For maximum utilization of seasons rainfall.
    • Enable the crop evade serious attack by pests and diseases.
    • Enable maximum utilization of available nutrients before they are leached.
    • Reduced competition for labour.
    • To get good market price.
    • To improve Nitrogen fixation in the roots of legumes
    • Highly yield.
    • Eases control of weeds/pests/diseases.
    • Aids in soil and water conservation.
    • Variety of maize
    • Method of planting
    • Purpose of the crop.
    • Soil fertility
    • Soil moisture content
    • Number of seeds per hole.
    • Use of machinery in subsequent operations
    • Rainfall pattern/reliability.
    • Variety of beans
    • Incidence of pests and diseases attack.
    • Expected harvesting time.
    • To obtain high yield.
    • Reduce pest/disease /weed attack
    • To ensure high germination percentage,
    • To obtain high quality produce.
    • To obtain high quality produce.
    • To obtain seeds suitable to the particular area.
    • Fertility status of the soil
    • Use moisture content.
    • Use to which the crop is to be put, machinery to be used.
    • Growth habit of the crop/variety
    • Number of seeds per hole.
    • Prevalence of certain diseases, pests
    • Crop stands either pure or mixed.


  • Intensive land use.
  • Control soil erosion.
  • Reduce cost of production
  • Ensure early pasture establishment.
  1. (a)
    • Induces lodging
    • Difficult to carry out field operations.
    • Reduced yields.
    • Low quality produced/ small cobs.


1 ha= 10,000m2

1m x 0.5m

= 20,000 plants/ha


  • Thinning
  • Gapping



  • Free from pest/ disease attack
  • Resistant to diseases
  • High yielding
  • Has high quality produce
  • High rooting ability
  • Early maturing


  • Rainfall availability
  • Incidence of  pests and  diseases
  • Expected weather conditions  during harvesting
  • Market demand of the crop
  • Type  of soil
  • Uses higher seed rate
  • Not easy to sue  machines
  • Not easy to establish the right population
  • Overcrowding in some areas
  • Uneven germination
  • Difficulty to carry out field practices
  • Soil type
  • Soil moisture content
  • Size  of seeds
  • Type of germination
  • Enable the crop to withstand competition from weeds
  • Enable the crop to escape attack by pests and diseases
  • To better utilization of nutrients in the soil
  • For better utilization of available rainfall
  • To get good market
  • To reduce competition for labour
  • To time harvesting to occur during appropriate weather conditions















(i) Reduce competition/ ensure healthy seedlings

(ii) Prepare the seedlings for the harsh conditions expected in the field

Removal of the shade

Reduce the frequency of watering

  • Free from pest/ diseases
  • Resistant to diseases
  • Adaptable to different soil pH
  • Can withstand water  loggings
  • Compatible with several  scions
  • Requires less skills to establish
  • Easier to prune
  • Higher yielding in the early years of bearing
  • Does not allow accumulation of CBD due to frequent removal  of old stems
  • Comes to bearing earlier





  • Allow adequate light  penetration  into the plant
  • Improve quality of the fruits
  • Reduce incidence of pest and disease attack
  • Enable effective use  of chemical sprays
  • Facilities  easy harvesting


  • To prevent  sprouting
  • Reduce pest attack
  • To prevent fungal diseases/ rotting
  1. (a)
  • Facilitates field practices e.g spraying and  harvesting
  • Improves the quality of crops by preventing  soiling
  • Enable crop grow in the required direction
  • To improve yield
  • To control pests and diseases


Passion fruits, tomatoes, cucumber, grapes, tea, pumpkin, water melons, Boungain vellia, garden peas, yams, gourds, indeterminate beans, roses, money plant, hops, okra

  • Moisture content  of grains
  • Colour  of leaves and grains
  • Intended use of the crop
  • Improves soil aeration upon decomposition
  • Reduce toxicity of plant poisons  upon decomposition
  • Reduce soil  erosion
  • On decomposition  it improves soil structure
  • Modify the soil temperature
  • Add nutrients on decomposition
  • Improves water infiltration
  • Increases microbial activity
  • Control weeds
  • Reduces evaporation of water
  • Buffer soil pH upon decomposition
  • Reduce run –  off thus increase  soil moisture
  • Reduce evaporation thus maintaining high moisture in the  soil
  1. (a) Growing of different types of crops on the same piece of land following

orderly sequence.


  • Ensure maximum utilization  of nutrients
  • Control soil – borne  pests and diseases
  • Control weed
  • Add  nitrates into the soil
  • Control soil erosion
  • Improve soil structure


  • Deep rooted crops alternate with shallow rooted  ones
  • Crop easily weeded are alternated with those difficult to weed
  • Crops of the same family should not succeed each other
  • Heavy feeders  should come first in the cycle
  • Include a legume crop













  1. (a)
  • Irregular watering  of the crop/ water stress
  • Excess application  of Nitrogen  in early stages
  • Deficiency  of element calcium in young  fruits
  1. (a)
  • Regular watering
  • Addition of calcium into the  soil
  • Mulching


  • Regular  watering
  • Addition of calcium into the  soil
  • Mulching
  • Avoid excess Nitrogen  in the soil


  • Size of fruits
  • Degree of ripeness
  • Damage of tomatoes
  • Shape of fruits





  1. (a)
  • They have a longer productive life
  • Produce high quality produce
  • They are less expensive to keep
  • They are high yielding
  • Do not spread diseases others/ man
  • They breed regularly

2 (b)

  • Foot and mouth diseases
  • Anthrax
  • Rinder pest
  • Lumpy skirt disease
  • Rabigs



  • Prevent deficiency disease
  • Improves animals and ability to resist diseases
  • General farm hygiene/ cleanliness of houses. Feed/ water trough – W  proper carcass
  • Disposal; to destroy pathogens
  • Isolation; prevents spread of the diseases
  • Drenching; to control internal  parasites
  • Treat  sick animals; prevent  spread  of the diseases
  • Vaccination; develop resistance against diseases.
  • Control  vectors, prevent transmission  of diseases
  • Prophylaxis; avoids infection
  • Slaughtering en-  mass; prevent  spread  of diseases
  • Proper breeding; control breeding diseases
  • Quarantine; avoid spread of the diseases
  • Hoof  trimming; minimize occurrence of foot rot
  • Proper housing; avoid predisposing causes of diseases
  • Through vectors/ external  parasites
  • Ingesting  contaminated feed, water, milk
  • Inhaling contaminated air
  • Through surgical and instrument e.g. scalpels, needles, docking knife etc
  • Mating
  • Suckling young  ones






  1. (a) (i)
  • Red water ( Babesiasis)
  • Gall sickness ( Anaplasmosis)


  • East Coast Fever (ECF) Theileriosis
  • Red water ( Babesiasis)
  • Nairobi sheep disease
  • Texas fever

(b) Two hosts

  1. (a)
  • Anaemia
  • Irritation/ scratching
  • Loss of hair
  • Wounds  on skin
  • Presence  of parasites on the body


  • Regular drenching
  • Rotational grazing
  • Drain swampy areas
  • Use  of latrines by farm workers
  • Use appropriate  chemicals on swampy areas/ sue CuSO4 solution
  • Burn heavily infested pastures
  • Plough infested pastures
  • Peripheral fencing
  • Use  of ducks  on snail


(i)        Pig

(ii)       Fresh water snail

  • Larvae climbs on host
  • Larva feed on 1st host
  • Larva drop on the ground and moults into a nymph
  • Nymph climbs – onto 2nd host
  • Nymph feeds on 2nd host
  • Nymph drops on the ground and moult into an adult
  • Adult climb on 3rd host
  • Adults feeds and  mate  on 3rd host
  • Mated, engorged female drops and lay eggs  on the ground
  • Egg  hatches into larvae
  • Burning infested pastures
  • Hand picking and killing of ticks
  • Rotational grazing
  • Double fencing of pastures
  • Zero grazing
  • Ploughing infested pastures
  • Proper  meat  inspection
  • Proper disposal of  infested carcass
  • Routine deworming of livestock/ human beings pets
  • Rotational grazing
  • Proper use of latrines
  • Proper cooking of  meat
  • Burning/ ploughing infested pastures













  • Production ration  is the feed given  to an  animal over and above maintenance level in order to produce a given product
  • Water soluble vitamins
  • Fat  soluble vitamins




  • Size  of the animal
  • Level of  production
  • Type of feed eaten
  • Ambient temperature
  • Physiological status  of the animal
  • Species of the animal

(a) Roughage is a feed with high fibre content and low energy content; while concentrates is a feed with high protein/ energy content and low fibre content


  • Synthesis/ formation  of various products e.g. milk, meat
  • Foetal development
  • For work. Provide  draft energy
  • Growth
  • Bulky
  • Low digestibility
  • Low in energy/ protein content
  • Highly fibrous
  • Plant origin
  • Raw materials for synthesis of livestock  products e.g  milk,  eggs
  • Growth of cells
  • Production  of  energy
  • Formation of enzymes. Hormones and  antibodies
  • Repair of worn out tissues
  • Body weight/ size
  • Age of the animal
  • Work done
  • Level  of production
  • Physiological condition  e.g. pregnancy
  • Weather conditions ambient temperature
  • A component of milk
  • Formation of the skeleton / teeth
  • Blood clotting
  • Nerve functioning/ control milk fever
  • Nutrient requirement of the animal
  • Age of the animal
  • Type of animal   whether ruminant or non- ruminant
  • Availability  of feedstuffs
  • Cost of the food stuffs


  1. (a)
  • Production ration is the feed given to an animal over and above maintenance level in order to produces a given  product


  • Body weight/ size
  • Age of the animal
  • Work done
  • Level of induction
  • Physiological condition e.g. pregnancy
  • Weather conditions/ ambient temperature
  • Provide energy/ maintenance of body temperature
  • For growth and repair of body tissues
  • For maintenance  of good health
  • Production  of various products
  • Enhance reproduction

















By concentrating genes from the  parents to the offspring’s

  • Reddening and swelling  of the vulva
  • Clear mucus discharge  from the vulva
  • Frequent bellowing
  • Cow mount others
  • Cow stands still when mounted by others
  • Cow becomes restless
  • Slight rise in body temperature
  • Slight drop in milk in lactating cows
  • Loss of appetite urinating frequently
  • It is uneconomical to keep a bull
  • May lead to uncontrolled mating
  • High risk of transmission of  breeding diseases
  • Only a small number of cows can  be served
  1. Mating of two unrelated animals of the same breed
  2. (a)

(i)        A- Oviduct/ fallopian tube

B- Ovary

C- Uterus

D – Vagina

(ii) A – passage of Ova from the ovary to the uterus

-Site of fertilization

B – Production of ova

Production of female sex hormones


(i) Artificial insemination

(ii) Natural method

(c) 19 – 23 days/ 3 weeks


Increased ability and performance of the offsprings above the average of the parents

  • Should  be of age/ mature S – 7 months old/ 90 – 100kg live weight
  • Good mothering ability
  • Able to grow  fast
  • Good conformation
  • With no physical defects
  • Healthy
  • Has 12- 14 teats
  • Highly prolific
  • Able to withstand heat stress during mating

(i) Mating closely related animals e.g brother and sister

(ii) Mating unrelated animals but within the same


(i) Harmful traits/ diseases can spread fast

(ii) Requires trained personal/ skills

(iii) Laborious

(iv) Low chance of conception due to poor timing/ death of sperms,


  • Good body conformation/ wedge shaped
  • Docile/ mild temperament
  • Her  ancestors  should have a record  of high  milk  production
  • Free from physical deformities
  • Good health
  • Good size/ weight  for the breed









  • He goats
  • Male calves
  • Rams
  • Bad smell
  • Overheating
  • Lack of food/ water
  • Sick/ infertile queen
  • Attack by predators/ destruction of brood
  • Too much noise
  1. J (i) Docking/ Tailing


  • To facilitate mating/ to ease mating
  • To control blow fly attack
  • To ensure uniform distribution of fat

(iii) 1-2 weeks after birth


  • Use of elastrators and rubber ring
  • Use of sharp knife
  • Use of a docking iron

(v) Hoof trimming

(vi) The animal would become lame

Foot rot may develop

(vii) In a sitting position facing away from the person shearing

  1. To make the bees less aggressive
  • Old age
  • Low fertility
  • Difficult in furrowing
  • Less milk  production
  • Passing undesirable characteristics to its young ones
  • Poor hearth
  • Poor mothering ability
  1. (a) Thick yellow secreted by the mammary glands within the first week after

giving birth


  • Has a laxative value that helps to cleanse the bowels
  • Rich in antibiotics that confers artificial immunity
  • Highly nutritious is necessary for fast growth) of the calf
  • It is highly digestible, hence appropriate for the underdeveloped calf’s digestive system


  • Bucket feeding/ Artificial feeding
  • Natural method/ calf sucks the dam
  • Restlessness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swelling of vulva
  • Udder enlarges
  • Mucus discharge from the vulva
  • Presence of colostrums in the teats
  • Relaxation of ligaments on either side of the pelvic bones
  • Cow isolate herself
  • To make them docile
  • To improve  growth rate
  • Control breeding diseases
  • To prevent  inbreeding
  • To control breeding
  • To  improve meat quality
  • Highly  palatable
  • Has high digestibility
  • Rich in nutrients
  • Prevent the bees from absconding
  • To avail food  during time  of seed scarcity
  • To attract bees  into a new hive
  • To encourage multiplication  of bees
  • To ease access of feed
  • Proper feeding
  • Control internal parasites
  • Control external parasites
  • Vaccination
  • Zugging/burlying
  • Hoof trimming
  • Provision of adequate clean water
  • Treat in case  of infection
  • Routine feeding
  • Application of manure/ fertilizer
  • Cropping
  • Maintenance of water flow/ changing the water regularly
  • Control of predators
  • Restless
  • Loss of appetite
  • Udder/ teats enlarge
  • Present of milk in the teats 24hrs before farrowing
  • Vulva enlarges
  • Muscle on either side of the tail/ pelvic bones slackens
  • Sow prepares a nest
  • During drought/ when there are no  flowers
  • Incase of  a  new  colony
  • When the  colony  is small/ to encourage  fast multiplication
  • Deworming
  • Flushing
  • Crutching/ ringing/ cutting wool around reproductive organs
  • Riddling
  • Wigging/ cutting wool  around the face
  • Catfish
  • Tilapia
  • Trout
  • Carps
  • Bass
  • Tench
  • Blue gill
  • Nile  perch




(i) 0.5m/50cm

(ii) To prevent dampness

(iii) To allow proper lighting


  • Nearness to the milking shed
  • Well drained area/topography.
  • Soil type
  • Security
  • Wind direction
  • It is cheap
  • It is attractive
  • It is easily available
  • Easy to work  with
  1. Siting
  • Should be near the homestead for security
  • Should be in an accessibility place
  • Sheltered from strong wind
  • A well  drained area
  • On the  leeward side of the farm house
  • Where there is large  space for possible  expansion in future

Selection of building materials

  • Use easily  available  materials
  • Choose durable materials
  • Consider the cost  of the material
  • Consider the skills  needed to work with the materials
  • Materials to choose from; iron sheets, wire mesh  off cuts, timber, concrete

Requirement of the hutch

  • Should  be leak proof
  • Should  be well ventilate
  • Should  be  free from draught
  • Should be easy to clean
  • Should have raised  floor
  • Floor should allow free  drainage
  • To prevent warping/ bending / twisting
  • To prevent  rotting/ damage  by fungi
  • To prevent  it from  pest attack
  • To enable  timber to achieve it maximum  strength


Advantage:          It’s more effective in preventing animals from forcing their way through the fence

Disadvantage:      It’s more expensive than plain wire

The bars may cause injury to the animal/ destroy wool.

  • Allows air circulation  in the house
  • Controls  temperature  in the  house
  • Prevent  humid  condition inside the house


  1. 1 cement, 3 and, 4 ballast/ gravel

(b) 1/ cement


  • It is durable
  • It is  fire  proof
  • It is  easy to clean
  • Can be moulded into various shapes
  • Should  be raised from  the ground
  • Should  be leak proof
  • Should be easy to clean
  • Should be  well ventilated
  • Should be rat proof/ vermin proof
  • Should be easy to toad/ offload
  •  Strong enough, spacious
  • Reduces incident of accident when using them
  • Ensure  efficient usage  of the  structure
  • To increase its durability
  • To give high re- sale value of the structure
  • Topography/ drainage
  • Accessibility of the  pen
  • Wind direction
  • Direction of the sun
  • Security of the calf
  •  Location of existing, structure/ amenities
  • Space for future expansion


  • Strength/ durability of the  material
  • Cost of the  material
  • Availability of the material
  • Availability of capital
  • Workability/ skills required in using the  material
  • Type of pens ( permanent/ temporary)
  • Climate of the area
  • Safety of the calf


  • Repair/ replace  worn out/ broken  parts
  • Clean  the pen  regularly
  • Ensure drainage system  is  working
  • White  wash the walls
  • Partial burning/ charring  of the  posts
  • Cut  the  top in a sloping  manner
  • Cover the top  with a plastic/ metal  sheet
  • Reinforce with  concrete
  • Well ventilated
  • Easy to clean
  • Leak proof
  • Well  drained  floor
  • Draught free
  • Spacious
  • Well lit
  • Repair/ replace broken  parts
  • Regular  cleaning  to remove dirt
  • Dust/fumigate/ spray to control parasites and diseases
  • Apply old engine oil on timber parts
  • Ensure good drainage around  the house
  • Maintain a  footbath at the entrance
  • It is more durable
  • Its stronger
  • Its fire resistant
  • Its not  attacked by vermin’s
  1. (a)
  • Provide  security from thieves, predators
  • Enable  paddocking/ rotational grazing/ mixed farming
  • Control parasites and diseases by keeping away foreign animals
  • Show  boundaries between farms
  • Hedges act as  wind breaks
  • Have an aesthetic value
  • Hedges  help to conserve soil  and water
  • Hedges  may  be source of fruits/ fodder/ firewood
  • Provides privacy
  • Enables isolation of animals for different purposes


  • Wind direction
  • Soil type
  • Security
  • Accessibility of the structure
  • Location in relation to existing  structure
  • Topography/ drainage
  • Government policy/ regulations
  • Purpose of the structure
  • Position of the sun
  • Proximity  to social amenities
  • Space for future  expansion
  • Farmers tastes and  preference
  1. Adds beauty to the farm
  • Source of firewood
  • Source of fodder/ mulch  material
  • Serves  as a  wind break
  • Control soil erosion
  • Controls animal/ human movement
  • Provides security/ privacy
  • Mark farm boundaries
  • Top bars can easily be removed and replaced when inspecting the combs
  • Easy to construct
  • Ensure high quality honey
  • Easy to harvest
  • Help to avoid mass  killing  of bees
  • Possible to exclude the queen from the honey  combs
  • Paint metal tanks
  • Regular washing of the tank
  • Repair any leakage
  1. (a)
  • Claw hammer; for driving in and out nails from wood
  • Tape  measure; to measure the required sizes of timber
  • Tin snip; for cutting  iron sheets for roofing
  • Clamp/ sash camp; for holding tightly together pieces  of wood when cutting/ joining
  • Handsaw: for putting timber to the required size
  • Wood chisel/ Brace/ hand drill; for  boring holes in wood
  • Mallet; for hitting the chisel when boring  holes
  • Pliers; for cutting wires
  • Jack plane; For smoothing timber surface
  • Marking/ mortise gauge; for  marking points for cutting / planning on timber
  •  Ball pen hammer; for straightening/ shaping metal sheet
  • Try square/ combination square; for determining right angles  on cutting points of  timber


  • Clear the site to be fenced
  • Use a string to layout the fence line
  • Determine the position of posts using a tape measure
  • Dig the holes using a hole digger/ claw bar
  • Use a ruler to determine the right hole depth
  • Obtain the right length of the posts using a tape measure
  • Obtain the posts to the required depth using a handsaw
  • Put concrete at the bottom of the hole
  • Place the posts in the holes
  • Ensure posts are vertical/ right angles
  • Fill up the hole with soil/ concrete
  • Firm the soil/ concrete in the hole using a ramming rod
  • Heap soil/ concrete at the base of post
  • It is more expensive
  • It requires a lot of skills to work with
  • Prone to rusting
  • Its not easily available
  • Its heavy and difficult to transport










  • Reduce the speed  of water hence  erosive ability
  • Trap soil being  carried by moving water
  • Increase infiltration  of water hence  reduce surface run- off
  • Reduce the volume of run- off due to increased infiltration
  • Acts as windbreakers
  • Reduce the impact of raindrops on the soil
  • Tree roots bind the soil  particles together reducing its erodibility
  • Reduce the impact  of raindrops on the soil
  • Reduce speed of run-  off
  • Improve soil  structures  thus reducing the erodibility of soil
  • To prevent loss of plant nutrients
  • To maintain good soil structures
  • Reduce the seed of run- off thus lowering the erosive of  water
  • Reduce impact of raindrops thus reducing splash erosion
  • Cover the soil protecting it from wind erosion
  • Grass roots bind the soil particles together reducing the erodibility of  soil
  • Reduce speed of run – off, thus reducing the erosive power of water
  • Organic matter from grass improves soil structure thus reducing erodibility of the soil
  1. – Reduce evaporation

– Reduce surface run- off

  1. (a) Afforestation is the practice of growing trees in areas where they had not


(b)       Re- afforestation is the practice of growing trees where they have been


  • Topography of the area
  • Rainfall intensity/ amount
  • Type of  soil
  • Soil depth
  • Vegetation cover
  • Farming practices








  • Prevents weeds from establishing in the field
  • Prevent allelopathic effects of weeds
  • Reduce the  cost of crop production
  • Reduce multiplication and spread of the weeds
  • Reduce spread  of pests/ diseases for which  weeds acts as alternate  hosts
  • Reduce competition between  weeds and the  crop
  • Avoid contamination of crop with weed seeds
  • Prevent injury to the farmer/ livestock
  • Uprooting
  • Cultivation
  • Mulching
  • Application of herbicides
  • Slashing
  1. (i) G – Couch grass (digiteria sealarum)

H- Sodom Apple (solanum incarium)


  • Compete for resource with cultivated  crops
  • It  increases the cost  of crop production
  • Lowers the quality of pastures

(iii) It has deep underground structures difficult to remove

  1. 2001 Disadvantages of weeds
  • Compete for resources with crops
  • Increase the  cost of crop production
  • Some may contaminate the crop lowering the quality.
  • Irritate the workers lowering labour efficiency.
  • Some weeds are parasitic to crop pests and diseases
  • Some weeds are allelopathic.


    • Produce large quantities of seeds
    • Seeds remain viable for along time
    • They have effective mechanisms of dispersal
    • Some weeds have the ability to propagate both by seeds and vegetatively.
    • They have elaborate root system.
    • Some have underground structures difficult to control.
    • Some are able to survive with limited nutrients.
    • Some are able to compress their life cycle.
    • Some weeds are allelopathic.


(i) Thorn apple (Datura stramonium)

(ii)  Annual weed

(ii) Poisonous if eaten




      • Difficult to control pests and diseases/diseases and parasites spread faster.
      • Land disputes are common
      • No motivation to conserve land
      • No motivation to make long term investments
      • An individual cannot use land as security to acquire
      • Difficult to control breeding in livestock.


      • Saves time and money
      • Makes it easy to have a sound farm plan e.g rotation  programme.
      • Eases soil conservation.
      • Eases supervision as al enterprises are at one place.
      • Facilitate mechanization.


  • To settle the landless.
  • To ease population pressure.
  • To increase agricultural production.
  • To improve people’s standard of living.


  • Communal tenure
  • Co-operative tenure




(i)        Weaver bird


      • By eating the grains
      • Opening the cab to water that leads to rotting of the grains,


  • Use of scare crows
  • Trapping
  • Use of explosives
  • Use of resistant varieties
  1.                              (i) Cutworm/Agrotis

(ii) Cuts the stern causing lodging.

  • Use of appropriate insecticide.
    • Removing it and killing it.
    • Its cheap
    • Saves on labour.
    • Does not cause environmental pollution.
    • Destroy the alternate host
    • Practice crop trapping.
    • Destroy the crop remains
      • Seed dressing using appropriate chemical.
      • Use of resistant varieties
      • Practice close season.
      • Practice field hygiene/destroy crop residual.
      • Concentration of the pesticide
      • Weather condition during and soon after application
      • Stage of development of the pest.
      • Persistence of the pesticide.
      • Formulation of the pesticide.
      • Mode of action of the pesticide.


  • Biting and chewing
  • Piercing and sucking


  • Store hygiene/ensure store is clean
  • Proper drying of grains.
  • Ensure store has proper ventilation.
  • Keep store airtight.
  • Clear the bush around the granary.




  • Proper plant nutrition, increase disease resistance/control deficiency diseases.
  • Crop rotation breaks life cycle of pathogens
  • Rogueing, prevent further spread of the disease.
  • Use of disease free planting materials: prevents introduction of pathogens in the field.
  • Close season breaks the life cycle of pathogens.
  • Timely /early planting; help crop to establish early before attack.
  • Proper spacing; creates unfavorable conditions for some pathogens.
  • Weed control; eliminate weeds that could be alternate hosts for particular pathogens.
  • Resistant varieties; ensure crop is not attacked by the pathogen.
  • Use of clean equipment/tools, prevent spreading of the disease from one plant to the other.
  • Quarantine; prevent spread of the pathogen from one farm to the other.
  • Heat treatment; kills the pathogen.
  • Pruning; creates unfavorable microclimate for some pathogens/prevent spread of the disease.
  • Destroy crop residue; kills the pathogen.
  • Control the vectors, prevent further spread of pathogens.


  • Plant resistant varieties
  • Practice crop rotation.
  • Practice field hygiene.
  • Use of clean planting materials.
  • Trim roots of suckers before planting.
  • Plant Mexican marigold close to the banana plants.


(a) Point at which damage on a crop by pest is beyond tolerance and has to be controlled.


  • By contact
  • Through ingestion
  • By suffocation


  • Pesticides are expensive.
  • Pesticides requires special skills to handle. They are poisonous/environmental hazard.
  • Some are non-selective/they kill useful organisms.
  • Some pest develop resistance to the pesticide.


  • Lower the quality of farm produce.
  • Lower they yield.
  • Increase cost of production
  • Some pests are vetors of crop diseases.
  • Some pest lower labour efficiency by irritation.
  • Early planting
  • Rogueing
  • Trap cropping
  • Attack by nematodes.
  • Root nodules due to nitrogen fixing bacteria.


    • Field birds; accept any appropriate example.
    • Shoot fly;
    • Stem borers.
    • Diseases; Rust, Downy mildew, Ergot, smut
  • The crop has well developed roots to absorb the nitrogen before it can be lost
  • Maize is growing fast and requires a lot of nitrogen.
  1.  Head smut/smut
  • Putting rat guards/ ensures granary is vermin proof.
  • Ensure store is clean.
  • Clear the vegetation around the granary.
  • Harvest the grains on time to prevent attack in the field.
  • Proper drying of grains.
  • Use rat traps
  • Use of cats.
  • Weevils,
  • Flour beetles,
  • Lesser grain borer;
  • Greater grain borer;
  • Khapra beetle;
  • Warehouse moth;
  • Saw toothed grain beetle;
  • Angoumois grain moth.


(i) K, G, H, J

(ii) Failure of boll to develop


  • Do not pick the lint when it is wet
  • Pick on weekly bases
  • Avoid dry twigs or leaves contaminating the cotton
  • Do not use sisal bags to hold cotton as the sisal fibres may contaminate lint,


  • Cotton lint
  • Cotton seed
  • Early/ timely planting
  • Practice crop rotation
  • Practice field hygiene
  • Destroy crop residue
  • Practice rogueing
  • Use healthy / certified seeds
  • Practice close season
  • Use appropriate pesticide to control the vector
  • Uproot volunteer crop
  1. (i)
  • Field hygiene/ destroy crop residue/ rogueing
  • Use of  trap crop
  • Destroy alternate host/ weeds
  • Timely harvesting


  • Stalk borers
  • Armyworms
  • Aphids
  • Dusty brown beetles
  • Weevils
  • Termites
  • Locusts
  • Leaf hoppers/ grasshoppers
  • Cystic  beetle
  • Great/ lesser grain borer; cut worms
  • American  bollworms
  • Uprooting weeds cultivation
  • Mulching; t  application of herbicides
  • Slashing/ cutting the weeds
  • Control the vector
  • Use certified seeds
  • Use of resistant varieties
  • Practice field hygiene
  • Early planting
  • Rogueing
  • Practice close season



  • Mixed pasture  is more nutritious
  • Economies on nitrogenous fertilizers  by N- fixation
  • There’s higher  yield per unit area
  • There  is security incase  of failure of one crop
  • It provides  a  good soil cover hence  control erosion
  • There  is maximum utilization of  soil nutrients
  • Leads to exhaustion of pasture crop
  • May lead to high  incidence of  parasites and diseases
  • Leads to soil erosion
  • To raise the carbohydrate  level for proper fermentation
  • To increase the nutrient level of  silage
  • To increase the  palatability of silage
  • To restrict growth of undesirable microorganisms
  1. (a)

(i)        Under- sowing is the establishment of a pasture crop under a nurse crop

(ii)       Over- sowing is the establishment of a high quality pasture crop on an

existing grass pasture


  • Slashing/ moving
  • Uprooting
  • Use of selective herbicides


  • Replenish soil nutrients
  • Hasten growth/ increase  herbage yield
  • Improve the nutritive value of the crop
  • Amend soil physical and  chemical properties
  • Enhance decomposition  of organic  matter by micro- organism/  increase microbial activity
  • Rotational grazing/ controlled grazing
  • Proper stocking rate
  • Conserve excess pasture
  • Timely defoliation
  • Practice zero grazing
  • Graze  different classes/ species  of animals
  • Stage of growth  at harvesting time
  • Species of the forage crop used
  • Duration of storage
  • Soil fertility where the crop was grown
  • Weather conditions  during drying
  • Length  of drying period
  • Pest/ disease attack on the crop
  • Method  of storage
  • There is  intensive/ efficient use of land
  • Reduces the cost  of forage production
  • Control soil erosion due to ground cover
  • Ensure early pasture establishment
  1. (i) Seedbed preparation
  • Practice early seedbed preparation/ during the dry  period
  • Clear all the vegetation/ stumps
  • Carry out primary tillage
  • Dig deeply to remove  all weeds/ perennial  weeds
  • Carry  out secondary tillage
  • Seedbed should have a medium tilth
  • Prepare furrow/ holes for planting
  • Spacing between furrows 90- 100cm for cuttings/ 90 – 100cm x 50cm  for splits

(ii)       Planting

  • Plant at the onset of the rains/ early planting
  • Select desirable Napier grass  variety for the  ecology of the area
  • Use healthy  planting materials
  • Use  cuttings/ canes  or  splits for planting
  • Cutting/ canes  should have 3-5  nodes
  • Select cutting from mature canes/ stems
  • Place  planting materials in the furrows/ holes
  • Cover the material with  soil to the appropriate depth

(iii)      Fertilizer application

  • Apply phosphate fertilizer at planting
  • Apply farm yard manure/ composite manure before  planting
  • Rate of organic manure  should  be 7 – 10 tons/ ha
  • Apply organic manure after harvesting  and dig it into the soil every  year
  • Top dress with Nitrogen and potassium 6-8 weeks after planting

(iv)      Weed control

  • Control weeds by; cultivation, uprooting, slashing, selective/ appropriate herbicides, intercropping with  legumes that smoother or the  weeds
  • Practice timely weed control

(v)       Utilization

  • Cut and feed it to ruminants.
  • Defoliate/ cut at the right stage  of growth/ 3 –  5 months old/  when stems are 1 – 1.5 m high
  • Cut the stems at 2.5 – 5  cm above the ground  surface
  • Use sharp  panga for cutting
  • Conserve excess as silage
  • Chop Napier grass into small pieces  before feeding
  • Napier grass can  be dried and  used as mulch


  1. (a)
  • Lucerne, silver/ green leaf, desmodium siratro, stylo


  • Reduce build- up of parasites and diseases
  • Animal waste  is evenly distributed in the fields
  • Excess pastures can be conserved
  • It is easy to carryout  management practice
  • Pasture is given time  to regenerate
  • Pasture  is maximally utilized


  • Sprinkling some water
  • Reduce compaction
  • Fill the silo  and seal it from air rapidly
  • Control soil erosion
  • Ensure  adequate pasture for animals
  • Increases the useful life  of the  pasture crop
  1. (a) Practice of coating legume seeds with a nitro- culture/ rhizobium bacteria

(b) Growing a legume pastures over an existing grass pasture






  1.             Oral ( mouth), broken skin ( wounds), nasal, ocular ( eyes), anal, ears,

reproductive organs, umbilical cord

    • Routine vaccination
    • Slaughtering all infected animals
    • Impose quarantine
    • Treatment of wounds
  • Difficult in breathing/ respiratory problem
  • Dullness/ birds stands with eyes closed
  • Anorexia/ loss of appetite
  • Nasal discharge
  • Sneezing
  • Droopy wings
  • Yellow/ greenish watery diarrhoea
  • Drop in production
  • Soft- shelled eggs
  • Torticolis/ bending of neck
  • Wounds on the udder/ teats
  • High milk production
  • Very old cows
  • Unhygienic handling of the cow
  • Poor udder placement/ pendulous udder
  • Incomplete milking
  • Genetic factors
  • Early and late lactation period
  • Poor milking technique
  • Blood/ pus in milk
  • Painful udder/ teat/ animal kicks when teats are touched
  • Swollen/ inflamed udder
  • Clots/ thick milk
  • Watery milk
  • Blocked teat canals
  • Drop in milk production
  • Foyer
  • Anthrax
  • Rinderpest
  • Foot and mouth
  • Lumpy skin disease
  • Routine  vaccination
  • Isolate infected birds/ kill all infected birds
  • Disinfect the poultry house before  introducing a new stock
  • Obtain chicks from reliable sources
  • Imposition of quarantine
  1. (i) Fowl pox
  • May lead to death of the birds
  • Farmer incur extra expenses in its  control


  • Kill and dispose  off all infected birds
  • Routine vaccination
  • Control  biting  parasites
  • Treat  wounds
  • Wounds  in infected hooves
  • Foul  smell from infected  hooves
  • Spend most  of the time lying  if both hind  legs are infected
  • Grazes  when kneeling  it  fore legs are infected
  • Loss of  appetite
  • Lameness/ limping
  • Swelling of infected hooves
  • Emaciation
  1. (i) Protozoa/ coccidiax/ Eimeria species

(ii) Bacterium/ clostridium spp/ clostridium chauvei



  1. (i)
  • Long hooves
  • Damp environment/  poor hygiene
  • Injury on  hooves


  • Anaemia
  • Fever
  • Constipation
  • Lack of appetite/ anorexia
  • Inability to move
  • Reduced milk production
  •  Animal  becomes aggressive


  • General  farm hygiene to kill the  pathogens
  • Isolate sick  animals to prevent spread of the disease
  • Deworm the animals to control endo–parasite
  • Treat the sick animals to prevent spread  of the disease
  • Vaccinate the animals to develop resistance against disease attack
  • Control vectors to prevent spread of the disease
  • Routine administration of drugs/ prophylaxis to prevent infection
  • Proper feeding  to prevent deficiency / nutritional diseases
  • Mass slaughter of infected animals to prevent spread of diseases
  • Proper selection  and  breeding to  control breeding and inheritable diseases
  • Proper housing to avoid predisposing  animal to diseases
  • Foot trimming to minimize occurrence  of foot rot disease
  • Imposition of quarantine to prevent spread of diseases
  • Lack of stiffness of the carcass/ lack  of rigor mortis
  • Production of tar-  like watery blood from all body openings
  • Extensive bloating
  1. (a) Bacterium/ Brucella abortus


  • Spontaneous abortion/ premature birth
  • Retention of after birth abortion
  • Bareness
  • Yellowish brown slimy  odourless discharge from the vulva


  • Use artificial insemination
  • Cull infected animals
  • Vaccinate all young animal
  • Avoid direct contact with aborted foetus/ after birth
  • Observe hygiene/ proper  disposal of aborted foetus




  • Routine vaccination
  • Improve quarantine
  • Kill and dispose off infected animals
  • Isolate sick animals
  • Disinfect the animal house
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • High fever
  • Profuse salivation
  • Lachrymation/ production of tear
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Bleeding in the vulva and  mouth
  • Coughing
  1. (a) Deficiency of calcium in the wood of the cow
  • Muscular twitching
  • Staggering as the animal moves
  • Animal become unconscious
  • Loss of appetite
  • Cessation  of body functions
  • Dullness
  • Animal lies with the neck twisted for the head to lie on the shoulder


  • Feed animal with diet rich in calcium
  • Partial milking
  • Intravenous injection  with calcium salts/ calcium borogluconate

















  • Debeaking
  • Making laying boxes/ nests dark
  • Feeding on  balanced diet
  • Hanging green vegetation to keep birds busy  scatter grains on the floor
  • Isolating and treating cannibalized birds
  • Control external  parasites
  • Keeping birds according to age/ avoid introducing new birds
  • Provide adequate space


  • Size/ weight/ volume of egg
  • Colour
  • Cleanliness
  • Shell quality e.g. broken, rough
  • Shape of the egg
  1. (a)
  • Ensure brooder  corners are rounded
  • Provide enough brooding space accordingly. Clean and disinfect the brooder house/ equipment.
  • Provide  wood shavings/ proper  litter on the floor
  • Maintain appropriate temperature range according to the age of the chicks
  • Temperature during the 1st one week should be 32 – 350 c, then reduce accordingly
  • Spread sheets of papers and sprinkle chick  mash on them
  • Provide fire guard around the heat source
  • Maintain  proper ventilation  by adjusting the openings
  • Provide fresh, adequate  and qualify feed/ chick mash
  • Provide brooder with reliable  and appropriate lighting/ dim light
  • Provide adequate and  appropriate waters/ feeders according to age/ number of  chicks
  • Remove dead  chicks from the brooder
  • Control  parasites by applying appropriate pesticides
  • Control diseases appropriately
  • Isolate and treat  sick  chicks immediately
  • Keep  proper records
  • Gradually change the feed in the last one week in the brooder
  • Debeak 8 – 10  days towards the end of brooding
  • Provide adequate clean water all the time


  • Combs and wattles are small, dry and cold/ combs have white scales
  • The space between the pelvic bones is narrow 2-3 fingers cannot fit in the space between the pelvic bones
  • Plumage is shiny, well preened/ sometimes moulting
  • Yellowish pigmentation in the vent, shanks and  beak
  • Space between the keel bone and pelvic bone is small / 3-4 fingers cannot fit in the space
  • Eyes are dull and yellow
  • Abdomen is hard
  • The layer  is  lazy and dull
  • Hen becomes broody
  • Repair/ replace broken  parts  of the house
  • Maintain a footbath at the door of the deep  litter
  • Clean and remove any dirt/ cob  webs
  • Fumigate against pests and diseases/ spraying/ dusting
  • Paint  some parts  of the house/ apply old
  • Dirt
  • Abnormal size/ undersize/ oversize
  • Irregular/ broken/ soft shell
  • Internal abnormalities e.g. double yolk, meat spots, poor candling qualities
  • Poor storage/ long storage  beyond 5 days
  • Ensure  laying nets are dimly lit
  • Provide adequate  laying nests
  • Debeak perpetual egg eaters
  • Collect eggs regularly and frequently
  • Ensure birds get a balanced diet
  • Keep birds busy by hanging green vegetation in the house/ scatter grains on the liner.
  1. (a)
  • Chicks move away from heat source
  • Parting/ opening beaks
  • Opening the wings/ spreading wings
  • Making abnormal noise
  • Drinking water excessively
  • Chicks may lie flat on their bellies


  • Requires less space/ high stocking rate
  • Less toss of eggs
  • Easier collection of manure/ easier accumulation of manure
  • Easier protection of birds from vermin’s/ parasites/ diseases
  • Less labour requirement/ easier to collect eggs/ easy handling
  • Cheaper to set up than battery cage/ low initial cost
  • Should be fertilized
  • Should be medium in size
  • Should be oval in shape
  • Should not  be cracked
  • Should de dean
  • Should be free from abnormalities/ blood spots/ meat  spots/ double yolk
  • Should be 5 – 10 days old
  • Should have smooth shell
  • Regularly wash and disinfect the feeders/ waterers/ perches
  • Replace old wet litter/ turn litter regularly
  • Control visitors  into poultry house/ use of footbath before entering  the house
  • Avoid pouring water  on the  litter/ avoid dampness
  • Isolate sick birds
  • Treat sick birds
  • Dispose  of dead birds  immediately












  1. (a)

K- Alveolus

L- Gland cistern

M – Teat cistern

N – Teat


(i)        Milk let down  is the flow  of milk from the  upper/ alveolar region  of the udder to the  gland  and teat cisterns

(ii)      Oxytocin


  • Practice farm hygiene/ milk infested  cows last/ use a separate  udder towel for each cow/ use disposable  udder towel
  • Immediate treatment of  infected cows to avoid spread  of the diseases/ treat any wounds on the teat/ udder
  • Practice  teat dips after milking
  • Applying  milk salve/ jelly to prevent drying  and cracking of teats
  • Practice good  milking techniques
  • Ensure calf is breathing/ administer artificial respiration.
  • Clean mucus from the calf/ ensure  cow licks the calf dry
  • Cut and disinfect the  umbilical cord
  • Ensure calf sucks colostrums from the mother within the first 8 hours
  • Feed the calf on colostrums for the first 4 days
  • Keep records on the performance of the calf, introduce whole milk or milk replacer after the 4th day.
  • Feed the calf with warm milk at regular intervals
  • Feed the calf  2-3 times per day for the first 1 – 4 weeks
  • Feed the correct amount of milk up to weaning
  • Observe strict hygiene in calf
  • Protect the calf against adverse weather conditions by providing proper housing
  • Provide adequate clean water from the 3rd week
  • Introduce palatable dry fed e.g. concentrates and good quality grass/ mineral salts from the  3rd week
  • Keep calf in individual pens until it is 3-4 months old
  • Spray / dip calf against external parasites
  • Drench deworm calf against internal parasites
  • Vaccinate the calf against prevalent diseases
  • Release the calf from the  pen occasionally for exercises
  • Wean calf at 8 weeks/ 16 weeks
  • Deworm the calf using appropriate methods
  • Graze calf  on good  quality pastures ahead  of adult cows
  • Separate heifer calves at puberty to avoid in  breeding
  • Weigh the calf regularly
  • Treat  sick calves
  • Put  appropriate identification
  • Defeat if necessary
  • Change  in feed be done gradually
  • Serve at the right age/ weight/ 15 – 20 months/ 250- 280 kg
  1. (a)
  • Should be clean/ free from  physical contamination
  • Has the right consistency/ no water added/ true to the breed
  • No strange odours/ no foul smell
  • Free from diseases causing organisms
  • White  in colour/ normal colour/ not tainted
  • Normal taste/ flavour


  • The calf can be reared artificially even if a mother dies during birth
  • Many calves can  be reared at a time
  • The calf can be given correct amount of milk
  • It is possible to  keep clear records on milk
  • Yield
  • Free from diseases causing organisms
  • Free from dirt/ foreign materials
  • Appropriate smell and flavour
  • Chemical composition within the expected standards



(a) The milk secreted by the mammary glands within the first week of lactation/ thick yellow milk secreted by the  mammary glands within the first week after parturition.


  • Has a laxative and helps to remove the faecal meconium/ first faecal matter/ opens up the alimentary canal/ cleanse the digestive system/ prevent constipation
  • It is rich in antibiotics that offers temporary immunity against diseases
  • It is rich digestible proteins/ fats/ minerals/ vitamin/ highly nutritious
  • It is highly digestible



(c)   Bucket feeding/ bottle feeding/ artificial method. Dam suckling the calf/ calf sucks the dam/ natural method

  •  The milk person should be clean
  • Test  for mastitis before milking
  • Milk  person  should be  healthy
  • Ensure  utensils/ equipment are clean
  • Ensure milking parlour is clean
  • Ensure milking heard is free from zoonotic disease e.g. TB
  • Cows with mastitis should be milked  last
  • Clean the udder
  • Sieve the milk
  • Cover the milk
  • Avoid feeds/ weeds that would taint the milk just before milking
  • Proper storage of milk/ cool, dry place.
  • Clean mucus from calf soon after birth/ ensure cow licks dry
  • Ensure calf is breathing / administer artificial respiration
  • Cut and disinfect the umbilical cord. Ensure calf sucks the mother to get colostrums, within the first  8 hours
  • Feed the calf on colostrums for the first 4 days. Introduce  whole milk/ milk replacer after 4 days
  • Feed the calf with milk at body temperature
  • Weigh the calf regularly
  • Provide adequate  clean water
  • Introduce palatable solid feed e.g. concentrates, good quality grass from 3rd week
  • Put appropriate identification marks
  • Treat calf if sick
  • Castrate male calf
  • Provide proper housing for calf
  • Keep calf  individually up  to the  weaning time
  • Control external parasite with appropriate  method/ spray/ dip
  • Drench/ deworm to control internal parasites
  • Observe  hygiene
  • Remove extra teats
  • Dehorn/ disband using appropriate method
  • Release calf occasionally for exercises
  • Keep records on calf performance
  • Wean calf at 8 weeks/ 16 weeks
  • Reduce amount of milk gradually towards weaning
  • Train calf to take milk from a bucket.














  1. (a)
  • It  makes farm operations timely/ faster
  • Economizes on labour
  • Work is done more efficiently
  • Reduces drudgery/ can accomplish heavy task
  • Cheaper per unit work  done  in large
  • Operations


  • Turns/ inverts the furrow slices thus covering surface vegetation
  • Cuts the furrow slice horizontally
  • Holds the frame  on to the  mould board land side and  share
  • Absorbs thrust exerted on the  mould board to make the plough stable


  • Always clean after use
  • Check the nuts and bolts  and tighten if loose
  • Repair broken  parts
  • Replace worn out parts/ lost parts
  • Proper  storage
  • Reciprocating  mower/ cuter  bar mower
  • Power take – off  shaft
  • Sharpen the cutting blades
  • Tighten loose nuts  and bolts
  • Lubricate moving parts
  • Repair  broken  parts
  • Replace worn- out parts
  • Clean after a days work
  • Check the tension of the v- belt and adjust accordingly
  • Coat with old engine oil for long storage


  1. (a)
  • Ox- drawn mould board is lighter hence does not compact the soil as much as the tractor – drawn mould board plough
  • Ox – plough can be use for more farm operations e.g. weeding, ploughing harvesting roots crops than tractors mould board.
  • Ox- plough requires less skills to operate compared to the tractor plough
  • Tractor plough is faster than ox- plough hence can plough a large area with a short time
  • Source of power for  ox- plough  is not as reliable as the source of  power for tractor plough
  • Ox- plough relatively shallow compared to tractor plough that plough deeper
  • Ox- plough can be used  in steeper lands where tractor  plough  cannot plough
  • Ox- plough requires more people to operate than  tractor plough
  • Ox – plough is cheaper to buy than tractor plough
  • Ox – plough is cheaper to maintain  than tractor  plough


  • Grease the moving parts ( rej movable parts)
  • Paint frame/ oil before long storage
  • Tighten loose  nuts  and bolts
  • Clean it after  work
  • Store  in a shed
  • Repair damage parts
  • Replace worn-  out  parts

(c) Advantages

  • It is cheaper
  • Farmer does not incur  maintenance costs of the tractor
  • There is no risk of  owing the tractor
  • Farm operations are carried out faster


  • Tractor may not be available when required
  • Some operators may charge high fees for the service
  • Some operators can carry out poor quality work
  1. (a)
  • To reduce wear and tear/ increase durability
  • Avoid rusting


  • Sharpen blades if blunt
  • Replace worn – outs parts
  • Clean the mower after use
  • Tighten loose nuts and bolts
  • Repair worn- out guard
  • Paint when necessary
  • Proper storage in shed


  • Size of land
  • Cost of the tractor
  • Availability of services facilities/ availability of skilled labour e.g drivers, mechanics, spare parts
  • Topography of the land
  • Time available for the operation
  • Availability of capital
  • Number/ type of enterprises on the farm
  • Availability of tractor hire services/ availability of other sources of power
  1. (a)
  • Incorporating manure into  the soil/ stirring the soil
  • Breaking soil clods
  • Leveling the seed bed
  • Covering broadcasted seeds
  • Gathering/ removing trash


  • Clean after use
  • Store in a shed
  • Repair/ replace any broken tine/ part
  • Apply oil for long storage


  • Ox- drawn harrow is cheaper than a tractor- drawn harrow
  • Ox – drawn harrow can be used where tractor drawn harrows cannot be used
  • Clean after work storing in a shed
  • Tighten loose nuts
  • Replacing worn- out parts
  • Greasing moving parts
  • Oiling/ painting for long storage
  1. (a)
  • Decrease the angle of cut
  • Use of hydraulic/ draught control lever
  • Adding weights on the plough beam
  • Raising the land wheel


  • To avoid injury
  • To make disc plough last longer
  • To make disc plough work efficiently
  • To reduce replacement/ maintenance cost


  • Saves time
  • Improves efficiency
  • Saves on labour cost
  • Reduces drudgery/ less tedious
  1. (a)
  • To make a vertical cut into the soil that separate the furrow slice from the unploughed land
  • Cut trash which would prevent the share from penetrating deep into the soil


  • Lubricate moving parts
  • Adjust the tyre pressure
  • Replace worn-out tyres
  • Tighten loose nuts and bolts
  • Proper storage/ in shed
  • Clean after use
  • Paint the trailer
  • Repair broken parts
  • Poor quality work unless under strict supervision/ poor skill of the operator
  • Not readily available leading to late land
  • Preparation
  • Disc harrow
  • Spring tine harrow/ rigid tine harrow/ ox- tine harrow
  • Spike toothed harrow/ peg toothed harrow
  • Chain harrow
  • Rotavator
  • Zigzag harrows
  1. (a)
  • If a farmer has inadequate capital
  • If a farmer has little load to carry
  • If the area is too steep to use a tractor


  • Tighten loose nuts and bolts
  • Straighten bent/ repair worn out/ broken parts
  • Store in a dry  place
  • Apply oil on exposed metal parts when plough is not  in use
  • Repaint the appropriate parts when necessary









  1. (a)
  • Training the labour force
  • Giving incentives to employees
  • Efficient supervision of labour
  • Assigning specific tasks  to workers
  • Proper remuneration  of a worker
  • Provide efficient tools
  • Mechanization of some operations
  • Provide transport within the farm


This is the production in which each addition unit of input results to a larger increase in output than the proceeding unit of input


  • Short term credit
  • Medium term credit
  • Long term credit
  1. (a)

Opportunity cost is the value of foregone best alternative/ revenue  foregone because of choosing the best alternative


Refers to the raw materials used up in the process of production, e.g. seeds, fuel fertilizer, feeds


Utility is the satisfaction one gets by using a commodity

  1. (a)
  • Borrowing from financial institutions/ individuals co-operative/ credit
  • Person savings from ones income
  • Inheritance/ gifts/ donations


  • Assists the farmer in estimation of the required production resources
  • Assists the framer when negotiating for farm credit
  • Assist the farmer in making management decisions when comparing alternative projects
  • Help to reduce uncertainty in farming process
  • Encouraging farmers to efficient as to meet the projected targets
  •  Show progress/ lack of progress in the farm  business/ focus  profit  or foresee losses
  1. (a) Fixed costs are those that do not change with the level  of production while variables costs are those that change  with level  of production


  • Casual labour costs
  • Fertilizer/ manure  costs
  • Costs of  chemicals
  • Cost  of fuel
  • Costs of repair  of machinery
  • Cost of  hiring  machinery


  • Planning helps in selection  of the best enterprise/ production option to undertake
  • Helps  in setting  production  targets/ goals
  • Helps in allocation  of resources  to various enterprises
  • Helps to  identify  the weakness  and strength of farm operations
  • Helps in timely  and careful considerations  in decision making
  • Assists in negotiation of credit
  • Maximize use  of resources
  • To compare the performance  of one farm  with another
  • To compare the performance of the farm  between  one season and another
  • To compare the contribution  of one enterprise and another on the same farm
  • Acts as a measure  of profit  in a farm



  1. (a)
  • Zone I. For each addition unit of fertilizer applied,  the output of  potatoes increases at an increasing rate because  resources are under utilized
  • Zone II. For each additional unit of fertilizer applied, the out put of potatoes increases at a decreasing rate as the resources  are utilized to the maximum
  • Zone III. For each additional unit of fertilizer applied the out put of potatoes decreases since the resource is excessively applied.

(b) Zone II


  • Flexibility in production.
  • Produce under contract
  • Input rationing/appropriate allocation of resource input.
  • Insurance of the crop.
  • Use of modern technology e.g. disease resistant varieties,
  • Use of pesticides and fungicides, use of fertilizers.
  1.  (a)
  • Training/ educating labour force
  • Mechanizing farm operations/proper working tools.
  • Giving incentive/proper housing/transport bonuses.
  • Supervision of labour
  • Assign specific tasks to workers.
  • Proper remuneration
  • Assigning tasks according to skills/ability/interest.


  • Improvement in quality of work/quality of produce.
  • Reduced time of performing a given work.
  • Increase in returns per unit of labour.


  • Amount of work/ task performed e.g. kg of tea leaves picked per head.
  • Duration of work e.g. 30/= per hour/day.
  • Labour regulations/market rates
  • Nature of work
  • Quality of work/skill of labour


  • Amount of money to be paid to them as wages.
  • Number of people in the labour market
  • Health /fitness of the work force
  • Ability/skills of the labour force
  • Working conditions/incentives
  • Nature of work


  • Adopting modern methods of production
  • Flexibility in production methods
  • Input rationing
  • Taking insurance cover
  • Selecting more reliable enterprises
  • Diversification.


  • Provides employment
  • Source of food
  • Earns the country foreign exchange
  • Source-of raw materials for industries
  • Provide market for industrial goods
  • Source of income for farmers
  • Improves infrastructure relationship.


  • Maximize profit
  • To maximize cost of production
  • To spread/ reduce risks
  1. (a)
  • Milk and butter
  • Beef and hide
  • Honey and wax
  • Mutton and wool
  • Pork/bacon and bristles
  • Rabbit meat and skin/pelts
  • Mutton and skin


    • Feeds
    • Pesticide
    • Replacement stock
    • Veterinary services
    • Drugs
    • Casual labour
    • Packing materials e.g trays and carton boxes


(i) V=48-39 = 9



W= 32-27 = 5



X=23-21 =2



Y= 20-19 =1



L.C.C occurs where MRS =

L.C.C.                   X1



Where ∆= change

P= price

X1= dairy meal

X2= Home made feed

8= 4


L.C.C. is where MRS = 4 I.E where 5 units of dairy meals are mixed with 23 units of home made feed.

  1. (a)
  • Joint products
  • Competitive products
  • Supplementary products
  • Complimentary products
  1. b) (i) Production function is the physical relationship between inputs and output (products). The quantity of product expected from a certain-combination of in put.

(ii)  Equi-marginal returns states that limited amounts of resources should be allocated in such away that the marginal returns those resources is the same in all alternative to which they are put.

  • Crop boards/marketing board/statutory boards.
  • Commercial banks
  • Cooperative societies
  • Agricultural finance corporation (A.F.C)
  • Settlement  fund trustees
  • Private money lenders/Non –Governmental Organizations (NGOS ) insurance companies/ Hire purchase companies.

13 a)

  • Costs of feeds
  • Wages casual labour
  • Cost of pesticide / chemicals/drugs
  • Cost of insemination services


  • depreciation of machinery /buildings
  • Land rent
  • Salaries of regular/permanent labour
  • Interest on borrowed capital

14 (a)

  • Partial budget is prepared when minor changes are to be made in an enterprise
  • Complete budget is spread when major changes are to be made in an enterprise/ starting arrow enterprise.


  • Diversification of enterprises to avoid total loss
  • Insurance against tosses to maintain high liquidity/for compensation /to access money easily for any eventuality.
  • Strategic farming/keeping crops produce and selling when prices are high.
  • Flexible enterprises-engage in enterprises that can be stopped and changed
  • Rationing of inputs use of insufficient inputs such that incase of failure losses are not too high.
  • Contracting for marketing-making arrangements with marketing agencies in advance.
  • Selection of more certain enterprises/ selection of enterprises that can do well in an area/section of enterprises with ready market and less price fluctuation to reduce degree of risk.


















  1. (a)
    • Journal
    • Cash book
    • Ledger
    • Inventory
  1. b)
    • Shows the assets and liabilities of the farm business,
    • Shows farm net worth/net capital/ owners worth/ can be used to negotiate for credit/correct income tax assessment,
    • Used in decision making;
    • Show profit or loss.











  1.  -Ten members


    • Number of sellers
    • Price of the commodity
    • Availability/ seasonally of the commodity / weather.
    • Technique of production
    • Market information
    • Transportation
    • Price expectations of the commodity.
    • Government policy/taxation.


  • Price fluctuations/ low prices
  • Lack of transportation.
  • perish ability of some products
  • poor storage facilities.
  • Competition with substitute products.
  • Delayed payments
  • Some government policy


  • Kenya Planters Co-operative Union
  • Coffee Board of Kenya.
  1. Marketing is the performed of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producers to consumers.
  2. An imperfect market is g situation in which some buyers, some setters or both have limited knowledge of goods and services offered for sale at various prices.
  3. The price of mangoes will go down.


  • Milk is highly perishable we hence needs cool storage which the farmer may not afford.
  • Lack of vehicles/poor roads/high transportation costs
  • Containers for handling milk are expensive.
  • Lack of market information
  • Price fluctuation.
  • Delayed payments.
  1. a) The quantity of the product demanded varies inversely with the price 7 as the price declines the corresponding quantity demanded rises and as the price increases the corresponding quantity demanded falls. (Mark as a whole)
  • Advertisements/ sales promotions
  • Price of related goods, price of the goods,
  • Level of income
  • Price expectations
  • Tastes and preferences.
  • Tastes and preferences
  • Population,
  • Religious beliefs / taboos.


  • Elasticity of demand of a commodity is the percentage in quantity demanded of a commodity resulting from a percentage change in existing price.
  • The degree of responsiveness of quantity demanded, to a- percentage change in existing price.
  • Buy farmers produce / delegates buying to an approved agent
  • Arrange for supply of inputs.
  • Fix prices of farm produce in consultation with the government.
  • Collect farm produce from areas of production to the stores/factories.
  • Inspect the production process to ensure and maintain quality of the produce.
  • Provide storage facilities for farmers produce.
  • Provide credits to farmers,
  • Provide technical advice on production/extension services where applicable
  • Process farm produce e.g. K.T.D.A.
  • Undertake research services on techniques of production
  • Sell farm produce for farmers
  • Regulate production to prevent under supply of the produce.
  • Pack/package the farm produce.
  • Invest accrues profits.
  • Advertise/promote sales of the produce.



  • Members buy inputs at lower prices.
  • Has easy access to credit facilities from the society.
  • Gets advice/education from the society.
  • Society share overhead costs with the member.
  • Society share overhead costs with the member.
  • Provide special services e.g. A.I, Banking
  • Bar society bargains for better milk price on behalf of the member.

(i)        Most agricultural produce are perishable hence, farmers incur extra costs in transportation-processing/storage/incur losses due to spoilage.

  • Most of them are bulky, occupy large space/expensive to transport.
  • Poor transport network/lack of vehicles lead to loss due to spoilage.
  • Most of them are seasonal; hence create storage problems/over supply at times leading to price fluctuation.
  • Due to bulkiness they are expensive to store/difficult to store.
  • Due to changes in market demand, there is time e.g. between decision to produce and actual availability of the product making it difficult to respond immediately to market demand.
  •  Change in supply due to under/over production/competition from cheap imports cause price fluctuation.
  • Lack of perfect market information makes selling difficult/many farmers are ignorant on the prevailing prices of their produce in other parts of the country.
  • Delayed payments lead to lack of capital for farm operations.


  • Itinerant traders/ middlemen buy and resell produce from farmers.
  • Processors / Manufacturers buy and process produce from farmers.
  • Wholesalers- Buy produce in bulk from farmers and resell/ process.
  • Brokers / Commission agents- acts on behalf of other business people for a fee commission.
  • Co-operative societies/ unions- buy farmers produce locally.
  • Marketing boards- promote production and marketing of agricultural produce/buy produce from farmers.
  • Retailers- buy from wholesalers and resell to consumers.


  • Price of related commodity.
  • Price of the commodity.
  • Size of population of consumers,
  • Tastes and preference of consumers.
  • Income of consumers.
  • Advertisements/sales promotion
  • Government policy
  • Price expectations.
  • Religious beliefs/religious taboos/ cultural beliefs.



Elasticity of demand = % ∆ in quantity

% ∆ in price

∆ in price quantity = 22-20 = bags

% ∆ in price => 22-20 = 10%


∆ in price =. 100-800 = 200/=

% ∆ in price 200 x 100= 20%


Elasticity of demand =10%= 0.5


  1. (a)
  • Carrying out advertisement of the farm to increase demand
  • Finance agricultural activities.
  • Transportation of farm produce to areas of consumption.
  • Storage of farm produce to minimize losses/ as a marketing strategy.
  • Selling the produce on behalf of the farmers.
  • Packing/package farm produce to ease transport/ reduce storage space.
  • Grade farm produce to provide uniform standards/ cater for various consumers.
  • Process farm produce from areas of production for bulking/ transportation
  • Protect the farm produce from damage by use of chemicals/ insurance/ bear risks.
  • Buy from produce from the producers.
  • Gather, analyze and interpret market information to determine appropriate market and price.


  • Co-operators pool their resources together to buy expensive machinery e.g tractor for use by farmers.
  • Provide education/technical information to members.
  • Provide credits to members inform of inputs and cash.
  • Negotiate for higher produce prices for members.
  • Reduce overhead costs e.g transportation, storage and use of machinery.
  • Bargain with suppliers to give discount on seed fertilizer and other farm inputs /provide inputs at lower prices.
  • Provide employment for their members and other people.
  • Benefits farmers from lower taxes charged
  • Market farmers produce.
  • Provide strong bargaining power for members on policy issues.
  • Invests and pay dividends to members.
  • Help to negotiate loans for their members without security.
  • Provides banking services to it’s members.
  • Perishability of the produce.
  • Inadequate supply to spread supply over a long period.
  • Drastic changes in supply/seasonality.
  • Poor infrastructure e.g. poor roads no vehicles/piped water/ telephone / electricity,
  • Bulkiness
  • Lack of market information,
  • Delayed payments.


Mr. Rambo’s farm balance sheet as at 31-12-95

 KshsCts KshsCts
Fixed  Long term  
Buildings and structures60000 Loan payable Dank300,000
Five cows250,000=  =
400 layer  80,000=  =
20 goats  30,000=  =
Spray equipment  12,000=  =
Current  Current  
Cattle feeds in store10,000 Debts to co-p20,000=
Animal drugs in store4,000=Bonus payable to workers19,000 
Debts receivable18,000=Breakages and repair30,000
Cash at hand20,000=   
Cash at bank30,000   

Total Assets




Total  liabilities





TOTAL1054,000 TOTAL1054,000 
 KshsCts KshsCts
Fixed  Long term  
Buildings and structures600000 Loan payable dank300,000
Five cows250,000=  =
400 layer80,000=  =
20 goats30,000=  =
Spray equipment12,000=  =
Current  Current  
Cattle feeds in store10,000 Debts to co-p20,000=
Animal drugs in store4,000=Bonus payable to workers19,000 
Debts receivable18,000=Breakages and repair30,000
Cash at hand20,000=   
Cash at bank30,000   

Total Assets




Total liabilities





TOTAL1054,000 TOTAL1054,000 




(a) Cash account;       is a record that shows all cash receipts and payments,

Ledger:                      This is a financial book that shows all financial transactions in the farm business in a summarized form,

Balance sheet:           This is a financial statement that shows the value of assets and

liabilities of a business at the end of an accounting period.

Purchase order.         This is a financial document drawn by a buyer to a supplier

requested goods on credit.


  • Permanent goods inventor
  • Consumable goods inventory.
Opening valuation6,000.00Pig sales7,000.00
Wages5,000.00Piglet sales4,000.00
Equipment8,000.00Maize sales3,000.00
Pig feeds4,000.00Closing valuation4,000.00
TOTAL26,200,00 2,600.00


Marks allocation

(i)        Correct columns (sales & receipts) ½ mk

(ii)       Purchases & expenses ½ mk

(iii)      Correct entries –         Sales & receipts – ½ mk

Purchases & expenses – ½ mk

(iv)      Correct totals – sales & receipts – ½ mk

(v)       Purchases & expenses – ½ mk

(vi)      Correct balance / profit/ loss ½ mk

3 ½ mk

(vii)     Mrs. Mbuta made loss


  1. (a) it is an entry in a financial statement showing the worth of all assets of an

enterprise at the beginning of an accounting period

(b) (i)

  • Issued to the buyer as evidence of cash  payments for goods or services rendered
  • Used for requisition for the supply of  goods/ services on credit
  • Given to the buyer by the seller as evidence of goods supplied




SECTION A (30 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided


  1. Differentiate between Olericulture and pomocullure as used in crop production

( 1 mk)

  1. State three ways by which biological agents can enhance the process of soil formation

( 1 ½ mk)

  1. State four advantages of drip irrigation ( 2 mks)
  2. State four advantages of adding organic manure to a sandy oil ( 2 mks)
  3. State two factors that would determine the amount of fertilizer to be top dressed to a

crop in the field                                                                                         ( 1 mk)

  1. State four advantages of applying lime as a measure of improving soil condition

( 2 mks)

  1. Give four reasons for using certified seeds for planting ( 2 mks)
  2. Give four reasons for planting crops at the correct spacing ( 2 mks)
  3. State three effects of soil erosion ( 2 mks)
  4. Name four methods used to control weeds in pastures ( 2 mks)
  5. State two benefits of conserving forage crops ( 2 mks)
  6. Mention four practices that should be carried out to maintain grass pasture

( 1  ½ mks)

  1. Define the following terms as used in agriculture economics

(a) Gross domestic product (GDP)                                                    ( 1 ½ mks)

(b) Per capita income                                                                         ( ½ mks)

  1. What is profit maximization in agriculture economics? ( ½ marks)
  2. State four benefits of budgeting to a farm manager ( 2 mks)
  3. Give two reasons why farmers keep farm accounts
  4. State activities carried out by young farmers club in Kenya ( 2 mks)
  5. State four ways by which afforestation helps in land reclamation ( 2 mks)
  6. State three advantages of multiple stem pruning over single stem pruning in coffee

( 1 ½ mks)

SECTION B (20 mks)

Answer ALL the questions in this  section in the  spaces provided

  1. Two maize pests are shown in the diagram below. Study them and answer the

questions that follow,








(a) Identify the pests in the diagram labeled A and B                                               ( 1 mk)

(b) at what stage of maize production does each damage the crop?

(c) Give one way of controlling each of the pests in the field

21 (a) state the law of diminishing returns in a production process

(b) Use the information on the table below to answer the questions that follow

Fertilizer input ( units)Maize yield (bags)Marginal productions (bags)


The cost of fertilizer is Kshs 1500 per unit and the price of maize  is Kshs 1200 per bag.

(i)        At what unit of fertilizer input should the  farmer  be advised to stop applying any more fertilizer to the maize?                                       ( 1mk)

(ii)       Give a reason for your answer in (b) above

(iii)      Calculate the marginal return at the point  of optimum production ( 1mk)


  1. (a) Describe the procedure which should be followed in spraying a crop in tomatoes using a fungicide in powder form, water and a knapsack sprayer. (3mks)


(b)       Name one fungal disease of tomatoes that can be controlled using the above procedure.                                                                               (1mks)

  1. c) State four safety measures that should be taken while spraying the crop with the fungicide. (2mks)
  2. The diagram below shows a weed















  1. a) Identify the weed (1mk)
  2. b) State two reasons for controlling the weed.                                                 (2mks)
  3. c) Name two herbicides that can be used to control the weed in a field

of maize                                                                                                          (1mk)

  1. d) A t what stage of growth of maize should the weed be controlled using

a post emergence herbicide?



Answer any TWO questions in this section in the spaces provided at the end of the section.


  1. Describe the establishment of kales under the following sub – headings:
  2. a) Nursery preparation
  3. b) Establishment in the nursery
  4. c) Management of seedlings in the nursery.
  5. d) Transplanting of seedlings.
  6. a) Outline the factors necessary for proper functioning of farmers’

co-operative societies in Kenya.                                                       (5mks)

  1. b) Explain how farmers overcome risks and uncertainties in

a farming business.

  1. c) Describe the steps farmers should follow when planning a farm business
  2. a) List various methods of harvesting water in a farm
  3. b) Outline farming activities which may encourage soil erosion.
  4. c) Explain how various farming practices would help to conserve soil

in a farm.




Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Name a breed of sheep with a Lambing percentage of above 125 and whose fleece may be inferior due to black fibres. (1mk)
  2. List two appropriate hand tools needed to finish off the handle of a fork-jembe. (1mk)
  3. What is “cropping” in fish farming? (1mk)
  4. State four functions of lubrication system in a tractor.                         (2mks)
  5. Give four maintenance practices carried out on the water cooling system of a tractor.             (2mks)
  6. State reasons why a farmer would choose to use a disc plough rather than a mould board plough. (2mks)
  7. State four construction features necessary in a fish pond. (2mks)
  8. Give four ways in which disease causing organisms can gain access into a newly born calf (2mks)
  9. State four ways of controlling tsetse flies. (2mks)
  10. Give two predisposing factors of foot-rot in sheep. (1mk)
  11. State four factors which should be considered when selecting dairy goats for breeding. (2mks)
  12. Give four reasons why camels are suited to living in arid areas. (2mks)
  13. Name two functions of the crop in the digestive system of chicken.             (1mk)
  14. State four methods of dehorning (2mks)
  15. Mention six causes of stress to a flock of layers. (3mks)
  16. State four functions of the worker bees in a bee colony. (2mks)
  17. State four features of a good pig house. (2mks)



Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. (a)      A diagram of a planter is shown below. Study it and answer the questions

that follow.
















(i)      Identify the parts labelled A, B, C, and D,                                           (2mks)


A         ______________________

B         ______________________

C         ______________________

D         ______________________

(ii)      State two maintenance practices carried out on the planter.                         (2mks)


  1. b) Study the diagrams of workshop tools shown below










(i)        Identify the tools labeled E and F                                                      (1mk)

E          __________________

F          __________________

(ii)       What functional advantage does tool E have over tool F?                (1mk)


  1. The diagram below represents a calf pen. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow.
















(a)       (i)        Identify the type of floor.                                                       (½ mk)

(ii)       How high should the floor be raised above the ground level? (1mk)


(b)       (i)        Give one reason for having the floor of the calf pen raised.             (1mk)

(ii)       State three factors that should be considered in sitting the calf pen. (3mks)

  1. (a) Define the term digestible Crude  Protein (DCP)                             (½ mk)


(b)       A farmer wanted to prepare a 200kg of calf rearing ration containing 20% DCP. Using the Pears Square Method, calculate the amount of Maize containing 10% DCP and Sunflower containing 35% DCP the farmer would need to prepare the ration. (Show your work)                                   (4mks)


  1. A diagram of a cow is shown below. Study it and answer the questions that follow.















(a)       Name the parts labeled G, H, I and J.


G         ____________________

H         ____________________

I           ____________________

J          ____________________

(b)       Name four parts of the animal preferred by a two host tick.                        (2mks)





Answer any TWO questions in this section in the spaces provided at the end of the section.

  1. a) Outline the procedure followed when hand spraying cattle to ensure

effective use of acaricides to control ticks.                           (10mks)

  1. b) Discuss Foot and Mouth disease under the following headings:

(i)        Casual organisms.                                                                  (1mk)

(ii)       Livestock species attacked.                                                    (2mks)

(iii)      Symptoms of attack.                                                              (4mks)

(iv)      Control measures.                                                                  (3mks)


  1. a) Describe the management practices that a farmer should carry out to

improve milk production in a low yielding herd of dairy cattle.     (15mks)

  1. b) Describe the management practices that would ensure maximum yield of fish in a fish pond. (5mks)


  1. a) What are the advantages of farm mechanization?                            (6mks)
  2. b) Explain the differences between a two stroke and a four stroke cycle engine. (6mks)
  3. c) Outline the daily maintenance practices that should be carried out on a farm tractor (8mks)






  1. Olericulture is growing of vegetables while pomocuhure is growing of fruits

(Mark as whole)                                                                                             1mk

  • Movements of animals in large numbers
  • Decomposition of plants and animals remains by soil micro-organism
  • Physical breaking of rocks by roots of higher plants
  • Man’s activities e.g. cultivation, mining and road construction
  • Mixing up of soil burrowing animals e.g. earth worms and termites

Any 3 x 1 ½ =(1 ½ mks)


  • Little amount of water is used/economics water use
  • Reduces incidences of certain leaf diseases/ Fugal discs
  • Can be used in sloppy areas because there is no risk of surface run off/no risk of soil erosion
  • Water under low pressure can be used
  • Some fertilizers and pesticides can be applied with irrigation water.
  • Minimizes growth of weeds                                                   (Any 4 x ½ = (2mks)


  • Adds nutrients.
  • Increases  microbial activity in the soil
  • Improves water holding capacity/reduces leaching/ improves capillarity
  • Buffers soil PH
  • Moderates soil PH
  • Moderates soil temperatures


  • Type of cop-soil nutrient status
  • Stage of growth of crop
  • Expected yield


  • Lowers soil acidity raises soil ph(modifies ph
  • Increases the calcium content of organic matter
  • Improves soil structure through flocculation of soil particles/improves drainage.
  • Facilities the availability and absorption of Nitrogen and prosperous
  • Improves legume nodulation and N fixation
  • Encourages multiplication of micro-organization in the soil


  • Free from foreign materials e.g. weeds
  • Gives rise to vigorously growing plants
  • Have high germination percentage
  • Free from pest and diseases attack/healthy
  • True to type not contaminated                                               (Any 4x ½ = 2mks)


  • Easy to determine plant population in a given area
  • Ensure high quality produce.
  • Ensures high production
  • Facilities optimum use of nutrient moisture and light
  • Permits use of machines when carrying on subsequent farm operations
  • Facilities control of pests and e.g. ground



  • Pollution of the environment
  • Loss of plant nutrients and soil microorganisms
  • Siltation of dams and rivers
  • Reduction of soil depth
  • Destruction aid farm structures                                             ( Any 4 x ½ = 2 mks)


  • Burning pasture during grazing season, cultural method
  • Moving/physical method
  • Use of biological agents/ Biological methods


  • Provide feed during period of scarcity/ distribute available forage for livestock through the year
  • Ensure better and proper utilization of land
  • Can be sold for money


  • Top dress with N fertilizers occasionally/ apply manure
  • Control weed
  • Practice controlled grazing to avoid denudation
  • Cut back dry and unpalatable stems to encourage fresh re-growth/ topping
  • Re- seeding when necessary
  • Irrigation when necessary
  • Control of pest                                                                                    (Any 4 x ½ = 2 mks)

13 (a)

GDP- is the sum total of goods and services produced by a country within a period of one year.                                                                 (1 x ½ = ½ mk)


  • To keep check on income and expenditure / profit and loss
  • To know which activities are financially viable/ weakness and strength of the business
  • To obtain knowledge of the total value of the farm/ the value of assets and liabilities for farm planning
  • To assess credit worthiness
  • To provide information for tax purposes
  • Organizing agriculture field days for the local community
  • Participating in agricultural exchange programs both locally and internationally

(Any 4 x ½ = 1 ½ mk)


  • Organizing and participating in annual YFC rallies and camps
  • Participating and completing in ASK show activities e.g livestock judging
  • Planting trees/ carrying out agricultural project in schools
  • Organizing agricultural field days for the local community.
  • Participating in agriculture exchange programs both locally and internationally.

(Any 4 x ½ = 2 mks)


  • Adds- organisms matters
  • Recycles soil nutrients
  • Helps to control soil erosion
  • Improves drainage of swampy areas
  • Plays an important part in the hydrogical

B- Trapping and killing

Use of scare crows/ scaring

Poisoning/ rodenticide usage                                                 1×1      = ( 1 mk)


(a)       The law state that “if successive units of one input are added to fixed units of other inputs, a point is eventually reached where additional output per additional unit of input will decline”                                                      ( mark as a whole)

(i)        At the end of the third unit of fertilizers application

(ii)       This is the least profitable unit of fertilizer application beyond which there would be a loss

(iii)      Marginal returns (MR) at the point of optimum production

MR = Kshs 1200 x 2 = 2400/=

  1. (a)
  • Read the label/ the manufactures instruction
  • Measure the requirement amount of fungicide
  • Place it into a container and mix thoroughly
  • Powder has dissolved completed/ has formed slurry
  • Pour the mixture into the knapsack sprayer though the sieve
  • Spray the  mixture onto the crop

(b) Blight (late or early) powdery mixture                                                          ( 1 mk)


  • Spray following the direction of the wind
  • Wear protective clothing
  • Avoiding eating or smoking while handling fungicides
  • Avoid spillage of the fungicide/ avoid containing the environment
  • Do not suck/ blow a blocked nozzle                                      (Any 4 x Vi = (2 mks)


(a) blackjack/ Bidens pilosa


  • To avoid competition for nutrients, moisture arid light
  • Black jack seeds may contaminate some crops/ farm practice
  • Blackjack may be an alternate host to some pest e.g aphids which may attack crops like beans
  • Black jack seed prick and irritate workers                            (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

(c) –           MCPA

–           2, 4-D


(d)       At what stage if growth of maize should the weed controlled using a pest?

– 10 to 15 cm hi

– 2 to 4 week after emergence                                                            1 x 1 = 1 mk




  • Clear the place, if bushy
  • Dig/prepare the site to a desirable tilt/ Fine with
  • Remove roots and stone from the site
  • Prepare nursery beds 1- 1.54 wide by any convenient length
  • Prepare raised or sunken nursery bed depending on moisture content available
  • Level the Nursery bed                                                                        ( Any 4 x 1 = mks)


  • Make shallow furrow drills/ about 10cm apart
  • Apply phosphates fertilizers in the furrows/ Drill and mix with the soil
  • Sow seeds by drilling
  • Cover the seed lightly with soil
  • Apply some mulch after sowing seeds
  • Water the nursery thoroughly                                                            ( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


  • Remove the mulch as soon as seedling emerge
  • Water the nursery at least twice a day, preferably morning and late evenings
  • Remove weeds as they come up
  • Thin young seedlings if over crowded/ prick seedlings
  • Control diseases
  • Harden off the seedling/ remove shade gradually and reduce frequency of watering                                                                                    ( Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)


  • Water nursery thoroughly before transplanting
  • Dig the planting holes at appropriate depth
  • Select healthy seedlings
  • Uproot seedlings carefully with as much as possible to avoid root damage/ use a garden trowel
  • Transport seedling carefully to the end field using appropriate means
  • Transport on a cloudy day or late in the afternoon
  • Place insecticide in the hole to control soil borne pests
  • Place the seedling in the planting holes at the same depth they were in the nursery bed
  • Fill the hotels with soil and firm around the seedlings
  • Apply mulch or erect a shade
  • Water the seedling thoroughly                                               (Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)
  1. (a)
  • Availability of adequate funds or capital/ inputs
  • Training of personnel or availability of advisory services on managerial skills
  • Loyalty on the part of all farmers, co-operators and officials to support their organization
  • Proper and accurate record keeping and accountability for all operations
  • Efficiency with which produce from farm are marketed
  • Honest on the part of personnel with regard to the handling of co-operative finances
  • Timely payment of farmers dues


  • Diversification/ growing a variety of crop or having various enterprises so that if one fails has something to rely on.
  • Insurance against losses/ taking insurance policy for farming activities so that in case of failure the enterprises are covered.
  • Inventory marketing/ strategic farming keeping farm product and selling at when prices are favorable
  • Flexible enterprises engaging in enterprises that can be stopped or started early as condition change.
  • Rationing of inputs using just sufficient inputs such that in case of losses the cost are not too high
  • Using more certain husbandry practices using practices that the farmer is sure of  and has used in the pas.
  • Hedging/ contract marketing making arrangements with marketing agencies in advance so that changes in price after the arrangement do  not change the price of the farmer’s produce.
  • Selecting more certain enterprises selection of enterprises that the done well in the area/ tried though research                                                     ( Any 7 x 1 = 7mks)


  • Determination of the farmer’s objectives and preference in order to eliminate those production possibilities that are unsuccessful
  • Determination of available resources to the farmer in order to establish his/her abilities and limitations.
  • Determination of possible productive enterprises
  • Determination of tentative budget/ translation of physical plan into a  financial
  • Determination of yield f various enterprises
  • Development of financial  flow in order to establish the capital requirements
  • Examination of the plan to ensure that is is consistence, workable and desirable
  • Determination of government policies and regulation to make the plan realistic.

(Any 8 x 1 = 8 mks)

  1. (a)
  • Ponds/ water pumps
  • Dams/ weirs
  • Roof catchments
  • Rock catchments
  • Retention ditches/ level terraces


  • Continuous cropping without giving the land a rest
  • Burning
  • Ploughing along the slopes/ farming on step land
  • Deforestation
  • Ploughing along river banks
  • Cultivating when the soil is too dry or wet
  • Overgrazing/ overstocking
  • Flooding/ application of a large amount of water at high rate
  • Over cultivating the land to fine tilth/ pulverizing the soil


  • Mulching by reducing the speed of run- off and reducing the impact of raindrops
  • Contour farming by reducing the speed run off
  • Terracing effective length of the slope and consequently slowing down speed of running off
  • Planting trees/ holding soil particles together hence reducing effects of wind erosion and reducing the impact of rain drops
  •  Establishing and maintaining vegetated water; by reducing the impact of livestock on the soil erosion
  • Establishing trash lines/ sones lines by reducing speed of run- off an effects of  wind erosion





  1. Hampshiredown (1 mark)
  2. Cross cut saw/ Tenon saw/ Back saw/ spokes have/ circular plane 2 x ½ = 1 mk)
  3. Removal/ harvesting of marketable size fish from the pond (1 mk)
  4. Prevents metal engine parts from rusting
  • Promotes free movement of engine parts by reducing friction
  • Traps foreign materials e.g. soot, dirt and dust
  • Lowers engine temperature by conducting away excess heat
  • Helps in sealing compression between the piston and cylinder (4 x ½ =2mks)


  • Keeps radiator fins free of rubbish and dirt. Water pump lubricated regulated/ weekly
  • Ensure that the fen belt is tightly fitted/ proper tension/ lock bolts and nuts should be tightened
  • All pipes should be fitted tightly to avoid leakage
  • To up the level of water in the radiator before using the tractor

(4 x ½ =2mks)


  • Disc ploughs work better in dry/ sticky and hard soils than mould board plough
  • There is less hindrance to operations chances of breakages because the discs roll/ ride over obstacles
  • The maintenance costs of disc plough are lower than the moldboard.
  • Disc plough require less tractor- power to pull than moldboard


  • An outlet to drain off excess water
  • An inlet for fresh water supply
  • A spill way channel to take away excess water/ overflow water
  • A screen to prevent escaping of fish/ entry of unwanted objects/ fish
  • A fence to keep away predators/security
  • Dikes walls embankment/ leaves                                           ( 4 x ½ =2 mks)


  • Through the mough/ natural openings
  • Through umbilical cord
  • Through respiratory track
  • Through injury/ wounds on the body
  • Though bites by disease vectors                                            ( 4 x ½ = 2 mks)


  • Spraying insecticides the breeding places
  • Clearing the vegetation
  • Use of appropriate insecticides to spray cattle
  • Sterilization of the male tsetse flies                                      (4 x ½ = 2mks)


  • Overgrown hooves
  • Wet and muddy conditions
  • Physical foot injuries                                                             (2 x ½ = 1 mk)
  • High milk yields
  • Good health
  • Fast growth/ early maturity
  • High growth/ maturity
  • Good mothering ability
  • Good body conformation                                                       ( 4 x ½ = 2 mks)


  • They can browse and survive on poor vegetation
  • They have hooves with tardy pads which enable them to tra- verse large area sandy ground/ flat hooves
  • They can tolerant to high temperature/ have thick skins
  • They can travel long distances for several days with very little water
  • Store fats in humps/fats can be metabolized to metabolic
  • Long eye lashes to prevent entry of sand/ have nose flaps


  • Softening moistening of the food
  • Storage of food                                                                       ( 2 x ½ = 1 mks)


  • Using of caustic potash stick
  • Use of disbudding ron/ dehorning
  • Use of dehorning saw or wire
  • Use of rubber ring and elastrator
  • Use of dehorning collusion                                                    ( 4 x ½ = 2 mks)


  • Overcrowding
  • Pest infestation/ pest diseases
  • Noise/ strangers
  • Lack of food and water
  • Sudden change in routine/ management
  • Unbalanced diet
  • Fluctuation in temperature
  • Introducing new bird in the flock


  • Feeding the queen / the broods
  • Protecting the hive from intruders
  • Collecting nectar, pollen, gums and water/ Foraging
  • Cleaning the hive
  • Building combs and sealing cracks
  • Making honey bee wax
  • Scouting                                                                                  ( 4 x ½ mk= 2 mks)


  • Should be rain- proof/ leak proof
  • Should be well ventilated
  • Should be easy to clean
  • Should be well lit
  • Should have adequate space
  • Drought free
  • Good drainage                                                                                    (4 x ½ = 2 mks)



  1. (i) A- Furrow opener

B-        Fertilizer hopper

C-        seed hopper

D-        Press wheel                                                                 (4 x ½ = 2 mks)

Clean hopyjers/ tuirow openers after use

  • Lubricate/ grease moving parts
  • Replace worn out lost bolts and nuts


  • Check tension of chains/ drive sprockets before use
  • Tighten loose bolls and nuts                                                  (Any 2 x 1 = 2mks)

(b) (i)        E          – adjustable spanner

F          – Ring spanner                                                            (2 x ½ = 2mks)

(iii)      Tool E can be used for tightening or loosening more than two sizes of nuts and belts                     ( Rejects one is adjustable     ( 1 mk)

19        (a)

(i) Slatted floor                                                                       1 x1 = 1 mk

(ii) (H 40 – 60 cm high

(b) (i)

  • To allow urine and dung to pass through
  • To keep the floor dry                                                              ( Any 1x 1 = 1mk)


  • Prevailing direction of the wind
  • Safety/ security
  • Proximity to the dairy shed/ accessibility of the dairy shed
  • Drainage
  • Topography                                                                            ( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)
  1. (a) Term used to express that amount of the crude protein absorbed by an animal’s

body from a feed                                                                    (1 x ½ = 1mk)

(b) Pearson’s square method


Maize 10% DCP 35-                                                  20 = 15 parts of maize






Sunflower 35% DCP                                                  Sunflower

Amount of maize 15/25 x 200 = 120kg

Amount of sunflower 10/25 x 200 = 80 kg

Mark as shown in the diagram                                                           (4 x 1 = 4 mks)


21 (a)  G         –           Muzzle

H         –           Poll

I           –           Shoulder

J          –           Heart girth                                                      (4 x ½ = 2 marks)


(b)   Ear lobs/ deep in the ear



Under tail                                                                                (4 x ½ = 2mks)

  1. (a)
  • Spray the entire backline from my shoulder to the tail head
  • Spray the sides in a zigzag motion to trap me retain the wash from the backline
  • Spray the belly with me nozzle facing upward
  • Spray the scrotum/ udder and the hind flanks carefully
  • Spray both hind legs up to and including the heels
  • Spray under the tail head and the area around the anus and vulva
  • Hold the tail switch on to the rump and spray it thoroughly to ensure complete wetting
  • Spray the neck and the foreleg; from the flanks to the heels
  • Spray the head and face making sure that bases of the horns are thoroughly wetted,
  • Spray the inside of the ears (10 x 1 = 10 mks)
  • (b) (i) Causal organisms – Virus/ virus types O, A, C/ south African types

SAT1, SAT2,  SAT3,  / Asian type 1                               ( 1 x 1 = 1mk)



  • Cattle
  • Pigs
  • Goats
  • Sheep
  • Profuse salivation ( Any 2 x 1=2 mks)
  • Blisters which are painful around the mouth and hooves of the fect leading to lameness
  • Drop in milk production in lactating cows
  • Sharp rise in temperature/ high fever
  • Emaciation
  • Complete loss of appetite
  • Diarrhoea ( Any 4 x 4 = 4 mks)


(iv)      Quarantine

(a) Vaccination very 6 months

(b) Slaughter and destruction of carcass

(c) Regulations of livestock movement by issue of movement permits

(d) Burn/ bury dead animals


23 (a)

  • Select good animals on the basis of high yielding cows
  • Select animal with good health
  • Select animals having high fertility
  • Select animal having good dairy conformation
  • Cull poor producers
  • Use superior bulls/ semen from superior bulls to service the cows
  • Mate heifers when fully mature considering weight/ age
  • Breed cows 60- 90 days after calving to maintain after calving interval of one year
  • Keep animals health by routine vaccination
  • Control internal parasites by routine drenching using appropriate drugs
  • Treat sick animals
  • Avoid physical injuries to the animals/ predisposing disease factors
  • Improve sanitation/ cleanliness in the farm
  • Feed the cattle on a balanced diet
  • Give adequate feeds
  • Give clean and uncontaminated feed
  • Provide plenty of clean water
  • Provide minerals/ vitamins
  • Provide housing/ avoid overcrowding/ provide shelter that is leak proof
  • Use proper milking techniques
  • Milk at regular intervals                                                        ( Any15 x 1 = 15mks)



  • Control stocking rage
  • Control of water pollution
  • Supply adequate feed regularly
  • Provide appropriate feed
  • Aerate the eater by ensuring constant inflow and outflow of water
  • Control predators
  • Harvest fish at the correct maturity stage
  • Maintain appropriate water level in the fish pond always
  • Add manure or fertilizer in pond to encourage growth of planktons

(Any 5x 1 = 5 mks)

  1. (a)
  • Farm operations can be achieved on time
  • Large area can be covered within a short time
  • Reduce drudgery/ makes work easy and enjoyable
  • Better job is done mechanically than human labor/ increased efficiency
  • High yields are obtained because farm operations are carried out on tme
  • Pest and disease outbreak can be controlled relatively in a shorter time
  • Tends to encourage farmers to consolidate their land
  • Farmers benefit from economies of scale
  • Use less labor                                                                         ( Any 6 x 1 = 6 mks)




  • Cheap to buy and easy to maintain
  • Produce less power/ do less heavy
  • Mainly air cooled
  • Inefficient in fuel and oil utilization
  • Easy to transport to different areas of the farm land e.g hilly areas\
  • Require two complete upward and downwards movements of to be position, and one revolution of crankshaft
  • There is no provision of oil in the sump, during induction, to lubricate the crankshaft
  • Simple in construction with no valves
  • Has 2 openings exhaust



  • Expensive to buy and maintain
  • Produce more power/ do heavy work
  • Efficient in fuel and oil utilization
  • Mainly water cooled
  • Difficult to transport easily due to weight
  • Require 4 complete upwards and downwards
  • 2 revolutions of 1 he crankshaft
  • Engine have oil in the sump to lubricate the crankshaft bearings
  • Complex in constructions with two valves ( inlet and outlet)
  • Has no parts and inductors ports                                            (Any 6x 1 = 6 mks)


  • Using a dip – stick to check the level of oil in the sump
  • Check the fuel tank to ensure there is adequate fuel for the day’s job
  • Check the level of the electrolyte in the battery and adjust accordingly.
  • Grease/oil moving parts
  • Check-fan belt. Tension’ and condition and adjust accordingly
  • Check level of water in radiator and top up if necessary
  • Check air cleaner to ensues that there is no dirt/check level of oil
  • Check tyre pressure  before work and adjust accordingly
  • Tighten bolts, nuts and pins
  • Open  and remove the dirt from sediments bowels

(Any 8×1=8 marks)




Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Give four conditions of the land which may make it necessary to carry out reclamation practices.    [2marks]
  2. List three physical weathering agents in the soil formation process             [11/2]
  3. State two mechanical methods of separating soil particles according to size during soil analysis [1marks]
  4. Give two benefits of possessing a land Title Deed to a farmer. [1mark            ]
  5. Give four advantages of crop rotation             [2 marks]
  6. State four factors that should be considered when classifying crop pest
  7. State three functions of boron in crop development. [11/2]
  8. Outline four observable indicators of economic development of a nation                                                                                                             [2marks]
  9. Give three factors that may influence the price of an agricultural commodity.[11/2]
  10. Name three examples of leguminous fodder crops. [11/2]
  11. Give two factors that may determine the size of a pit for silage making [1mark]
  12. Give three reasons for controlling weeds in pastures. 11/2
  13. State six characteristics of a productive soil. ( 3 mks)
  14. State any five qualities that should be considered when selecting seeds for planting ( 2 ½ mk)

15        (a) State four practices which encourage soil erosion                      ( 2 mks)

(b) Name two forms of gulley erosion                                              ( 1 mk)

  1. (a) State four advantages of land consolidation ( 2 mks)

(b) Give two advantages of leasehold tenure system in farming      ( 1 mk)



Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided


  1. The table below shows the demand and supply of potatoes at UKULIMA market.


Price (Kshs)Quantity demanded (in bags)Quantity supplied (in bags)


(a)       Using suitable scales, draw and label a graph showing the relationship between the demand and supply of the potatoes at UKULIMA market.               (5mks)

(b)       What is the equilibrium price of the potatoes?                                             ( 1 mk)

(c)       From the graph determine:

(i)        The number of  bags of potatoes that would be bought if the price per bag is Kshs 900/=                                                                                          ( 1 mk)


(ii)       The price of a bag of potatoes if 180 bags are supplied                    ( 1 mk)

  1. The diagrams labeled A1, A2, A3, and B below illustrate materials and methods of vegetative propagation. Study them and answer the questions that follow.























(a) Name the parts labeled A1, and A2                                                           ( 2 mks)



(b) Name the methods of propagation illustrated in diagrams A3 and B      ( 2 mks)



  1. Study the crop illustrated in the diagram below and answer the questions that follow
















(a)       Name one insect pest which attacks the part labeled C1 and one disease which attacks the part labeled C2                                           (2 mks)



  1. A member of young farmers club was advised to apply a complete fertilizer 30: 20:10 in a tomato plot measuring 10m long by 5m wide at the rate of 300kg per hectare

(a)       State the percentage of P205 in the complete fertilizer         ( 1 mk)

(b)       Calculate the amount of fertilizer the member would require for the plot

(2 mks)           (Show your working)



  1. The diagrams labeled D and E below are illustrations of coffee established using two different formative pruning systems. Study them and answer the questions that follow.





















(a) Name the system of pruning illustrated in diagram D above                              ( 1mk)

(b) Outline how the pruning system illustrated in diagram E is carried out                        (2mks)


Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided after questions 24


  1. (a) Describe the field production of irrigated rice under the following sub-headings

(i) Land preparation                                                                           ( 7 mks)

(ii) Water control                                                                               ( 6 mks)

(b) Describe the management of trees grown under various agro- forestry systems

( 7 mks)

  1. (a) Describe the problems of marketing of agricultural produce ( 10 mks)


(b) Discuss the importance of budgeting in agricultural production      ( 10 mks)


  1. (a) Discuss the importance of irrigation if farming ( 12 mks)


(b) Explain the factor that influence the type of irrigation to be used in a farm

( 8 mks)



SECTION A (30 marks)

Answer ALL the questions in this section in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Give two reasons for using litter in a poultry house.             (1mk)
  2. Name two diseases of poultry that are controlled by vaccination. (1mk)
  3. State two factors that could lead to failure to conceive in sows after service. (1mk)
  4. Give tow causes of scouring in calves. (1mk)
  5. State three factors that would determine the amount of concentrate fed to

dairy cattle.                                                                                         (1 ½ marks)

  1. Give three ways of stimulating milk let-down in a dairy cow. (1 ½ marks)
  2. State tow reasons for dehorning cattle. (1mk)
  3. List two equipment used in handling cattle during an agricultural exhibition.(1mk)
  4. State three signs of anthrax infection disease observed in the carcass

of cattle.                                                                                              (1 ½ mks)

  1. Give three effects of external parasites that are harmful to livestock. (1 ½ mks)
  2. State four factors to consider when siting a fish pond. (2mks)
  3. State three adjustments that should be carried out on a tractor – mounted mouldboard plough in preparation for ploughing. (1 ½ mks)
  4. a) Name four breeds of dairy goats.                                                       (2mks)
  5. b) Mention two distinguishing characteristics of the Bactrian camel breed.


  1. State five methods of maintaining good health in livestock.          (2 ½ mks)
  2. List four sources of farm power which are environmental friendly.           (2mks)
  3. State three maintenance practices that should be carried out on a feed trough.                                                                                                             (1 ½ mks)
  4. Name four systems of a tractor engine. (2mks)
  5. List three types of calf pens. (1 ½ mks)
  6. State four conditions that would encourage hens to eat eggs in poultry production




Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The diagrams labeled A and B below show the teeth arrangements in hand workshop tools.







  1. a) Identify the tools represented with by the teeth arrangements

A and B.                                                                                              (1mk)

A   ……………………………………………..

B   ……………………………………………..

  1. b) State one functional difference between tools represented by the

teeth arrangements A and B.

A  ………………………………………………

B  ………………………………………………

  1. c) Give two maintenance practices for the tools represented by the

teeth arrangement shown above.                                                        (2mks)

  1. a) The diagram below illustrates a method of identification in

livestock production. Study the diagram and answer the

Questions that follow.












  1. i) Name the type of identification illustrated above. (1mks)
  2. ii) Give the identification number of the animal illustrated in

the diagram above.                                                                 (1mk)

iii)       Using diagrams illustrate how you can identify animals Nos

24 and 36 using the above method.                                        (2mks)

Animal No. 24

Animal No. 36

(b)       If a sow was successfully served on 27th September, 2006, state the date

she is likely to have furrowed.                                                           (1mks)


  1. The diagram below shows a type of a farm gate. Study the diagram and

answer the questions that follow.










  1. a) Identify the type of gate shown                                                       (1/2 mk)
  2. b) Name the parts labeled C, D and E. (1 ½ mks)

C …………………………………………..

D ……………………………………………

E …………………………………………..

  1. c) i) State one function of the part labeled F.                                            (1mk)

F ……………………………………………

  1. ii) State two functions of the gate illustrated above.                             (2mks)


  1. The diagram below shows a farm implement. Study it and answer

the questions that follow.












  1. a) Identify the farm implement illustrated above.                                 (1mk)
  2. b) Name the parts labeled G, H, J and K.

G ………………………………………………………

H ………………………………………………………

J ………………………………………………………

K ……………………………………………………..

  1. c) State four functions of the farm implement illustrated above.                    (2mks)


SECTION C (40 marks)

Answer any TWO questions in this section in the spaces provided after question 26.


  1. a) Describe the advantages of the battery system of rearing layers. (10mks)
  2. b) Outline the factors to consider when selection livestock for breeding.


  1. a) Name the strokes in a four stroke engine and describe how

each operates.                                                                         (12mks)

  1. b) Describe the functions of the gear box in a tractor.                          (8mks)


  1. a) Name and describe the features of an ideal calf pen.                                    (9mks)
  2. b) Discuss pneumonia in calves under the following sub – headings:
  3. i) Predisposing factors                                                                           (3mks)
  4. ii) Symptoms                                                                                           (5mks)

iii)       Control measures                                                                               (3mks)





  • Very steep land
  • Water logging / marshy area.
  • Forested / Bushy area.
  • Rocky / Aridity/Tsetse fly infested areas.
  • Wind / Moving water
  • Temperature changes
  • Moving ice/ Glacier


  • Using a sieve / sieve analysis.
  • Sedimentation method


  • Can be used as a security for credit.
  • Encourage long term investments
  • Reduces land disputes
  • Motivates the farmer to conserve soil water.


  • Improves soil structure
  • Controls soil borne pests and diseases.
  • Ensure maximum utilization of farm labour.
  • Aids in weed control
  • Improves soil erosion.
  • Security incase of failure of one crop.
  • Add nitrogen through N – fixation by Rhizobium bacterial when legumes are included.


  • Crop attacked / mode of feeding .
  • Whether field or storage pest.
  • Crop parts attacked.
  • Stage of crop growth attacked.
  • Scientific classification e.g. insects, mite, rodents.


  • Important in calcium utilization.
  • Necessary in sugar translocation
  • Needed in water absorption.
  • Aids in translocation of sugar nitrogen and phosphorous.
  • Aids in fruit development.


  • Development of infrastructure.
  • Housing status of the citizens.
  • Increase in recreation facilities.
  • Ratio of teachers to students.
  • Improvement in the level of technology/ more industrialization.


    • Price of substitutes.
    • Price expectations in future.
    • Quality of the commodity
    • Tastes and preference of the commodity.


  • Medicago sativa/Lucerne
  • Leucaena leucocephalal/calliondra.
  • Artemisia annual/Artemisia.
  • Calliandra calothyrsusl calliandra
  • Desmodium species
  • Kenya white clove/ Infoliuim sempilosum


  • Quantity of forage available for ensiling.
  • Number of animal to cater for.
  • Length of the period of forage scarcity.
  • Bulkiness of the material.


  • To avoid poisoning of livestock.
  • Minimize diseases spread.
  • To ensure the forage is of high palatability.
  • Minimize competition for nutrients, space light.
  • To increase the life  span of the pasture.



  • Has appropriate depth
  • The right PH/ Good soil structure.
  • Good water logging capacity.
  • Well aerated/good drainage.
  • Free from soil borne pests and diseases.
  • Rich in nutrients in the right proportions.


  • Should be of high purity.
  • Should be free from pest and disease attack.
  • Should be appropriate size
  • Should be mature.
  • Should be free from any physical damage.
  • Should be of high percentage of germination.
  • Should be suitable to the ecology of the area.

15 (a)

  • Over –cultivation, overstocking/overgrazing.
  • Deforestation/planting annual crops on steep slopes.
  • Burning of the vegetation.
  • Ploughing up and down the slope.


(b) V- shaped gullies   U-shaped gullies.


  1. (a)
  • There is proper supervision of the farm.
  • Reduces costs on traveling
  • Easy to get extension services.
  • Allows good farm planning.
  • It enhances proper pests, diseases and weed control.
  • Encourages long term investments.


  • Landlord can earn income from the land.
  • People who have no land are able to access to farming.
  • Idle land is put into agricultural use.
  • Tenant is able to increase/decrease the size of land leased depending on profitability.
  1. (a) 800

(b)   (i) 120 bags        ii) 900


  1. a) A1– root stock A2– Grafting

b)A3 Grafting                   b- Trench layering


  1. a) C1 – Maize stalk borer, maize weevil, Aphids

C2 – Maize streak, white leaf blight.




  1. a) p2 o5 = 20%
  2. b) 1 ha = 10,000m2   requires 300kg of fertilizer.

5m x 10m2= 50m2 requires x of the fertilizer

10,000 x = 300 x 50


X = 300x 50= 3

10,000     2

  1. a) Single stem pruning.
  2. b) The main stem is capped at 38cm above the ground to encourage more

suckers to grow.  Select two strong and healthy suckers and remove the others. The selected suckers should form a U-shaped to avoid splitting.

  1. (a)
  • Clear the land
  • Divide the land into plots of 0.4 ha
  • Construct /repair bunds /dykes.
  • Construct/ repair inlet and outlet channels
  • Flood the field to a height of 7.5 – 10cm above the soil surface.
  • Carry out primary tillage
  • Puddle the soil to a fine mud.
  • Uprooted weeds should be heaped on the bunds.
  • Level the plots by dragging a wooden board/ jembe.


  • Flood the plots to a depth of 7.5 – 10 cm.
  • Leave the field flooded for 4 days.
  • During transplanting, drain the filed to a depth of 5cm,
  • Introduce water gradually as the crop establishes.
  • Maintain the water level at 1/3 the height of the crop
  • Change water every 2-3 weeks or when it is cold.
  • Water should allow to flow slowly through the field
  • Drain the field 2-3 weeks before harvesting.


  • Irrigation during the dry season.
  • Timely pest control.
  • Timely weed control
  • Pruning, Coppicing/pollarding/capping.
  • Thinning/selective harvesting.
  • Protection against damage by animals.
  • Grafting/budding.
  • Fertilizer/manure application
  • Construction of micro-catchments
  • Structures around the trees
  • Provision of shade/mulch to reduce evaporation.
  1. (a)
    • Competition from cheap/synthetic / products, causing loss.
    • Change in supply of the produce; leading to price fluctuation
    • Change in market demand; leading to price fluctuation.
    • Lack of market information; leading to exploitation by middle .
    • Inadequate capital; hence poor financing of various marketing functions.
    • Poor quality of produce; leads to price fluctuation.
    • Seasonally of produce; leads to price fluctuation.
    • Bulkiness of most agricultural produce; making it expensive and difficult to transport.
    • High perishability; this leads to low quality of produce
    • Poor storage structure; leading to heavy losses of the produce.
    • Lack of knowledge in marketing leading to heavy losses.
    • Government interference through its agents leading to price fluctuation
    • Acts as a record for future reference.
    • Helps in deciding the viability of the enterprise
    • Assist in securing credit.
    • Helps to predict the profitability of the enterprise.
    • Aids in detecting problems easily hence correction is done in good time.
    • Aids in making management decisions especially when comparing between enterprises.
    • Helps in making changes in the farm.
    • Ensures periodic analysis of the farm business.
    • Encourage the farmer to be efficient so as to meet the target.

24 (a)

  • Enables one to grow crops during the dry seasons.
  • It’s a method of land reclamation/ allows crop production in arid and semi-arid areas.
  • Makes it possible to grow crops in special structures e.g. green house.
  • Enables one too grow crops that require high amount of water e.g. paddy rice.
  • It supplements rainfall in case it inadequate in crop produce.


  • Topography,
  • Soil type
  • Type of crop to be irrigated.
  • Amount of water available.
  • Technology available.
  • Distance of the source of water to the field.
  • Capital available, skills available
  • Climate factors of the area.






  • To keep the house warm.
  • To  absorb moisture from poultry droppings.
  • Keeps birds busy scratching, thus reducing cannibalism.


  • Marks’s disease, avian spirochaetosis.
  • Fowl typhoid, Gumboro/ infectious bursa disease.
  • New castle, fowl pox, infectious bronchitis.
  • Chronic respiratory disease.
  • Infectious coryza of chicken.


  • If the sow is barren.
  • Poor nutrition if the calf cold milk.
  • Poor timing services


  • Overfeeding/ giving the calf cold milk.
  • Lack of colostrums.
  • Irregular feeding of calf.
  • Feeding milk at wrong temperature.
  • Feeding milk in dirty containers/ feeding contaminated milk.


  • Level of milk production
  • Quality of roughages.
  • Availability of the concentrates.
  • Economic factors/cost of concentrates.
  • Physiological status.


  • Washing the udder with warm water.
  • Allow the calf to suck for a while
  • Feeding the cow during milking.
  • Regular milking time
  • Sound associated with milking.
  • Massaging the udder when washing it.


  • To make the animal docile
  • Reduce, incidence of animals injuring each other/attendant.
  • Reduce incidence of animals damaging farm structures.
  • Increase feeding, watering transportation space.
  • Add aesthetic value to the animal.


  • Halters, Nose bull ring and leading stick.  Rope.


  • Carcass lacks rigor mortis.
  • Excess bloating
  • Water tar-like blood oozes from body openings
  • Oozing blood clot.
  • Rapid purification.


  • Introduce toxins that are harmful to the animal.
  • Cause anaemia/transmit diseases.
  • Cause wounds that allows secondary infection.
  • Cause irritation which leads to scratching/destroy wool.


  • Source of water/Type of soil
  • Topography.
  • Closeness to homestead/accessibility.
  • Closeness to the market/consumers.
  • Far away natural sources of fish.


  • Adjust the depth of ploughing
  • Adjust furrow width of ploughing
  • Front furrow depth.
  • Lowering /raising ploughing pitch.



-Saanen, anglo-Nubian, Toggenburg. British alpines, Jamnapari.


  • proper feeding. prophylaxis, quarantine.
  • Proper housing, control of parasite.
  • Practice farm hygiene.
  • Routine vaccination.
  • Use of healthy breeding stock.
  • Timely treatment of the sick livestock.
  • Control of vectors, dipping, spraying.


  • Wind power.  Water power, animal power solar energy.  Human power, Biogas Geothermal.


  • Painting metallic parts
  • Regular washing.
  • Repair broken parts/cracks.
  • Replace lost parts.


  • Fuel systems, 1
  • Lubrication system.
  • Electrical system.
  • Ignition system,
  • Cooling system,
  • Hydraulic system
  • Power transmission system



  • Permanent calf pen.
  • Movable calf pen.
  • Concrete floor calf pen.
  • Slatted floor calf pen


  • Calcium deficiency in the birds body.
  • Blight light in the laying nests
  • Birds laying on the floor.
  • Presence of broken, soft shelled eggs.
  • Prolonged stay of eggs in the laying boxes.
  • Idleness of birds.
  • Inadequate feeding.


(a) A- cross-cut saw   B- rip saw

(b) A- cutting across the grain     B- cutting along the grains


  • Wipe blade with an oily rug.
  • Regular sharpening of the teeth.
  • Ensure the handle is firm,
  • Teeth setting.
  • Straighten the blade if bent.
  • Proper storage of the foods.


21(a) (i) ear notching (ii) Number 40 (forty)

(ii) AC. 10+5+5+2+2 (17+17)







Animal No 36








Animal no 34


(b)       Between 18-1-2007 and 20-1-2007


  1. (a) Barbet wire gate

(b)       C – gate post/King post/strainer

D – Wire loop

E – Dropper.


(c) (i)

  • Support the gate post
  • To ensure the barbet remains tout.


  • Prevent movement of farm animals outside
  • Keep away livestock from outside.
  • Used as entrance into/exit from the farm.


  1. (a) Animal/ ox-drawn plough.

(b)       G – Mould board.

J – Share

H – Land slide

K – Land wheel


  • Plough/ridging
  • Harvesting root crops e.g. groundnuts.
  • Weeding row planted crop.
  • Opening furrows for planting.


  1. (a) Advantages of battery system.
  • Higher egg produce due to less energy wastage.
  • Easy to keep individual production records.
  • Control cannibalism and egg eating.
  • No contamination of water and feed.
  • Birds are not exposed to predators, parasites and diseases.
  • Facilitates culling and handling.
  • Easy to collect eggs
  • Egg losses are reduced.
  • Many birds are kept in a given/high stocking rate.
  • Eliminates broodiness.
  • Birds still have tender meat at culling due to confinement.
  • Facilitates mechanization.
  • Keeps eggs clean.


(b)       Factors considered in selecting livestock k for breeding.

  • Body confirmation.
  • Fertility/breeding ability.
  • Adaptability of the breed to the arts/hardiness.
  • Mothering ability in case of females.
  • Production potential/yielding capacity.
  • Temperament/behaving e.g. cannibalism egg eating.
  • Deformities/abnormalities e.g. one eye lameness.
  • Offspring performance
  • Age of animal.
  • Growth rate, quality produce
  • Disease resistance, prolificacy.
  • Lifespan/reproductive life.


  1. (a) Operation of a four stroke engine.

            (i)        Induction stroke/sunction.

  • The piston moves down the cylinder, causing the inlet valve to open and draw in fresh supply of petrol vapour and air into the cylinder, exhaust valve closed

(ii)       Compression stroke.

  • The inlet valve closes and the piston moves up the cylinder. This compresses the fresh fuel mixture into the combustion chamber, exhaust valve to close.

(iii)      The power stroke.

  • Fully compresses the fresh fuel mixture and as a result a spark is produced at the spark plug. This causes the fuel mixture to ignite and expand resulting in pressure that forces the piston down the cylinder. Inlet valve closed exhaust valve closed.


(b)       Functions of gearbox.

  • Helps the driver to select any forward or reverse gear.
  • Adjust speed of the driver from the engine crankshaft to the driver shaft.
  • Helps to alter the speed ratio.
  • Enables the power from the engines to be more easily applied to the work done by the tractor.
  • Enables the driver to stop the tractor movement without stopping the engine or without foot oppressing on the clutch all the time.


  1. (a) Features of an ideal calf pen.
  • Concrete/raised stated floor – Easy to maintain cleanliness.
  • Dry litter/bedding – Maintain warmth.
  • Proper lighting – Should have good supply of natural light/sunlight.
  • Proper drainage – facilitate free flow of urine and water to avoid dampness.
  • Draught free – The structure should stop strong winds from blowing into the calf pen.
  • Proper ventilation – Structure should allow for fresh air circulation.
  • Security – Should be strong enough to keep away intruders/wild animals.


(b)       Pneumonia in calves.

(i)        Predisposing factors

  • Overcrowding of calves in the pen.
  • Dampness/chilliness in the pen.
  • Poor ventilation.
  • Age/younger calves are more prone to pneumonia than older calves.
  • Effects of diarrhea and other illness.

(ii)       Symptoms.

  • Rough hair coats/ruffled hair.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Abnormal lungs sounds e.g. whizzing.
  • Emaciation, frequent coughing.
  • Nasal discharge.
  • Fluctuating body temperature.
  • Dull and reluctant to move.

(iii)      Control measures.

  • Treating the sick calve with antibiotics.
  • Providing warmth in pens.
  • Maintaining good sanitation in pens.
  • Isolating sick calves to avoid spread of the disease.

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