PAPER 1 (1996)

  1. Give two functions of the council of elders among the Akamba during the pre-colonial period.

(i)        They had powers to declare war and make peace/prepared youth for war

(ii)       They presided over religious and other ritual functions

(iv)      They offered advice to the community when need arose

(v)       They ruled the community / settle disputes

Any 2 points 1 mark each (2 mks)

  1. State two factors which made it possible for the Arab traders to come to Kenyan Coast before 1500.

(i)        Accessibility of the Kenyan Coast via the sea

(ii)       Availability of funds to finance their journey

(iii)      Availability of dhows

(iv)      The Monsoon winds which powered their dhows to the coast.

Any 2 points, 1 mark each (2 mks)

  1. Give one contribution of John Krapf to the spread of Christianity in Kenya during the nineteenth century.

(i)        John Krapf built a church in Rabai

(ii)       Converted people to Christianity.

(iii)      Translated the Bible into Kiswahili

(iv)      Trained the first catechist who later spread the gospel.

(v)       Encouraged other European / missionaries to come to Kenya.

(vi)      This exploitation of Kenya led to the opening up of the interior for more missionary activities.

Any 1 point, 1 mark each (1 mk)

  1. Name the company which administered Kenya on behalf of the British government up to 1895

(i)        The imperial British East Africa Company/ IBA Co                        (1 mk)

  1. Identify two factors which enabled the White settlers to establish farms in the Kenya Highlands during the colonial periods.

(i)        Government policy and support/ i.e. providing loans, land and labourers.

(ii)       Favourable climate/adequate rainfall and temperature

(iii)      Availability of transport/especially the railway and the feeder roads.

(iv)      Fertility of the soil

Any 2 points 1 mark each (2 mks)

  1. Give two factors which led to the establishment of urban centers in Kenya during the colonial period.

(i)        Development of transport network/the construction of the Uganda railway

(ii)       Development of mining activities / Development of industries

(iii)      Development of trade.

(iv)      Development of agriculture

(v)       Establishment of administrative centre. (Any 2 point, 1 mk each (2 mks)

  1. State two objectives of the Kikuyu/ central association (KCA)
  2. i) To advocate for the growing of coffee Africans
  3. ii) To work towards the restoration of alienated Africans

iii)       To have laws written in Kikuyu

  1. iv) To pressurize the colonial government to abolish the racial segregation.
  2. v) To pressurize the colonial government to abolish racial segregation.
  3. vi) Respect of African culture & customs e.g. Circumcision/polygamy

vii)      Agitating release of political prisoners e.g. Harry Thuku

(2 mks)

  1. Identify two ways in which the trade union movement contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya.
  2. i) Trade unions sensitized workers about the importance of joining political parties that struggled for independence.
  3. ii) Trade unions contributed money to political parties to enable them sustain the struggle for independence.

iii)       Trade unions organized strikes and boycotts to oppose some policies of the colonial government

  1. iv) Trade unions provided relevant training ground for potential nationalist leaders.

Any 2 points, 1 mk each (2 mks)

  1. State two results of the development of railway transport in the Kenya during the colonial period.
  2. i) It let to the loss of land among some African Communities.
  3. ii) Facilitated the movement of goods and people

iii)       Led to development of trade between Kenya and the outside world.

  1. iv) Promoted the development of trade between Kenya and the outside world.
  2. v) Led to the development of trade between Kenya and the outside world.
  3. vi) Encouraged the coming setters to Kenya

viii)     Promoted interaction between different African communities

  1. ix) Provided a source of revenue
  2. x) Open up the interior
  3. xi) Building of industries.

(2 mks)

  1. Name two African Nationalist parties whose leaders attended the Lancaster House conference in London.

(i)        Kenya African National Union (KANU)

(ii)       Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU)

Any 2 points, 1 mark each (2 mks)

  1. Give two reasons why the District focus for rural Development was established in Kenya.
  2. i) To plan and initiate development projects/programmes at District Levels.
  3. ii) Liaise with the government in prioritizing development projects at the District level.

iii)       Initiate income generating activation for the development projects in the district.

(Any 2 point, 1 mk each (2 mks)

  1. Name two parastatals organizations in Kenya than fall under the ministry of transport and communication,
  2. i) Kenya ports authority/KPA
  3. ii) Kenya Railways

iii)       Kenya posts and Telecommunications

  1. iv) Kenya

Any 2 point, 1 mark each (2 mks)

  1. What is the main function of opposition parties in Kenya?
  2. i) To provide a system of checks and balances to the government of the day in order to guard against excess / to act a check on the actions of the government. Any 1 point, 1 marks each (1 mk)
  3. Identify two types of direct taxes through which the Kenya government raises this revenue.
  4. i) Export tax
  5. ii) Import tax / custom duty

iii)       Excise duty

  1. iv) Sales tax
  2. v) Income tax
  3. vi) Value Added Tax (VAT)
  • Payer/ Pay as you earn.
  1. Which provision in Kenya constitution protects the wealth of individuals in the country.
  2. i) The right to own property.
  3. ii) The Bill of right.



  1. a) what factors which made the cushites to migrate into Kenya during the

pre-colonial period.

(i)        Hostile neighbours in their homeland

(ii)       Succession disputes/ feuds/ family conflicts

(iii)      Search for pastured for their livestock.

(iv)      Natural calamities such as drought/disease

(v)       search for land for settlement

(vi)      Population pressure

(vi)      Spirit of adventure.

Any 5 x1 marks

  1. b) Explain five results of the settlement of the cushites in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.

(i)        The cushites came with their own livestock and so encouraged livestock farming in areas where they settled.

(ii)       Their settlement led to increased rivalry and conflicts for ownership of land

(iii)      Some cushites who had been converted to Islam spread the religion in the areas where they settled.

(iv)      The cushites attacked the Eastern Bantu communities who had settled at shungwaya, and forced them to move to their present homeland in Kenya.

  1. v) The cushites intermarried with the communities they found in the areas where they settled.
  2. iv) The cushites attacked the Eastern Bantu communities who had settled at shungwaya, and forced them to move to their present homeland in Kenya.
  3. v) The cushites intermarried with the communities they found in the areas where they settled in Kenya. (There was increase in population)
  4. vi) Trade developed between the cushites and the example they exchanged livestock products such as milk and butter with the Bantu and in return they obtained grains from the Bantu.

vii)      The Bantu borrowed some to the cultural practices of the cushites e.g. Circumcision.

viii)     Cushites learnt mixed farming

Any 5 x 2 marks

  1. a) Why were the Portuguese able to  Portuguese able to conquer the Kenyan

Coast during the sixteenth century.

  1. i) The Portuguese used superior weapons
  2. ii) Lack of Unity among the Coastal communities e.g. rivalry between Malindi and Mombasa

iii)       The Portuguese fought as one united found of people

  1. vi) The Portuguese knew the Geography of the East African Coast very well after obtaining information form Vasco Da- Gama visit of 1498

vii)      They had well trained soldier                                                (5mks)


  1. b) Explain five factors which led to the collapse of the Portuguese rule on the Kenyan Coast by the end of 17th

(i)        The harsh Portuguese rule provoked resentment from the coastal communities.

(ii)       Coastal communities. Some coastal communities organized a series of revolts against the Portuguese colonial administrators embezzled revenue and so they made it difficult for Portugal to run their possessions on the Kenya coast/ inefficient / non committed administration.

  1. iv) Trade along the Kenyan Coast declined therefore the Portuguese found retaining their control over the East African coast a liability.
  2. v) The Portuguese settlements were attacked by the Zimba terrorists from the lower Zambezi valley who looted property and killed people. This made life difficult for Portuguese many of them and so those who survived were unwilling to continue to stay at the East African coast.

vii)      The coastal Arabs and the Swahili obtained support from the Turks and Amani Arabs – their fellow Muslims who helped them to drive away the Christian Portuguese colonists

viii)     Delay in reinforcement due to distance.

  1. ix) Composition of other European powers.

(Any 5 x 2)

  1. a) Outline the five reasons which made the Nandi resist the imposition of

British colonial rule over their territory.

  1. i) They wanted to maintain their independence
  2. ii) They wanted to protect their land

iii)       They wanted to reserve their culture

  1. iv) They did not want the Uganda railway to be constructed through their territory.
  2. v) They want white people because according to their methodology, the people were a sign to bad omen.

vii)      They wanted to protect their livestock

Any 5 x 1 marks

  1. b) Discuss the factors which led to the defeat of the Nandi
  2. i) The British were supported by some of the local communities e.g. Somali and Maasai soldiers so the Nandi warriors were out numbered
  3. ii) The British used superior weapons such repeater rifles while Nandi used spears and arrows.

iii)       The British tricked the Nandi and used treacherous method for example in October 1905. The commander of the British troops in Nandi Territory, captain Mcinertz Hageb arranged to have a meeting with the Nandi Orkoiyot, Koitalel arap Samoei when he had already arranged to have him killed.  The Orkoiyot was killed in cold blood by the British and this demoralized and weakened the Nandi.

  1. iv) The British used scorched earth policy, they burned confiscated their livestock. The Nandi were deprived of the sources of their livelihood and this forced them into submission
  2. v) Natural calamities the small pox epidemic which broke out in the 1890’s killed many of the Nandi and weakened their survivors.
  3. vi) Lack of support from the neighbouring Kenyan communities such as the Abaluhyia and Luo.

(Any 5x 2 marks)

  1. a) What three factors have facilitated the formation of many political parties

in Kenya since 1991?

  • Amendment/Reating of section 2 a in the Kenyan constitution to allow the

formation of other parties in Kenya.

(ii)       External pressure from the international community

(iii)      Internal agitation for multipart

(iv)      End of the cold war/the collapse of the USSR made it possible for the USA to exert pressure on Kenya and other African countries)

  1. v) Economic hardships within the country.

Any 3 points 1 mark each (3 mks)

  1. b) Explain the changes which have taken place in Kenya as a result for the introduction of multiparty democracy.
  2. i) The introduction of Multi-arty democracy has led to the introduction of multiparty democracy.
  3. ii) Kenyans have been provided with the opportunity to join parties of their own choice.

iii)       It has promoted accountability and transparency on the part of the government

  1. v) It has enhanced the implementation of economic reforms in the country (SAP)
  2. vi) It has given the mass media people greater freedom to comment on what it happening in the country.

vii)      It has created more political awareness and patriotism among the people.

viii)     It has enhanced interaction among Kenyans of different ethnic backgrounds as various political parties compete for support.

Ix         Has enhanced the application of rule of law in the country.

(6×2 = 12 mks)



  1. a) What are the constitutional duties of the president of Kenya.

(i)        The president is the head of government chairs cabinet meetings.

(ii)       Opens parliament at the start of every session.

(iii)      Prorogues parliament.

(iv)      Commander in charge of the Armed forces

(v)       Received credentials form foreign envoys accredited to Kenya.

(vi)      Appoints senior civil servants and dismisses/cabinet ministers/ nominated Mps.

  1. vi) Represents the country in international fora.

viii)     Confers in honours for distinguished/ services.

  1. ix) Consents bills before they become law. 3×1 mk


  1. b) Explain six factors which have promoted National Unity in Kenya since 1963
  2. i) The use of common languages English and Kiswahili which enable people of different ethnic groups to communicate.
  3. ii) The establishment of National schools which enable pupils form different parts of the country to meet and interact/education integration of

iii)       Intermarriage enables people of different ethnic backgrounds.

  1. iv) Expansion of university Education which enables people/students from different ethnic groups to interact.
  2. v) Expansion of job opportunities which enables people of different ethnic groups to meet and interact at their places of work.
  3. vi) Development of urban centers has encouraged people from different ethnic background to meet and interact.

vii)      Development of transport network has facilitated free movement of people in the country.

viii)     Promotion of sporting and other cultural activities though which people of different ethnic groups interact/ Dishunding of tribal associations.

  1. ix) The harambee spirit/Nyayo Philosophy which has made it possible for people of different ethnic group/religious background to work together on various projects
  2. x) The establishment of settlement schemes which has made it possible for people form different parts of the country to meet and interact.
  3. xi) Existence of the institution of presidency is one unifying factor.

xii)      The use of the national flag which is recognized by all Kenyans.

xiii)     The use of the National anthem which invokes the spirit of unity among Kenyans.

xiv)     The coat of arms which is recognized by all Kenyans.

  1. xv) One constitution


  1. a) State three functions of the police force in Kenya.

(i)        To maintain law and order

(ii)       To investigate internal security

(iii)      To provide Internal security

(iv)      To control and direct traffic in the country

(v)       To arrest and prosecute suspected criminals.

(vi)      To mount a guard of honours for domestic and international



  1. b) Explain six duties performed by provincial commissioners in Kenya

(i)        The PCs act as representatives of the president in their areas of jurisdiction.

(ii)       The PC’s interpret government polices in their areas or jurisdiction.

(iii)      The PC’s oversee the implementation of the government policies and programmes in their provinces.

(iv)      The PC’s ensure that law and order is maintained in the provinces

(v)       They issue permits for the holding of public meetings in their respective provinces.

  1. vi) The provincial commissioners serve as chairpersons in the provincial security and intelligence committees.

vii)      They are charged with responsibility of maintaining security to the area.

viii)     They co-ordinate development programmes and services chairperson of the provincial development committees.

  1. ix) They are in overall control of all government departments in their respective provinces.


7          a)         Identify three functions of the attorney general of Kenya

  1. i) The Attorney general is the Chief Legal adviser to the government
  2. ii) Chief state prosecution

iii)       Interprets the laws of Kenya

  1. iv) Drafts government bills
  2. v) Services as ex-officio member of parliament
  3. b) Describe the structure of the court system of Kenya

(i)        The judicial structure in Kenya consists of a system of courts which are arranged hierarchically form the lowest to the highest level.

(ii)       The District Magistrates Court

This is the lowest court in Kenya which is charged with the responsibility pf trying civil and criminal cases within the district.

(iii)      The Kadhi Court

This is parallel to the District Magistrate’s court in hierarchy. It arbitrates civil cases in which all parties involved are Muslims.

(iv)      The resident magistrate’s court which has jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases which originate form with in the province where the court is situated. It also has jurisdiction in respect to magistrates in respect to decisions made at District Magistrate’s court level.

(v)       The chief magistrate’s court which has powers over all the resident Magistrate’s and District Magistrate’s courts.  It supervises and oversees the work of the other courts in the country.

(vi)      The High court of Kenya

This has unlimited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases stemming from any party of Kenya.

vii)      The court of appeal is the highest court in the country it listens to appeals from any court in Kenya

Other courts

Industrial courts- Rent

Rent tribunal



  1. (i) Archaeology

(ii)       Oral traditions

(iv)      Anthropology

(v)       Botany/Zoology /biology/Genetics

(vi)      Written records

(vii)     Geology

(viii)    Local paintings/sculpture                                           (2mks)


  1. (i) Hunting wild animals

(ii)       Gathering wild fruits, roots and vegetables

(iii)      Fishing

(iv)      Crop farming

(v)       Administration

(vi)      Trading

(vii)     Making stone implements

(viii)    Pottery                                                                                    (2mrks)


  1. i) Trade
  2. ii) Mining

iii)       Religion

  1. iv) Agriculture
  2. v) Administration
  3. vi) Trading

vii)      Security

viii)     Education centres e.g Alexandria

  1. ix) Availability of water                                                  (2mks)


  1. i) Making royal regalia
  2. ii) Making status of rulers, noble men and warriors

iii)       Making ornaments/decorations

  1. iv) Making religious Figurines e.g gods
  2. v) Making weapons                                                        (1mk)


  1. i) Telephone
  2. ii) Telegram

iii)       Telex

  1. iv) Fax
  2. v) E-mail
  3. vi) Television

vii)      Radio

viii)     Courier letter

  1. i) Tobacco
  2. ii) Cotton

iii)       Corn/Maize

  1. iv) Wheat                                                                         (2mks)
  2. a) Barter trade is the exchange of goods for other goods/trade in kind            (1mk)
  3. b) i)         Some commodities are bulky/ heavy and are difficultly to transport
  4. ii) It may not be easy to establish the exchange rate of commodities

iii)       Perishable goods are likely to go to waste if negotiations are not done in time                                                            (1mk)

  1. iv) It requires double coincidence of demands               (1mk)
  2. i) Indivisibility of some commodities                           (1mk)
  3. i) It made laws for the kingdom
  4. ii) It checked on the activities of the government

iii)       It presented the interests of the people/countries

  1. iv) It advised the Kabaka                                                             (2mks)


  1. i) The Mandinka Empire


  1. i) Jihad/Holy wars
  2. ii) Missionary activities of Muslims scholars

iii)       Commercial interactions /Interactions/Intermarriage

  1. iv) Influence of already converted African rulers
  2. v) Intermarriage
  3. vi) Migration of Muslims /Arabs.

vii)      Fear of being enslaved


  1. i) Indirect rule
  2. ii) Direct rule
  3. – A body of fundamental principles on which the government of a state is


–           A system of laws and principles on which the government of a state is


  1. i) The AOU provided material support to freedom fighters e.g. arms
  2. ii) It gave financial support to freedom fighters

iii)       It provided military training camps and other facilities to freedom fighter

  1. iv) It presented the problem of the nationalists in international form.
  2. v) It provides the nationalist with a forum to air their grievances
  3. vi) Provision of refugee camps for the displaced nationalists

vii)      Provided education to the members of the liberation movement

viii)     It campaigned for sanctions against the oppressive southern African regimes in international form

  1. i) World Health Organization (WHO)
  2. ii) United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)



  1. a)
  2. i) The development of steam engines facilitated faster transportation of raw materials and finished industrial product.
  3. ii) Provided a source of energy in the factories e.g. the spinning factory

iii)       It was used to pump water out of the mines to facilitate mining e.g the coal mines

  1. iv) Facilitated faster transportation of industrial workers. (3mks)


  1. i) Provision of Education which emphasized on technical training
  2. ii) Japanese work ethics which discouraged idleness and encouraged hardworking

iii)       Government policy which granted subsidies to industrial entrepreneurs led to industrial growth.

  1. iv) Availability of raw materials from within Japang. silk and from other Asian countries which they colonized e.g. cotton from China.
  2. v) A well established industrial base. By 1954 Japan had well developed industrial base upon which other industries were built.
  3. vi) Availability of local and internal markets stimulated industrial growth

vii)      Existence of a labour force with industrial know – how

viii)     Availability of capital from local and foreign investors, especially the USA financial aid which was provided after the 2nd World War (the Marshal plan) stimulated industrial growth of Japan

  1. ix) Availability of energy e.g. H.E.P stimulated industrial growth. (12mks)


2          a)         i)         Existence of enterprising North Africa merchants.

  1. ii) Availability of trading items e.g. gold from West Africa and salt mines of the Sahara

iii)       Availability of capital provided by the Berber merchants of North Africa

  1. iv) Demand for scarce goods in North Africa and West Africa
  2. v) Presence of Tauregs who guided the traders through the Sahara desert
  3. vi) Presence of capable rulers who offered protection of traders.

vii)      Presence of Oasis

viii)     Use of camels and horse.

  1. b) i)         The trade led to the development of towns in West Africag.

Gao Timbuku

  1. ii) It led to the spread of Islam and Islamic learning in West Africa

iii)       The trade led to the emergence of a class of wealthy people

the merchants who participated in the trade.

  1. iv) The trade promoted intermarriage between North African and

West African.

  1. v) Growth in Agricultural production
  2. vi) Increase warfare

vii)      The trade introduced new cultural values in West Africa

e.g. people adopted new styles of dressing and eating habits.

viii)     Trade led to the introduction of Arab architectural designs in West


  1. ix) Trade led to the introduction of Empires e.g. Mali Soghai

and Ghana.

  1. x) It led to the depopulation of West Africa through slave trade.
  2. xi) West Africa was known to the outside world.           (12mks)


  1. a) i)         They are all weather roads.
  2. ii) They are durable

iii)       Water drain off easily

  1. iv) They provide a good motoring surface. (3mks)
  2. b) i)         Railway transport led to expansion of trade in Europe as goods

were quickly transported from one point to another.

  1. ii) Facilitated the movement of people from one place to another

thus promoted greater interaction among people.

iii)       Railway transport promoted agricultural growth as it

assured farmers of means of transporting their goods.

  1. iv) The railway transport provided employment opportunities
  2. v) The development of railway transported led to growth

of expansion of urban centres.

  1. vi) It facilitated the development of industries in Europe by providing quick means of transporting raw material, finished materials and industrial workers.

vii)      It led to environmental pollution through emission of large amounts of carbon dioxide/ smoke into the atmospheres.

  1. a) i)         Existence of already established trade routes/ which connected the

African coastal raiding posts with the interior facilitated the movement of the missionaries.

(ii)       Use of guides and porters made the movement of the missionaries and the transportation of their luggage easy

(iii)      The learning of local languages by the missionaries facilitated their activities among different communities.

(iv)      Training African catechists and other religious leaders helped in spreading Christianity in Africa.

(v)       The discovery of cure of some tropical diseases e.g. quinine for treating malaria fever, reduced the number of death cases among the missionaries

(vi)      Support and protection given to missionaries by some African rulers e.g. Lewanika of Bulonzi promoted missionary activities.

(vii)     Support from the church organization in Europe enabled the missionaries to carry out their activities

(viii)    Support from the colonial government (e.g. protection against some hostile communities) enabled the missionaries to carry out their activities.

(ix)      The establishment of mission stations which were used as bases from which were used as bases from which they operated the stations also provided other social services e.g. health care.

(x)       Translocation of the Bible and other Christian literature made Christianity accessible to many African communities.

(12 mks)


5          a)         i)         They signed treaties with the local ruler

  1. ii) They used military force to subdue communities which resisted

iii)       They signed treaties among themselves to partition Africa e.g. the 1890 Angola-German agreement which German gave Witu to Britain and Britain gave Heligoland to German.

  1. iv) Use of treaty / tricks/ deception
  2. b) i)        In order to protect his Kingdom  against the Germans and Portuguese
  3. ii) Lewanika desire western education and civilization and wanted the British to introduce it in his country

iii)     Lewanika wanted the British to protect him against his internal enemies e.g. in 1884 Lewanika forced an internal rebellion.

  1. iv) Lewanika was encouraged to collaborate with the British by King Khama of Botswana who has already sought British to protect his Kingdom from attacks by other African communities such as the Nebela and Shona.
  2. v) Lewanika wanted the British to protect his kingdom from attacks by other African communities such as the Ndebela and Shona.

vii)         Desire to promote trade between his people and British

viii)        Lewanika was influenced by the European missionaries who had visited earlier, to collaborate.


6   a)   i)          A high percentage of the Mullatoes in the population of the communes who appreciated the European culture, made it easy for the French to apply their policy of assimilation.

  1. ii) The people in the four communes had long interaction with the French trades, administrators and missionaries and this enabled them to appreciate European culture.

iii)       A high percentage of the inhabitants of the four communes had been converted to Christianity and this made it possible for the French to apply their policy.


  1. b) i)          The application of the assimilation policy lead to the promotion of French culture in Senegal
  2. ii) The policy of assimilation undermined African culture as many adopted French culture.

iii)         It undermined the authority of the traditional rulers as they were replaced by the assimilated Africans

  1. iv) Senegal was incorporated into French Republic and regarded as an overseas province of France.
  2. v) Africans from Senegal were allowed to participate in the political affairs of France. Some of them became Deputies and Ministers in the French government.
  3. vi) It undermined the spread of Islam in the four communes where many Africans had adopted French Christianity

vii)        It created division among Africans; in Senegal some became citizens while other became French people.

viii)       It created a class of western/ French education in the four communes

  1. ix) It led to the development of Western/French education in the four communes.
  2. x) Class of African elite spearheaded nationalism.

7a)       i)         The prime Minister is the leader of the House of Commons

  1. ii) Is the head of the British government

iii)       Chairs cabinet meetings

  1. iv) Appoints and dismisses ministers
  2. v) Initiates both domestic and foreign policies
  3. vi) Represents Britain.
  4. b) i) The federal government of USA formulates and directs foreign policy
  5. ii) It regulates internal and external trade.

iii)       It declares war and makes peace with other nations of the world

  1. iv) It gives currency to the members states of the federation and regulates its supply
  2. v) It formulates and enforces policy guidelines on taxation for the member states of the Federation and regulates its supply.
  3. vi) It gives grants to member states of the federation and monitor their use

vii)      It formulates policies governing internal security of the entire Federal Republic

viii)     It medicates in inter-state disputes within the federation and monitor their use

  1. ix) Established a federal aimed force
  2. x) Passes laws needed to carry out Us power
  3. xi) Admits new states

xii)      Establish federal court

xiii)     Establishes postal systems






  1. GIVE TWO factors which led to the migration and settlement of the Iteso into Kenya by 1800.

(i)        Search for land/pasture/water for their herds

(ii)       Family / clan fights/ internal conflicts

(iii)      External attacks/ pressure

(iv)      Increase in population

(v)       Outbreak of diseases / epidemics

(vi)      Natural calamities e.g. drought

(vii)     Spirit of adventure

  1. Identify TWO factors which encouraged the spread of Islam in Kenya by 1500.

(i)        Commercial activities between the Arabs and Africans

(ii)       Arab settlement along the coast.

(iii)      Intermarriage between the Arabs and other communities.

(iv)      Islam was more accommodative to African traditional practices

(v)       Development of Kiswahili language.

  1. State TWO main reasons why the Omani rules were interested in establishing their control over the Kenyan coast.

(i)        To expand their commercial empire

(ii)       To establish political control over the Kenyan coast

(iii)      To assist in ending the Portuguese rule

  1. Give the main reason why the British were able to conquer Kenya during the 19th century.

(i)        Military superiority of the British

  1. State TWO season why Britain used the Imperial East Africa Company to administer her possessions.

(i)        Absence of a clear policy on the administration of colonial possessions.

(ii)       Lack of funds the colonies were not economically viable.

(iii)      Lack of personnel.

(iv)      I.B.E.A.C long experience in the region.

  1. State TWO ways through which the construction of the Uganda

Railway contributed to the development of settler farming in Kenya.

  1. i)         Provided cheap and reliable transport network
  2. ii) Opening up the Kenya Highlands to settlers.
  3. Give ONE reason why Africans were denied equal educational opportunities with other races during the colonial period.
  4. i) Europeans aimed to produce and maintain a semi – skilled

labour force for the colony.

  1. ii) Fear of competition from educated Africans/ racial discrimination / claims for their rights.





  1. State TWO main roles that Thomas J. Mboya played in the Kenya

African Union.

  1. i) He was Director of publicity in 1952 and exposed the

KAU policies.

  1. ii) He became treasurer of the party in 1953 and thereby

mobilized financial support for K.A.U.

iii)       He made KAU have a national outlook / revitalized KAU.


  1. State two recommendations of the Lyttleton Constitution of 1954.
  2. i) Creation of a multi-racial council of ministers.
  3. ii) Electrons to be in 1956 -57 in 8 African constituencies.


  1. What was the main ideological difference between KANU and KADU before independence in 1963?
  2. i)         Where as KANU favoured a unitary type of government,

KADU  preferred federalism / majimboism.

  1. State TWO ways through which the government controls parastatals.
  2. i) Through appointment of top officials of the parastatals either

by the Ministers or the president.

  1. ii) Constant inspection of parastatals by the Inspectorate of

state Corporations.

iii)       Animal inspection and Auditing of Parastatal accounts

by the controller and auditor general of corporations.

  1. iv) The government requires that parastatals accounts by the Controller and auditor general of corporations.
  2. v) Parastatals are created by an act of parliament.


  1. Identify TWO causes of division within opposition political party in

Kenya since 1992.

  1. i) Personality differences
  2. ii) Conflicts over leadership / rivalry for power / control.

iii)       Ethnic affiliations.

  1. iv) Selfish motives
  2. v) External interference
  3. vi) Ideological differences.


  1. Identify THREE situations which may lead to a by – election in Kenya.
  2. i) Death of a member of parliament.
  3. ii) Nullification of election results by a court of law / when

one is declared bankrupt or insane.

iii)       Imprisonment of a member of parliament.

  1. iv) Resignation of a member of Parliament / M.P elected speaker

of Parliament.

  1. v) When a member resigns / defects from the party that elected

him/ her to parliament.

  1. vi) Failure to attend parliament for 8 consecutive sittings.
  2. Name the local government authority which is charged with administration of rural areas in Kenya.
  3. i) County council.



  1. a) Name the result of the migration and settlement of the Somali

into Kenya by 1800.

  1. i) The Somali people intermarried with the people they came into contact with such as the Pokomo and Borana / Intermarried with neighbours
  2. ii) Their settlement in Kenya led to the expansion of trade in the region.

iii)       Demand for agricultural produce by the Somali led to the expansion of trade in the region.

  1. iv) Their settlement led to increased conflicts between communities over resources such as pasture and water.
  2. v) Their migration and settlement led to take displacement and redistribution of people in area where they settled.
  3. vi) Led to cultural exchange between the Somali and the people they came into contact with. For example the neighbouring communities and adopted Islam from the Somali.

vii)      Assimilation of some communities they came into contact with e.g. Oromo.

viii)     Their settlement in high agricultural potential areas e.g. river valleys encouraged some of them to practice crop farming.

Any 4 points 2 marks each (7mks)

  1. b) Describe the political organization of the Somali in Kenya during the

Pre-colonial period.

  1. i) The basic political unit of the Somali was the clan. Each clan had its name and occupied specific territories / areas.
  2. ii) a council of elders was in charge of the day to day affairs of the clan e.g. making major clan decisions and settled disputes.

iii)       The council maintained law and order and was the final court of appeal.

  1. iv) The age – set system was an important institution among the Somali and all male members of the society belonged to the age – set. Each age –set performed specific roles/ duties.
  2. v) The Somali had leaders called Sultan whose role was mainly advisory.
  3. vi) There existed warriors whose main duty was to protect the community against external attacks and acquire possessions for the community.

vii)      There existed people with special responsibility e.g. Sheikhs and medicine men. They were highly regarded in the community and their opinions were sought before important decisions were made.

Any 4 points 2 marks each (8mks)

  1. a) Explain why Christian missionaries established mission stations in

Kenya during the colonial period.

  1. i) Mission stations were established by Christian missionaries to serve as centers for converting Africans.

(ii)       To serve as centers where Africans would be taught basic literacy to enable them to read the bible.

(iii)      To teach Africans new methods of carpentry, farming and masonry

(iv)      To train African catechists who would in turn facilitate the spread of Christianity.

(v)       To use them as centers for the spread of Western European culture

(vi)      To serve as health centers where basic health care was provided to Africans.

(vii)     To serve as settlements for freed slaves and other displaced peoples.

(viii)    Serve as centers for the pacification of Africans/ centres to promote European colonization.

(ix)      Serve as base where European missionaries could operate from.


(b)       What factors undermined Christian missionaries activities in Kenya during the 19th century?

(i)        Hostility by believers of traditional religion who saw missionaries as a threat to their beliefs and cultural practices.

(ii)       Opposition by leaders of Islamic faith and other believers whose interests were to advance their religion in the region.

(iii)      Harsh tropical climate coupled with tropical diseases e.g. malaria

(iv)      Inadequate funds and supplies such as food.

(v)       Inadequate personnel to carry out missionary activities

(vi)      Rivalry among different Christian groups

(vii)     Communication barrier/ lack of common language of communication to facilitate interaction with and conversion of Africans.

(viii)    Strict Christian doctrines which were incompatible with traditional beliefs and practices.

(ix)      Limited transport and communication facilities

(x)       Vastness of areas covered by individual missionaries

(xi)      Hostility from African rulers who often identified missionaries with colonialism and loss of their traditional authority.


  1. (a) Why did British become interested in establishing their control over

Kenya during the second half of the 19th century.

(i)        Britain wanted to gain access to Uganda so as to control the source of the Nile

(ii)       In order to establish a market for her manufactured goods

(iii)      To use Kenya as an outlet for surplus capital investment

(iv)      To use Kenya as a source of raw materials for her industries

(v)       To protect European missionaries and other British nationals who were already settled in Kenya and Uganda.

(vi)      To prevent Kenya from being colonized by other European powers

(vii)     To stop slave trade and introduce legitimate trade.

(viii)    To control fertile highlands

(Any 6 points 1 mark each) (6 mks)


(b)       Explain why some African communities restated the establishment of British rule in Kenya.

(i)        Some communities had established strong social- political systems which

they were not willing to allow foreigners to destroy.

(ii)       Those communities which were military superior to their neighbours believed that no other race/ community could defeat them and thus resisted.

(iii)      Some communities resisted because their socio- economic political set ups were strong enough to sustain resistance.

(iv)      They wanted to protect their independence against foreign invaders

(v)       Some of the communities were encouraged by their religious leaders to resist. Such leaders promised their people that they would receive supernatural protection against firearms

(vi)      Most communities underestimated the military strength of the British

(vii)     They were against the alienation of their land

(viii)    They were opposed to the payment of taxes e.g. hut tax, poll tax/ Kipande system/ lack of political representation.

(ix)      They were opposed to the government policy of de-stocking

(x)       They were opposed to forced labour for European farms

(xi)      Imposition of unpopular leaders by the British

(xii)     Racial discrimination and organize of the British.

(Any 9 points 1 mark each ( 9 mks)

  1. (a) What were the grievances of African Nationalists against the colonial

government up to 1995?

(i)        Land alienation

(ii)       Forced labour

(iii)      The Kipande system

(iv)      Interference with African culture

(v)       Racial Discrimination

(vi)      Poor social service

(vii)     Payment of taxes

(viii)    Poor wages/ working conditions

(ix)      Lack of political representation

(x)       de- stocking

(xi)      Harassment of colonial administrators.

(Any 3 points 1 mk each (3 marks)

(b)       Explain the political development which hastened the achievement of independence in Kenya between 1945 and 1963

(i)        The return of ex- servicemen after the Second World War exposed the myth of white supremacy making Africans ready to fight them. They also acquired expertise which enabled them to organize their resistance.

(ii)       Failure by the colonial government to reward the African ex- service men on return embittered them.

(iii)      Change of government from conservative to labour party in Britain made her adopt sympathetic attitude towards the nationalists struggle in her colonies such as Kenya/ Lancaster House Conference.

(iv)      The establishment of political parties by African nationalists e.g. KASU, KAU, Nairobi peoples Convention Party, KANU, KADU, APP enhanced mobilization of the masses against colonial rule.

(v)       The Mau Mau uprising forced the British to realize the need of granting Kenya independence.

(vi)      Nomination and election of Africans to the Legco enabled them to use the House as a forum to agitate for independence.

(vii)     Emergence of trade union movement which helped to mobilize workers to fight for their rights.

(viii)    Pan- African movement and other global bodies helped in the establishment of Afro- Asian people solidarity organization which supported the course of Africa nationalists in Kenya.

(ix)      The return of Jomo Kenyatta from UK in 1946 strengthen the nationalistic movement in Kenya

(x)       Independence of other countries e.g. Ghana and India inspired African nationalists in Kenya to fight for their independence (e.g. Nkrumah Nehru)

(xi)      The formation of the UNO and the pressure exercised on the European powers to decolonize and super powers e.g. U.S.A, U.S.S.R

(xii)     Role of African independent churches and schools.

Any 6 points 2 mks each (12 mks)



  1. (a) Why   are parliamentary elections held regularly in Kenya

(i)        Parliamentary elections are held regularly in order to give the citizens the opportunity to exercise their constitutional right of participating in the democratic process.

(ii)       To give citizens the chance to choose leaders whom they have confidence in

(iii)      To enable the people to give mandate to the party of their choice to rule.

(iv)      To inject new blood into parliament and government

(v)       To enable sitting Mps to be responsive to the development needs of the electorate stipulated by the constitution.

(Any 3 points 1 mk each (3 mks)


(b)       Describe the stages through which a bill passes before it becomes law in Kenya

(i)        Draft stage by the A.G

(ii)       First reading – the bill presented to the National assembly by the mover No debate takes place during this stage.

(iii)      Second Reading – the Bill is debated upon/ discussed by members. Amendments are incorporated into the bill.

(iv)      Committee stage – the Bill is discussed in details and amendments are made

(v)       Report Stage – chairperson of the committee reports the amended Bill to the whole house

(vi)      Third – Final debate on the Bill and voting is carried out. If the bill is supported by the majority then it is passed to the next stage.

(vii)     The bill is presented to the President for assent, it becomes an act of Parliament, it is gazetted and becomes law.

Any 6 points 2 marks each ( 12 marks)


  1. (a) Describe the structure of the democratic Party of Kenya ( DP)

(i)        National delegates convention is the highest organ of the party and responsible for electing the officials of the party and amending the party constitution.

(ii)       National governing Council is made up of all National Officials of the party and two representatives from each province ensuring that all party policies and programmes are implemented/ second highest party organ.

(ii)       National Executive Committee consists of elected officials. They are charged with the day to day running of the party.

(iv)      Branch Executive Committee/ organizations are organized on the basis of administrative districts. They are responsible for recruitment of members and popularizing the party at grass root level.

(v)      Each branch is divided into sub – branches up to the village level

(vi)      National secretariat Committee headed by the Executive Director that shall be responsible for implementing decisions and programmes of the party.

(vii)     Party election committee

(viii)    The Board of Trustees

(Any 5 points 1 mk each (5 mks)


(b)       Explain the role of opposition parties in government and nation building

(i)        Keep the government of the day on its toes by pointing out the shortcomings/ acts as the watchdog for the people.

(ii)       Contribute to the process of law making and ensure that laws are in harmony with the constitution.

(iii)      Educate the masses/ public about their rights/ gives education to the masses.

(iv)      Mobilize people for participation in the political democratic process

(v)       They offer alternative policies and programmes to those of the ruling party.

(vi)      Ensure that public funds are properly utilized through Public Investments Committee or public Accounts Committee.

(vii)     They check possible excesses by the government and the party in power.

(viii)    They provide the basis for peaceful solution of conflicts

(Any 5 points 2 mks each (10 mks)


  1. (a) Describe the  main  provisions of the independence constitution of Kenya

(i)        The independence constitution provided for a regional/ Majimbo government. Each region had a regional assembly and president.

(ii)       A bicameral parliament consisting of the senate and House of representative/ upper and lower House.

(iii)      The prime minister by the Government and the queen the head of State represented by the government.

(v)       The Bill of rights which protected the individual interests.

(Any 3 points 1 mk each (3 mks)


(b)       Explain circumstances which may force the government to limit the and freedom of the individual

(i)        One can be denied the right to life if one is convicted of murder in a court of law or caught in the act of robbery with violence.

(ii)       If suspected to be planning to commit a crime one is denied their personal liberty/ freedom of movement.

(iii)      One can be denied freedom to own property if the government wishes to development public utilities in the area but compensation must be paid.

(iv)      One’s freedom of worship can be limited if one uses it to undermine the government or create disunity.

(v)       One’s freedom of assembly can be limited if it poses a threat to the state.

(vi)      One’s freedom of speech may be limited if one publishes false accusations about another person or the state or incite people against the government.

(vii)     One’s freedom of movement can be limited if internal security is threatened.

(viii)    If one is not of sound mind one can be taken to a mental hospital by the police for confinement and treatment.

(ix)      If one has an infectious disease can be denied one’s personal liberty.

(x)       If one has not attained the stage of maturity one is considered a minor and their decisions are made on their behalf by adult members of society.

(Any 6 points 2 marks each (12 mks)





K.C.S.E 1997



  1. Give two limitations of using written records as a source of African History
  • Most of the written records on African History were by foreigners who built their biases in the records.
  • Some written records on African History contain inaccurate information
  • Some of the records are not reality available for case of reference
  • Written records are limited only to those who can read and write.


  1. Identify two aspects of the culture of the early man that had their origin in the late some age.
  • Growing crops/ agriculture
  • Establishing permanent settlements
  • Making microlitic composite tools e.g. spears
  • Domesticating animals
  • Beginning of religion and government
  • Beginning of government
  • Pottery and basketing


  1. Identify two factors which favoured the development of crop growing in ancient Egypt
  • Availability of reliable source of water
  • Existence of indigenous type of grains
  • Existence of fertile soils along river Nile
  • The invention and use of the Shadolf for irrigation and other form of implements
  • Existence of a stable government under Pharaoh
  • Existence writing helped them to keep accurate records of seasons and volume of food
  • Use of slave as currency.
  • Invention and use of farm implements.


  1. Identify three uses of Bronze in the kingdom of Benin.
  1. It was used to make weapons
  2. It was used to make decorations/ornaments
  • It was used as a currency.
  1. It was used for statues.
  2. It was used as an item of trade.


  1. Name two ways in which railway transport contributed to the agrarian revolution in Western Europe?
  1. Railway provided efficient and reliable means of transport for agricultural products.
  2. Provided efficient transport for farm machinery and labour and farm implements.
  • Provided efficient transport of farm tiling.
  1. What was the main source of energy during the early period of industrial Revolution in Europe?

i           Coal

  1. State two ways in which slaves were obtained in West Africa during the Trans-Atlantic trade

i           Criminal of social misfit were sold by chiefs

ii          Capture of war

iii        Frictions

iv         Kidnapping

  1. Name one leader of the protestant reformation during the sixteenth century.

i           Martin Luther

ii          John Calvin

iii        John Kaox

iv         Vhleh Zwngll

v          Thomas Crannet

vi         Oliaus Pettini

vii        King Henry VIII

  1. State two functions of the Lukiko of the Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period.

i           The Lukiko advised the Kabaka

ii          Assisted the Kabaka to administer the kingdom

iii        Made the laws of the kingdom

iv         It acted as the Court of Appeal/ solved disputes

v          Directed correction of taxes and planning good expenditure

  1. Represented the interests of the people.
  1. State the main reason why Samori Toure fought the French
  1. To preserve the independence of the Mandinka kingdom/ empire
  2. To stop French colonization
  1. State two government policies which have contributed to industrialization  in India
  1. Restriction on improved goods
  2. Promotion of technical and scientific education

iii.       Development of heavy industries by the state government plans.

  1. Emphasis on industrialization in the five year development.
  2. Encouragement of foreign investment in the country.
  1. Give two ways through which the attainment of independence in Ghana contributed to the liberation of other African countries from colonial rule.
  1. Motivated other African countries to strengthen their independence


  1. Nkrumah became more vocal in agitating fore the course of other


iii.       Ghana played a leading role in the formation of the O.A.U which

was instrumental in the liberation of other states.

  1. Ghana gave financial and material support to African liberation


  1. Ghana allowed some African nationalists to establish their

military bases in the country.

  1.  Name two houses of the British parliament
  1. Houses of the Lord
  2. Houses of commons
  1. What event prompted the United States of America to join the First World War?
  1. Germany’s declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare/ sinking

of the U.S.A ships



  1. Describe two theories about the origin of human  beings
  1. scientific maintain that Human beings evolved from ape- like creatures and developed through adaptation over along period of time.
  2. The creation theory- according to many world religious e.g. Christianity Islam and Judaism the human race was created by God at a specific time in history to fulfill God’s purpose


(b) Discuss the benefits of the discovery of fire to early man

  1. The discovery and use of fire made it possible for early man to keep warm during cold nights and seasons.
  2. Fire enhanced the security of early man as it was kept burning to keep away wild animals and other possible sources of danger.

iii.       It was a source of lighting at night, which facilitated other productive activities at night

  1. Fire improved hunting activities of early man as it was used to harden the tips of the tools for hunting
  2. Early man used to extract poison from plants. Which they used for hunting
  3. Fire was used as a source of food preservation method for Example drying meat or fish.

vii.       Fire was used to cook food and make it palatable and more nutrition.

viii.     Fire was used to bake and harden wood for special use e.g. stools and hoe – sticks

  1. Fire was used as a means of communication


  1. (a)       Describe the working conditions of factory workers in Britain during the

industrial Revolution.

  1. Factory workers were subjected to long working hours
  2. Workers received low wages
  • Under- age children were employed to work in the factories
  1. Poor working conditions e.g over – crowding, inadequate lighting and poor ventilation.
  2. Lack of insurance covers for the workers/ no workman’s compensation
  3. Exposure to dangerous machines/ no protection against dangerous machines
  • Frequent outbreak of epidemic e.g. cholera, dysentery, typhoid and T.B
  • Unhygienic conditions.


(b) What factors favoured the development of Industries in Britain by


  1. Availability of some machines
  2. Existence of a large population which provided steady market for her manufactured goods.

iii.       Availability of external markets in her colonies for her industrial goods

  1. Availability of iron. Ore for heavy industries
  2. Existence of cottage industries which acted as a base for industrial


Vi          Availability of labour force especially following the displacement of the people from the rural areas as a result of the agrarian revolution.

Vii         Existence of capitalists/entrepreneurs who were willing to invest in the industries.

Xi          Scientific improvement and expansion of industries

Xii         Existing banks and insurance systems gave financial help and security to industrialists.

Xiii        Britain had a strong navy which protected her merchants from foreign competitions

Xiv        Britain’s policy of free trade encouraged industrialization

Xv         Availability of skilled labour force.

Xvi        Britain accumulated wealth / availability of capital which was invested in industries.


  1. (a) What factors contributed to the development of the trans-Saharan trade.
    • Existence of local trade in the region provided a base for the trade.
    • Demand for West African goods such as gold, slaves and Kolanuts in the North.
    • Demand for West African goods such as gold, slaves and Kolanuts in the North.
    • Existence of rich merchants in the region who were willing to invest in the trade.
    • Existence of trade routes made it easy for them to travel
    • The camel made their journey through the desert easy –they were able to carry heavy loads and travel long distances without water. They could also travel on sand with ease.
    • Existence of strong leaders/political stability in western Sudan which encouraged trade.
    • Existence of strong leaders/ political stability in Western Sudan which encouraged trade.
    • Existence of oasis which provided water and acted as a resting point for the traders
  2. Describe the difficulties faced by the trans-Saharan traders

i           Communication  barriers due to lack of a common language in which to conduct commercial transactions.

ii          Traveling long distances and for many months across the desert.

iii        Traveling under extreme weather conditions-too hot during the day and too cold at night.

iv         Scarcity of water and food during the journey across the desert.

v          Attacks by hostile communities who sometimes robbed them of their merchandise.

Vi        Traders were sometimes attacked by insects e.g. scorpions.

Vii       sometimes wars between kingdoms disrupted trade.

  1. Explain why the Maji Maji uprising occurred between 1905 and 1907.
  2. Cruelty and brutality of the German colonial administration especially the Akidas and Jumbes
  3. Forced labour on the German plantations and other works which dehumanized the Africans.

iii.       Imposition of taxation e.g. hut tax provoked resentment among Africans

  1. Compulsory growing of cotton on unsuitable soils and hence poor yields
  2. The Africans desired to regain their lost independence.

Vi.       Disrespect for African culture by the German administration e.g. in Uganda, the Germans misbehaved with Gin’do women.

Vii.      The charismatic role-played by Kijikitile in using religion to unify the people of southern Tanzania against the Germans.

  1. b) What was the outcome of the Maji uprising
  2. The uprising led to destruction of property is southern Tanzania e.g. houses and crops.
  3. There was loss of many lives through the war and resulting starvation.

iii.       Many people were displaced as they escaped from, the war torn region of Southern labour.

  1. The German colonial government changed its policies e.g. abolition of forced labour.
  2. Change of German colonial administration structure from direct to indirect rule, henceforth Africans were used as administration because they understood their systems better.
  3. The uprising laid foundation for future African naturalism in Tanganyika/Tanzania.

vii.       Created division between those communities which resisted and those which collaborated.


  1. a) What are the sources of the British Constitution

i           Act of parliament e.g. the Magna Carta, the parliament Act of 1911

ii          The British conventions which have been used from generations to generation over a long period of time. For example those which – the British citizens against the excess of the executive.

Iii        The courts of Britain established decision made by the British law courts from time to time become part of the British Constitution e.g. in 1884 the Supremacy of parliament.

iv         Legal publications by reputable authorities e.g. scholars lawyers statesman. Political thinkers.


  1. b) Describe how the government of the USSR was organized.

i           The      USSR  was a federation of several socialist republic

ii          The federation was headed by a parliament

iii        The supreme Soviet was the highest law making institution

iv         The Supreme soviet was made up of two house, the soviet of the Union and the soviet of the Nationalities.

V         There existed a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister who was also the head of the government.

Vi        Each state had its own government and parliament.

Vii       The union government was in charge of defence. Currently and foreign policy.

Viii      There were local soviets to run affairs at the local level.

Ix         system of courts existed from the local to the federation level. The courts were independent.

X         The communist party controlled the government at all levels.  It was the supreme political force in the USSR.

Xi        The communist party was the only legal political party in the country.

Xii       The leader of the communist party was the most powerful person in the USSR.


20        a)         Why was the Economic Community of western African States

(ECOWAS) formed?

  1. To promote economic co-operation among West African states.
  2. Promote unity and solidarity among member’s states.

Iii.       Lack of funds to facilitate implementation of O.A.U activities as some of the member states do not remit their subscription regularly.

  1. Lack of an army to enforce decisions of the organization especially on critical and urgent issues.
  2. Interference by foreign powers/governments in some of the activities undertaken by the organizations.

Vi.       Divided loyalty- member for other international organizations by some member states e.g. the Commonwealth.

Vii.      Political instability and the resulting refugee problems make it difficult for the organization to operate effectively.

Viii.     Attachment to former colonial masters by some member states for instance former French colonies look up for France for assistance.

Ix.        Existence of basic problems within member states which require immediate attention e.g. famine, drought and disease.


  1. (a) What were the difference between the British policy of indirect rule and

the French policy of assimilation.

i           French colonies were ruled as provinces of France, British colonies were treated as separate political entities under the rule of the government –on behalf of the British government.

ii          the French used assimilated Africans in their administration, the British used traditional chiefs.

iii        French colonies elected their representative to the chamber of Dupulivi in France.

British colonies were not represented in the House of Commons as they had their Legislative Councils.

iv         Laws used in French colonies were made in France, while in British colonies laws were made by the respective Legislative Councils.

v          In the French colonies, assimilated Africans became French citizens with full rights while those in the British colonies remained subjects.


  1. b) Explain why Fredrick Lugard used the policy of indirect rule to administer Northern Nigeria.

i           The existence of well established and centralized system of government in the region – i.e. the Sokoto Caliphate

ii          Use of the sharia (Islamic law) in the Sokoto Caliphate provided a base to be used to govern the protectorate.

iii        To win the confidence and the support of all the people by giving them the impression that they were still under the governance of their leaders.

Iv         Inadequate funds to facilitate administrative expenses of the protectorate.

V         success already realized in using the policy elsewhere within the Empire e.g. in Uganda and India gave Lugard the confidence to try it in Nigeria

Vi        Poor communication network making it difficult for British officials to effectively administer different parts of the country.









  1. Name TWO sources of History of Kenyan communities during the pre-colonial period.

(i)        Oral tradition

(ii)       Archaeology/artifacts

  • Written sources /records e.g. books, magazines, diaries and journals.
  • Linguistic generics/anthropology

Any 2 points, 11 mark each   (2mks)

  1. In what TWO ways the Kenyan communities interacted during the pre-colonial period?
  • Through trade
  • Through warfare
  • Through intermarriage
  • Through common festivals/ceremonies e.g. wrestling cultural exchange e.g. language (2mks)
  1. State TWO reasons why early  visitors from Arabia came to the Kenyan coast/ before 1500
  • To trade/commerce
  1. State TWO reasons why the Portuguese built Fort Jesus
  1. To act as hiding place against/ attacks by their enemies.
  2. To use it as a base of sending expeditions against resisting communities of the coast /administration base.

iii.       Use it for storing armaments/storage of items before transportation.

  1. Use as a watch tower.

Any 2 points 1 mark each.     (2mks)

  1. Give two reason why the African were opposed to British colonial rule
  1. Land alienation
  2. Imposition of taxes

iii.       Loss of independence

  1. Forced labour
  2. Disruption of coastal trade by the British
  3. Cultural interference (raping women)                                                                                     Any 2 points 1 mark each. (2 mark)
  1. State TWO reasons of Anglo German Agreement of 1880
  1. A 10km coastal strip was awarded to the Sultan of Zanzibar (10 miles)
  2. The islands of Pemba, Pate, Zanzibar and lamu were given to the Sultan of Zanzibar.

iii.       With and the territory between river Umba and River ruvuna were given to the Germans.

  1. The territory between river Umba and Juba were given to the British any 2 points 1 mark each (2mks)


  1. Give one reason why the British colonial government encouraged white settlers to come to Kenya.
  1. To make the colony self sustaining /economic viability of the land
  2. To produce raw materials for their home industries


  1. What was main reason for the formation of the Ukamba members Association?

To oppose the colonial the colonial policy of destocking.


  1. Give one reason, for the establishment of independent churches in Kenya during the colonial period.
  1. To develop worship pattern that are relevant to their needs
  2. To avoid being discriminated against in the missionary churches

iii.       To preserve their cultural heritage which was being threaten by European


  1. To provide a forum for cultural activities

1 point 1 mark                        (1mk)

  1. Identify two reasons why African migrated to urban centers during the colonial period.
  2. To search for employment
  3. Colonial land policies (fertile land taken by Europeans)

iii.       Colonial tax system-The reserves were over-crowded

  1. Attractive social amenities in towns-hospitals, schools, water, electricity etc.
  2. Why was the nomination of Eliud Mathu to the Legco Important?

It was important because, for the first time African interests were represented by African themselves

Any 2 points 1 mk      (1 mk)

  1. Give the main reason why African nationalists in Kenya formed the Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) in 1960.

(i)        KADU was formed as an alliance for minority ethnic political groups to protect the right/interest of the minority groups against possible domination of KANU/majority groups

Any 1 point, 1 mark each.                  (1 mk)

  1. Identify two national philosophics which have been used in Kenya since the

attainment of independence.

  • African socialism
  • Harambee
  • Nyayoism

Any 2 points, 1 mark each     (2mks)

  1. State one fundamental right of the individual which a person in prison is

deprived of

  1. Freedom of movement
  2. Freedom of association

iii.       Freedom of expression and speech                            (2mks)


  1. State the main function of the Kenya Army

Protect the country against external attacks

Any 1 point, 1 march each     (1mk)

  1. Give two reasons why the chief’s baraza is important in KENYA.
    (i) It is used to communicate the government’s policies/decisions to the

local people.

(ii)       It acts as forum for people to express their wishes to the government.

(iii)      It is used to address, resolve minor concerns of the people in the locality/setting local dispute.

  1. v) Mobilization of local resources

Any 2 points, 1 mark  (2mks)



  1. a) Describe the migration and settlement of the Eastern Bantu speaking

Communities in Kenya unto 1800.

  1. i) They migrated from the original home in the Congo Basin and settled in

the Taita Hills area around Mount Kilimanjaro by the 2nd Century AD.

  1. ii) Some of them later migrated northwards along the coast to Shungwaya in

present day Somalia. These were the ancestors of Mijikenda, pokomo and Taita.

iii)       The ancestors of the Mount Kenya groups moved into the interior along the Tana River.

  1. iv) From about 1450 the communities which had settled in Shungwaya were forced to disperse from the area due to external pressure from the cushites.
  2. v) The ancestors of the Mijikenda and Taita moved south and established their settlement along the coast while those of the Pokomo migrated into the interior and settled along river Tana while the Ameru migrated to the slopes of Mount Kenya. (5mks)

Any 5 points, (1 mk)

b).        Discuss the results of the migration and settlement of the Eastern Bantu into Kenya by 1900.

  1. i) The incoming Bantu communities had iron weapons which enabled them to displace some of the communities which they came into contact with for example the Gumba in the slopes of Mount Kenya.
  2. ii) They intermarried with their neighbours/those people they came into contact with such as the Cushites and Nilotes.

(iii)      Their settlement led to the expansion/development of trade between them and their neighbors e.g. The Agikuyu traded with the Maasai.

(iv)      There was cultural exchange between the Bantu and their Cushitic and Nilotic neighbors.

(v)       Expansion of the Bantu created pressure over land which led to intercommunity conflicts and wars.

(vi)      Intercommunity conflicts led to loss of lives and destruction of property.

(vii)     Adoption of some agricultural practices from the Bantu.

Any 5 points, 2 marks each    (10 mks)


18        (a)       Why were the Portuguese able to control the Kenyan coast

between 1500 and 1700

(i)        Disunity/rivalry among the coastal towns enabled the Portuguese to play one against the other e.g Mombasa and Malindi.

(ii)       Military superiority-the Portuguese had better weapons and their soldiers were better trained and organized (surprise attacks) ½

  • The construction of forts by the Portuguese e.g. Fort Jesus made them able to sustain their control over the area.


  1. Describe the results of the Portuguese rule of the Kenyan cost.
    1. Introduction of new crops such as maize sweet potatoes and bananas/manure
    2. Introduction of new architectural designs/fort Jesus
  • Absorption of Portuguese words into the Kiswahili and India
  1. Disruption of the Indian Ocean trade/gold trade
  2. Decay of many coastal towns e.g. Gedi
  3. Establishment of a close link between Kenya and India
  • Introduction of guns and other weapons along the coast leading to slave trade and insecurity in the area.
  • Decline in trade between Arabia and the Kenyans and Arabs have a negative impression of Christianity and Europeans
  1. Their harshness made Africans and Arabs have a negative impression of Christianity and Europeans

Any 6 points 2mks                                                     (12 mks)


  1. a) What factors facilitated the establishment of the British Control

over Kenya during the 19th century.                         (5mks)

  1. Christian Missionary factor
  2. Presence of trading company (IBERA CO)
  • Superior military power/ good army/ force
  1. Disunity among African communities
  2. Collaboration of some communities with British / signing of treaties
  3. The British policy of indirect rule.
  • Financial support from home government.


  1. b) Why are the British interested in establishing their control over

 Kenya during the European scramble for Africa.

  1. Had strong military system
  2. Understood the terrain
  • Adopted guerrilla warfare
  1. Had reliable foods supply / strong / stable economic background
  2. Were proud, confident, community having subsued their neighbours e.g. maasai
  3. Had strong unifying institution of the Koyiyot
  • Kimnyoles prophecy
  • Superiority in numbers
  1. Distance of replenishing of supplies of e.g. food, arms.


  1. a) What factors undermined African nationalist activities in Kenya

between 1939 and 1963?

  1. i) Harassment, detention and jailing of the nationalist leaders

e.g. Jomo Kenyatta, oneko and Ngei.

  1. ii) Banning of political organization especially during the inter

war and emergency periods.

  • Disunity among the African nationalists / tribalism
  1. Lack of finances and other resources with which to manage the struggle
  2. African nationalists were denied access to the mass media and therefore could not articulate their grievances.
  3. Betrayal of the African nationalists by other people especially the home guards / loyalists.
  • Lack of support from some communities from within and out the country.
  • Use of the mass media by the colonial government to discredit the activities of the nationalist.
  1. Illiteracy among Africans
  2. Restriction of movement

Any 7 points 1mark each       (7mks)


  1. b) Describe the role African elected members of parliament played

in the struggle for independence up to 1963.

  1. i) Elected members formed a pressure group to demand for

greater political rights for Africans.

  1. They formed the core team which pressurized for independence
  • They made known the grievances for the Africans in international fora
  1. They networked with other African nationalists elsewhere e.g Ghana and Nigeria to hasten the achievement of independence in Kenya.
  2. They fought for the release of Jomo Kenyatta and other imprisoned/detained/African nationalists.
  3. They formed the national political parties e.g. KANU and KADU APP which led the country to independence.
  • They educated and created awareness among the masses to the nationalist struggle.
  • They popularized Kenyatta and made him be accepted as the nationalist hero.
  1. They took part in the formulation of the independence constitution

Any 8 points, 1 mks   (8mks)



  1. a) How does the Kenya government ensure that the rule of a law is upheld

in the country?

  1. Establishing an independent court system to try criminal / civil offences / cases
  2. Ensuring that suspected criminals are tried in a court of law and if found guilty are sentenced.
  • Allowing those found guilty to appeal for retrial.
  1. Empowering parliament to control the excesses of the executive

/ President.

  1. Entitling every accused person legal representation by

an advocate of the High court.

  1. vi) Subjecting all citizens of the country to and are governed

by the same law.

vii)      Arresting suspects.                                         Any 3 x 1 = 3mks

  1. Describe the constitutional amendments which took place in Kenya between 1964 and 1991.
    1. In 1964 the Republican and Constitution replace the independence

constitution Kenya became a republic with an executive president.

  1. In 1966 the tow houses of parliament the senate and the House of

representatives were merged.

  • A member who resigned from the party that sponsored him / her was

required to seek a fresh mandate from the electorate on the ticket of the new party.

  1. For any constitutional amendment to be approved/ effected there

had to be 2/3 majority of the members of parliament.

  1. People could be detained on Public interest (public Security Act)
  2. The president was empowered to nominate 12 members of parliament
  • In 1968 parliament lost control over the changing

Administrative boundaries.

  • The presidential election was to be done directly by the people who

qualified to vote.

  1. If the presidency fell vacant elections were to be held within 90 days to

fill the vacancy as the Vice – president acted.

  1. x) The president was empowered to postpone elections when and if he or

she finds it necessary and also to shorten the life of parliament.

  1. xi) 1975 president could pardon election offenders enabling them to contest

in future election, by election.

xii)      In 1982 Kenya became a one party stat by law

  • Security of tenure of office of the Attorney General and controller

Audit General at will.

  • The post of the Chief Secretary and head of Civil Service was established
  1. In 1987 the post of the Chief Secretary was abolished.
  • The president was empowered to dismiss the Attorney General, the controller and Audit General at will.
  • 1988 the president was empowered to dismiss the high court judges and the Chairman of the public service at will.
  • The police department was empowered to hold suspected criminals for maximum of 14days.
  • 1990, guaranteed of the tenure of office of Attorney General, the controller and Auditor general.
  1. Presidency limited to two – 5 year terms section.
  • 2A was repealed and Kenya became a multi – party state.
  • Lowering the voting age from 21 yrs to 18yrs
  • President he must attain 25% votes cast from 5 provinces.
  1. a) Explain the ole of the electoral commission of Kenya.
  2. i) The electoral commission organizes civil, parliamentary and presidential elections.
  3. ii) Identifies, appoints and trains election officials.

iii)       Clears party candidates for participation in elections.

  1. iv) Verifies and announces election results.
  2. v) Prepares ballot papers and other election materials.
  3. vi) Educates/informs the general public on the requirements for voters and


vii)      Identifies and recommends polling stations.

viii)     Prescribes and reviews electoral boundaries.

  1. ix) Registers voters.
  2. x) Maintains and updates the registers of voters.
  3. xi) Supervises the election process.

xii)      Participates in formulation of election code of conduct.

Any 7 points, 1 mark  (7 marks).

  1. b) Describe the factors that are likely to interfere with free and fair election

in Kenya.

  1. Ethnic loyalties polarization/allegiance.
  2. Party loyalties.
  • Harassment of voters by rival groups.
  1. Incompetent election officials.
  2. Partisan election officials.
  3. In accessibility of polling station.
  • Transport difficulties.
  • Communication problems between the headquarters and the polling stations.
  1. Extreme weather conditions.
  2. Illiteracy of some voters.
  3. Corruption of candidates and their supporters.
  • Inefficient distribution of election materials.
  • Use of negative propaganda by party leader supporters.
  • Insecurity fear instilled in candidates.
  1. Gender insensitivity.
  • Use and misuse of mass media.

Any 8 points, 1 mark.

  1. a) Explain why the Kenya government prepares an annual budget.
  1. To enable the government to prioritize its needs.
  2. Help the government to identify sources of revenue.
  • Enables parliament to approve government expenditure.
  1. Enable the government to explain the tax structure to the public.
  2. Enable the government to estimate the financial requirements for its needs.
  3. Acts as reference for future – in correcting mistakes.
  • Smooth running of government, various government departments.
  • Help the government to identify its departments and allocate duties appropriately thus enhancing accountability.
  1. Give useful information to those organizations and individuals who may want to keep track of the governments expenditure.
  2. Enable the government to account for funds borrowed/donated for development.
  3. Accomplish already started projects.

Any 5 points, 2 marks.


  1. b) What measures does the Kenya government take to ensure that public

funds are properly used?

  1. The government ensures that all intended expenditures is approved by parliament before any expenditure is taken.
  2. All reports on expenditure by government ministries are presented to the Public Accounts Committee to the public.
  • The Controller and Audit General Audits ministries and reports to parliament.
  1. The PS in every Ministry is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that government funds are well spent.
  2. The Auditor General of State Corporations audits the expenditure of all government corporations.
  3. Government contacts are advertised publicly for tendering and awards are made on merit.
  • Establishing of Kenya Anti-corruption Authority.


  1. Name two factors which influenced early man to begin domesticating animals.
  2. i)
  3. ii) Man found some animals friendly.

iii)       Changes in climatic conditions resulted in aridity which forced animals to


  1. Over hunting by early man led to the reduction of animal population.
  2. Increase in human population forced the animals to migrate further away.
  3. Adoption of settled life necessitated domestication of animal.

Any 2 points, 1 mark each.

  1. Give two factors which influenced the development of urban centres in Greece.
  1. Security – Location in area which could be easily defended.
  2. Trade/commercial activities with other countries.
  • Religion activities – towns developed around centre of worship.
  1. Accessibility/good communication.
  2. Availability of water.

Any 2 points, 1 mark each.

  1. State one way in which the Agrarian revolution contributed to rural-urban

migration in Europe.

  1. Mechanization of farming rendered peasants jobless so they migrated to urban centres in search of jobs opportunities.
  2. The enclosure system made many people landless.

Any 1 point, 1 mark.

  1. Identify the main sources of industrial energy in Europe from the mid twentieth



Any other 1 point, 1 mark.

  1. State two scientific discoveries in the field of medicine in the 19th century.
  2. Discovery of the principle of vaccinations in controlling the spread of diseases.
  3. Prevention of water borne diseases through boiling water to kill microbes/pests.
  • Pasteurization process to kill bacteria which causes diseases.
  1. The use of either to prevent pain during surgical operations/use chlorophom.
  2. The use of antiseptics during surgical operations/carpotic.

Any 2 points, 1 mark each.

  1. Give one way in which poor transport network hinders industrialization in the 3rd

World countries.

  1. Poor transport network causes delay in marketing goods.
  2. Causes delays in supplying industrial raw materials.
  • Bring about high transport costs.

Any 1 point, 1 mark.

  1. Reason why the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was established.
  2. i) To remove trade barriers e.g. tariffs among member states.
  3. ii) To promote cooperation and understanding among the member states.

iii)       To create a wider market for trade products of member state.

  1. State two similarities between the African traditional belief in death and the Christian teaching on death.
  2. The two religions teach that there is life after death.
  3. Life after death is in spirit form.
  • The quality of the life after death depends on individuals behaviour here on earth.
  1. There is judgment after death.

Any 2 points, 1 mark each.

  1. State two ways through which Islam was spread in the nineteenth century.
  2. Through migration/settlement.
  3. Through religious wars/Holy wars/Jihads/conquest.
  • Establishment of Islam states/converting kings to Islam.
  1. Missionaries to Islam/Islam missionaries.
  2. Trade/commerce.
  3. Formal Islamic education/establishment of Islamic centre of learning/Muslim schools.
  • Intermarriage.

Any 2 points, 1 mark each.

  1. State one way which centralization of authority contributed to the growth of the Buganda Kingdom.
  2. It enhanced effective control of the Kingdom.
  3. It promoted control of other traditional leaders e.g. clan heads and thus brought about unity.
  • It enhanced loyalty to one single leader.
  1. It led to the emergence of able Kabaka who propelled the Kingdom from strength to strength.

Any 2 points, 1 mark each.

  1. Give two economic reasons which made Europe powers to scramble for Africa.
  2. Search for market for their manufactured goods.
  3. Search sources of raw materials for their industries.
  • Desire by the entrepreneurs to invest excess capital.
  1. Need to protect European traders and investments in Africa.

Any 2 points, 1 mark each.

  1. State the main contribution of religion in the Maji Maji uprising against German rule in Southern Tanzania.
  2. i) A religious leader Kijingetile used magic water which claimed to have

magic power from the ancestors against German bullets in spite to mobilize, encourage and unite the people of Southern Tanzania to rise against rule.

  1. Define indirect rule as a policy that was used by the British to administer their colonies in Africa.

Indirect rule refers to the British colonial administration policy where they retained the existing indigenous administrative systems and rulers in pursuit of their colonial interests.                                                                     (1 mark)

  1. GIVE TWO reasons why the Central powers were defeated in the first world the allied forces control the sea routes and had powerful navy which they used to blocked supplies other central power.

(i)        The allied forces had adequate supply of human resources for the war from the members against 4 for the Central powers.

(ii)       The allied forces had abundant wealth with which to finance the war

(iii)      The initial defeat of German led to mutinies in the Germany army.  It also make other members of the Central Powers to surrender.

Any 2 points,   1mk                (2mks)

  1. State TWO methods which the international community used to hasten the attainment of the majority rule in south Africa.

(i)        The condemned apartheid publicly in international force.

(ii)       International organizations e.g UNO and OAU put pressure on the South African government to grant self rule to the majority through dialogue.

(iii)      They imposed economic sanctions and arms embargo on the South African government.

(iv)      They gave financial/material support to the freedom fighters.

(v)       They allowed the freedom fighters to use their countries as military training grounds.

(vi)      They supplied the freedom fighters with armaments

Any 2 points, 1 mark each.    (2mks)

17        a)         What factors led to the development of early agriculture in India?

(i)        Availability of water from river George and Indus for irrigation farmlands

(ii)       Existence of fertile soils which were deposition along the river valleys

(iii)      Existence of indigenous crops in the area

(iv)      Establishment of settlements along the river valleys created more demand for food/high population.

(v)       Decrease in the supply of food from the natural environment hence cultivation hence cultivating/man could no longer depend on hunting/gathering.

(vi)      Existence of means of transport/car v

(vii)     Storage facilities

(viii)    Availability of farm labour

(ix)      Immigrants from M. East Asia with the know-how

(x)       Use of improved methods of irrigation e.g. earth dams and dykes.

(xi)      Availability of adequate rainfall certain times of the year promoted farming.

  1. a) In what ways did overseas colonies contributed to the expansion

of industries in Europe

  1. i) The overseas colonies provided additional market for

Europe industrial products such as cloth and spirits.

  1. ii) Overseas colonies were sources of industrial raw materials

e.g. cotton , palm oil and sisal.

iii)       Trade between European countries and their colonies led to the

emergence of a class of rich people who invested in industries.

  1. iv) European countries acquired capital for investment in industrial

from trading with their colonies.

Any 3 point, 1 mark each       (3mks)

  1. b) Discuss the problems which the European Society faced as result

of industrialization.   

  • Rural urban migration which resulted in overcrowding of people

in towns.

  • Overcrowding put pressure on the available social amenities

such as housing / shelter, schools and hospitals.

  • Crowding in urban centres led to increased crime rate and

other social ills as people tried to earn a living.

  1. The poor working conditions in industries exposed workers to accidents.
  • Use of machines in industries rendered people jobless.
  • Industrial waste was not properly disposed off and this led to environmental degradation / pollution.
  • Low wages paid to workers led to poor living conditions which demoralized them.
  • Children and women were employed in industries / labour exploitation.
  • Social stratification / the gap between the rich and the poor.

Any 6 points, 1marks each.    (6 marks)


  1. a) Describe the religious beliefs and practices of traditional Yoruba


  1. i) Yoruba people believed in the existence of one Supreme Being /

God known as Olorun / Olodumale

  1. They believed in the existence of other lesser gods e.g. god of

wisdom and war.

  • They believed in the existence of spirits/ Ancestral spirits.
  1. Yoruba priests and diviners interpreted God’s message tot eh people /They acted as intermediaries.
  2. They offered sacrifices/ Human sacrifices to God and the spirits. These were presided over by the priests and diviners/ kings.
  3. Religious functions were conducted in special places/ shrines.
  • Stages in life e.g. birth, puberty and marriage were accompanied by festivities and rituals.
  • They believed in life after death.
  1. They believed in mysterious powers.
  2. They believed that the earth was holy
  3. They believed in judgment after death

Any 5 points, 1 mark each                                         (5mks)


  1. b) ii) It was a source of moral standards for the Yoruba. It provides

moral guidelines.

  • It was the basis of Yoruba laws.
  1. It linked the living and the dead thus gave continuity ot life.
  2. It gave significance and divine purpose to the different stages of a person’s life.
  3. It provided meaningful spiritual and leisure activities e.g. participation in religious ceremonies and rituals.
  • It was used by leaders / kings to unite the people

Any 5 points, 2 mark each                                         (10mks)


  1. a) Describe the results of the development of railway transport during

the 19th century.

  1. Railways facilitated transportation of bulky goods especially

industrial products and raw materials for the industry.

  1. It facilitated transportation industrial workers/ labour.
  • It facilitated the spread of ideas/ Reasons / political.
  1. It led to widespread migrations and settlement of people.
  2. It promoted the development of trade.
  3. It opened up remote areas foe economic exploitation e.g. mining fishing and farming boosting agricultural.
  • It strengthened European pacification of their overseases colonies/Administration of colonies.
  • It led to the development of towns / urban centres.
  1. Promoted social interaction.
  2. Created employment opportunities.
  3. It supplemented either forms of transportation
  • Sources of revenue.

Any 5 points 1 mark each                                          (5marks)


  1. Discuss ways through which the modern society benefited from the development in telecommunications.
  2. The use of telecommunications has facilitated storage of information

more conveniently thought the use of computer.

  1. It has provided improved entertainment e.g. live transmissions

of music and sports.

  • It has promoted fast transmission of ideas/ propaganda / message.
  1. It has speeded up business transactions by enabling a few people to handle a lot of workload.
  2. It has reduced costs business transactions by enabling individual countries.
  3. It has enabled organizations / individuals to access information / programmes at their own convenience.
  • It has enhanced safe traveling by air and water through radar connections.
  • It has facilitated the study of weather.

Any 5 points, 1 mark each                                         (5marks)


  1. (a) What were the economic activities of the people of the Asante


(i)        They participated in the local trade where they exchanged commodities such as fish, salt and cloth with their neighbours, Goan and Go.

(ii)       They participated in the long distance trade as middlemen between traders from North Africa and those from the South. Their main commodities of trade were salt, gold kolanuts and slaves.

  • They grow crops such as kolanuts and grain/ kept animals
  • They practiced crafts especially the manufacture of items such as baskets and pots.
  • They practiced iron working and made  tools like hoes, bangles and arrows
  • They practiced hunting and gathering of fruits and roots.
  • They practiced mining activities
  • They practiced fishing

Any 3 points, 1 mark each                                         (3 mks)


  • Describe the political organization of the Asante Empire during the 19th
  • The Asante Empire was centralized state divided into three divisions namely. The nucleaus (Kumasi) states outside Kumasi (Amatoo) and the conquered states.
  • The overall ruler of the Empire was Asantahene. Kimasi was under the direct control of the Asantahene.
  • The conquered states were ruled by their kings but treated as provinces of Asante. Asantahene appointed representatives in each conquered sate.
  • The Asantahene ruled with the help of a confederacy of Kings (Omanhene). Confederacy council. They took an oath of allegiance to ensure Loyalty to the Asantahene.
  • The Omanhene represented the Asantahene in the conquered states/Omanhene, Sone autonomy but were expected to pay tribute to the Asantahene and contribute soldiers in times of war.
  • The Empire had a standing army which defended/ conquered other states and maintained law and order in the Empire.
  • Religion played an important army which defended/ conquered other states and maintained law and order in the Empire.
  • The sacred Golden stool which was introduced in the 18th century by Asantahene Osei. Tutu strengthened unity in the Empire. It was kept at the headquarters, Kumasi. Each Omanhene was given a symbolic black stool to signify unity of purpose in the province.
  • The empire had a well established judicial/ court system based at Kumasi and was headed by the Asantahene. The Omanhene were given powers to try minor cases at the provinces.
  • The empire has a strong economic base that depended mainly on taxes and profit derived from the long distance trade. This strong economy aimed the empire.

(Any 6 points. 2 mks each)                                        (12 mks)


  1. (a) Explain why the ancient regime in France had become unpopular by


(i)        The kings possessed absolute and unquestionable powers. Their word was


  • The kings claimed divine authority and so were above the law. They used this claim to control people lives.
  • The royal family lavishly while the commoners lived in extreme poverty/ famine.
  • The king’s representatives in the province (the royal deputies) had acquired so much power and wealth that they had become tyrants.
  • The kings tolerated no critism; the opponents were dealt with ruthlessly e.g. Press.
  • The clergy and nobility had a privileged position in the state. They were the first and second class citizens and owned all the land which they rented to commoners
  • The nobles and the clergy were exempted from paying taxes while the commoners paid heavily.
  • The middle class which was made up of the professionals e.g. lawyers, teachers and doctors were excluded from the government hence their dissatisfaction.
  • The peasants were over- burdened with many types of taxes which were collected ruthlessly.
  • They were subjected to other ills such as forced labour, unfair evictions by the

Any 5 points, 1 marks each.                           (5 mks)




  • Discuss the French system of government from 1871
  • France became a republic in 1871 with an executive president
  • The president is assisted by a prime minister who is appointee
  • The president is elected by direct popular vote to a seven year term of office though according to the French constitution the president can be elected for a second term.
  • The president with the help of the Prime Minister choose a team of ministers, who are charged with the responsibility of making and implementing government policies.
  • Defence and foreign affairs fall under the direct responsibility of the president/ president is commander in chief.
  • The national Assembly is the law making body in France although its powers are limited to certain areas e.g. taxation, nationalization of industries and declaration of war.
  • The president has the right to dissolve parliament in the event of a national crisis and rule by degree
  • France has a bicameral parliament consisting of the Senate and the National Assembly. The Senate is elected to a nine year term and have limited powers. The National assembly is elected to a five year term and has more powers.
  • The power is shared between the president and the Prime Minister.
  • The President is the Arbiter and guardian of the constitution
  • France has a multiparty democracy.

Any 5 points 2 marks                                     (10 mks)


  1. (a)

(iii)      To promote culture interaction between members states

(iv)      To protect the interest of the disadvantaged/ minority groups, e.g. women,


  • To ensure that member states uphold fundamental human rights
  • To replace the League of Nations which had collapsed before the outbreak of the Second World War
  • To promote the economic development among members though research.
  • To promote social progress and better standards of living through research
  • To rebuild the economies of the countries affected by wars

Any 5 points, 1 mk each                                             (5 mks)


(b)       Discuss the factors that have undermined activities of the UNO

(i)        The power to veto that is given to the five permanent members encourages them to further their interests.

(ii)       National interests which more often than not tend to over – ride international concerns.

(iii)      Lack of a standing army to implement effect the UNO resolutions

(iv)      Failure by some members states to remit their subscriptions limit the resources availability for UNO operations

(v)       Occurrence of many conflicts between countries/ within countries limits the UNO’s ability to effectively resolve issues.

(vi)      Conflicting ideologies pursued by different countries make it difficult for the organization to implement its objectives.

(vii)     Occurrence of natural catastrophic/ epidermies place an unexpected economic strain on the UNO resources, e.g. floods, drought

(viii)    Accumulation of armaments by powerful individuals/ countries threaten the existence of a peaceful world undermines UNO ability to promote world peace.

(ix)      Interests of member countries in other regional/ international organization tend to conflict with those of the UNO

  • Difference in economic development level of member  countries  militate against co-operation
  • International tourism has undermined world peace.

Any 5 points, 2 marks each                                        (10 mks)




311/1 – 1999

  1. The clan (1 mk)
  2. (i) Some maasai sections e.g. the Kwavi became agriculture/ farmers

(ii)       Some Maasai became traders

(Any 2 points, 1 mrk)                         (2 mks)

  1. (i) Mediating between God and the people/ acting as a  priest

(ii)       Offering sacrifices to God on behalf of the people

  • Blessing people before they undertook special activities such as going to


(Any 2 points, 1 mrk)             (2 mks)


  1. (i)        Possession of iron and iron working skills

(ii)       Settlement in areas with suitable climate

  • Existence of ingenious crops
  • Fertile soils ( Any 2 points, 1 mrk)                        (2 mks)


  1. (i) Abagusii

(ii)       Abakuria

(iii)      Abaluyia/ any Abaluyia speaking group        (2 mks)

(Any 2 points. 1 mark)           (2 mks)


  1. (i) Some Portuguese words were added to Kiswahili

(ii)       Portuguese architecture was introduced at the coast

  • The Portuguese introduced crops such as maize and cassava/ new farming


  • The Portuguese built Fort Jesus and Vasco Da Gama Pillar which have become historic sites
  • Links between coastal settlement and India were strengthened

(Any 2 points, 1 mrk)             (2 mks)


  1. (i) The British tax payers were not ready to sustain the administration of the

colony because it was expensive

  • The company officials were familiar with the region- based on their

trading experience in the area.

  • The British tax payers did not see the economic benefits of the colony
  • Inadequate personnel

(Any 2 points, 1 mrk)             (2 mks)


  1. (i) Nabongo Mumia was made a paramount Chief of the region

(ii)       The Wanga Kingdom was strengthened using the military support from

the British

  • The wanga rulers princes were used to administer the surrounding communities
  • The Wanga Kingdom expanded

(Any 2 points, 1 mark)           (2 mks)

  1. (i) To link Uganda with the coast

(ii)       To provide quick, safe and convenient means of transport for government

administrators/ troops

  • Open up Kenya for economic development/ to stop slave trade/ promote

lifetime trade ½          ( Any 2 points, 1 mrk)                        ( 2 mks)


  1. (i) The executive council/ advisory council

(ii)       The legislative council

  • The church

(Any 1 point, 1 mrk)                          (1 mrk)


  1. (i) They were ethnic ( tribal based/ oriented/ urban based

(ii)       They were non- militant

  • They were led by educated Africans chiefs
  • They were formed in response to socio- economic and land problems of various ethnic groups

(Any 2 points, 1 mrk)                         (2 mks)


  1. (i) To provide security

(ii)       To promote unity and a sense of belonging among members

  • To cater for the basic needs of the  members

(Any 1 point, 1 mrk)                          (1 mrk)


  1. (i) The constitution led to  increased number of elected Africans in the

legislative council (from 8 to 14)

  • It led to the introduction of multi- racial representation in the legislative


  • It led to the increase of the number of African Ministers to two

(Any 1 point, 1 mrk)                          (1 mrk)


  1. (i) A civil dispute is between individuals, while a criminal dispute  is one  in

which the law of  the land has been broken by individuals.

(Any 1 point, 1 mrk)                          (1 mrk)


  1. (i) Recurrent expenditure

(ii)       Capital expenditure/ development expenditure

(iii)      Serving expenditure

(Any 2 points)                                    (2 mks)


  1. (i) They offer security/ protection to prisoners

(ii)       They supervise prisoners/ execute court orders

(iii)      They train prisoners in special skills/ rehabilitate

  • They maintain law and order among prisoners

(Any 2 points, 1 mrk)                         (2 mks)






  1. (a) (i) Invasion of the settlement by the incoming cushites

(ii)  Internal conflicts/ feuds

  • Population increase
  • Outbreak of diseases/ epidermics/ natural calamities
  • Search for more land for settlement and pasture

(Any 3 points, 1 mrk)                         ( 3 mks)


(b) (i)  The Mijikenda were organized  into between 416 clans with many sub-


  • Each man lived in protected villages known as Kaya
  • Young men became members of age – sets after going through circumcision
  • Senior age –set members made up the government council, Kambi
  • The council was responsible for the administration  of a clan
  • Council meetings were chaired by headmen
  • The junior age- set members made up the warrior group which was charged with defending the community

(Any 6 points, 1 mk)              (6 mks)

(ii)  (i) The Mijikenda believed in the existence of one supreme God whom they

called Mulungu

(ii) Prayers were made directly to Mulungu

(iii) They offered sacrifices to appease Mulungu

(iv) Priest presided over religious ceremonies and rituals

(v) Other people such as the medicenemen, diviners played an important role

among the Mijikenda

(vi) In the city states were generally divided into two sections, one Muslim

and the other African

(vii) The city states were ruled  by imams/ Sultans/ Sheikhs

(viii) The city states were independent political entities

(ix) Towns minted and used their own coins/ money

(x)    People wore woven  and silk clothes

(Any 5 points, 1 mk)              ( 5 mks)


  1. a) (i) Kiswahili was used as the main medium of communication in the coastal


(ii)    Islam was the main religion practiced in the towns.

(iii)   Islamic law/Sharia was used in administration.

(iv)   Houses were constructed using Arabic architecture.

(v)    Trade was the main economic activity in the towns.

(vi)   In the city states were generally divided into two sections, one Muslim and

other African.

(vii)  The city states were ruled by Imams/Sultans/sheikhs.

(viii) The city states were independent political entities.

(ix)   Towns minted and used their own coins/money.

(x)    People wore woven and silk clothes.


(b) (i) Disruption of trade by the Portuguese resulted in loss of revenue

(ii)  Constant warfare and conflicts between the Portuguese and the coastal

towns led to the total destruction of some coastal settlements

(iii) Invasion of coastal settlement by the Zimba led to the disruption of

economic activities of the coastal settlement.

(iv) Increased conflicts between the city states discouraged traders from the

interior to bring trade goods to the coast.

(v) The draught spell hindered farming activities

(vi) Conflicts between the Mazrui family and the AI Busaidi family  over the

control of the coastal settlement.

(vii) Taxes levied on the coastal settlements by the corrupt Portuguese

administrators weakened the economic base of the settlements.

(viii)            Rivalry between European Nations for the control of the trade along the

East African Coast led to the decline of some coastal towns.

(Any 5 points, 2 mks each      (10 mks)


  1. (a) (i) Demand for their commodities

(ii) Availability of trade goods

(iii) Unsuitable climatic conditions for farming

(iv) Proximity to the coast

(v) Existence of entrepreneurs like chief Kivoi

(vi) Existence of a well organized local trade

(Any 5 points, 1 mk)              (5 mks)


(b) (i) The raids for slaves by traders led to  insecurity and fear making people

abandon their economic activities.

(ii) Able- bodied people were taken away as slaves leaving the weak who

could not work effectively.

(iii)            It led to the death of family members denying the family the much needed


(iv)            Led to loss of skilled labour force e.g. iron smiths

(v) Methods used in acquiring slaves such as burning of houses led to

destruction of the environment and human suffering

(vi) Slave raids and slave of people led to depopulation/ displacement

(vii) Promoted interaction between African communities e.g. the Akamba and


(viii) Led to the spread and use of Kiswahili in the interior of Kenya

(ix) Led to the spread of Islam and Islamic culture

(x) Opened up the interior of Kenya for European penetration

(Any 5 points, 2 mks) (10 mks)




  1. (a) (i) To provide more educational opportunities for Africans

(ii)  To have a say/ control of what was taught  in their schools

(iii)  To keep away European missionary influence for their schools

(iv) To preserve their cultural heritage / values

(v) To create job opportunities for educated Africans

(vi) To sensitize Africans on the evils of colonialism

(Any 5 points, 1 mk)              (5 mks)


(b) (i) He mobilized the mijikenda into forming a pressure  group – the Mijikenda


(ii) As a member of the African Elected Members Organization, Ngala

Pressured for more constitutional reforms for Africans.

(iii) in 1955  he  mobilized  people from Mombasa to form the Mombasa

African Democratic Union.

(iv) He was instrumental in the Formation of KADU to defend the interest of

the minority African groups against possible domination by KANU. He

became the president of the party.

(v)   Ngala and Mboya led the African delegation which attended the first

Lancaster House Conference to discuss the independence constitution

(vi) He supported and called for the release of detained leaders

(vii) In May 1963, KADU under the leadership of Ngala formed the first

independence government.

(Any 5 points, 2 mks)                         (10 mks)



  1. (a) (i) arrest the suspected criminal

(ii) Confine the arrested suspect

(iii) Provide protection/ security to the suspected criminal

(iv) Investigate the offence to prepare evidence for prosecution

(v) Take the suspended criminal to court

(vi) Lead the protection/ give evidence

(vii) Hand over the criminal to prison authority

(viii) Realistic the suspect if acquitted

(Any 5 points,             1 mk)                          (5 mks)


(b) (i)  Inadequate working facilities such as vehicles, radios, stationery to

facilitate efficient communication.

(ii)  Poor condition of the roads lead to increased/ frequent accidents and

congestion on the roads thus putting pressure on the police officers.

(iii) Negative public attitude towards the police makes it difficult for police

officers to perform their duties freely.

(vi) Corrupt practices with the police make the policemen/ policewomen,

unwilling to operate freely and impartially. This slows down performance

(vii) Interference by influential personalities within societies make the police

unwilling to take appropriate actions in some cases/ scare the police from

taking action.

(viii) Easy access to dangerous arms by the wrong members of the society

Cause anxiety, fear and insecurity to the police.

(ix) The indiscipline / impatience of Kenyan drivers give the traffic police

hectic time during the performance of their duties.

(Any 5 points, 2 mks)                         (10 mks)


  1. (a) (i) Administrative services are brought closer to the people

(ii) Local resources are utilized effectively e.g. land

(iii) Social amenities are made available e.g. hospitals, piped water

(iv) Means of transport and communication are developed/ improved

(v) Local people are involved in decision making

(vi) Local priorities are identified and implemented

(vii) Ensure equal development in all districts

(viii) Creates employment for local people

(Any 5 points, 1 mk)                                      (5 mks)


(b) (i)  He represents the president during national celebrations  e.g. Labour Day,

Moi Day, E.T.C during these celebrations the Provincial Commissioner

reads the president’s speech to the nation

(ii) He is the president’s representative in the province

(iii) He explains and educates the government employees and the people on

government policies.

(iv) He is responsible for the maintenance of law and order where he chairs

the provincial security and intelligence committee and ensures that there

is law and order during public meetings.

(v)  He co- ordinates all development activities in the province by chairing

all provincial development committee meetings.

  • He supervises and co-ordinates all the administrative functions in the province being the chief administrator.
  • He chairs provincial committee meetings on procurement land control board, education and non- government organizations.

Any 5 points, 2 mks)                          (10 mks)


  1. (a) (i)  Building and maintaining roads within their areas of jurisdiction

(ii) Providing and managing health services e.g. dispensaries and welfare


(iii) Building and maintaining the cleanliness of market centers by

organizing rubbish disposal

(iv) Supply water to the residents

(v)  Providing education facilities e.g. nursery schools

(vi) Providing entertainment/ recreational facilities such as parks, social


(vii) Giving trade licences

(viii) Approving building plans

(ix)   Provide and maintain residential houses


  • (i) County councils get grants from the central Government every year for

financing their development projects.

(ii)  They raise money through the sale  of trade licences

(iii) They raise money through payment of land and houses rates in

commercial centres.

(iv) They raise money through fines

(v)  They organize Harambee activities to raise money

(vi) They got money on form of donations from well wishers

(vii) Money is raised through hiring out council facilities e.g social halls,

play grounds e.t.c

(viii) They raise money by levying charges on trade good bought for sale

in their market/ stalls.

(ix) They raise money by charging for approving building plans for

commercial premises

(x) They raise money from rents paid on residential council houses

(xi) They raise money through levying entry fees on public vehicles that

use the parking facilities.

(xii) They obtain loans for specific development projects

(xiii) They raise money by levying charges on commercial sign posts/


(xiv) Loans from World Bank

(xv) From taxes from residents




  1. State two distinct characteristic of Home Erectus

(i)        Homo erectus had a big brain capacity/ high thinking capacity

(ii)       Homo erectus walked upright/ had an upright posture/ Bipedal

(iii)      Homo erectus had the ability to grasp objects.

(Any 2 points 1 mk)               (2 mks)


  1. State one main way in which the Agrarian Revolution contributed to the development of urban centres in Europe.

(i)        The enclosure system/ the consolidation of farms forced people to migrate

from the rural areas to urban                         (1 mk)


  1. Give one main reason why trade union movements were formed in Europe during the nineteenth century.

(i)        To fight for the welfare of workers/ to enable workers to collectively

negotiate for better terms of services with the employers

(1 mk)

  1. Identify two scientific discoveries during the nineteenth century which contributed to food preservation
  • Discovery of canning
  • Invention of refrigeration
  • Invention of pasteurization

Any 2 points 1 mark) ( 2 mks)


  1.  State two inventions during the eighteenth century which  improved textile industry in Britain
  • The spinning jerry which produced quality threads by Samwel Cromptor
  • The power loom which facilitated the weaving process by Edward Cartri
  • The cotton gin which quickened the removal of seeds from cotton fibre Eli Witney.
  • The water frames by Richard Right
  • The flying shuttle by John Kay
  • The cylindrical calico printing  machine

Any 2 points 1 mks) ( 2 mks)

  1. Give two ways in which air transport has improved trade between nations
  • It has improved speed with which trade goods between nations/ organizations/ individuals are moved.
  • It has improved transportation of urgent documents and messages relating to trade.
  1. Distinguish between barter and currency systems of trade
  • Barter system of trade involves exchange of goods with other goods where as currency system of trade involves the use of money to purchase commodities. ( 2 mks)
  1. (a) State the role played the Tuaregs in the Trans- Saharan Trade
  • They acted as guides to traders across the desert/ they guided traders along the trade routes across the Sahara
  • Provided security to traders/ acted as guards
  • Acted as interpreters
  • They maintained the oasis/ water/ wells
  • Provided food/ accommodation


(b) Identify two trade routes which connected trading centres in the Western    

Sudan and North Africa during the Trans- Saharan trade.

(i) Fez- Marrakech- Wadan – Walata

(ii) From Sijilmosa in Morocco through Tuat, Gao to Timbuktu

(iii) From Tunisia through Ghadames  and Agades to Hausaland

(iv) From Tripoli through Fezzan to Bornu

(v) From Cairo through Murzuk – Bilma -Kano

(vi) From Sijimasa – Walata- Tagheza- Audaghost

( Any 2 points 1 mk                                        2 mks)


  1. Give the main aim of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNTCAD)
  • To encourage/ promote trade between the rich/ developed and the developing countries

( 1 mk)

  1. What two similar roles were played by priests in both Egyptian and Yoruba traditional religions?
  • In both cases priests acted as intermediaries between god and people
  • They presided over religious functions and activities/ offered sacrifices
  • They interpreted divine messages and message from the ancestors to the people
  • They advised the kings/ rulers on administrative matters
  • They controlled the powers of kings
  • They predicted / for told the future.

( Any 2 points 1 mk)              ( 2 mks)


  1. Give  the main results of the translation of the bible into different languages during the sixteenth century
  • People were able to identify some of the weakness/ excesses of the popes powers and other religious leaders. This led to criticism against the resulted in the split of the Roman Catholic Church.

( 1 mk)

  1. Give the main reason why the golden  stool was important for the Asante Empire
  • It was the symble of unity within the Asante Empire/ it united the Asante Empire.


  1. Show two ways in which the industrial Revolution in Europe promoted European colonization of Africa.
  • The European nations wanted colonies as sources of raw materials for their industries.
  • The Europeans wanted markets for their manufactured goods
  • Wealthy industries wanted colonies where they could invest their excess capital.

(Any 2 points, 1 mk)              ( 2 mks)

  1. Name one organization which  has been formed by  the organization of Africa Unity (OAU) members countries to promote economic co-operation among  Southern Africa  countries
  • Preferential Trade Area (PTA) of Eastern and Southern Africa/ COMESA
  • South African Development Co- operation Conference (SADCC)

(Any 1 point, 1 mk)                ( 1 mk)


  1. State one problem which faced the League of Nations
  • Inability to settle disputes between members states
  • Lack of military strength with which to implement its objectives
  • Lack or adequate funds
  • Nationalist ambitions of member countries/ re- armament
  • Lack of support and commitment by major power  g U.A.S




  1. (a)       What things do archaeologists use to reconstruct the activities of

people who lives in prehistoric times?

  1. The remains of the weapons that they used
  2. The remains of the tools that they used
  3. The remains of humans bones
  4. The remains of animals found at the prehistoric sites
  5. The remains of plants the lived  on
  6. The remains of their dwelling places
  7. The remains of their artwork  g. rock painting
  8. The remains of traditional craft g.  pottery
  9. The remains of beads
  10. The remains of cans
  11. The remains of garments
  12. The remains of churred tree trunks/ charcoal and carbonized seeds.

Any 5 points, 1 mk ( 5 mks)


(b)       Explain five ways in which Homo Erectus attempted to improve his way of

(a)       Improved stone tools through the use of Levallois method

(b)       Invented fire which was used for cooking, lighting, warming and protecting against wild animals.

(c)       Made and lived in caves for more permanent settlement and security

(d)       Made clothes out of animal skins by scrapping them clean, using efficient stools.

(e)       Created leisure activities such as artwork

(f)        Developed language for effective communication

(g)       Migrated to warmer areas or regions

( Any 5 points, 2 mks)                        ( 10 mks)


18.(a) Describe the uses of gold in Ancient Egypt

(i)        God was used to make ornaments/ jewellery

(ii)       It was used in making decorations for houses

  • It was used for making decorations for houses
  • It was used for making utensils especially plates and vases for rich people
  • It was used as currency/ money
  • It was used as a trade commodity/ item of trade
  • It was used in royal burial ceremonies/ king  buried with gold
  • Abolition of wasteful furrows
  • Discovery of canning & refrigeration made it possible for farmers to produce porewhole in large quantities.

(Any 6 points, 2 mks (12 mks)


  • Explain how the discovery of iron in Africa affected people’s lives in

the  Continent

  • It led to the expansion of agriculture since forests and bushes were easily cleared
  • The use of iron led  to increased food production and this ensured food security
  • Production of iron weapons lead to increased warfare between communities
  • Iron tools were used as  trade goods, between communities  leading to expansion  of trade.
  • Iron was also used to make weapons for defence against enemies
  • Use of iron weapons made some communities leading to conquer neighbouring communities leading to creation of Empire/ kingdom/ fall decline of other.
  • Iron smelting led to the rise of specialized people, the blacksmiths
  • It led to urbanization.

(Any 6 points, 2 mks (12 mks)

  1. (a) What factors favoured the beginning of agriculture during the new

stone age?

(i)        Development of tools –m———- fools & wooden plough

(ii)       Settled life of development of settlements

(iii)      Increase of population leading to high demand of food

(iv)      Hunting and gathering was becoming tiresome

(v)       Change in climate which made natural food scarse

(vi)      Availability of seeds in variety e.g. wheat & barley

(Any 3 points, 1 mk) ( 3 mks)


(b)       Explain   six factors which promoted plantation farming  in Europe

during the agrarian revolution

(i)        The Invention of machines for extensive farming e.g seedling horse drawn

plough, iron hoe.

(ii)       Discovery of fertilizers which led to high yields/ manure

(iii)      Discovery of pesticides and fungicides which facilitate control of crops


(iv)      Improvement in transport especially the railway which facilitate transportation of bulky goods/ farm products  and farm workers

  • High demand for food by rapidly growing urban population.
  • Demand for agricultural and industrial raw materials
  • Development of new breads of crops as a result of research in agriculture
  • The enclosure acts/ system pushed people out of the rural areas and created room for plantation agriculture.


  1. (a) Why were  Christian missionary societies established in Europe?

(i)        To spread Christianity in other parts of the world

(ii)       To help the slave trade and slavery

  • To support Christian missionaries who were sent to other parts of the word
  • To co-ordinate the activities of Christian missionaries in other parts of the world
  • To promote exploration of other parts of the world
  • To spread western education and culture/ to civilize people in other parts of the word.
  • To check the spread of Islam
  • It was a period of evangelical revival in Europe


  • Six factors affected Christian missionary activities in Africa during the nineteenth century
  • Tropical diseases such as Malaria, which claimed many lives of missionaries and scared other who gave up and returned home
  • Lack of adequate funds to finance  missionary activities
  • Poor means of transport forced them to walk along distances/  journeys difficult terrain
  • Language barrier hindered effective communication with the people
  • Harsh tropical climate made it difficult for the missionaries to perform their work effectively.
  • Hostility of the African leaders or community who feared losing their control over the people as a result  of conversion to Christianity
  • Hostility to slave traders who  saw Christianity as a threat to their trading activities
  • Opposition from Muslim dominated areas where Christianity posed a threat to the Islamic faith
  • Opposition from the Africans who saw Christianity as a threat to their traditional religion and cultural values/ practices
  • The missionaries were few in number and therefore unable to reach many people
  • Conflicts/ differences between various Christian groups undermined their effectiveness
  • Danger posed by wild animals e.g. snakes
  • Shortage of medicine water and food
  • Theft of medicine and their supplies
  • Desertion by potters, guards/ loneliness e.t.c


  1. (a) What were the economic activities of the Ndebele during the 

nineteenth century?

  • The Ndebele kept cattle
  • They traded with their neighbours and people from the coast
  • They grew crops such as cassava and millet & maize
  • They raided for cattle, especially the warriors
  • They practiced crafts such as basket weaving
  • They hunted animals and gathered wild roots and fruits


  • Describe the political organization of the Ndebele during the  pre- colonial period
    • The Ndebele were organized into kingdom
    • The king was the commander in chief of the army and had powers to declare war or make peace
    • The king was the supreme judge of the kingdom
    • The kingdom was divided into settlements/ military kraals
    • Eache Kraal was ruled by a pointee of the King known as induna
    • Indunas had very little autonomy as they  implemented the king’s decisions
    • The settlements were further divided into units  which were ruled by junior officers
    • The kind kept a standing army which was used to conquer new land and defend the  kingdom against external attacks
    • The king kept a network of spies who kept him informed of all that we going on in the kingdom.
    • Headed by hereditary kings
    • To enhance loyalty & national unity a king married form various

(direction form various directions of the country)


  1. (a) What factors led to the success of Menelik of Ethiopia  against  the 

Italians the battle of Adowa?

(i)        Menelik had the support of the provincial rulers/ kings supplied

him with information/ military support

(ii)       The monarch approves the appointment of the cabinet

(iii)      The monarch nominates the members of the House of Lords

(iv)      The monarch is the commander in chief of the armed forces

(v)       The monarch exercises the prerogative of mercy of ereminal

(vi)      The monarch summons a new session of parliament after general



(b)       Describe the results of the battle of Adowa

(i)        The Ethiopian victory leads to their independence

(ii)       It lead to the signing of the 1896 Addis- Ababa treaty in which

Ethiopian  independence was recogned/ nullified the treaty

  • Other European nations such as France, Britain and Russia established diplomatic relations with Ethiopia and posted ambassadors
  • Many soldiers both  Ethiopians and  Italians lost their  lives  in the fighting
  • The war brought about general destruction of property and suffering to  people
  • Insecurity bought by then allied economy activities
  • The victory enabled Ethiopia leaders to consolidate  their  unity and identity as a nation
  • Led to resignation of Italian Prime minister due to humiliation at Adov
  • European nations restored never to sent modern guns to African state.

(Any 5 points 2 mks)              ( 10 mks)


  1. (a) What role  does the Queen of England play  in relation to the British


  • At the end of The monarch invites the leader of party  with the majority votes in the House  of commons to form  the Government/ invites the prime minister to form  the government
  • The Monarch formality opens parliament at the beginning of a new sessic
  • The monarch is the legal head of the state and the  symbol of national
  • Before a bill becomes law  the monarch gives the Royal assent
  • The monarch has the powers to officially to dissolve the parliament at the  end  of its tenure of office.


  • Describe the functions of the  British parliament
    • The British parliament discusses and makes  laws it  also amends laws when  need arises
    • Parliament controls Government expenditure the  approval of parliament is  mandatory  for all Government expenditure
    • Parliament approves the government budget and ways of raising money
    • It directs the government/ foreign policy and keeps development  programmes on track
    • It checks the powers of the executive to ensure that the rule of law is maintained/ can pass a vote of no confidence.
    • House of lords sits as the final court of appeal  mostly in simple cases
    • Discusses/ debates issues  of national  interest

(Any 5 points 1 mk x 1 mk    = ( 5 mks)



  1. Ways in which the Akamba interacted with the Agikuyu in the pre- colonial period

(i)        Trading activities

(ii)       Intermarriages                                                            (2 mks)


  1. Economic reasons why the cushites migrated from their original homeland Kenya
  • They were running away due to cattle disease which were interfering with their cattle keeping economic activity
  • They were running away to look for better farming lands as there was drought in the area of origin.

( 2 mks)

  1. Why the Mijikenda lived in the Kaya

To enhance their security as they could not easily be attacked when they were living together in the settlement.


  1. Factors which enabled traders from  Arabia to come to Kenyan coast
  • The Indian ocean provided the highway through which the traders traveled
  • The traders had the skills of harnessing the monsoon winds ( Trade winds) They knew what times of the year to come  to the Kenyan coast and what times to go back
  • The traders had marine technology e.g. had ship – building technology and knew how to use the compass for the navigation of the ocean.


  1. Early urban  centers along the  Kenyan coast were built on islands

For security reasons as they could easily see the enemies as they approached by sea                                                                                    ( 1 mk)


  1. The Portuguese were able to conquer the coastal settlement by 1500 because
  • They had strong ships called carracks which they used to attack the Arabs who used dhows
  • The people along the coast were  disunited e.g.  Malindi  and Mombasa were arch- enemies
  • The Portuguese got reinforcements from Goa their base in India and also from Portugal
  • The Portuguese were well trained and better organized

( 2 mk)

  1. Ways which Christianity  undermined African culture in Kenya
  • For it preached against African customs e.g. polygamy and female circumcision
  • It also undermined African traditional religious and beliefs as Africans adapted Christianity and stopped believing in the ancestral spirits.

( 2 mks)

  1. Identifying two methods, which long distances traders used to acquire slaves during  the nineteenth century
  • Exchanging slaves with other goods/ buying slaves from African
  • Raiding other communities from slaves
  • Enticement and gifts ( Any 2 points, 1 mk) ( 2 mks)


  1.  Identify one method, which  was used  by the colonial administration  to  attract European settlers to Kenya
  • Provide efficient railway transport connecting the coast and the  interior
  • Alienation of the white highlands for European settlement
  • Advertising the availability of free land in Kenya in foreign newspapers
  • Loans
  • Security


  1. State one feature of the political associations that were formed  in Kenya between 1920  and 1939
  • They were mainly ethnic based/ they lacked national outlook
  • They addressed specific grievances affecting the ethnic groups
  • Their demands focused mainly on the welfare of the people
  • Led by educated Africans ( 1 mk)


  1. Give two ways through which the colonial government controlled the migration  of the Africans to urban centers
  • Taking head count of those who were supposed to love in urban centers
  • Enacting strict rules about migrations into urban centers/ creation of African reform
  • Ensuring that only those who had specific activities to undertake in the urban centers lived there
  • Introducing Kipande system

Any 2 points, 1 mk                 ( 2 mks)

  1. State two objectives of education offered by Christian missionaries in Kenya during the colonial period
  • To teach Africans basic literacy and numeracy skills
  • To teach Africans better farming methods
  • To train Africans catechists
  • To teach Africans basic technical skills
  • Civilize, better methods  of hygiene

(Any 2 points, 1 mk)              ( 2 mks)

  1. Identify one problem which independent schools faced during the colonial period.
  • Hostility from the government and missionaries
  • Inadequate teachers
  • Inadequate funds and facilities
  • Lack of facilities

(Any 1 point, 1 mk)                                              ( 1 mk)

  1. State one way in which the Kenya constitution  promotes national unity
  • Guarantees equal opportunity to all Kenyans
  • Provides protection to individuals against any form of discrimination

Bill of rights

  • Provide for unitary government

(Any 1 point, 1 mk                                         ( 1 mk)


  1. What main factor led the split of the Forum for the restoration of Democracy Party (FORD) in 1992?
  • Differences/ disagreements over the election of officials/ delegates ideological differences/ personality


  1. What is the main role of the Attorney General as an Ex- officio member of the parliament?


(i) Advises the parliament and the government on the matters


  1. Identify one main factor led main issue that is addressed in the national budget in Kenya.
  • The amount of revenue the government requires and plans to raise
  • Sources from which the government intends to raise the revenue
  • How the government intends to spends the revenue

(Any 1 point, 1 mk)    ( 1 mk)



  1.  (a) Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the plain nilotes in


  • Their settlement increased conflicts and insecurity in the area as they rivaled other communities over the control of resources
  • They influenced the way of life of other communities they found in other areas
  • They displaced some of the communities they found in the area such as the Southern Cushites
  • Their settlement led to an increase in population in the region therefore facing some communities to migrate
  • They promoted commerce in the area as they traded with their neighbours such as the Nandi, Akamba and Agikuyu
  • Plain Nilotes were influenced by Highland Nilotes and Bantu neighbours to practice agriculture. For example the Kwavi section of the Maasai, Iteso and  Mount Elgon. Maasai adopted agriculture
  • The plain Nilotes intermarried with their neighbours such as the Meru, Abaluyia and Kalenjin
  • Some communities borrowed the political systems from the Maasai for example the development of the office of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi was due to their interaction with the Maasai.
  • It led to the enrichment of the languages spoken in the region as they interacted with other communities.
  • Some communities/ clans were assimilated by the incoming plains nilotes.

(Any 5 Points, 2 mks              (10 mks)

(b)       Describe the political organization of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period.

  1. i) The Maasai were ruled by the council of elders. The council consisted of ritual leaders, clan heads and family heads among others.
  2. ii) The council of elders was responsible for maintaining law and order, making decision about ceremonies, declaring wars and settling disputes.

iii)       The age set system was an important institution among the Maasai. There were several age sets and each had a leader/spokesman. The age sets exercised leadership roles in turns.

  1. iv) There existed a class of warriors, the morans, who were used to carry out raids and also defend the community.
  2. v) There were ritual leaders among the Maasai. Their function was to preside over religious functions and advise the community during crises.
  3. vi) The most important ritual head was the Oloiboni. By the mid 19th century the institution of the Oloiboni had become more influential. Some outstanding were Mbatian and Lenana.


  1. (a)       Describe the  way of life of the people who lived in the  coastal city states

by 1500

  • The people lived in settlements that were politically independence of each other. The settlement were ruled by Muslims leaders/ sultans
  • The majority of the inhabitants of the city states were Muslims
  • The people who lived in the city states spoke Kiswahili
  • They participated in the Indian Ocean Trade
  • The Architectural designs of their houses were influenced by Arabian and Persian designs
  • They practiced mixed farming. They grew bananas, yams and coconuts.
  • They fished in the Indian Ocean- Fish/ sea food was a major part of their  diet
  • They practiced spinning and weaving
  • The city states were ruled according to the Islamic laws/ sharia
  • Their way of dressing was influenced by Arabian way of dressing/ buibui
  • Oriented diet.

(b) Explain four factors which led to the decline of the coastal settlements between 1500 and 1700.

  1. i) Rivalry for the control of the Indian Ocean trade weakened the coastal settlements. Each one of them wanted to dominate the trade.
  2. ii) Wars of conquest by the Portuguese against the coastal settlements.

Destroyed and wakened many of them.

  • Establishment of Portuguese rule at the coast led to disruption of the Indian Ocean trade – the main economic base of the towns. The Portuguese also diverted trade to Portugal leaving them with little revenue.
  1. Invasion of the settlements by the Zimba a warrior community from the Zambezi valley – they caused widespread destruction.
  2. Occasional unfavourable climatic conditions which characterized the period let to inadequate rainfall and shortage of water in some coastal settlements. For example Gedi which subsequently declined.
  3. Conflicts / wars between Oman Arabs and the Portuguese over the control of the coastal settlements affected economic activitities in the area.
  • Some Africa middlemen diverted trade goods to Northern routes by – passing the towns that were under Portuguese control.

Any 4 points, 2 marks (8marks)


  1. a) Describe five results of the collaboration between Mumia of the

Wanga and the British.

  1. i) Mumia of the Wanga was made a paramount chief of the

Abaluyia/ the whole of western Kenya.

  1. ii) He was assisted by the British to subdue his enemies such as the Luo of Ugenya and other Abaluyia sub-clans.

iii)       The British assisted him to expand his kingdom and he ruled over a vast area.

  1. iv) The kingdom was used as a base in western Kenya by the British- more British people visited wanga kingdom.
  2. v) The kingdom was used by the British to subdue / colonise communities in western Kenya.
  3. vi) Mumias lost his independence to the British when the Wanga kingdom was made part fo the British East Africa Protectorate / colony.

vii)      Wanga people appointed and

viii)     Colonialisation

Any 5 points 1 mark (5mks)


  1. b) Explain six reasons why Britain was interested is establishing control over

Kenya during the scramble for East Africa.

  1. i) Britain wanted free access through Kenya Uganda in order to control the source of Nile – this was critical to her interests in the Nile valley and Egypt.
  2. ii) Britain wanted to establish strategic stations along the to safeguard their interest in India.

iii)       British wanted a source of raw materials for her industries and markets for her manufactured goods.

  1. iv) To protect British traders and missionaries who were already operating in the region.
  2. v) To help stop slavery and slave trade through direct occupation of the region.
  3. vi) To promote legitimate trade in the region by developing other economic ventures e.g. plantation farming / investment of surplus capital, naturalism plus prestige.

Any five points, 2 marks (10mks)


  1. a) What five role did Kenya Africa union (KAU) play in promoting

nationalism in Kenya between 1944 and 1953?

  1. i) KAU influenced the British colonial government to increase

African representation in the Legislative Council.

  1. ii) It opened up branches in various parts of the country to educate the African on the need to unite against European domination.

iii)       It published its own paper, sauti ya mwafrika to populatises its objectives throughout the country.

  1. iv) It supported Eliud Mathu who was appointed to the Legislative council in various ways.
  2. v) It supported the grievances of the Africans in international for
  3. vi) It supported the activities of the Mau Mau freedom fighters by giving them moral and material support.

vii)      It provides leadership for the nationalist struggle.

viii)     It laid the foundation for the formation of KANU which led Kenya to independence.

  1. ix) It organized rallies in most parts of the country to create awareness on the rights of the Africans.
  2. x) It held discussions with the colonial government about Kenya’s political future.
  3. xi) It supported trade unions.

Any 5 points, 1 mark (5 mks)

  1. b) Explain five constitutional changes which took place in Kenya between

1954 and 1963.

  1. i) The Lyttleton constitution of 1954 led to the appointment of the first Africa minister and nomination of other Africa leaders to the Legislative Council.
  2. ii) In 1957 the first all races elections were held and Africans were elected in 8 constituencies.

iii)       The Lennox Boyd constitution gave more seats to Africans – from 8 to 14 members. For the first item more Africans were elected to the legislative council.

  1. iv) The first Lancaster House Conference of 1960 gave Africans more seats in the Legco. Thus African representation moved from 14 to 33 members.
  2. v) In 1960 the state of emergency was lifted and Africans were allowed to form country wide political parties, National political parties – KANU and KADU were formed.
  3. vi) The second Lancaster House Conference drew up the independence constitution Kenya was to become Majimbo / a federal state.

vii)      In 1961 the first general elections were held and KANU won but refused to form the government until the release of Kenyatta. KADU formed the government with Ngala as leader of government business.

  1. ix) On June 1st, 1963 Kenya got internal self – government with Kenyatta as the first prime minister.
  2. x) On December 12th, 1963 Kenya attained full independence.

Any 5 points, 2 marks (10marks)



  1. a) What were the three main features of the independence constitution

of Kenya?

  1. i) It provided for the establishment of a federal government.
  2. ii) It spelt out that the party with the majority forms the government


iii)       It spelt out the rights and obligations of individuals/ citizens

  1. iv) It provided for the establishment of National Assembly consisting of

the Senate and the House of Representatives.

  1. v) It provided for a position / post of prime Minister to head the government and a Governor General to head the state.
  2. vi) It spelt out the powers and responsibilities of the central government

and regional governments.

vii)      It established regional governments with regional Assemblies

and presidents.

viii)     It divided responsibities between regional governments and the

control government.

Any 3 points, 1 mk (3mks)

  1. b) Explain six powers that the constition of Kenya gives to the president.
  2. i) Powers to prorogue parliament / dissolve the National Assembly.
  3. ii) Powers to appoint and dismiss senior public officials / servants.

iii)       Powers to appoint and dismiss the vice president and ministers.

  1. iv) Powers to pardon criminals who are convicted in a court of law.
  2. v) Powers to maintain peace in the country by upholding the rule of law/detention.
  3. vi) Powers to preserve public security through declaring the state

of emergency.

vii)      Powers to permit ministers and other officers into and civil service

to be out of the country.

viii)     Powers to form government after a general election.

  1. ix) Powers to declare war or make peace with enemies.
  2. x) Powers to establish commissions of enquiry to investigate issues

of national importance.

  1. xi) Powers to perform the official opening of parliament after

general elections.

  • Powers to nominate members of parliament after a general election.


23.a)    Describe the process of electing the speaker of the National Assembly.

  1. i) A person qualifies to be elected Speaker to the National Assembly

if she/ he is eligible to contest and vote in elections.

  1. ii) A date is set for the election of the Speaker at the start of a new parliament/ after general elections.
  • The candidate is proposed and seconded by members of parliament.
  1. If more than one name is presented, then members vote through the secret ballot. If one person / name is proposed and seconded then the person is declared Speaker without election.
  2. A swearing – in – ceremony is then conducted for the elected speaker.
  3. If the speaker is an elected member of parliament, then his/ her seat is declared vacant.

Any 3 points, 1 mark (3marks)

  1. Explain six reasons why parliament is an important institution in Kenya.
    • Parliament is the supreme law- making institution in the country. Once it makes laws, they are binding to everybody
    • Parliament is made up of elected representatives who are elected by the people; therefore it represents the interests of the electorate.
    • It checks on the possible abuse of power by the Executive and thus promotes good governance and accountability.
    • It is empowered to control revenue collection and government expenditure. For example annual budgets are discussed and approved by parliament.
    • Parliament ensures that government money is spent properly. The controller and auditor General checks on the spending of all ministries and produces a comprehensive report for discussion by parliament.
    • Parliament is empowered to investigate the activities of any public servant if they feel that the person is not doing the work well.
    • It can pass a vote of no confidence in the government of the day
    • It reviews the constitution

Any 6 points, 2 marks                        (12 mks)


  1. (a) Describe three ways in which the judiciary ensures fairness in the

administration of justice

  • The judicial Service Commission ensures that judges and magistrates discharge their duties without interference
  • Suspected criminals are held innocent until proved guilty in a court of law- giving them a chance to be heard  by the courts
  • Persons found administering mob justice are liable to prosecution
  • Suspected criminals are entitled to legal representation through an advocate of the High Court
  • Suspected criminals of serious crimes such as murder are guaranteed free government services of being represented by advocates
  • Persons not satisfied with the verdict are allowed to appeal to a higher court.

Any 3 points, 1 mk (3 mks)

  • Explain six factors that may undermine the administration of Justice in Kenya
  • High court incidents of crime cause delay in the hearing and finalizing of cases
  • Corrupt practices by some of the judiciary personnel and police officers undermine fair administration of justice.




  1. – They may contain biases and exaggerations

– They may be inconsistent and inaccurate due to handling down from one

generation to another by word of mouth

–  It may be difficult to distinguish what was real from what was imaginary

– Omissions of facts due to failure in memory


  1. – Home sapiens had a large brain

– Walked upright/ had upright posture

– Had refined speech

– Had smaller jaws compared to earlier

– Had well- developed thumb for grasping


  1. – In both countries agriculture was practiced along the river valleys

– Farmers depended on flood water for farming

– They developed systems of irrigation

– They used farm implements made of stone, wood and later metal

– They traded in farm produce

– Planted indigenous crops

– Used both human and animal labour

– Developed a system of storage and preserving of foods


  1. -They  were all- weather roads

– They were wide

– They were durable

– They had good surface drainage camber

– were straight

– were smooth


  1. – In most cases, drums could be used at any time both day and night  whereas

smoke signals could only be used during the day

– Drumbeats unlike smoke signals relayed specific message

– Drumbeats could be used during all seasons whereas smoke signals could not be

used during some seasons e.g. when raining


  1. – To regulate transactions among members

– Control unfair competition

– Promote dialogue between members


  1. – Barter trade refers to the exchange of one commodity for another whereas trade

in which currency is used  in the exchange of goods for money


  1. – They offered prayers in shrines

– They offered sacrifices of the gods

– Priests presided over the offerings of sacrifices/ prayers

– They gave offerings to their gods


  1. -To incorporate African values and practices into Christianity

– Create leadership opportunities in the church for Africans


  1. – He was the head of the government

– He was the commander in chief of the armed forces

– He appointed senior officials in the government

– He was the supreme judge

– He was in charge of all religious activities/ chief priest

– He controlled trade


  1. – Need for raw materials for their industries

– Search for the market for their manufactured goods

– Desire by rich industrialists to invest their surplus capital


  1. – To get assistance against their enemies/ hostile neighbours

– Search for the market for their manufactured goods

– Desire by rich industrialists to invest their surplus capital


  1. – To get assistance against their  enemies/ hostile neighbours

– Show them courtesy assuming that they would soon leave

– To get material gain/ benefit e.g. guns, clothes e.t.c

– To retain their independence/ traditional ruler

– Influence of the missionaries

– Ignorance of the initiation of the European imperialists


  1. – Poor transport and communication  network

– Inadequate resources

– Inadequate capital/ funds

– High inflation rates

– Trade imbalance

– Nationalization of key factors of production

– Food shortages due to prolonged drought and inadequate commitment to


– Increasing external debts

– Collapse of E.A.C

– Costly war with Uganda in 1978 – 79


  1. – To promote peace and security in the world/ to prevent a possible occurrence of

another world war.


  1. – Freedom of speech

– Freedom from harassment  e.g. arrest within presence  of parliament

– Protection against arrest for civil offences for a period of 40 days before  and 40 days after a session of parliament

  1. – A written constitution is one which is available in a formal document / single

handbook whereas an unwritten constitution is one  which  does not exist in one

formal document



  1. (a) – Discovery of crop farming led to the development of farming centers

which attracted population and later became towns

– Trading activities between different communities led to the development of

trading centres which later became town.

– Trading centres that were used for religious activities developed into towns.

– Areas that had adequate security attracted population concentration and thus

led to the development of towns.

– Places that were used for administrative functions developed into towns

– Places along the coast where ships stopped for supplies developed into towns.

– Mining centres developed into settlements which became towns for example


– Places where water for use was available attracted settlements and grew into


– Towns developed at cross- routes

– Development of centres of learning e.g. Alexandria


(b)- Landless peasants migrated to urban centres in search of employment/ this

led to overcrowding development of slums

– Inadequate housing led to development of slums

– Pollution of the environment arising from industrial wastes that were


– Poor sanitation led to frequent outbreaks of epidemics such as Cholera and


– The suffering and frustrations of urban life led to immorality such as

Alcoholism, drug abuse, prostitution and crime.

– Inadequate food supply for the large urban  population led to starvation

– Inadequate recreational facilities encouraged people to engage in acts of


– Excessive rural urban migration led to widespread unemployment

– Poor health resulting from poor working condition and inadequate health


– Led to improvement of transport and communication

– Promoted social  interactions among the European nations

– Expansion of trade.


  1. (a)

–           Britain had ready markets for industrial products within the British Empire

–           The empire was also a source of raw material for industries in Britain.

–           She had large reserves of coal, which was used, as a source of industrial


–           She had a well- established cottage industry which provided a basis for the industrial growth

–           Some of the inventions that accelerated industrialization were made in Britain e.g. steam engine

–           Britain had developed a strong economic base in her participation in overseas trade.

–           There existed a class of rich businessmen who were keen to invest in the


–           Availability of labour following the displacement of peasants as a result of the Agrarian revolution.

–           Agrarian revolution led to production of adequate food for the industrial


–           Existence of well developed banking and insurance systems which advanced loans to entrepreneurs

–           Protection of her trading ships from piracy by her strong navy

–           Britain had a well- developed transport system both land and water

–           Availability of skilled labour

–           Britain enjoyed relatively long period of peace and stability


–           It led to the development of large scale farming thus bringing more land under production

–           It led to increased food production since more land was brought under cultivation

–           Increased food production led to an increase in population

–           It facilitated the mechanization of agriculture e.g. the use of seed drill mechanical thresher and combined harvester

–           Increased agricultural production led to the establishment of industries which provided employment opportunities to the displaced poor.

–           It enhanced control and spread of pest and diseases and led to the production of high quality produce.

–           It led to the appreciation of the value of land

–           improved transport system to transport agricultural produce to the market

–           Invention of new methods of maintaining soil fertility e.g. Use of manure, crop rotation and use fertilizer

–           Led to the establishment of organizations that disseminated information about new agricultural inventions e.g. Royal agricultural Society

–           New methods of animal husbandry were practiced e.g. selective breeding of livestock

–           Mechanization of agriculture led to the growth of local and international trade.


  1. (a)

–           Desire to understand things that were beyond human understanding such as the sun, moon, floods and drought

–           Search for security in the face of uncertain to human existence e.g. death, diseases and war

–           Attempts by the human race to explain their existence on earth i.e. the belief in existence of a force behind creation

–           Desire to keep the community together

–           Desire for unity

–           Direct/ indirect divine revelation to certain individuals in the society.



–           Christianity expanded as a result of the missionary activities of the

Apostles and disciple. They obeyed Jesus command of going therefore   and make disciples of all nations.

–           The establishment of monasteries in Southern Europe encouraged people to become Christians. Monks such as Francis of Assisi.

–           Migration of Christians to other parts of Europe as a result of persecution led to interaction and conversation of some non- Christians.

–           Christianity expanded as a result of being made a state religion of the Roman Empire by emperor Theodosius

–           Some of the Christian teachings appealed to the oppressed and poor. They were attracted to the religion because of its teachings on equality of all men, love and better life after death

–           The conversation of powerful Roman emperors such as Constantine contributed to the spread of Christian as they expanded their empire

–           The use of popular languages of the time, Greek and Latin, contributed to the spread of Christianity

–           Non Christians were attracted to the faith as a result of the exemplary lives of the Christian’s leaders and converts/ martyrs

–           Missionary activities of British/ German and Dutch converts led to the spread of Christianity in their respective countries

–           Christianity spreads as a result of the activities of Emperor Charlemagne, who used force to convert people. He also established a school for training priests and produced better copies of the bible.

–           Existence of peace and security in the Roman Empire encouraged Christian’s activities


  1. (a)

–           Lack of a common language made it difficult for the traders to communicate

–           The journey through the desert was sometimes hazardous (Due to frequent sandstorms) and tiresome to the traders

–           Sometimes traders lost their ways through the desert

–           Traders were attacked by desert robbers and would lose most of their belongings

–           The journey across the desert was tedious and slow. It sometimes took the traders as many as months to cross.

–           Inadequate funds to pay taxes, buy goods and pay guides

–           Political instability and difficulty in getting the goods

–           Rivalry between caravans and competitions sometimes leading to war

–           Uncomfortable weather, too hot during the day and too cold at night

–           Attacks by wild animals

–           Development of Trans- Atlantic trade diverted attention of traders to the south


(b)       –           West African communities were able to acquire essential commodities

from the  trade e.g. cloth  glassware, horse, firearms  and salt.

–           Commercial centres development along the trade routes e.g. Gao and Kano. This enhanced local trade.

–           Some African traders established strong armies with the firearms that they acquired from the trade. They used the armies for expanding and defending their kingdoms.

–           It stimulated the production and exchange of locally produced commodities such as gold, kola nuts, ivory & slaves

–           Introduction of Islamic education in West Africa. Many centres of Islamic education were established

–           It led to spread of Islam and Islamic culture in West Africa e.g. architectural designs and clothing

–           It opened up West Africa to the outside world and the establishments of diplomatic relations with North Africa.



  1. (a)

–           The shona believed in one powerful god Mwari

–           They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits whom they consulted

from time to time

–           The Shona communicated with the spirit through mediums/ oracles

–           The priests presided over religious functions such as offerings sacrifices

to god

–           Shona elders were highly respected

–           Priests came from Rozwi clan

–           They had sacred places of worship/ shrines

–           They were clan based

–           They live in circular stone houses

–           It was a polygamous society



–           The empire was ruled by the emperor who was both   head of state and Government

–           The office of the emperor was hereditary

–           The emperor was assisted in administering the empire by the queen mother, head drummer, emperor’s sister, emperor’s principal wives the chancellor and military

–           The empire was divided into provinces which were ruled by lesser kings/ chiefs who were directly answerable to the emperor

–           The Empire had a standing army which was used for defense and expansion of the kingdom

–           The emperor controlled trade activities whose revenue was used to sustain the empire and the army.

–           Priests acted as a link between the people and the emperor

–           The king was military leader

–           The king was a religious leader/ semi divine


  1. (a)

–           To maintain a common market for the member states/ promotes balanced

economic cooperation

–           To provide common services to the three member state especially in the

areas of transport  and  communications

–           To promote political cooperation between the three countries

–           Facilities free movement of the people of the region to foster greater

cooperation and understanding among  them.



–           Unequal distribution of services and accrued benefits from the

Organization by the member countries made Tanzania and Uganda resent Kenya’s economic monopoly of the organization

–           Ideological differences between the three countries, made them pursue different economic policies.

–           Individual differences between leaders made it more difficult for them to hold meetings that would promote dialogue and unity

–           The Coupd’etat which overthrew Milton Obote undermined the unity that was desired for the survival of the organization. Nyerere refused to recognize Amin as the president of Uganda

–           The use of different currencies by the three states made transactions difficult.

–           The fear that more Kenyans were benefiting from the community in terms of employment.

–           Hostility towards nationals from member state working for the community

–           Financial constraints resulting from failure by member state to remit funds to meet the organization’s needs

–           Lack of trust in managing community resources by member countries led to unlawful nationalization of the organization assets.

–           Tanzania’s closure of the common boarder with Kenyan halted community activities

–           Too much power was placed in the hands of the three heads of states/ authority of community

–           Personal ambitions of the leaders e.g. Amin claimed part of Kenya

–           E.A.C lacked a defined policy on those cooperation

–           National interests overshadowed those of EAC



24a)     –           The highest organ of the communist party structure was the all-union party

congress. It was the final decision making organ.

–           Another important party organ was the Poliburo/Presidium of the central

committee. It made decisions when the central committee was in recess.

–           The central party committee controlled and supervised and supervised the

functions of the various department e.g. the Amy, finance and personnel

–           The secretariat was the next organ in the political set up of the communist party. It played a role in the formation of government policy.

  1. b) – The party was highly elitist and exclusive and membership was confined

to a few/selected citizens such as government officers, intellectuals, scientists, secret police and outstanding workers.

–           Membership to the party was restricted and therefore was not representative of masses e.g. by 1973 out of a total population of 200 million people, only 15 million were members of the party.

–           Members and applicants of the party were subjected to scrutiny and strict party discipline. Those who did not meet these demands lost their membership/were not accepted.

–           The party deprived the majority of the population democratic participation in their governance since it could not possibly represent the wishes of the people.

–           The party established organs for the youth. These were the 3 union of the youth (the komsomol) between the ages 15 & 28 years and the Octoberists for those up to 10 years. These were used to propagate the ideals of communism and loyalty to their country and hence brainwashed them.

–           The communist party was dictatorial and undemocratic at all levels/it did not give the citizens a chance to choose other forms of governance.



  1. State two ways in which the Nandi and the Abaluyia communities interacted during the pre- colonial period.

(i) Through trade

(ii) Through wars/ raids

(iii) Through sporting activities

(vi) Through intermarriage

Any 2 points, 1 mark ( 2 mks)

  1. One reason why the Mijikenda community migrated from their settlement at Shangwaya during the Pre- colonial period.

(i) Invasion of the settlement by the incoming cushites

(ii) Internal conflicts

(iii) Outbreak of epidemic

(iv) Insecurity in the area

(v) search for pasture

Any 1 point, 1 mark ( 1 mk)

  1. Give two reasons why the council of elders among the Ameru was important before the establishment of colonial rule.

(i)        It solved disputes in the community

(ii)       It mediated in disputes involving the Meru and their neighbours

(iii)      It ensured the safe custody of the community’s history, traditions and

values/ heritage.

(iv)      It sanctioned wars

(v)       Acted as ritual leaders

(vi)      Guidance of counseling community members

(vii)     Kept law and order.

Any 2 points, 1 mark ( 2 mks)

  1. The main significance of circumcision in some African traditional societies in


(i)        It marked the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood ( 1 mk)


  1. Identify two factors that led the spread of Islam along the Kenyan coast by sixteenth century.

(i)        Trading activities between the Arabs and the local communities

(ii)       Intermarriage between the local communities and the Arabs

(iii)      Settlements of Arab traders along the coast.

( any 2 points, 1 mark ( 2 mks)

  1. Give one reason why Seyyid Said took direct control of the settlement along the coast of Kenya in 1806.

(i)        To ensure revenue from taxes was remitted to Oman

(ii)       To prevent the rulers/ governors of the coastal settlements form declaring

themselves independent.

(iii)      Maximum economic control

(iv)      Control Indian Ocean trade    ( Any 1 point , 1 mark) ( 1 mk)


  1. Two ways in which the Maasai benefited from their collaboration with the British.

(i)        The British supported Lenana against Sendayo in the 1894 succession dispute.

(ii)       The Maasai were protected against raids by their neighbours

(iii)      Maasai leader (Lenana) was made a paramount chief.

(iv)      Maasai were rewarded with cattle acquired from unco-operative peoples e.g. the Nandi and Agikuyu.

(v)       Employed as missionaries

(Any 2 points, 1 mark (2 mk)

  1. State two ways in which the colonial government acquired land for the European settlers in Kenya.

(i)        By alienating Africa land though signing treaties

(ii)       By forceful occupation of African land

(iii)      Through legislation that allowed European to buy/ lease land

(iv)      Land bought cheaply by the Europeans

(Any 2 points, 1 mark ( 2 marks)

  1. Give two contributions of the independent schools in Kenya during the colonial period.

(i)        Created more educational opportunities for Africans

(ii)       Provided job opportunities to Africans

(iii)      Preserved African cultural heritage

(iv)      Natured nationalistic activities

( Any 2 points, 1 mark ( 2 marks)

  1. Two duties of the British Governor in Kenya during the colonial period

(i)        Represented the British government/ answerable to the British government

(ii)       Overall in charge of colony

(iii)      Adjusted some cases

(iv)      Supervised the provincial administration

(v)       Gave assent to bills before they became law

(vi)      Appointing administrators

(Any 2 points, 1 mark ( 2 mks)

  1. Give two ways in which the trade union movement contributed to nationalist struggle in Kenya.

(i)        Mobilizing workers to stage civil disobedience

(ii)       Strikes and boycotts

(iii)      Educating workers on their rights

(iv)      Giving financial support to political parties

(v)       Creating political awareness among workers

( Any 2 points, 1 mark ( 2 marks)


  1. State one reason why the 1975 elections are important in the History of Kenya.

(i)        Eight African representatives were elected to parliament for the first time to represent the eight constituencies (provinces) more African representatives.

( Any 1 point, 1 mk


  1. What is the major political change that was introduced during the Limuru conference of 1966?

(i)        Creation of eight party vice- presidents for the eight provinces/ removal of one national party vice- president.

( Any 1 point, 1 mk

  1. Identify one achievement of the District Focus for Rural Development strategy.

(i)        It has promoted participation of local communities in their own development

(ii)       It has helped to focus local developmental needs in the planning process

(iii)      It has facilitated effective utilization of local resources.

(Any 1 point, 1 mark (1mk)

  1. Which organization is responsible for the co-ordination of parliamentary elections in Kenya?

(i)        Electoral Commission of Kenya     (any 1 point, 1 mark)

  1. Identify the main reason why suspected criminals are tried in a court of law.
  2. i) To allow suspected criminals the right to free and fair trial/be proved guilty or not . (Any 1 point, 1mk (1mk)
  3. Give one function of the prisons department in Kenya
  4. i) To rehabilitate convicted criminals
  5. ii) To separate criminals from law abiding citizens/to detain

iii)       To teach criminals alternative trade/skills

  1. iv) to punish unlawful behavior/ crime/ displine
  2. v) To discourage criminal activities in society.




  1. a) Why did Christian missionaries came to Kenyan in the nineteenth century?

(i)        To spread Christianity

(ii)       To help abolish the salve trade

(iii)      To explore the region

(iv)      To spread western civilization

(v)       Promote legitimate trade

(vi)      Educate Africans

(Any 5 points, 1 mark (5 mks)

(b)       State six results of the coming of Christian missionaries to Kenya.

  1. i) Christian missionaries converted Africans to Christianity.
  2. ii) They built school where Africans were taught to read and write

iii)       They built hospitals which helped to improve the health standards of the people.

  1. iv) They introduced new crops and new farming methods.
  2. v) They introduced new vocational skills e.g carpentry and masonry
  3. vi) Translated the Bible into local languages

vii)      Drew map of the interior of the great Lakes region which inspired many explorers to come to Africa /opened the interior.

viii)     Influenced their governments to take interest in the region which later led to colonization.

  1. ix) Undermined authority of African leaders.
  2. x) Introduced the western culture which undermined African culture.
  3. xi) They wrote the first Kiswahili dictionary and grammar book.

xii)      Established settlements for freed slaves and gave security to destitute.

xiii)     Helped in improving transport system by developing roads connecting their stations.

xiv)     Promoted disunity among people of different denominations and non Christians Vs Christian.

(any 6 point 2 marks (10mks)


  1. (a) State five factors that led to the migration of the Iteso from their original

home in the Lake Turkana region to their present homeland.

  1. i) Population increase in the area forced them to search for more land for


  1. ii) Internal conflicts and feuds created a sense of insecurity and made some clans/communities to migrate.

iii)       Drought and famine caused suffering and made people to migrate.

  1. iv) Outbreak of cattle diseases and epidermics.
  2. v) Invasion and attacks of their settlements by their neighbours.
  3. vi) Search for pasture and water for their animals.
  • Desire for adventure.

(Any 5 points, 1 mark (5 marks)

(b)       Explain five effects of migration and settlement of the Iteso in Kenya

  1. i) The settlement of the Iteso in their present homeland led to increase in

population in the area.

  1. It intensified conflicts between communities in the area over limited resources.
  • It led to intermarriage between the Iteso and the communities they found in the area such as the Abaluyia.
  1. Culture interaction between the Iteso and the communities they found in the area gave rise to enriched culture.
  2. It led to the displacement of some communities from the area e.g. the Maasai, Luhyia and some Kalenjin communities.
  3. They assimilated some of the communities living in the area.
  • Their settlement enhanced trade between different communities in the area.
  • The Iteso adopted agriculture as a result of interacting with other communities in the area.

(Any 5 points, 2 marks (10 marks)


  1. (a) State five common characteristics of the political parties which were

formed in Kenya after 1945.

(i)        The political parties had a national outlook as members were drawn from different ethnic groups.

(ii)       The main objective was to fight for independence/ self rule

(iii)      They were led by the educated elite

(iv)      They demanded for fair taxation for Africans

(v)       Demanded improved conditions for Africans workers/ welfare

(vi)      Demanded the return of alienated land.

(Any 5 points, 1 mark (5 mks)


Five roles of the political parties in the struggle for independence in Kenya between 1945 and 1963.

  1. i) The political parties united freedom fighters/nationalists in their struggle against colonial rule.
  2. ii) They prepared nationalists who were to take over the leadership at independence.

iii)       The parties mobilized mass supports for African nationalists in their struggle

  1. iv) They gave moral and material support to the Mau Mau freedom fighters.
  2. v) They presented the grievances of the Africans in international fora and created awareness on the needs of the Africans.
  3. vi) They pressurized for constitutional changes from the British colonial office to enhance attainment of independence.

vii)      They created awareness among the Africans on their rights and the need to fight for independence.

viii)     They participated in developing the independence constitution/Lancaster house conference.

  1. ix) they pressurized for the release of the detained nationalists

(Any 5 points, 2 marks (10 marks)


  1. (a) In what five ways has the government attempted to preserve cultural

heritage in Kenya since independence?

  1. i) The government has incorporated some aspects of cultural studies in the school.

(ii)       It has promoted competition between schools and other institutions of learning on cultural issues such as Music festival.

(iii)      It encouraged intermarriage between different ethnic groups.

(iv)      It encourages people to settle and own property in any part of the country.

  1. v) It has established and maintained centers which preserve cultural heritage of different communities e.g. the Museums, Bomas of Kenyan and national archives, media programmes on culture.
  2. vi) It has established learning institutions where people from different communities interact.

vii)      It has allowed freed of worship which provide for integration of African religious heritage.

viii)     It has allowed freedom of worship which provides for integration of African religious heritage.

  1. ix) Ministry in charge of culture.

(Any 5 points, 1 mark (5 marks)

(b)       The role which the co-operative movement has played in promoting national development in Kenya since 1963.

(i)        Co-operatives have enabled workers to save and invest their earnings/loans

(ii)       Some co-operatives assist members to market their produce e.g coffee, tea and sugarcane farmers.

(iii)      They create employment opportunities for people

(iv)      They educate the members on investment strategies which enhance their participation in national development.

(v)       The government derives income from the co-operatives in form of taxes and shares.

(vi)      Co-operatives assist members to acquire property to enhance their economic well being e.g. land.

(vii)     Co-operatives provide dividends to members which enhance their economic status.

(viii)    Co-operatives banks

(ix)      Developing infrastructure e.g. roads/storage facilities.

(Any 5 points, 2 marks) (10 marks)



  1. (a) Describe the composition of parliament in Kenya

(i)        Parliament is made up of elected members representing various constituencies.

(ii)       It is made up of nominated members who are nominated by the president to represent special national interests.

(iii)      It is made up ex-official members such as the attorney General and the speaker who are members by virtue of their offices.

(Any 3 points, 1 mark (3 mks)

(b)       Explain six functions of the speaker of the National assembly in Kenya

(i)        The speaker is in charge of the debates in the National assembly during sessions.

(ii)       In-charge of all parliamentary affair/receiving gusts.

(iii)      The speaker guides the debate /proceedings and chooses which members to speak at a time

(Any 3 points, 1 mk (3mks)

(iv)      Organizes the order of debate/proceedings and chooses which members to speak at a time

(v)       Ensures that members observe and adhere to the rules of the House and reprimands those who violate them.

(vi)      Disciplines members who act irresponsibly during parliamentary debates.

(vii)     Presides over the swearing of members of parliament at the start of each parliament.

(ix)      Receives all bills, motion and parliamentary questions intended for tabling and discussion.

(x)       Ensures friendly atmosphere during the debates by preventing personal attacks in the House/maintains law and order

(xi)      Ensures that only relevant issues are deliberated on in the House.

(xii)     Declares a seal vacant when a M.P. dies or resigns.

(Any 6 points 2 marks (12 mks)


  1. (a) Describe the functions of the police force in Kenya.

(i)        Maintaining law and order in the country

(ii)       Investigating crimes

(iii)      Enhancing state security

(iv)      Displaying during official functions.

(v)       Providing security to travelers in emergency, remote insecure areas

(vi)      Detecting and preventing of crime

(vii)     Arresting suspected criminals in law courts.

(viii)    Prosecuting suspected criminals in law courts.

(ix)      Collecting and analyzing intelligence information and documents to fight crime.

(x)       Controlling the flow of traffic.

(xi)      Inspecting vehicles

(xii)     Monitoring incoming and outgoing traffic at border points

(xiii)    Co-operating with the Interpol to deal with international crime

(xiv)    Assessing trainee drivers for incensing

(Any 7 points, 1 mark (7 mks)

(b)  What factors hinder the Kenya Police from performing their duties effectively?

(i)        Lack of motivation/ low morale/ apathy

(ii)       Reluctance by the public to volunteer vital information/inadequate public support.

(iii)      Poor public relations between police officers and the people

(iv)      Inadequate facilities such as vehicles/ modern technology

(v)       Dangerous working condition/ insecurity

(vi)      Political interference

(vii)     Corruption/bribery

(viii)    Lack of regular in-service training to enable police officers cope with emerging issues.

(ix)      Widespread incidents of lawlessness/ crime

(x)       High concentration of population in some area such as slums in urban centres.

(xi)      Drug abuse by police officers

(xii)     Corrupt court systems

(xiii)    Low entry standards to the police force

(xiv)    Poor working conditions e.g. Housing /remunerations.


  1. (a) what are the stages through which a Bill passes before it becomes law in


(i)        The Bill is drafted by the Attorney General and present to parliament for discussion/private members bill.

(ii)       The bill is presented for the first reading by either the Attorney General or a minister concerned. The members of parliament are expected to familiarize themselves with the bill as well as approve it.

(iii)      The bill is presented for the second reading in parliament. It is debated upon in details. It can be either accepted or rejected.

(iv)      The bill is then taken through the committee stage with the objective of making improvements on it.

(v)       The bill is then taken through report stage for members of parliament to ascertain that the suggestions were accurately effected.

(vi)      The bill is taken to the president for his assent after which it becomes law and is then gazetted.

(Any 5 points, 1 mk (5 mks)


(b)       Explain five factors that promote national unity in Kenya.

(i)        The constitution provides for equality of all Kenyan before the law

(ii)       Most/all public schools in Kenya follow the same curriculum whose content emphasizes national cohesion.

(iii)      The government attempts to provide social amenities to Kenyans without bias/equitable distribution of resources/sports and games.

(iv)      The government encourages social, economic interaction among Kenyans e.g. marriage, worship and trade.

(v)       The use of Kiswahili as the official language enables Kenyans to interact freely.

(vi)      The national anthem an identity/loyalty pledge

(vii)     The existence of the national flag symbolizes national unity/ coat of arms.

(viii)    The constitution provides for one president who is both head of state ad government.

(ix)      Urbanization promotes socialization and co-existence among Kenyans

Any 5 points, 2 marks each (10mks)


(b)       Explain five factors that promote national unity in Kenya.

(i)        The constitution provides for equality of all Kenyans before the law

(ii)       Most / all public schools in Kenya follow the same curriculum whose content emphasizes national cohesion.

(iii)      The government attempts  to provide social amenities to Kenyans without bias /equitable distribution of resources /sports and games

(iv)      The government encourages social, economic interaction among Kenyans e.g. marriage, worship and trade.

(v)       The use of Kiswahili as the official language enables Kenyans to interact freely

(vi)      The national anthem promotes a sense of belonging among Kenyans and gives them an identity/ loyalty pledge

(vii)     the existence of the national flag symbolizes national unty/coat of arms

(viii)    The constitution provides for one president who is both head of state and government.

(ix)      Urbanization promotes socialization and co-existence among Kenyans

Any 5 points, 2 mks each (10 maks)







  1. What is oral tradition as a source of History?

(i)        Oral tradition as a source of History involves the study of historical information based on what has been handed down from one generation to another by word of mouth/ verbally.                                                 (1mk)

  1. State the main function of the Golden Stool in the Asante Empire during the pre-colonial period.

(i)        The Golden stool bound together all the Asante states. It was a symbol of Asante unity.                                                                                      (1mrk)

  1. State two uses of bronze in early Egypt.

(i)        To cast the statues of the pharaohs.

(ii)       To make special tools for cutting and shaping huge stones for making pyramids.

(iii)      Make tools such as hoes, blades, chisels and adzes were made from bronze

(iv)      Make weapons such as swords, daggers, axes and spears

(v)       Make items for decoration                 (Any 1 point, 1 mk (1 mk)

  1. Identify one way in which invention of the wheel promoted early transport.

(i)        It facilitated travel over long distances

(ii)       It eased transportation of heavy loads

(iii)      It facilitated speedy transportation of people/goods

(iv)      It enhanced the movement of soldiers during battles.

(Any 1 point, 1mk (1mk)

  1. State two results of the translation of the Bible into different European languages during the sixteenth century.

(i)        Enabled more people to read and understand the bible in more languages

(ii)       Facilitated the spread for Christianity

(iii)      Led to the reformation of the catholic church/counter reformation

(iv)      The Bible became more accessible to people/production of many bibles

(v)       Led people to question/criticize the teaching of the catholic church/led split of church more Protestants.

(Any 2 points, 1 mk (2mks)

  1. Identify the main reason why Egyptian buried the dead with their belongings.

(i)        The dead were buried with their belonging because they would use them in the next world/they believed in life after death.       (1mk)

  1. Give two ways in which Islam spread to Africa in the 19th Century.
  2. i) Trading activities
  3. ii) Migrations and settlement of Muslims in Africa

iii)       Jihads/holy wars, especially in West Africa

  1. iv) Intermarriages
  2. v) Establishment of Islamic centres of learning
  3. vi) Missionaries activities /Muslim scholars

vii)      Influence of already converted rules e.g. toure

(any 2 point, 1 mark (1mk)

  1. Identify one way in which the Industrial Revolution contributed to colonization of Africa by Europeans.

(i)        The need for raw materials for their industries

(ii)       Desire to establish new markets for their manufactured goods

(iii)      Desire by European industrialists to invest their surplus capital

(Any 1 point, 1 mark (1mk)

  1. Give one factors which undermined company rule in Africa during the 19th century.
  2. i) Poor /inadequate transport and communication systems
  3. ii) Officials of the companies did not understand the local languages

iii)       Corrupt/greedy company officials

  1. iv) Inadequate capital/funds necessary for effective administration
  2. v) Company officials on the ground lacked administrative skills and experience
  3. vi) Few company official to administer large areas.

vii)      Resistance by Africans

viii)     Lack of co-ordination between co-offices in European agents in Africa.

(Any 1 points, 1 mk (1mk)

  1. State two reasons why indirect rule was unsuccessful in southern Nigeria.
  2. i) Southern Nigeria lacked centralized administration which could be used to implement the indirect rule.
  3. ii) African chiefs feared erosion and loss of their traditional authority/resistance from African rules.

iii)       The African elite resented British rule.

  1. iv) Existence of many ethnic groups and religions made it difficult to bring the people together under one rule.
  2. v) The use of unpopular African rulers e.g. puppet/morans/unpopular chiefs/Obas made the people reject British rule.

(Any 2 points, 1 mk (2mks)

  1. Identify two factors that undermined the effectiveness of the League of Nations
  2. i) Countries refused to take disputes to the international court of justice
  3. ii) Germany’s aggression/Germany’s determination to strengthen its armed forces.

iii)       Harsh conditions against German after the defeat/treaty

  1. iv) National interests that pre-occupied individual nations.
  2. v) It lacked executive power and authority to implement its resolution
  3. vi) Refusal by the USA to join denied the organization economic strength

vii)      Some members left the league by Brazil, Japan

viii)     Shortage of funds to implements it financial

  1. ix) The appeasement policy of Britain & France
  2. x) The covenant of League did not forbid it
  3. xi) The league was dominated by the action of 1st world war hence its partiality.

Any 2 points, 1 mark (2mks)


  1. State one advantage of a written constitution over an unwritten constitution.
  2. i) A written constitution is readily available for ease of reference and applications/use.
  3. ii) A written constitution promotes uniformity of application in various situations

iii)       A written constitution does not give much room for manipulation/misinterpretation.                    Any 1 point, 1 mark (1 mk)

  1. Give two reasons why coal was used as the main source of industrial power in Britain during the industrial Revolution.
  2. i) It was cheap
  3. ii) It was available in large quantities

iii)       It was more efficient than other sources of energy at the time

(Any 2 points, 1 mk (2mks)

  1. State two ways in which poor transport systems have contributed to food shortage in Africa.
  2. i) Poor transport have led to high transportation costs, leading to high prices of food.
  3. ii) Poor transport have led to poor distribution of food.

iii)       Poor transport systems have led to delays in the transportation of food leading to waste and losses.

  1. iv) Poor transport systems discourage/demoralizes farmers and this in turn leads to officers.
  2. v) Poor transport system undermines effectiveness of agricultural extension officers.
  3. vi) Agricultural inputs do not readily/reach/ leading to poor products.

(Any 2 points, 1 mark (2 mks)

  1. Identify one aim of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
  2. i) To assist in the marketing of primary products as well as manufactured good from member states/to promote trade between developing & developed countries.
  3. ii) To stabilize commodity prices

iii)       To assist in the transfer of technology from developed to developing countries.                                            (Any 1 point, 1 mk (1mk)

  1. State two features of the Government of France in the 20th Century
  2. i) It is a multi-party democracy
  3. ii) Power is shared between the president and prime Minister

iii)       The president is the executive head of government

  1. iv) There is a legislature which is composed of a senate and National assembly
  2. v) Presidential elections are held every 7 years.
  3. vi) National Assembly are held every 5 years.

vii)      Senate elections are held every nine years.

(Any 2 points, 1 mark (2mks)

  1. Give the main political challenge that Democratic republic of Congo (Zaire) has faced since independence.



  1. a) Describe how the Trans-Saharan trade was organized.
  2. i) The trade was between people of the Western Sudan and Arabs from North Africa.
  3. ii) Traders crossed the desert using camels

iii)       The traders traveled in large caravans to enhance their security

  1. iv) The Tuaregs/Berbers acted as guides to the traders through the desert
  2. v) Tuaregs provided with security
  3. vi) The traders made stops at the oases to refresh themselves and let their camels drink water.

viii)     The Tuaregs acted as interpreters at times.

  1. ix) The trade was conducted in barter/it involved exchanging one good for another/ silent trade.
  2. x) The rulers of the western Sudan controlled trade/regulated amount of gold to be sold.
  3. xi) The traders paid taxes to the kings of the Western Sudan

xii)      The item of trade were gold and salt – items of trade from the west were gold, ivory, slaves, ostrich feathers, leather Kilanuts & pepper. Items from N. Africa, salt, horses, weapons, iron implements, clothe, silk, beads & onions.

xiii)     The traders followed fairly defined route

xiv)     Americans Arabs & Berbers financed the trade

  1. xv) Rulers of Western Sudan offered service to the trader while they were in the territory.

xvi)     Traders dealt with agents who usually gave goods on credit/middlemen

(Any 8 points, 2 marks (8mks)


(b)       What problems did the Trans-Saharan trade face?

  1. i) Long and tiresome journeys across the desert
  2. ii) Inadequate water and food

iii)       Extreme weather conditions of the desert- very cold at night and very hot during the day.

  1. iv) Attacks by dangerous desert creatures such as scorpions, snakes
  2. ix) Insecurity because of declining and falling of kingdoms
  3. x) Exhaustion of trade goods especially gold.
  4. xi) Frequent shifts of trade routes

xii)      They were robbed by desert people               (Any 7 points, 1 mark (7mks)

  1. a) What factors led to the development of urban centres in African

during the pre-colonial period?

  1. i) Trading activities led to the rise of convergent centres which later developed into towns.
  2. ii) The existence of local industries led to population concentration in place that later developed into towns/mining centres e.g.

iii)       Existence of trade routes which linked various placed led to the development towns at major cross-roads.

  1. iv) Administration/royal centres later developed into towns e.g. Kumasi and Addis Ababa.
  2. v) Development of centres of learning later became urban centres e.g. Timbukutu./ education centres e.g. Acescentrio.
  3. vi) Development in Agriculture led to availability of food which in turn encouraged people to establish permanent settlements/farming centres

vii)      Religious centres developed into towns e.g. Ife and Kumasi

Viii)    Places that were secure attracted population concentration and later developed into towns e.g. Thababosiu the capital of Basutoland.

  1. Ports and harbous which were used as calling stations for replenishments developed into urban centres e.g. Cape Town, Malindi, Cairo.
  2. Places where water was available developed with urban centre.

(Any 8 points, 1 mark (8 marks)

  • Explain the social effects of urbanization in Europe during the nineteenth century.
  1. Migration of people to urban centres/led to overcrowding.
  2. Inadequate housing due to high concentration of people in urban centres.
  • Poor sewerage and sanitation facilities exposed people to diseases such as cholera and typhoid.
  1. Concentration of industries led to environmental pollution which resulted to respiratory aliments/diseases.
  2. Concentration of people led to shortage of food which resulted in malnutrition.
  3. Frustration and suffering urban life led to anti-social behaviour such as drug abuse, alcoholism and prostitution.
  • Increase in crime rate and violence created fear and insecurity.

viii)     Poor working conditions e.g. child labour, long working hours and lack of workman’s compensation dehumanized urban dwellers.

  1. ix) High concentration of people in urban centres strained the social amenities
  2. x) Excessive rural immigration led to unemployment
  3. xi) Led to social interaction between different class of people

xiii)     Shortage of housing led to development of slums

  1. (a) Describe three factors that facilitated the development of agriculture

in America before 1800

(i)        European immigration into the region led to population increase and demand for food.

(ii)       European immigration introduced new methods of farming

(iii)      Introduction of new crops

(iv)      Availability of slave labour to clear forests and to farm

(v)       Suitability of climate for agriculture

(vi)      Presence of suitable soils for different types of crops

(vii)     Settlement of enterprising European emigrants who wished to make a living through agriculture.

(viii)    Availability of indigenous crops

(ix)      Use of river for irrigation

(Any 3 points, 1 mark (3 mks)

(b)       Discuss the factors that led to the Agrarian Revolution in North American

  1. i) The introduction of the enclosure system in Britain forced landless to migrate to North America where they introduced new farming methods.
  2. ii) Availability of land for the farming of different crop varieties such as tobacco, cotton and wheat/reclamation of waste land of irrigation.

iii)       Suitability of land for different crop variety

  1. iv) Government recognition of individual land ownership (the Homestead Act 1860) encouraged settlers to farm
  2. v) The granting of financial aid to farmers to buy and develop land /credit facilities.
  3. vi) The introduction of slave labour ensured adequate supply of labour for farming

vii)      Determination by the European immigrants to succeed in agriculture as there was no other sources of livelihood.

viii)     The increase in demand for agricultural raw materials by European industrialists encouraged expansion in agriculture/availability of foreign market.

  1. ix) The invention of the cotton gin in 1993 by Eli Whiney led to increased cotton acreage.
  2. x) The mechanization of agriculture stimulated productivity e.g the steel plough and the mechanical reaper.
  3. xi) The development of food preservation methods of canning and refrigeration encouraged farmers to produce more.

xii)      The application of science and research to agricultural (e.g biotechnology development of new foods from existing crops, use of fertilizers and genetic engineering in livestock production) facilitated the Agrarian Revolution.

xiv)     Increase in population created demand for food which led to expansion of agriculture

  1. xv) Discovery of controlling of animal diseases led to increase production.

(Any 6 point 1 mk (12 marks)

  1. a) Which scientific inventions of the twentieth century have led to a

reduction in death rates?

  1. i) The grouping of blood into various blood groups by Land Steiner in 1900 facilitated blood transfusions and the storage of blood in blood banks for later transfusion.
  2. ii) Penicillin, an antibiotic by Dr. Alexander Fleming in 1928 prolonged lives by treating infections.

iii)       The polio vaccine in 1954 by Jona Edwards

  1. iv) Transplant surgery by Dr. Christian Barnard, a South African surgeon 1967 succeeded in prolonging lives of heart patients.
  2. v) Kidney dialysis machine in 1943 has prolonged lives of kidney patients.
  3. vi) Heart valve in 1996 has prolonged lives through replacement of defective valves.

vii)      Anti-retroviral has prolonged lives of aids sufferers.

(Any 5 points, 1 mark (5 mks)


  1. b) Explain the positive impact of scientific inventions on industry

(i)        The invention and use of machine in factories/manufactured goods/have led production of large quality of goods/mass production of goods.

(ii)       The science of electronics has led to the production and use of computers in processing information and other types of data/storage of information

(iii)      Research in science and technology has led to the development of labour saving robots which use micro computers as the brains which are used in factories.

  1. iv) The communication network has been revolutionized through the use of e-mail and the internet to advertise and enable circulation of information.
  2. v) The discovery of atomic power/nuclear has led to increase power generation for industrial use.
  3. vi) Science has revolutionized the transport network through invention of the motor-car, electronic trains and supersonic jets.

vii)      Scientific research has led to the production of alternative source of energy for use in industries e.g. gasohol methanol, solar energy.

(Any 5 points x 2 mks (10mks)

  1. a) What factors which enabled Samori Toure to resist French

colonization in West Africa between 1882 and 1898.

  1. i) He had a large well organized army which was a formidable force for the French.
  2. ii) He equipped his army with modern weapons which were acquired from the Europeans and also manufactured some locally

iii)       He used Mandinka nationalism and Islam to unify the soldiers/army

  1. iv) He had adequate food supply which sustained the army
  2. v) He used guerrilla warfare and scorched earth policy which proved effective against the French.
  3. vi) Some of his solders had served in the French colonial army and were thus familiar with the French war tactics.

vii)      Use of horses by Samori during the war enhanced the solders effectiveness

viii)     Samori’s solders were familiar with the terrain.  This enabled them to effective/French not familiar with geography of the area.

  1. ix) He was a competent military leader who inspired his soldiers democratically in assignment of duties.
  2. x) He used diplomacy e.g. he signed the Bissandugu Treatt. (1886) to get more time to organize himself. (Played British against the French)
  3. xi) Samori shifted his empire and capital further inland to give him more time to re-organize his forces.

xii)      He was able to pay his soldiers well.             (Any 7 points, 1 mk (7mks)

  1. b) Explain four results of the defeat of the Mandinka by the French in the nineteenth century.
  2. i) The Mandika Empire disintegrated as the French established their rule in the area/loss of independence.
  3. ii) Property was destroyed due to the use of the scorched earth policy causing famine and suffering to the people.

iii)       Some Mandinka fled to other countries such as Ghana and Ivory Coast to avoid French colonial rule.

  1. iv) Many people lost their lives due to prolonged war
  2. v) Samori Toure was captured and exiled to Gabon in 1898
  3. vi) Economic difficulties were disrupted.

vii)      Famine due to neglect of farming during war (Any 4 point, marks (8mks)

  1. a) Why did the British use direct rule in Zimbabwe?
  2. i) They desired to control the economy of Zimbabwe to maximize profits.
  3. ii) The indigenous/local political institutions based on Induna system had been destroyed during the British occupation of Zimbabwe.

iii)       To ensure complete control of the African company personnel on the spot who were familiar with the area as well as the British system of administration.

  1. iv) Existence of the British South African company personnel on the spot who were familiar with the area as well as the British system of administration
  2. v) The British Africa company had enough finance to pay administrative officers.
  3. b) Explain the effects of British rule in Zimbabwe.
  4. i) It led to the alienation of African land to white settlers resulting to displacement of Africans.
  5. ii) African traditional rulers lost their political autonomy and served as puppets of the British/loss of independence.

iii)       The day-to-day running of the colony was vested in the hands of the British without much reference to the African interest.

  1. iv) Africans were subjected to heavy taxation
  2. v) The British South African company was given too much power in the administration of colony.
  3. vi) It undermined African traditional economy as some Africans worked in White farms.

vii)      It led to the development of transport network/infrastructure

viii)     It led to the introduction of new crops in the region.

  1. ix) It undermined African culture
  2. x) Establishment of white settlement subjected Africans to poverty
  3. xi) Africans were denied freedom of movement by being confined to the reserves and required to carry identity cards.

xii)      Africans were subjected to forced labour.

Any 6 points, 2 marks (12mks)

  1. a) Why was United States of American (USA) reluctant to join the First

World War during the initial stages?

  1. i) Desire to abide by terms of Monroe Doctrine of 1823 which forbid her from interfering in European affairs.
  2. ii) Fear of revolt by her citizens of German origin.

iii)       Fear of an outbreak of civil war between Americans of German descent and those of other European nationalities.

  1. iv) The war had not interfered with the USA’s interests until 1916.

Any 3 points, 1 mk (3mks)

            (b)       Describe the results of the Second World War

(i)        Loss of life

It is estimated that 30 million people died either in battle or as civilians through bombing.

(ii)       The atomic bombs which were used against Japan released radio-active substances which affected the lives of many-people.

(iii)      Permanent ill health and shortening of life for millions of people as a result of years of under-nourishment of captivity.

(iv)      Destruction of properties such as homes, houses, building and bridges.

(v)       Agriculture and industry were disrupted due to lack of equipment, raw materials and human resources.

(vi)      Psychological and emotional problems to families, individuals and nations as a result of the torture of the war.

(vii)     Economies of countries that were involved in the war were destroyed leading to depression/economic slump/huge sums of money were spent on the war.

(viii)    External trade almost came to a stand still due to fear and insecurity.

(ix)      There  was a high inflation rate which led to high cost of living.

(x)       Large numbers of peoples were displaced which led to great suffering/repair

(xi)      The pre-war balance of power was destroyed and power vacuum was filled by two new super powers, the USA and USSR

(xii)     The communist zone extended to cover half of the continent of Europe. This Europe down the middle.

(xiii)    To check the spread of communism in Europe, the USA assisted weakened European powers through the Marshal plan.

(xiv)    The division of Europe into two opposing blues led to the cold war which was followed by an arms race between USA and USSR.

(xv)     The failure of the League of Nations to maintain world peace led to the founding of the United Nations Organization.

(xvi)    Germany was divided into two, capitalist West Germany and communist East Germany. The city of Berlin was also divided between the East and the West.

(xvii)   The myth of European military superiority was destroyed due to the defeat of British and American forces in the Far East by the Japanese.

(xviii)  Participation of Africans in the War strengthened African nationalism

(xix)    Creation of state of Israel to settle the displaced Jews.

(xx)     The war created unemployment because the demoralized servicemen increased demand for jobs.

Any 6 points 2 marks (12 marks)








  1. State one way in which the ABagusii and the Kipsigis interacted during the pre-colonial period.

(i)        Intermarriage

(ii)       Trade

(iii)      Raids/warfare                                     Any 1 point mk each= 1mk

  1. State two functions of the council of elders (Njuri Neheke) of the Ameru.

(i)        Solve land and inheritance disputes.

(ii)       Acted as the Court of Appeal

(iii)      Presided over religious functions

(iv)      Organized social functions

(v)       Advised warriors on when to go to wars/raids

(vi)      Negotiated peace settlements

(vii)     Made laws to govern the community

Any two points, 1 mk each 2mks

  1. Apart from trade, give one reason why the Arabs migrated to the Kenyan coast before 1500 Ad.

(i)        To escape religious conflicts between different Islamic sects in Arabia/civil wars.

(ii)       To escape from political persecution in Arabia

(iii)      To spread Islam

(iv)      For adventure/exploration                              Any 1 point, 1mk (1mk)

  1. State two factors which encouraged the Akamba to participate in the long distance trade during the nineteenth century.

(i)        Existence of enterprising local traders among the Akamba

(ii)       Demand for some commodities of trade

(iii)      To spread Islam

(iv)      Existence of trade routes

(v)       Strategic middle position of Akamba land between the coast the hinterland.

(vi)      Unfavorable climatic conditions of Akamba land

Any 2 points, 1 mk each =2mks

  1. Give two reasons why Nabongo Mumia collaborated with the British

(i)        He wanted British protection in order to securely be accepted as King of the Wanga.

(ii)       He wanted their assistance against his hostile neighbours e.g. the Luo of Ugenya.

  • He needed their support to expand his territory.
  • He needed European goods for prestige/fame. Any 1 point,1mk each=1mk
  1. Identify one reason why African were not allowed to grow some cash crops before 1954

(i)        Europeans wanted to continue getting cheap African labour for their farms

(ii)       To avoid competition by African farmers

(iii)      To control the spread of disease and pests from African farms.

Any 1 point, 1mk each =1mk

  1. State two reasons why the Taita Hills Associations was formed in 1939.

(i)        To fight for the return of their alienated land.

(ii)       To protest against destocking policy

(iii)      To protest against taxation

(iv)      To protest against the Kipande system

(v)       To protest against forced labour

Any 2 points, 1 mk each = 2mks

  1. State one result of the establishment of independent churches in Kenya during the colonial period.

(i)        African cultural practices and beliefs were incorporated into the Christian colonial period.

(ii)       Gave African clergy leadership opportunities in the church

(iii)      More African were trained as clergy

(iv)      Accelerated the spread of Christianity

(v)       Led to the establishment of independent schools

(vi)      Led to the formation Nationalism.                Any 1 point, = 1mk

  1. Identify two negative consequences of urbanization in Kenya during the colonial period.

(i)        Unemployment led to poverty

(ii)       Low morality e.g. prostitution

(iii)      Increase in crime

(iv)      Development of shanties/slums

(v)       Congestion leading to epidemics

(vi)      Break up of family set up

(vii)     Development of the Kipande system

(viii)    Deprived rural areas of manpower/negligence of agriculture

Any 2 points, 1mk each = 2mks

  1. Give two sources of revenue for the District Development Committees in Kenya

(i)        Government grants

(ii)       Donations fro NGOs and religious organizations

(iii)      Aid from foreigners

(iv)      Harambee funds

(v)       Donations from individuals.

Any 2 points, 1mk each =2mks.

  1. State two ways in which the chief’s promotes law and order in the location

(i)        Setting disputes between the people in the location

(ii)       Helping to apprehend individuals who break the law

(iii)      Sensitizing the people about antisocial behavior e.g. drug abuse/HIV

(iv)      Issuing permits for all functions in the location

(v)       Organizing Barazas to explain government policy on law and order

Any 2 points, 1 mk each =2mks

  1. Give one way through which the education system in Kenya promotes national unity

(i)        Use of one curriculum in all the public schools

(ii)       Use of one medium of instruction

(iii)      Centralized national examinations

(iv)      Centralized training and deployment of teachers

(v)       Existence of national school

(Any 1 point, 1m=1mk)

  1. Who chairs cabinet meetings in Kenya?

(i)        The president                                                  (1 mk)

  1. What is contained in the government budget?

(i)        The amount of revenue expected

(ii)       Sources of revenue

(ii)       Areas of expenditure

Any 1 point, 1mk = 1mk

  1. Give the main role of opposition parties in Kenya

To act as a check on the excess of the government and the ruling party/upholding democracy                                                                  (1 mk)

  1. Give the main function of the prisons Department in Kenya

Rehabilitation of offenders/criminals/Reforming the behaviour of offenders (1mk)

  1. Identify two national philosophies used as development strategies in Kenya.

(i)        Harambee

(ii)       Nyayoism (peace, love unity, etc)

(iii)      African socialism                               Any 2 points, 1mk each =2mks



  1. a) What were the results of the settlement of the Luo in Kenya during

the pre-colonial period?

(i)        Assimilation of some communities they found in the areas e.g. Abasuba

(ii)       Intermarriage with the neighbours e.g. Abaluyia

(iii)      Neighboring communities lost some of their land to the incoming Luo.

(iv)      Displacement of some communities e.g. Abagusii.

(v)       Increased conflicts over control of resources between the Luo and their neighbours.

(vi)      Expansion of trade with the neighboring iron/iron tools

(vii)     Occupation of fertile land influenced the Luo to adopt farming on a large scale.

(viii)    Cultural exchange between the Luo and their neighboring e.g. language, naming                                                            7×1 = 7mks


  1. b) Describe the socio-political organization of the Luo during the pre-colonial period

(i)        The Luo were organized into clans, each with a common ancestry

(ii)       The clans were organized into large units (Gwenye) which were self-governing

(iii)      Each  Gwenge was administered by a Council of Elders

(iv)      The council administered justice and served as the final court of appeal

(v)       The council co-ordinate religious functions

(vi)      They had a system of chieftainship (Ruoth) who administered with the help of Council of Elders

(vii)     There were ritual experts such as diviners, medicine men and healers.

(viii)    There were ritual experts such as diviners, medicine men and healer.

(ix)      They believed in the existence of One God (Nyasaye). They prayed to God through priests

(x)       They venerated/worshipped the ancestral spirits

(xi)      They lead sacred places set aside for worship

(xii)     They practiced initiation rites e.g. removal of lower teeth /front teeth

(xiii)    They celebrated important occasions e.g. harvest, marriage through drinking, eating, wrestling and dancing                                    (8×1 = 8mks)

  1. a) Why were the Portuguese interested in establishing their control over

the Kenyan coast during the 16th Century?

(i)        To control trade with the coastal towns

(ii)       To spread Christianity/ revenge on the Muslims who had conquered and controlled their homeland for over 700 years/look for pastor John

(iii)      The Kenyan coast was strategically located on the way to the East and could act as a base for their trading and navy ships.

(iv)      To control the India Ocean trade                   (3×1=3 mks)

  1. b) Explain six effects of Portuguese rule on the Kenyan Coast

(i)        It led to the decline of the Indian Ocean trade/decline of gold trade

(ii)       It led to the decline and ruin of towns

(iii)      It led to loss of life during their constant raids on coastal towns

(iv)      The heavy taxes that were imposed on the coastal peoples hindered the development of commercial and agricultural resources at the coast

(v)       They built Fort Jesus which became a historic monument in the subsequent years

(vi)      They brought new crops to the coast e.g. maize, groundnuts and pineapples

(vii)     They introduced the use of farmyard manure

(viii)    Their language enriched the Kiswahili language

(ix)      The introduction of guns and other advanced weapons by the Portuguese contributed to insecurity in the region

(x)       Commercial links between the Kenyan coast and the Arabian Peninsular were almost completely cut off.

(xi)      Some African were converted to Christianity.

(xii)     Closer links between the Kenyan coast and India developed

(xiii)    Their conquest of the Kenyan coast exposed the area to other European powers.                                   (Any 6 points, 2 mks =12 mks)

  1. a) What economic reasons encouraged the British to colonize Kenya

during 19th Century

(i)        To establish reliable markets for their manufactured goods

(ii)       To establish sources for industrial raw materials for industries in Britain

(iii)      control the coast in order to safeguard their trade in the Far East

(iv)      To stop the slave trade and establish legitimate trade

(v)       To find areas to invest surplus capital


  1. b) Explain six ways through which the colonial government promoted settler farming.

(i)        European settlers were provided with large tracts of land which were alienated from Africans through various land legislations

(ii)       The introduction of forced labour on European farms ensured steady supply of cheap labour for

(iii)      The introduction of the Kipande system ensured that Africans remained in employment

(iv)      The squatter system ensured that Africans residing on the settle farms provided the required labour in return for small plots where they practiced subsistence farming

(v)       Forced settlement of Africans in overcrowded and unproductive reserves forced them to seek wage employment in settler farms.

(vi)      Africans were forbidden from growing some cash and keeping exotic animals to force them to seek wage employment in settler farms.

(vii)     Establishment of African reserves in remote and undeveloped areas to deprive them of market for their produce.

(viii)    Introduction of payment of taxes in cash forced Africans to seek employment

(ix)      The Northey Circulars of 1918 and 1919 required chiefs to supply a number of labour recruits for settler farms and government projects.

(x)       The government offered credit facilities to settlers to develop farming/extension of services e.g department of agriculture.

(xi)      Establishment of Agro-based industries created ready market for their produce.

(xii)     The government encouraged settlers to form co-operative for effective marketing of their produce.

(xiii)    The development of transport and communication system facilitated farming

(xiv)    The government ensured protection to settlers against possible African rebellion.                                            6×2=12 mks

  1. a) What major reforms resulted from the Lyttelton Constitution of 1954

in Kenya?

(i)        It led to the establishment of a Multi-racial council of Ministers made up of official and un official members.  This new council replaced the Executive Council

(ii)       B.A. Obanga one of the nominated African members was made Minister for Community Development and African affairs.

(iii)      Africans were allowed to form political originations whose functions were confirmed to district levels.

(iv)      The government provided for elections of eight Africans to the legislative Council

(v)       It led to the establishment of an Advisory Council to discuss government policies

3×1 =3mks

  1. b) Explain six ways through which Thomas Joseph Mboya contributed the struggle for independence in Kenya.
  2. i) He was a member of the Kenya Local Government workers Union (KLGWU) and Kenya Federation of Labour (KFL)
  3. ii) He protested against colonial separation of the Agikuyu, Aembu and Ameru from other communities in Nairobi.

iii)       He was a member of K.A.U. and became its director of publicity in 1992. He was later elected treasurer of the party.

  1. iv) He protested the restriction of Africans to grow cash crops
  2. v) He solicited for financial and moral support to K.F.L. from international trade unions and organizations
  3. vi) He protested the restriction of Africans to grow cash crops

vii)      He companied for release of detained unionists and political leaders such as Jomo Kenyatta

viii)     He facilitated trade union education in many parts of Kenya

  1. ix) He exposed African problems and sought help in international for a Pan African
  2. x) In 1957, having been elected into the Legislative Council, he championed their needs such as African involvement in government affairs.
  3. xi) He was elected Secretary General of KANU in 1960

xii)      He condemned the reservation of white highlands for European settlers

xiii)     He participated in the Lancaster House, Conference (1960) which chartered the way to Kenya’s independence

xiv)     He attended the second Lancaster House Conference and participated in drawing up the independence Constitution





  1. a) Describe the structure of the court system in Kenya

(i)        District Magistrate’s Court is the lowest in the structure. These are found at District level.

(ii)       Kadhis Court. It is at the same level as the District Magistrates Court but deals with matters relating to Muslims/Muslim law. Cases from Kadhis Court can be heard at the High Court of Kenya and Court of Appeal.

(iii)      Resident Magistrate’s Court is the second lowest in the court system but it is the highest court in the province.

(iv)      Chief Magistrate’s Court is the highest Magistrate’s Court in Kenya’s system of courts.

(v)       High Court is above the Magistrate’s Court in Kenya. It is headed by the Chief Justice.

(vi)      Court of Appeal is the highest court in the judicial structure. It is also headed by the Chief Justice.

(vii)     Special court/tribunals e.g. Rent, Industrial and business courts.

5×1= 5mks


(b)       Explain the functions of the High Court of Kenya

  1. i) The High Court is a constitutional court which interprets the constitution to determine whether the dispute is constitutional or not.
  2. ii) It tries both criminal and civil cases/handling cases involving large amount of money.

iii)       It can listen to cases from all over the country

  1. iv) To correct mistakes made in decisions by the lower courts
  2. v) To hear appeals from the Kadhis Court
  3. vi) Hears appeals from the Kadhis Court

vii)      It acts as a court of appeal for cases from Resident and Chief Magistrate’s Courts

viii)     It deals with petitions arising from elections (Presidential and (parliamentary)                                                          5×2 =10mks

  1. a) Describe the process of preparing a bill before it is taken to

parliament for debate

  1. i) Preparation of a bill starts with making suggestions/proposals about the need of the law.
  2. ii) The Attorney General prepares a draft proposal of the intended law

iii)       The Attorney General notifies the members of parliament and the public about the intended law

  1. iv) The Attorney General notifies the members of parliament and the public about the intended bill to enable them carry out research.
  2. v) The intended law is taken to parliament for debate

3×1= 3mks

  1. b) Explain six ways in which the Bill of Rights protects the rights of the individual

(i)        States that every individual has the right to life.

(ii)       It guarantees liberty to all citizens by forbidding enslavement, detention or imprisonment without trial.

(iii)      It protects the individual from all from of torture and inhuman treatment.

(iv)      It guarantees the protection of private and allows Kenyans to own property anywhere in the country.

(v)       It protects individuals freedom of conscience and religion/workshop

(vi)      It guarantees the protection of the freedom of speech and expression

(vii)     It gives Kenyans the right to move freely throughout the country and to reside in any part of the country. Kenyans are protected against expulsion from the country.

(viii)    It guarantees individuals against any for of discrimination on the basis of colour, creed, gender and religion.

(ix)      It protects individuals against arbitrary search, arrest and entry into one’s property without one’s consent

6×2 =12mks

  1. a) What are the main sources of revenue for Local Government

authorities in Kenya?

(i)       Rents from residential and other premises

(ii)      Rents paid by property owners/bill boards

(iii)     Loans from the central government

(iv)     Grants from the central government

(v)      Licences paid by business operators/trade licences

(vi)     Parking fees paid by motorists/ Hiring facilities e.g. stadiums, halls, e.t.c

(vii)    Fees from national parks

(viii)   Fines paid by people who break laws

(ix)     sale of property

(x)      From cess

  1. b) Explain six factors which undermine the performance of local authorities

(i)       Some are too small to operate efficiently

(ii)      High population concentration strains available resources

(iii)      Many local authorities lack adequate financial base to finance their services

(iv)      Inefficient revenue collection system

(v)       Tax evasion by individuals and organizations

(vi)      Misappropriation of funds by corrupt officers

(vii)     Conflicts between Councilors and the Chief Officers

(viii)    Political interference in the affairs and management of local authorities

(ix)      Too much control by the central government

(x)       Lack of qualified staff in areas of administration and financial management due to poor remuneration.

(xi)      Over employment thus straining their financial abilities

(xii)     Widespread corruption

(xiii)    Election of illiterate Councilors to manage the affairs of the Authorities.

Any 10 x 1=10mks






  1. State one advantage of written materials as a source of history
  2. i) Written materials ensure relatively permanent storage of Historical events/for future reference.
  3. ii) Written materials can be easily translated to different languages relatively accurate storage of historical events.

iii)       They relatively provide accurate storage of historical events.

  1. iv) Written materials cannot be easily distorted/interfered with/not easily changed.
  2. Give one characteristics of Homo Erectus.
  3. i) Homo Erectus was upright/bipedal/waked upright /walked in two legs
  4. ii) Homo Erectus was more intelligent than the earlier apes/higher thinking capacity

iii)       Homo Erectus had a bigger bran capacity/775-1225 cc

  1. iv) Homo Erectus had more developed hand for grasping tools.
  2. v) Homo Erectus had more developed hand for grasping tools.
  3. vi) Homo erectus had a long skull

vii)      Homo Erectus had a long protruding jaws.

  1. State one main limitation of Barter trade during the Trans-Saharan trade.
  2. i) Some commodities were bulky/difficult to transport e.g salt, kola nut
  3. ii) It was difficult to qualify the value of some goods

iii)       Some goods were perishable

  1. iv) It was difficult to ensure security of trade goods
  2. v) No common/lack of common language of communication
  3. State two duties of the priests in Yoruba Traditional religion
  4. i) They interpreted the wishes of the gods/God’s messages.
  5. ii) They acted as mediators between the gods and the people

iii)       They officiated in religious activities /presided of over religious functions

  1. iv) They were consulted before important decisions were made.
  2. v) They predicted the future
  3. vi) They led people in public and private prayers /conducted prayers.
  4. State one result of the invention of the wheel in Mesopotamia.
  5. i) It led to making of high quality pots from clay.
  6. ii) It was used to move war chariots.

iii)       It used to move war carts carrying agricultural produce.

  1. iv) Led to the development of roads.
  2. Give one disadvantage of using coal as a source of industrial energy during the 19th century.
  3. i) It was bulky/difficult of transport
  4. ii) It produced air pollutants e.g. sulphur dioxide.

iii)       It was a non renewable source of energy/easily exhaustible.

  1. iv) It was expensive to obtain from the mines.
  2. State two factors that facilitated the growth of the Asante Kingdom.
  3. i) Able leaders e.g. Osei Tutu.
  4. ii) Unity brought about by the Golden stool/Odwira festival/common ancestry

iii)       Military strength based on the acquisition of gun and powder

  1. iv) Wealth derived from the trans-Atlantic slave trade slave trade.
  2. v) A strong agricultural base/availability of food.
  3. vi) Centralized political system under Asantehene.

vii)      A large army

viii)     Oppressive need rule of the free themselves from rule Denkyia.

  1. Identify two features of early Greek City states.
  2. i) They were areas of population concentration
  3. ii) Every city had a palace/administration centers

iii)       Each city state had residential houses

  1. iv) They were politically independent of each other independent of each other/each government/rulers
  2. v) They had a common religion, language and culture/They were cultural centres/sporting activities
  3. vi) Each town had many temple

vii        Each had an open air market.

  1. Give two inventions that improved textile manufacturing industry in Britain

in the 18th Century.

(i)        They shuttle of John Kay

(ii)       Water frame of Richard Arkwright.

(iii)      Spinning Jenn of James Samuel Cropton

(iv)      Cylindrical Calico Printing Machine of Thomas Bell.

(v)       Steam power loom of Edmund Cartwright.

(vi)      The cotton Gin of Elli Witney.

  1. State one contribution of Joseph Lister in the field of medicine in the 19th


(i)        He discovered the use of Carbonic acid as an antiseptic to clean/sterilize surgical instruments

(ii)       He discovered the use of carbonic acid to kill microbes around the wound after an operation.

(iii)      He developed an antiseptic spray for cleaning the air during operations.

  1. State two effects of the development of railway transport in the 19th Century.

(i)        It facilitated transportation of bulky goods

(ii)       He led to growth of towns

(iii)      It led to growth of towns

(iv)      It facilitated in the entrenchment of colonial administration/movement of soldiers.

(v)       It facilitated in the entrenchment of colonial administration/movement of soldiers

(vi)      It facilitated the spread of Christ unity

(vii)     Created employment opportunities

  1. Give two methods that European powers used to occupy African during the nineteenth century.
  2. i) Diplomacy/treaty making/promises of protection/ giving gifts.
  3. ii) Trickery/use of missionaries explorers/traders

iii)       Military conquest e.g. the French in West Africa.

  1. iv) Divide and rule tactics i.e. playing off one community against another/promoting later state conflicts.
  2. v) Annexation
  3. vi) Setting up administrative posts
  4. State two conditions that one lead to fulfill in order to become fully assimilated in French West Africa.
  5. i) Ability to speak French.
  6. ii) Literacy in French government/army

iii)       Service in the French government/army

  1. iv) Residence in Quabe de communities in Senegal
  2. v) Had to be monogamous.
  3. vi) Accepting Christianity.
  4. Give the main reason why the League of Nations was formed in 1919.
  5. i) To prevent the occurrences of another world war/to maintain world peace.
  6. Give the main cause of the cold war.
  7. i) Ideological differences between the USA and USSR/Division of the world into two opposing blocs, capitalist and communist.
  8. Give two political developments in South Africa between 1990 and 1991 which led to peaceful introduction of majority rule.
  9. i) The release of prominent Africa Political prisoners e.g. Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu from Robben Island.
  10. ii) Initiation of dialogue between all racial groups by president Friderick de Klerk.

iii)       The holding of multi-racial elections in April 1994

  1. iv) Relaxation of apartheid laws through constitutional reforms/Accepting African political parties.

17        State the main reason why the USSR adopted a one party system of


  1. i) To promote national unity.



  1. a) Describe three ways through which slaves were obtained during the

Trans-Atlantic slaves trade.

(i)        Through exchange of slaves for European manufactured goods-exchange of slaves

(ii)       By selling prisoners of war to slave dealers-selling prisoners

(iii)      Lonely travelers and weak subjects were kidnapped and sold to slave-kidnapping

(iv)      Some rulers sold their subjects/criminals to slave dealers.

(v)       By enticing people/children using desirable goods such as cloth and sweets- enticing people.

(vi)      Through raiding-villages were attacked and captives sold to slave dealers.

(vii)     Weak subjects were sold.

(viii)    Parrying- (selling of debtors)

(b)       Explain six factors that led to the decline of the Trans-Atlantic trade.

(i)        The development of Industrial Revolution in Europe shifted the demand from slaves to agricultural produce e.g. Palm oil.

(ii)       The need to retain Africans in their homelands to produce raw materials for export to Europe.

(iii)      The attainment of independence by the USA left Britain without colonies where she would talk the slaves to work.

(iv)      The rise of Humanitarians in Britain made up missionaries and some parliamentarians pressurized the British government to abolish the slave trade and slavery.

(v)       The development of the legitimate trade which was more profitable and less costly replaced slave trade and slavery.

(vi)      Britain influenced other European countries to stop slavery and slave trade by signing anti slave trade treaties.

(vii)     Use of machines in farms/industries rendered slave labour unnecessary.

(viii)    Lending Economist e.g. Adams smiths argued that free people were more productive than slaves.

(ix)      French Rev. of 1789 spread ideas of Liberty qualifying brotherhood to all mankind

(x)       Closure of American slave market after the defeat of S. American stated at the civil war.

  1. a) What factors led to the industrialization in German in the 19th


  1. i) The establishment of the Zollverein removed trade barriers and led to free trade and economic growth.
  2. ii) Availability of coal as a source of industrial energy/H.E.P

iii)       Availability of iron ore as a source of raw materials for industries.

  1. iv) Political unity of all German states under the leadership of Bismark.
  2. v) Acquisition of all German states under the leadership of Bismark.
  3. vi) Existence of a large population provided labour/unskilled labour

vii)      Availability of local market from the large population.

viii)     Development of goods transport and communication network

  1. ix) The government supported industry and encouraged Germany
  2. x) Enterprising of nature of Germany
  3. xi) Whom with managerial skills /skilled labour

xii)      Availability of external market.

  1. b) Explain five results of the industrial Revolution in Europe during the 19th
  2. i) There was extensive use of machinery instead of human labour.
  3. ii) Use of steam power instead of water wind and animal power.

iii)       Establishment of factories in place of collage industries.

  1. iv) Production of goods in large quantities. (Mass production)
  2. v) Use of iron and steel instead of wood
  3. vi) Growth of surplus capital for investment/capitalism.

vii)      Improved living standards/Employment.

viii)     High population growth rate.

  1. ix) Rural urban migration.
  2. x) Improved transport system e.g. railway.
  3. xi) Utilization of scientific knowledge in production of goods.

xii)      Production of different types of goods / variety

xiii)     Increased trade.

xiv)     Growth of towns / urbanization

  1. xv) Development of banking insurance industries.

xvi)     Led to pollution

xvii)    Led to the rise of trade unionism

xviii)   Factory owners exploited workers/ poor working condition.

xix)     European economist were diversified / job specialization.

  1. xx) Promoted agriculture.
  2. a) In what way are the teachings of Islam similar to those of


  1. i) Both religious are monotheistic i.e. they teach the worship of only the God.
  2. ii) Their teachings are contained in Holy Books the Bible and the Koran.

iii)       There is life after death.

  1. iv) Communicating with God is through prayer and fasting.
  2. v) There are angles
  3. vi) God communicates his messages through prophets.

vii)      Faith and good work.

viii)     There is judgment after death.

  1. ix) Existence of level and hell.
  2. x) Both recognize the significance of Abraham.
  3. xi) Both believe in creation theory.
  4. b) Explain the Christian church split during the 16th
  5. i) Translation of the Bible to many European languages enables people to read the world and challenge some of the teachings.
  6. ii) Corrupt practices in the church e.g. pluralism (holding more than one office in the church. Buying offices in the church.

iii)       The clergy lived luxurious lives and many lived for wordy pleasures in the monasteries and nunneries which was not in accordance with the teachings of Bible.

  1. iv) Sale of indulgencies to those who had sinned in order to be forgiven.
  2. v) Practice of the nepotism and appointment of their relatives to high offices.
  3. vi) The clergy ignored the rule of celibacy and kept mistresses.

vii)      The faithful were opposed to the heavy taxes imposed on them to sustain the church.

viii)     Reformist questioned some church practices and ceremonies e.g. confession.

  1. ix) The growth of nationalism throughout Europe made many people to question why they were Answerable to Rome.
  2. x) Excessive secular and religion powers for the pope.
  3. xi) The age of Renaissance (Rebirth) likened traditional beliefs of the church at the time

xii)      Struggled for papacy

xiii)     The development of printing press to production of more religious materials.

xiv)     The unwillingness of the clergy to compromise with the demands of the reformists especially after the trial and excommunication of Martin Luther.

  1. a) What reasons led to the failure of Maji Maji rebellion in 1907.
  2. i) Africans wee not well organized in their assistance. Each community fought on its won / lack of proper coordination.
  3. ii) The magic water failed to protect Africans from German bullets leading to the death of African soldieries into the battle.

iii)       The Africans did not unite to face the common enemy for example to Hehe and Nyamwesi did join the revolution / lack of unity.

  1. iv) The Germans received reinforcement from Germany and other colonies and thus their number overwhelmed the African Soldiers.
  2. v) African soldiers lacked enough weapons to use against the Germans.
  3. vi) The Africans did not have a well trained army / lack of military skills.

vii)      The ruthlessness of the German soldiers in crushing the rebellion e.g use of scorched earth policy.

viii)     Capture and execution of leaders demoralized the warriors.

  1. b) Explain five reforms that were introduced by the German administration after the Maji Maji uprising.
  2. i) Communal cotton growing was stopped and Africans were encouraged to plant their own cotton and get profit from it.
  3. ii) Forced labour for settler farms was abolished.

iii)       Corporal punishment was forbidden and those settlers who mistreated their workers were punished.

  1. iv) Better educational and medical services for Africans were introduced.
  2. v) Africans were involved in administration of the regions as Akidas and Jumbes.
  3. vi) The new governor censured newspapers that supported settlers against Africans.

vii)      Anew governor who was sympathetic to the cause of the Africans

viii)     A colonial department of German government was formed in 1907 to closely investigate the affairs to German East Africa.

  1. ix) Extra taxation of Africans was rejected by the new governors.
  2. x) Kiswahili was accepted asa the official language.
  3. xi) Colonial administration in Tanganyika was tailored to suit the Africans.
  4. a) Why did the British use indirect rule to administer Northern Nigeria?
  5. i) To reduce the administrative costs of the colony because it was vast / costs.
  6. ii) The British did not have enough trained personnel to administer the area no person.

iii)       There existed an already acceptable system of administrating through the Emirs and Qadis.

  1. iv) They did not want to provoke people of Northern Nigeria into rebellion – rear or rebellious by introducing new rules.
  2. v) Indirect rule had already succeeded in Uganda and India, so they had points of reference.
  3. vi) The adoption of the Dual Mandate policy by the British government encouraged the development of the colony for its own good and the good of Britain.

vii)      Poor communication network.

  1. b) Explain why the use of indirect rule in Southern Nigeria was unsuccessful.
  2. i) Southern Nigeria did not have centralized indigenous system of government that was necessary for the application of indirect rule.
  3. ii) Lack of homogeneity in the South as there were many ethnic groups, languages & customs to be understood.

iii)       The British introduced new ideas such as forced labour and direct taxes which infuriated the people.

  1. iv) The failure of the British administrators to fully understand how the socio, economic and political system of Southern Nigeria (based on the Office of the Oba). Operated made them five up easily.
  2. v) Opposition from the educated elite who felt out of the administration of their country / leadership.
  3. vi) The educated people in Southern Nigeria resented the chiefs appointed by the British because they were illiterate.

vii)      The Obas of southern Nigeria had defined powers such as mediation, so when they were given wide ranging powers, people became discounted.

viii)     Communication barriers between the British supervisors, the warrant chiefs and the people often led to misinterpretation and misunderstanding.

  1. ix) Misuse of power by the warrant chiefs who raised taxes for their own benefits. They also harassed women sexually.
  2. x) Use of excessive force to suppress any form of resistance provoked resentment e.g. the shooting women during a demonstration against British administration.
  3. a) Describe three factors that enabled the Allied Powers to win the

Second World War.

  1. i) Germany’s inability to effectively control her expansive territories

and some turned against her and fought along the Allies.

  1. ii) The USSR recovered from her losses rearmed and attacked Germany.

iii)       The allies had more supporters than the Axis powers who remained

four i.e. German, Bulgaria, Austria and Turkey.

  1. iv) S.A’s entry into the war on the side of Allies attack of Pearl Harbour.
  2. v) Germany’s forces were overstretched by fighting war in many fronts.
  3. vi) Allied forces had better arms than the Axis powers e.g. Atomic bombs.

vii)      A chief forces controlled N sea 4 blocked Germany.



  1. b) Explain the results of the Second World War.
  2. i) Many lives were lost. It is estimated that over 30 million people died

during the war.

  1. ii) The bombs that were dropped on Japan released radio-active substances

which affected the lives of many long after the war was over.

iii)       Civilian casualties were mainly through bombings. Millions of other people were maimed/injured.

  1. iv) Properties of unknown value were destroyed. This adversely affected

the economics of most countries.

  1. v) Agriculture and industry were disrupted due to lack of equipment,

raw materials and human resources.

  1. vi) Trade, both internal and external was disrupted.

vii)      There was inadequate shelter food and clothing of many of the

homeless and displaced people e.g. the jaws.

viii)     The pre-war 1939 balance of power was destroyed as the tow new super powers, the USA and the USSR  emerged;

  1. ix) It led to the spread of communication in Europe.
  2. x) The USA gave assistance to the weakened western powers to prevent them from mailing into communist hands. This assistance was in form of the marshal plan in which about US $ 7,000 Million was used.
  3. xi) The division of Europe into two opposing blocks led to the cold war which was accompanied by an arms peace.

xii)      It led to the establishment of the UN in place of the league of nations which had failed to maintain peace.

xiii)     German and its capital Berlin were divided into two capitalistic west and communist east.

xiv)     The war destroyed the myth of European military superiority. This strengthened nationalism in other parts of the war.

  1. xv) Was created bitter feelings & mistrust among the countries that fought in the war.

xvi)     Led to widespread unemployment

xvii)    Led to improvement of military technology.

xviii)   The war was costly / Economic depression – huge sums of money was spent.

xix)     Creation of state of the settle the Jews.

  1. a) Describe the functions of the president of the United States of

America (USA)

  1. i) The president is the head of state
  2. ii) He appoints cabinet ministers and senior civil servants with approval of the congress.

iii)       He guides and controls foreign affairs / chief diplomat.

  1. iv) He is the commander in chief of the Armed Forces.
  2. v) He presides over the senate
  3. vi) He presides cabinet meetings.

vii)      He appoints the Supreme Court judges including the chief justice.

viii)     The president is head of government.

  1. b) Explain how they system of government of the USA
  2. i) It is a external system of government consisting of 50 states.
  3. ii) Each state is a republic with its own government.

iii)       Each state is headed by a governor.

  1. iv) Each state has its own constitution guiding internal affairs.
  2. v) The federal government is headed by president who is

elected every four years / subject to a maximum of 2 terms.

  1. vi) The president is assisted by the vice – president who can take over in case the president dies.

vii)      The federal government has bicameral legislature / congress

made   up to tow houses. The senate and the House of Representatives.

viii)     Members of the congress are elected by popular vote / each represented in the congress.

  1. ix) The congress makes laws.
  2. x) State judiciary comprises of the federal courts and the Supreme court.
  3. xi) The Supreme Court is the highest court.

xii)      There is separation of powers between the legislation and judiciary.

xiii)     The federal five controls foreign affairs defense trade, Taxation issuing currently, and solving disputes between states and citizens of different states.

xiv)     The congress checks on owners.




  1. State two disadvantages of relying on oral traditions as a source of history.
  2. i) People’s ability to remember facts is limited.
  3. ii) The information may be subjected to distortions.

iii)       It is likely to have people biases / exaggerations.

  1. iv) The information may change over a period of time.

Any 1 x 1 = (1 marks)


  1. Give one way in which the knowledge of iron working helped in the

migration of the Bantu.

  1. i) It enabled them to clear their way as they moved.
  2. ii) Their superior weapons enabled them to defeat their enemies.

iii)       They were able to grow enough food crops to sustain them.

Any 1 x 1 = (1mks)


  1. State one reason why the government may limit the freedom of speech.
  2. i) If one’s speech incites the public against the state.
  3. ii) If one discloses confidential information relating to the state.

iii)       If one spreads false information about the state / individual.

Any 1 x 1 = ( 1mks)

  1. Identify one way in which the Monsoon winds led to the development of trade between the Kenyan Coast and the outside world.
  2. i) They facilitated the movement of goods to and from the Kenyan Coast / dhows.
  3. ii) They facilitated the movement of traders who established themselves along the Kenyan coast.

Any 1 x 1 = (1marks)

  1. State three economic benefits of the Omani rule along the Kenyan Coast during the nineteenth century.
  2. i) It led to the expansion of trade between Kenya and Arabia.
  3. ii) The stations were centres of learning / schools where learners /

catechists were preached to.

iii)       They served as health centres / hospital where the sick were preached to.

  1. iv) The missionaries mixed freely with the people thus converted them

to Christianity .

Any 3 x 1 = (3mks)

  1. State two ways through which mission station promoted the spread of Christianity in Kenya.
  2. i) The needy found homes and thus they were converted

(ii)       The stations were centres of learning / schools were learners/ catechists

were preached to

(iii)      They served as health centres / hospital where the sick were preached to.

(iv)      The missionaries mixed freely with the people thus converted them to



  1. Give one way in which rural to rural migration in Kenya contributes to

national unity.

  1. i) It promotes inter ethnic integration.
  2. ii) It promotes peaceful coexistence/ harmonious living between

different communities .

Any 1 x1 = (1mks)

8          State two ways in which the colonial land policies in Kenya undermined African farming.

  1. i) Setting aside the white highlands for European settlement deprived

the Africans of rich agricultural land.

  1. ii) Confining Africans to the reserves created shortage of land for

farming due to over crowding.

iii)       Declaring some of the land as crown land denied the African the access

to its use.                                                                    Any 2 x 1 = (2mks)

  1. State 2 demand of Kenya Africa Union – KAU made to the colonial government in 1952.
  2. i) They demanded for self rule.
  3. ii) The release of African political detainees.

iii)       They wanted / demanded fair – distribution of land to all.

  1. iv) They demanded for fair political representation for Africans in the

legislative council.

  1. v) They wanted improved education for Africans.
  2. vi) Demanded abolition of taxes.

vii)      Demanded abolition of kipande system.

viii)     They demanded end of forced labour.

Any 2 x 1 = (2mks)

  1. Give two reasons why independent schools were established in Kenya.
  2. i) To give Africans children more opportunities for formal education.
  3. ii) To preserve the African cultural identity.

iii)       To facilitate introduction of a more academic curriculum for

Africans / quality education.

  1. iv) To provide job opportunities for African teachers.
  2. v) To address discrimination in the education system.

Any 2 x 1 = (2 mks)

  1. State two provisions of the Independent Constitution of Kenya.
  2. i) It provided for federal government
  3. ii) It provision for an executive president.

iii)       To made provision for an executive president.

  1. iv) It made provisions for two houses of parliament.
  2. v) The interest of the minorities were to be safeguarded.

Any 1 x 1 = (1 mks)

  1. Give one way in which a person may become a member of Parliament in Kenya.
  2. i) Through election
  3. ii) Through nomination

iii)       Through holding ex –officio office.

Any 1×1 = ( 1mks)

  1. State one contribution of the ‘Harambee” movement to the development of Health Services in Kenya.
  2. i) It has led to the contribution of building health centres / hospital
  3. ii) It has mobilized people to contribute money for purchasing drugs

for the needy.

iii)       Money contributed through harambee has enabled sick people to seek for specialized treatment within and outside the country.

  1. iv) It has motivated some medical personnel to offer free medical services to the people.

Any 1 x 1 – (1mks)

  1. Give two reasons why District Focus for Rural Development was adopted as a development strategy in Kenya.
  2. i) To help in co-coordinating development efforts in district.
  3. ii) To mobilize resources in each district for development.

iii)       To facilitate prioritization of individual district needs.

  1. iv) To hasten development of under developed district
  2. v) Facilitate even distribution of natural wealth resources.
  3. vi) To minimize delays caused by Central Government.

Any 2 x 1 = (2 mks)

  1. Give two factors which may undermine the effectiveness of the traffic police in Kenya.
  2. i) Large numbers of vehicle on the roads.
  3. ii) Poor conditions of many vehicles

iii)       Poor remunerations.

  1. iv) Corruption / bribery
  2. v) Lack of public support / confidence
  3. vi) Inadequate facilities (e.g. vehicles)

vii)      Poor conditions or roads.

Any 2 x 1 = (2mks)


SECTION B (45 marks)


16.a)    Outline stages in the Portuguese conquest of the coastal towns up to 1510

  1. i) In 1500 Podro Alvares Cabral conquered Sofala.
  2. ii) In 1502 Vasco Da Gama attached the town of Kilwa and demanded tribute.

iii)       In 1503 Zanzibar and other Coastal towns were conquered by Ruy Lourenco Ravasco.

  1. iv) In 1505 Mombasa and Kilwa were conquered by Francisco D’ Almaida.
  2. v) Between 1506 – 7 Lamu was conquered by Tristao da Cunha.
  3. vi) 1509 Mafia, Pemba and Zanzibar were brought under Portuguese ruling.

Any 3x 1 (3mks).


  1. b) Explain six factors that led to the decline of the Portuguese rule over the Kenyan coast.
  2. i) The decline of the Indian Ocean trade denied them revenue to

support their

  1. ii) In Portuguese officials were corrupt and pocketed funds which would nave been used to manage the empire.

iii)       Portuguese officers were cruel / ruthless to the Africans and Arabs who resented them. And therefore did not co-operative.

  1. iv) There were constant rebellion against the Portuguese and his weakened the control.
  2. v) Combined attacks from Persians, Arabs and Turks proved formidable for the Portuguese.
  3. vi) The Portuguese faced stiff competition from the British and Dutch which reduced their profits.

vii)      The Portuguese had inadequate personnel to effectively manage the extensive coast.

viii)     Portugal lacked capital to pay the administrators at the coast and the demoralized them.

  1. ix) The Portuguese lacked administrative skills were unable to a correctively.
  2. x) Portugal was forcefully united with Spain and this reduced her autonomy.
  3. xi) The Portuguese at the coast were attacked by Wazimba and this reduced their population.

xiii)     Distance from Portugal delayed reinforcement.

Any 6 x2 = (12mks)

  1. a) Give five reasons why Britain colonized Kenya.
  2. i) To establish their control over the source of River Nile because of

their interests in Egypt.

  1. ii) To help stop slave trade in the region and replace it with legitimate trade.

iii)       To protect their missionaries who were already in Kenya so that

they could carry out their missionary work/ spread of Western civilization.

  1. iv) To establish a reliable market for their manufactured goods in Britain.
  2. v) For prestige
  3. vi) To ensure settlements for surplus population.

vii)      To invest surplus / excess capital

viii)     To secure sources of raw materials.

  1. ix) To prevent colonization of Kenya by other powers.

Any 5 x 2 = (10mks)

  1. b) Explain why Kenya communities were defeated by the British during

the establishment of colonial rule.

  1. i) The communities were not united hence they were easily defeated.
  2. ii) The communities had inferior weapons as compared to the superior British weapons.

iii)       The soldiers had little knowledge about the British military tactics.

  1. iv) Their population had been weakened / reduced by catastrophe such as famine and rinder pest and civil strife.
  2. v) Their leaders lacked adequate organizational sills to mobilizing the people.
  3. vi) The British used treachery when dealing with come communities / collaboration.

vii)      The economic base of the communities was destroyed by the British thus making them weak.

viii)     The solders were demoralized when many warriors were captured / skilled (e.g. Aembu and Ameru in 1906/ scotched earth policy.

  1. ix) The Kenya – Uganda Railway facilitated the faster movement of British troops.

Any 5 x 2 = (10mks)

  1. a) State three ways through which communities in Kenya interacted

during the pre – colonial period.

  1. i) Communities exchanged goods through trade.
  2. ii) They raided each other for livestock

iii)       They fought wars with each other.

  1. iv) They inter – married

Any 3 x 1 = (3mks)

  1. b) Describe the social organization of the Agikuyu during the

Pre – colonial period. (12mks)

  1. i) The smallest social unit was the family.
  2. ii) Several related families formed a clan (mbari) which lived in a defined area.

iii)       The Agikuyu practiced circumcision for boys and clictoridectomy for girls.

  1. iv) The Agikuyu had age – set system (riika) made up of boys and girls who were initiated at the same period.
  2. v) Members of the age set worked together and considered each other as brothers and sisters.
  3. vi) Marriage was highly regarded among the Agikuyu as one would raise a family and also own properties.

vii)      The Agikuyu believed in the existence of a supreme God called Ngai who lived on Mount Kenya (Kirinyaga)

viii)     The Agikuyu had prayed and made sacrifices to God on various occasions.

  1. ix) The Agikuyu also believed in the existence of ancestral spirit who acted as intermediaries between God and the people.
  2. x) The Agikuyu had sacred places of worship such as groves and fig trees.
  3. xi) The Agikuyu had some specialists such as prophets, medicine people and rainmakers who were consulted in time of need.

Any 6 x 2 = (12mks)

  1. a) What factors led to the development of multi party democracy in Kenya

in the early 1990’s (3mks)

  1. i) International pressure on the government for democracy reforms.
  2. ii) Pressure from individuals who had been expelled from KANU

without political alternatives.

iii)       Existence of people who were ready to push democratic agenda ahead.

  1. iv) Introduction of multi party democracy in other African countries.
  2. v) Disconnected within KANU.

Any 3 x 1 = (3 Marks).




  1. b) Explain how the existence of many parties had promoted democracy in Kenya.
  2. i) It had promoted freedom of association by providing alternative parties for people
  3. ii) It has provided people with a forum to express their views about how a country should be managed.

iii)       It had made the government more accountable to the people through constant criticism.

  1. iv) It has provided checks and balanced to abuse and misuse of powers by leaders.
  2. v) It has provided system of scrutinizing government expenditure through public .Accounts Committee and Public Investment Committee.
  3. vi) It had made people feel free to contribute ideas to any aspect of development in the country without feeling intimidated.

vii)      It has enabled people who wish to form political parties to go ahead and do so.                                                                               Any 6 x 2 = (3 mks)


SECTION C (30 marks)


  1. a) What is the composition of the cabinet in Kenya? (3 mks)
  2. i) The president
  3. ii) Vice President

iii)       Ministers

  1. iv) Head of civil service / Secretary to the cabinet
  2. v) The Attorney General.

Any 3 x 1 = (3marks)

  1. b) Explain six functions of the cabinet in Kenya ( 12mks)
  2. i) To formulate national and foreign policy to guide the country.
  3. ii) To advice the president on issues of national development related

to ministries.

iii)       To supervise the implementation of government policies by respective ministries.

  1. iv) To initiate / approve government bills for discussion by parliament.

vii)      To discuss important national and international issues.

viii)     To defend (Collectively ) government policies.

Any 6 x2 = ( 12mks)

  1. a) Identify threes types of taxes paid by Kenyans to the government.
  2. i) Service charge that is paid directly through deductions form salaries.
  3. ii) Income tax which is paid by every employed person through

monthly deductions.

iii)       Withholding tax which is deducted from the interest earned on investment.

  1. iv) Custom duties imposed on goods that come into Kenya / Airport tax.
  2. v) Excise duty levied goods produced within the country.
  3. vi) Sales tax paid by people for things that they buy form shops /

value added tax. (VAT)

Any 3 x1 = ( 3mks)

  1. b) Explain six ways in which the government of Kenya uses its revenue.
  2. i) Revenue is used to maintain government facilities such as roads

and buildings.

  1. ii) It is used to initiate new developments / projects by the government (e.g. constructing new roads, constructing government offices.

iii)       It is used to subsidize public services (e.g. Health, education)

  1. iv) It is used to finance recurrent government expenditures such as paying of salaries for civil servants.
  2. v) It is used to service loans that have been borrowed by the government for development.
  3. vi) It is used to pay subscription to international bodies / organizations e.g. OAU, UN and PTA)

vii)      It is used to finances security expenditure by the government such as training soldiers, paying body guards and buying arms.

viii)     It is used to meet any emergency needs that may arise (e.g. due to floods, outbreaks of diseases.)

  1. ix) It is used to assist countries that may experience emergencies (e.g. natural disasters) Any 6 x 2 = (12 marks)
  2. a) Describe five demands made by trade unionists in Kenya during

the colonial period.

  1. i) They called for removal of social discrimination in places of work.
  2. ii) They demanded same job opportunities with European.

iii)       They demanded better wages.

  1. iv) They demanded for reduction of working hours.
  2. v) They advocated for the abolition of repressive and discriminatory

labour laws.

  1. vi) They demanded for the equal wages for equal work done by people

of different races.

vii)      They demanded for the release of their leaders who had been arrested during the strike and demonstrations.                                   Any 5 x 1 = ( 5mks)

  1. b) Explain the contributions of the trade union movement in the struggle for independence.
  2. i) Mobilized workers against the colonial government by use of strikes.
  3. ii) It brought together workers / people from all parts of the country thus promoting the spirit of nationalism.

iii)       The union leaders traveled to all parts of the country to mobilize workers support for the nationalist struggle.

  1. iv) It motivated workers to sustain the struggle for their political rights/ self governance.
  2. v) Trade union leaders worked together with nationalists / political parties.
  3. vi) Trade Union became the vehicle / voice through which nationalists ideas / protests were channeled, especially after the state of emergency was declared.

vii)      Trade Union leaders became prominent members of political associations that fought for independence (e.g. T.J. Mboya, Fred Kubai)

Any 5 x 2 = (10mks)




  1. Identify two ways in which early man used stone tools.


(i)        For protection against enemies/weapons

(ii)       For hunting and gathering

  • For digging up roots
  • For constructing shelter/caves
  • Skinning/scaping/peeling
  • Cutting/chopping
  • Sewing
  • Making containers
  • Sharpening


  1. Give two factors that influence the growth of early urban centers in Africa.
    • They developed as a result of trade.
    • They developed in areas which could be easily defended /security
    • They developed as centers of agriculture /food/fertile soils
    • They developed areas where water was available
    • They develop centers of government /administration
    • They developed in areas where water was available
    • Mining /Industry
    • Religion/Cultural centers
    • Education centers
    • Ports/harbours Any 2×1 =2marks
  2. State two disadvantages of using coal as a source of industrial energy.
    • It is bulky and difficult to transport
    • It is a health hazard/pollutes environments
    • It is difficult/expensive to mine
    • It causes environmental degradation
    • It is not renewable/easily exhaustible
    • It is not readily available/widely available

Any 2×1=2mks

  1. Identify one advantage of barter as a system of exchange in the trans-Saharan trade.
    • It facilitated trade between communities
    • It enabled people to acquire the commodities that they needed
    • It enable some people to determine the value of their commodities

Any 1×1=1mk

  1. Give two ways in which the Agrarian Revolution contributed to European expansion to Africa.
    • They were looking for markets for their manufactured goods.
    • They wanted raw materials for their industries
    • They wanted to invest their surplus capitals
    • They wanted to settle their excess population

Any 2×1 =2mks

  1. Identify two ways in which Industrial Revolution contributed to European expansion to Africa.
    • They were looking for markets for their manufactured goods.
    • They wanted raw materials for their industries
    • They wanted to invest their surplus capitals
    • They wanted to settle their excess population

Any 2×1=2mks)

  1. State one reason why International Trade Agreements are signed.
    • To regulate trade between members state/remove restrictions on trade
    • To help guard against exploitation of weaker members/reduce gap
    • To check monopoly of trade
    • To standardize prices
    • To regulate for improvement of trade

Any 1×1 =1mk

  1. State two religious practices of the ancient Egyptians.
    • They preserved the bodies of the dead
    • They worshipped many god/polytheism
    • They worshipped in temples
    • Priests acted as intermediaries between the pople and God /conducted religious ceremonies
    • They offered sacrifices to the gods
    • Buried their kings with their treasure/festivals

Any 2×1=2mks

  1. State two similarities between the Buganda and the Ndebele systems of government in 19th
    • Both systems were centralized
    • They ruled by hereditary monarchs/kings/kingship was hereditary
    • They had a strong standing army
    • Their king had absolute powers/chief judge/religions leader/appointed administration leaders.
    • Ruled by kings
    • Commandant chief Any 2×1 = 2mks
  2. Identify one way in which African reacted to European colonization of Africa
    • Armed resistance/revolting
    • Collaboration/signing treaties Any 1×1 =1mk
  3. State one way through which the European maintained peace among themselves during the partition of Africa.
    • By signing treaties among themselves/agreements
    • By organizing the Berlin Conference to lay down the guiding principles of the partition/recognize spheres of influence.
  4. Name two main political challenges that have faced the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence.
    • Political instability/military coup etdetats
    • Ethnic differerences/tribal clashes.
    • Succession
    • Civil Wars
    • Political assassinations
    • Foreign interference/intrigues
    • Mutiny in the army

Any 2×1=marks

  1. Give one function of the monarchy in Britain
    • Is the head of the state
    • Summons a new
    • Approves the bill
    • Confers honours to citizens who have excelled
    • Invites the leader of the ruling party to form government
    • Heads the Commonwealth of nations
    • Gives opening speech/opens/closes parliament
    • Creates peers
    • Appoints arch-bishop/bishops
    • Commander in chief
    • Looks after foreign policy/enactment of treaties
    • Pardons judges
    • Appoints judges
    • Dissolves parliament

Any 1×1 =1mk

  1. State one advantage of a written constitution
    • It ensures consistency in application/practice/not easily disturbed
    • Permanent record/it provides a source of reference
    • It ensures the preservation of the constitution
    • It facilitates consistency in the amendments procedure

Any 1×1=1mk

  1. State two ways in which the treaty of Versailles signed in 1919 affected Germany
    • It reduced the size of Germany/reduction 12.5%
    • Germany was forbidden from uniting with Austria
    • Germany lost her colonies in Africa and other territories in Europe
    • The size of Germany’s military strength was restricted
    • Germany was forced to pay war damages

Any 2×1 =2mks.

  1. Identify one leader who was founder member of the Non-aligned movement
    • Broz Tito of Yugoslavia
    • Gamal Adbal Nasser of Egypt
    • Jawaharlal Pandit Nehru-premier India
    • Ahmed Surkano-premier Indonesia
    • Chuo En-lai of China-P.M. China

Any 2×1 = 2mks




  1. a) What were the advantages of the discovery of fire by the early man?

(i)        It enabled early man to cook food

(ii)       Fire was used to keep people warm

  • It was used to protect people against wild animals/security.
  • Fire was used to clear bushes to facilitate settlement
  • Fire was used for lighting at night
  • Fire was used to sharpen the tips of tools
  • Fire was used for hunting
  • Hardening pots
  • Extracting poison from plants
  • Communication

Any 3 points 1 mark=3mks

  • Explain six ways in which early agriculture changed the lives of early people.
  • Agriculture provided people with a steady source of food instead of depending on hunting and gathering
  • People were able to lead settled lives because of the availability of food
  • Availability of food enabled some people to specialize in skills such as crafts /local industries/division of labour
  • Production of excess agricultural products led to the development of trade between communities
  • It led to an increase in population as people had enough food to eat.
  • Concentration of people in settlements led to the development of early urban centres/growth of towns
  • People were able to build more permanent houses and this ensured their security.
  • It led to the development of social satisfaction/classes
  • Development of political systems/government

Any 6 points, 2 marks =12mks

  1. a) Give three development that have taken place in road transport systems

since 1950

(i)        Tarmac roads which are durable have been constructed

(ii)       Bridges have been constructed to facilitate travel on roads

(iii)      Roads have been straightened and widened to cater for the increasing volume of traffic

  • Dual carriage ways have been constructed to ease traffic congestion
  • Motorways have been constructed in developed countries for the exclusive use of wheels.
  • Construction of macadamensed roads

Any 3 points 1 mark = 3mks

  • Explain six ways through which the invention of the railway speeded up industrialization in Europe.
  • The invention of the railway facilitated transport of bulky and heavy raw materials to industries.
  • It eased and speeded up transportation of bulky manufactured goods to various markets in different parats of Europe
  • It facilitated the transportation of heavy industrial sources of energy to the industries, especially coal and firewood
  • If provided reliable and cheaper means of transport for workers to the

industries and thus enhanced their performance.

  • It facilitated interaction between towns and business people and thus promoted investment in industries
  • If facilitated the migration and settlement of people to new lands which became sources of raw materials
  • It opened up mining and farming in the interior of most countries
  • Facilitated transport of heavy machinery for installation in industries
  • Revenue from the railway in setting up industries


  1. (a) State three religious practices of the Yoruba
    • They worshipped many gods/ they were polytheists
    • They worshipped their god in shrines
    • They made sacrifices to their gods
    • They revered their ancestral spirits
    • They had priests and diviners who presided over religious ceremonies/ interpretation astronomy/ prediction of the future
    • They prayed to their gods twice a day
    • They gave offerings and poured libations
    • They performed social ceremonies e.g. marriage
    • They worshipped one supreme god

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)

(b) Explain six effects of Christian missionary activities on Africans

(i)        Many Africans were converted to Christianity and thus undermined their

traditional ways of worship

  • Africans acquired Western education which was offered in mission schools
  • Africans were trained as medical practitioners thus enabling them to offer medical services in mission hospitals/ health centers
  • Africans acquired new knowledge and skills in agriculture which boosted food  production
  • There developed disunity among the Africans which was based of differences in religious beliefs and practices/ denominational difference
  • They adopted new architectural designs which changed their styles of building
  • The teaching of the missionaries made the Africans too subservient to oppose European colonialism/ facilitated European colonization
  • Some Africans were oppose to the teachings of the missionaries, this led to the rise of independent schools and churches
  • Many Africans left their homes of live and work in mission stations
  • Helped stamp out slave trade/ slavery
  • Translated codified African languages
  • Africans were trained technical skills e.g. crafts and carpentry

Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks

  1. (a) Describe the organization of the Trans- Atlantic Trade

(i)        It operated between West Africa, the Americas and Europe/ it organized

in a triangular form

  • The European brought manufactured goods to West Africa and exchanged them with slaves
  • Slaves were sold at particular centers along the coast of West Africa
  • The slaves were stored in barracoons awaiting transportation
  • Famine due to neglect of farming during the war
  • The resistance inspired future nationalism in Guinea


  1. (a)       Give three reasons why the preferential Trade Area ( PTA) was formed

(i)        To promote trade among member states

(ii)       To establish a common market

  • To harmonize and co- ordinate development strategies, policies and plans within the region
  • To provide co-operation in monetary and financial affairs/  common curve
  • To establish institution which promote agricultural and  industrial development/ economic co- operation
  • Eliminate tariffs of non- tariff barners

(Any 3 points, 1 mk    = 3 mks)

  • Explain six challenges which Tanzania has faced since independence
  • Economic hardship/ lack of finances for funding development programmes
  • Frequent drought/ famine which cause suffering to the people and eat into the already weak economy/ harsh climate  conditions
  • Hostile neighbours especially Uganda during the time of Idi Amin and  Kenya as a result of the closure  of common border in 1977
  • The collapse of East African Community/ unstable union among the countries of East Africa
  • The collapse of Ujamaa as a development strategy undermined the confidence of the leaders
  • General poverty of the masses and the government’s inability to solve the problem
  • Poor transport and communication network within the country
  • Political instability especially Zanzibar’s desire to break away
  • Corruption and inefficiency in the running of the state co-operations which  has led to low  production

(Any 6 points, 2 mks = 12 mks


  1. (a) What are the features  of  state government in the United States of


  • They have a governor who is the administrative head
  • Each state has Law Courts that handle internal affairs
  • Each state has its own social amenities e.g Education, Health, public Network
  • Each state is responsible for its own development
  • Each state has its own capital
  • Each state generates its own revenue
  • Each state has state legislatures to pass state
  • Each state has a bi- cameral legislature
  • Each state has state police to maintain
  • Inflation/ divination of currency
  • Army mutiny of 1964
  • Universities students demo in 1966 due to government attempt to introduce compulsory
  • Huge external debt
  • Fall in major export prices
  • Terrorist threat


  • What were results of the Trans- Atlantic Trade in West Africa?
  • It led to the displacement of many people who were sold as slaves to the Americas
  • It led to the permanent separation of families
  • It led to the depopulation of West Africa
  • It intensified conflicts and wars between communities
  • It led to the introduction of manufactured goods to West Africa
  • It caused untold suffering/ misery
  • It led to the emergence of a class of rich traders/ merchants
  • It led to the emergence of some kingdom
  • It led to the decline of some states / kingdom as conflicts between  states intensified in the region
  • It led to loss of life
  • It led to destruction of  property
  • It led to a decline in agriculture
  • Some communities were weakened and therefore  could not resist the establishment of colonial rule
  • There was a change in social roles as women became heads  of families
  • Local industries declined because of the  influx of cheap  manufactured goods
  • Decline of trans- Saharan Trade
  • Abuse of power  by  lenders who  sold their  suspects as slaves
  • Led to urbanization
  • Opened to the outside world, hence colonization
  • It created insecurity in the region

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) Give three reasons why Samori Toure  resisted French colonization in


  • He wanted the mandika to retain their independence
  • He wanted to safeguard Islam from Christian influence/ he was fighting  a holy war
  • He wanted to preserve the  Mandinka culture
  • He wanted to protect the Mandinka land from European occupation
  • He wanted to protect the economic resources of gold mines
  • He wanted to retain his authority


  • Explain six results of Samori Toure’s resistance against French occupation between 1882 – 1896
  • Malinke kingdom disintegrated / loss of independence
  • Property destroyed through scorch- early policy
  • Malinke people fled to other countries such as Ghana, Ivory coast to avoid colonization by the French
  • Many people lost their lives due to prolonged war
  • Samori was captured and exiled Gabon in 1898
  • Economic activities of the Malinke was disrupted/ decline of trade and mining of the Malinke
  • Influx of refugees

(Any 3 points, 1 mk    = 3 mks)


  • Explain six functions of the federal government of the U.S.A
  • It regulates trade between the states
  • It controls/ regulates trade between states and foreign countries
  • It authorizes the printing and circulation  of currency
  • It declares war and makes  peace with other countries  of the  world
  • It formulates foreign policies involving the U.S.A  and other countries
  • It regulates taxation within U.S.A
  • It establishes federal postal services in U.S.A
  • It passes federal laws
  • It establishes federal courts
  • It establishes federal armed/ defense forces
  • It admits new states in the Union

(Any six points, 2 mks           = 12 mks)





  1. (i) Through trade

(ii)       They intermarried/ marriage

  • Through raids for livestock
  • They fought wars with each other
  • Sports e.g. wrestling ( 2 mks)


  1. (i) external attacks

(ii)       Internal conflicts

  • Drought/ famine/ water
  • Pasture (2 mks)


  1. (i) He presided over  religious ceremonies

(ii)       Her advised the council of Elders  political head of  Maasai

  • He blessed warriors before they undertook raids
  • He foretold future events/ acted as a prophet
  • He administered justice ( 2 mks)


  1. (i) The monsoon winds  enabled the early visitors to travel to and from the


  • The advancement in boats and ship building technology led to making of stronger  vessels
  • Availability of Trade goods ( 1 mk)


  1. (i) They signed  treaties/ agreements/ diplomacy

(ii)       They collaborated with some influential Africans rulers

  • They constructed operational bases from where they spread/ sue of force.

( 2 mks)


  1. (i) It was organized along racial line/ discrimination    ( 1 mk)


  1. (i) They supplied food to the freedom fighters

(ii)       They supplied information to the freedom fighters

  • They gave moral support to the freedom fighters

( 1 mk)

  1. (i) They aroused political awareness among the people

(ii)       They organized social activities e.g. sports and games, burial, medical


  • They sponsored students to study abroad/ provided education


  1. (i) Creation of African reserves led to overcrowding forcing Africans to work

in the settler farms.

  • Declaring some of lands as crown  lands denying the Africans the access of its use                                                  ( 1 mk)


  1. (i) They wanted Mzee Kenyatta to be released from detention

( 1 mk)

  1. (i) The constitution provided  for six regional government/ federal system

( 1mk)

  1. (i) They demanded for more election of members of the Legislature Council

(ii)       They demanded universal suffrage/ frachise

  • They demanded for an end to the state of emergency
  • They demanded that Kenya highland to open to all races ( 2 mks)


  1. (i) The death of Josiah Mwangi Kariuki

(ii)       The death of the founding father of the nation Mzee Jomo Kenyatta

  • The attempt to change the constitution by some politicians

( 2 mks)

  1. (i) Mismanagement of member’s fund/ corruption

(ii)       Employment of unqualified personnel/ nepotism

  • Political interference in the management of the societies
  • Poor economic base
  • Unbinding by laws ( 2 mks)


  1. – Parliament/ legislature/National assembly ( 1mk)


  1. (i) To interpret laws

(ii) To dispense justice/ implement laws                  ( 1mk)


  1. – Public Service Commission/ president ( 1 mk)



  1. (a)

(i)        There was an increase in population thus the need for land for settlement

(ii)       They were looking for land for cultivation

  • They needed land for grazing/ pasture
  • Internal conflicts forced them to migrate
  • They were attacked by neighbouring communities/ external attacks
  • Outbreak of diseases led to migration/ outbreak of epidemics
  • They  migrated due to drought  and  famine
  • Some people migrated for the sake of adventure ( 5 x 1 = 5 mks)



(i)        The basis political units was the clan

(ii)       The clan was ruled by clan elders/ council of elders

  • The Akamba society was divided  into various age- grade  and  age- sets
  • The lowest age- grade was that of junior elders who defeated the community/ warriors
  • The next in rank was the elders who  presided over minor cases
  • Full elders  presided over the  major  cases/ council  of  elders  settled  disputes
  • The retired advised senior elders on important  matters affecting  community
  • The Akamba had a decentralized system of government/ autonomous clans                                                                                    ( 5 x 2 = 10 mks)


  1. (a)

(i)        The climate in Zanzibar was pleasant as compared to Muscat which was

hot and dry throughout the year

  • The need to control the towns along the East African Coast more effectively
  • Zanzibar had a wide deep and well sheltered harbour in which ships could anchor
  • Zanzibar’s strategic position was convenient for trade with the mainland
  • Zanzibar had fertile solids for the cultivation of cloves
  • Zanzibar had clean and sweat water for drinking



(i)        Commercial relations between different Kenyan communities were established  strengthened

(ii)       It led to the rise of a class of wealthy Africans for example Kivoi, Mewendwa of Kitui and Karuri wa Gakure.

  • The local people developed a taste for imported goods such as clothes, brass, wire, guns  and gunpowder
  • It led to a decline in local craft and industry as the people preferred imported products/ decline in agriculture
  • It led to the intensification of the slave trade  which caused untold suffering to many communities/ depopulation
  • The Interior of Kenya was opened up the  foreigners
  • Islam and Swahili culture were spread into interior by traders
  • New crops introduced into the interior from  the  coast ( cassava, maize, guvas)
  • The trade led to development of growth of the urban centers in Kenya
  • It led to intermarriages between communities. ( 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a)

(i)        They wanted to preserve their  independence

(ii)       They wanted to  preserve  their  culture

  • They were influenced by their leader (Orkoyiot Kimonyole, Arap Koitalel) prophecy about along  snake which would bring strangers to take  their land
  • The military superiority over their neighbours encouraged them to attack the British/ trespass by  foreigners was resented
  • They had  deep hatred for foreigners
  • They wanted to protect their land/ wealth
  • They hated their skin colour and mode  dress/ saw whites as evil

5 x 1 = 5 mks)


(i)        The use of a well trained, experienced and disciplined army which enabled

them to face the British army with confidence

  • The ability to make their own weapons which ensured constant supply during the war
  • The forested and hilly terrain which made it difficult for the British soldiers to move swiftly
  • The prevalence of tropical diseases reduced the efficiency of the British army
  • The existence of the foresighted leaders among Nandi encouraged the warriors to continue fighting
  • The stable economic base enabled the Nandi to sustain their warriors during the war
  • The use of Guerrilla warfare made it difficult for the British to defeat the Nandi warriors with ease
  • The unity among the Nandi enabled them to sustain the resistance

5 x 2 = 10 mks


  1. (a)

(i)        Their land was alienated

(ii)       They were discriminated/ segregated on racial basis

  • The British introduced the Kipande system
  • They resented forced labour
  • They were against some policies such as de-stocking and soil conservation
  • They were taxed heavily
  • They were against cultural interference
  • They were paid low wage/ poor working conditions

5 x 1 = 5 mks)



(i)        They used armed struggle against colonial administration

(ii)       They organized strikes and boycotts as means of challenging the  colonial


  • They used trade unions to articulate the course of their struggle among the workers
  • They used their representations in the Legislative Council who pressurized Britain to grant independence to Kenya
  • They formed social organizations and political parties to press for change
  • They used mass media to mobilize the people and articulate their grievances
  • They used independent churches and schools to sensitize African about their political rights.
  • Africans sent petitions and delegations to the  governor and the colonial office in Landon/ international                      ( 5 x 2 = 10 mks)


  1. (a)

(i)        It is a constitution requirement

(ii)       To enable Kenyans to have a new government

  • To enable Kenyans to elect leaders of their choice
  • To enable Kenyans to remove the non- performing  leaders
  • To enable eligible Kenyans to exercise their democratic right of voting

(3 x 1 = 3 mks)



(i)        The death of a sitting Member of Parliament

(ii)       In the sitting member of parliament defects from the party sponsored him/

her to parliament

  • If a member of parliament is jailed for a term exceeding 12 months
  • Resignation of sitting Member of parliament
  • If a member is declared bankrupt by a court  of law
  • If the sitting member ceases to be a citizen  of Kenya
  • If the election results are nullified by the High Court
  • If the sitting  member is elected the speaker of the National Assembly
  • If a member misses eight consecutive  parliamentary  sittings without permission and the speaker declares the seat vacant
  • If a member sentenced to death
  • If a member is  proved to be insane              (6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a)

(i)        Tribalism encourage people to favour only those from their ethic groups

(ii)       People favour their relatives/ nepotism/. Corruption

  • Religious differences may lead to conflicts between individuals and even communities.
  • The unequal distribution of resources causes animosity between those who are favoured and those who are not favoured
  • Political wrangles


(i)        Allegations of rigging of the 1998 elections led to the discontent among the lowers

(ii)       KANU failed to listen to criticism and the critics were either suspended or expelled from the party

  • The influence from Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union led to the introduction of multy- party democracy
  • The end of the cold war brought a new wave of democracy which spread to Kenya
  • The vents which were taking place in Zambia in 1991 inspired advocates of multi- partiysm
  • The pressure from multi- party activists drawn from civil society, political and legal fraternity forced the government to change
  • The failure by the government to adopt all the recommendations which were forwarded by the public to the Saitoti Review Commission of 1990 led to the agitation for  multi- partysm
  • The pressure on the government from the  donor  community to democratize a  condition for  aid resumption made it to oblige
  • Repealing of section 2 (A)


  1. (a)

(i)        The defend the country from external aggression/ attack

(ii)       They assists the police in the maintenance of law and order/ internal


  • They provide emergency services during natural disasters such as uncontrollable fire, earthquake and floods
  • They assist in nation – building activities such as road and bridge constructions
  • They participate in international peace- keeping for maintenance of peace and security in areas ravage by war.
  • They provided entertainment during national functions

(5 x 1 = 5 mks)


(i)        Encourage co-operation between the police and the public in combating


  • Sensitizing/ educating the public on matters criminology/ criminal activities
  • Improving the social and economic conditions of the people in order to reduce the temptation to engage in criminal activities
  • The government should ensure that there is enforcement of the law
  • The terms and conditions of services for law enforcement agencies should be improved to motivate them to perform their diligently/ specialized training of anti- crime police force.
  • The law enforcement agencies should be equipped  with appropriate equipment for combating crime
  • Encouraging the people to lead a morally upright life.
  • Organizing effective regular police patrols/ increases of police.

(10 mks)






  1. (i) It provides information  on the origin of  human/ crandles/ earliest  human


  • It provides information on the people’s way of life
  • It helps people to locate historical sites
  • It provides information on the chronological order of historical events/ dating

Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. (i) It provides warmth

(ii)       It was used to scare animals/ security

  • It was used for cooking/ roasting/ preserving food
  • It was used for providing light
  • It was used for hardening tools/ pots
  • It was used for communication
  • It was used for hunting
  • It was used for extracting poison


  1. (i) To make  utensils

(ii)       To make ornaments/ decorations

  • To make weapons e.g. swords,  daggers, spears, chariots
  • To make tools e.g chisels, axes hoes. (2mks)
  • To make tools e.g. chisels, axes hoes.


  1. (i) They were centers of administration

(ii)       They were religious centers

  • They were commercial; centers
  • They residential for elders
  • They were educational centers

(Any 2×1= 2mks)

  1. (i) It is slow? time consuming

(ii)       It is tiring/tiresome

(iii)      It can not be used to carry bulky goods         Any 1×1=1mk


  1. (i) It led to less used of fuel

(ii)       Machines were able to operate efficiently/well/machines worked better

  • It enables/industries to be located far from the sources of energy.
  • It led to establishment of industries.

Any 2×1=2mks

  1. (i) The message is spoken/personal contact/feedback

(ii)       The message is direct/cannot distorted

(iii)      It is fast

Any 1×1=1mk



  1. (i) It provides direct link between Europe and Asia/Shortened the route to the


  • It promoted international Trade
  • It encourages the scramble for and colonization of Africa

Any 2×1=2mks.

  1. (i) Ideological differences among member states

(ii)       Poor infrastructure may hamper transportation of goods/poor transport network.

(iii)      Different strengths/values of currencies may skew trade activities/lack of common currency.

  • Creation allegiance to regional trade organizations by members states may reduce adherence.
  • Creation of tariffs by member states in order to safeguard domestic trade.
  • Differences between developed and developing countries/developed countries/dictate terms.
  • Political instabilities/civil wars/wars may interrupt trade relations

Any 2×2=2mks.

  1. (i) Ethiopia successfully defeated the Italians at Adowa in 1896/Ethopia

under Menelik II defeated Italians.


  1. (i) The missionary wanted to spread Christianity

(ii)       The European powers wanted to find homes for the excess population.

  • The desire to civilize Africans/to spread cultivation.
  • To avoid slave trade which was inhuman.


  1. (i) They collected taxes on behalf of the colonizers

(ii)       They solved minor disputes among Africans

  • They recruited labour for Europeans
  • They supervised communal work.
  • They interpreted government policy to the people.


  1. (i) It demanded that voting right be extended to all people

(ii)       It mobilized the people to oppose colonial rule/sensitized Africans about their rights.

  • It advocated for a unitary government
  1. Not uniting people

Any 1×1= 1 mk

  1. (i) To promote self reliance

(ii)       to build a socialist society/Ujumaa

  • To ensure equal distribution of resources
  • To nationalize means of production (Any 1×1 = 1mk


  1. (i) Through heredity/peerage

(ii)       By being nominated by the queen/Monarch/Knighted

(iii)      By holding a senior position if the Church of /England e.g. Arch Bishop of Canterbury.                                         Any 1×1=1mk

  1. (i) The coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev as head of the Soviet Union/Liberal

(ii)       Gorbachev’s policy of restructuring and openness/perestroika & Glashost.

  • The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and USSR.
  • American diplomatic effort to foster friendly co-existence with USSR.
  1. (i) To maintain peace and security in the world/prevent the occurrence of

another war.

(ii)       To develop friends relations among nations

(iii)      To promote economic and social development         (Any 2×1 = 2mks)




  1. (i) The need to supplement hunting and gathering which was tedious/need to

lead a settled life.

(ii)       The realization that some animals were social e.g. cat

  • The discovery that some crops took a short time to mature/presence of indigenous crops.
  • The diminishing/migration in number of wild animals made man to seek an alternative.
  • Climatic changes/natural which caused occasional calamities/poor fruits and root yields.
  • The development of improved tools which enabled effective cultivation of crops.
  • Population increase led to demand for food
  • For Security e.g. dog


  1. b) (i) Over dependence on cash crops has taken over land that would have been

used for cultivation of food crops.

(ii)       Adverse climatic changes such as drought and floods destroy crops/frost/earthquakes, landslides.

  • Some areas have infertile oils, which limit intensive cultivation
  • Rapid growth of population of population has overtaken the pace of food production.
  • Rural- urban migration has deprived the rural areas of a strong workforce
  • Poor infrastructure has increased the cost of farming discouraging farmers/hinders the marketing of goods/food distribution/increases farming costs.
  • Lack of capital to buy farm implements limits the amount of food that can

Produced /heavy foreign debts burden.

  • Poor farming methods lead to low yields
  • Prevalence to plant and animals diseases reduce food production/pests e.g. Ticks/tsetse fly/locust.
  • Destruction human activities have led to soil erosion resulting to poor yields.
  • The declining popularity of indigenous and dough-resistant crops has made farmers not to produce them/selecting eating habits discourage people from growing food they don’t like.
  • In some parts of the Third world countries political instability has created insecurity thus people are not able to engage in food production.
  • Over dependency on donations and foreign aid and hasn’t and people to be reluctant to grow food crops.
  • Poor implementation of food policies has led to inadequate food production/ poor government policies.
  • HIV/AIDS pandemic has reduced work force leading to low production.



(i)        They worshiped many Gods/deities/polytheists

(ii)       They built shrines/temples for worship

  • They made sacrifices/offerings to their gods.
  • They buried their dead with items for use in the next life
  • They decorated their temple with images of lesser gods.
  • They sung and danced during worship

Any 5×1=5mks

  1. b)

(i)        It was used to explain happening that they could not understand

(ii)       It taught moral values and provided a code of conduct

  • It gave hope and meaning to life
  • The sacred artwork and pictures have influenced modern works
  • Religion strengthened/promoted cultural unity/socialization
  • Region provided a special class of leaders e.g. priest/herbalists/medicine people
  • It brought harmony/peace.


  1. a)
  • Any power that had a claim over an area should occupy it effectively/development
  • All the participants were to end slavery and slave trade in their areas of occupation
  • Any power laid claim on an area in African had no notified the other so as to avoid conflict.
  • The European powers were to ensure that security of all Europeans within their areas of occupation was guaranteed.
  • The Niger, Congo and Zambezi rivers and their tributaries were declared free for navigation & commerce.
  • Congo was declared a Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.
  • Conflicts over boundaries were to be settled through negotiation


Any 5×1 =5mks




(i)        Boundaries demarcating spheres of influence were drawn.

(ii)       The European powers took control of areas where their trader/companies and missionaries had operate/ stated development, spherical of influence.

  • African communities sometimes found themselves split aprt by arbitary boundaries.
  • It led to the establishment of colonial rule/Africans lost their independence.
  • African interest
  • Some African resettled/against Europeans in entrenching their rule/collaboration.
  • Some African leader gained power and fame/were make paramount chiefs

Any 5×2=10mks

  1. (a)
  • They provided accommodation to the traders
  • They guided the traders across the desert
  • They provided food and water to the caravans
  • They guarded the traders security
  • They maintained the oasis.

Note: Not protected.

Any 3×1= 3mks


(i)        Towns/cities developed along the trade routes

(ii)       The wealth acquired from the trade was used to expand states such as Ghana and Mali.

  • Strong armies were formed due to the use of the horse as a means of transport.
  • A wealth class of merchants developed due to their involvement in the trade.
  • Berbers and Arabs from North African settled in Western Sudan and inter-married with the local people.
  • The people of Western Sudan became Muslims/adopted Islamic culture.
  • School, libraries and Universities were established by Muslims scholars thus many people received formal education.
  • Arabic architectural designs were introduced in Western Sudan
  • Islamic Law /sheria was introduced in administration
  • Slave trading was encouraged
  • The introduction of foreign goods led to decline in locally manufactured goods
  • The Western Sudan was opened up to the rest of the world.

Any 6×2= 12 mks



  • a)
  • They were traders
  • They grew crops e.g. millet, bananas
  • They are iron monger/workers/blacksmiths
  • They practiced weaving
  • They practiced pottery
  • They kept livestock
  • They manufactured bark cloth
  • They were fishermen
  • They made boats/canoes
  • Practiced mining/hunting/gathering/beekeeping Any 3×1=3mks


(i)       Buganda was centralized state/Kinddom headed by the Kabaka

(ii)      The court was the final court of appeal

  • His court was the final court of appeal
  • The Kabaka was Commander in chief of the Army
  • There was a Prime Minister who assisted the Kabaka to run the government/Katikiro
  • There was a legislative body (Lukiko) which discussed important matters affecting the kingdom/Parliament.
  • There were minor chiefs in charge of clans, these were known as the Bataka.
  • The Kingdom was divided into countries called sazas headed by saza chiefs.
  • The countries were divided into sub-countries called Gombolola headed by a Muluka Chief
  • There was a standing army charged with responsibility of defending the kingdom and conquering more land.
  • Vassal states were governed by Batongoles who were appointed by the Kabaka.
  • There was a council of ministers which consisted of Katikiro (Prime minister) Omulamuzi (Chief justice) Any 6×2=12mks


  • The system of alliances encouraged European countries to be more aggressive
  • The defeat of France by Germany in the Franco-Russian War made France to look for n excuse to go to war/France wanted to revenge against Germany.
  • The arms race in Europe encouraged Countries to be more aggressive.
  • The disagreements between Britain, France and Germany over Morocco created tension/Moroccan crisis.
  • Nationalism in the Balkans fueled the already existing political rivalry in European/Many European powers quarreled because support for different Nationalities which wanted independence from turkey.
  • Dissatisfaction during the sharing of colonies at the Berlin Conference created distrust among the European powers/Europeans imperialism
  • The assassination by Garlilo Principal of the Austro-Hungarian heir Frencz Ferdinand at Sarajevo sparked the war.


(i)        Many people were killed during the war

(ii)       Property of great value was destroyed during the course of the war

  • Economic activities were disrupted/Economic depression
  • Large sums of money was used in the war effort weakened European Economics.
  • The League of Nations was formed to promote peace over by the League of Nations.
  • German’s overseas colonies and investments were taken over by the League of Nations
  • The size of Germany was reduced by 1/8 Alsace, Loraine, Danzing, Sarar and her population by 6.5 million.
  • Many people were displaced leading to refugee problems
  • The political boundary of the Turkish Empire was reduced/ t lost Egypt, Syria and Palestine.
  • New Nations were created e.g Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.
  • The USA emerged as a leading world power
  • It led to the development of advanced military equipment
  • It led to the rise of nationalistic feelings among Africans who fought the war
  • It boosted advancement of surgery
  • Soldiers contracted and spread diseases
  • Germany and her allies were forced to pay for damages 6.5 b/136T Dutshemark
  • Led to mass starvation Any 5×2 = 10mks
  1. (a)
    • It discusses urgent and important matters
    • It prepares the agenda of the meeting of Heads of States and governments.
    • It implements decisions, which are passed by Heads of States and Governments
    • It prepares a budget of the OAU for approval by Heads of States and Governments.


(i)        It contributed to the Liberation of African states from European Colonial Rule

(ii)       It has provided cultural interaction e.g games among members of state

  • It has promoted economic co-operation among member states e.g encouraged regional economic groups such COMESA and ECOWAS, SADC, PTA
  • It has promoted always and road transport links in Africa.
  • It has provided members states with a forum to discuss issues of common interest
  • It has provided funds for activities in African development Bank (ADB)
  • It has promoted friendly ties among members states, through annual meeting of Heads of States and Governments.
  • It has enabled African states with one voice at international for a.
  • It has provided material support for refugees in Africa.
  • It has condemned violation of human rights in Africa.
  • It has solved boarder disputes e.g. between Morocco and Algeria.


  • Olorgesaille
  • Kariandusi
  • Fort Ternan
  • Koobi For a/TURKANA
  • Hyrax Hill.

Any 2×1 = (2mks)

  1. Identify the main economic activity of the Plain Nilotes during the pre-colonial period.

-pastoralism/livestock keeping


  1. Name one community in Kenya which played a leading role in the long distance trade.
  • Akamba
  • Agiriama (MIJIKENDA)

Any 1×1=(1mk)

  1. Identify one community in Kenya which had a centralized system of government during the pre-colonial period

Abangwa of the Abaluhyia                                         1×1= (1mk)


  1. Give two evidences which show the Chinese traders reached the Kenyan coast before 1500 AD.
  • Remains of Chinese coins
  • Fragments of Chinese pottery/Fossils/Artifacts
  • Information in the periplus of the Eritrean sea.

Any 2×1 = (2mks)

  1. State the main reason for the coming of the Portuguese.
  2. Identify two sources of government revenue in Kenya.
  • Taxes/Custom duties
  • Loans
  • Donations/grants in aid
  • Licences/fees/rates/rents
  • Fines Any 2×1= (2mks)
  1. Name two officers of a municipal council who are appointed by the Public Service Commission. (2mks)
  • The town clerk
  • The Treasurer
  • The Medical Officer of Health
  • The Engineer
  • Municipal Educator Officer Any 2×1=(2mks)
  1. What is the main function of the Civil Service in Kenya? (1mk)
  • To implement/carry out policies of the Government.



  1. Give one reason why parliament is regarded as supreme in Kenya (1mk)
  • Has power to pass a vote of no-confidence on government.
  • Is the highest law-masking body
  • Can alter the amend Constitution.
  • Has power to declare War and a state of emergency
  • General material Revenue and Expenditure

Any 1×1=(1mk)

  1. Give one way in which the constitution of Kenya guarantees the rule of law.
  • Everybody is equal before the law.
  • A suspect is assumed innocent until proven guilty in a court of law.
  • A suspect is given opportunity to defend himself/herself in court of law.

Any 1×1 =(1mk)

  1. State two contributions of parastals to the economic development of Kenya.
  • They provide employment opportunities.
  1. State two problems which the Imperial British East African Company faced in the administration of the Protectorate.
  • Shortage of funds
  • Problem of transportation
  • Poor coordination from the colonial office in London
  • In-experienced administrators
  • Shortage of personnel
  • Lack of knowledge of the area
  • Hostility

Any 2×1 = (2mks)

  1. Name the treaty which marked the colonial spheres of influence in East African in 1886.

Anglo-Germany agreement.

1×1= (1mk)

  1. State two grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association (KCA) against the colonial government in Kenya.
  • Racial discrimination
  • African representation in the Legco
  • The Kipande system
  • They were against taxation
  • Forced labour
  • Demanded the release of Harry Thuku
  • Land problem
  • Cultural Issues

Any 2×1=2mks)

  1. What was the main result of the Devonshire White Paper of 1923?

In case of conflict of interests between immigrant races and Africans those of Africans should be paramount.





  1. Name two African leaders who were detained in 1952 at the declaration of a State of Emergency.
  • Jomo Kenyatta
  • Bildad Kagia
  • Fred Kubai
  • Paul Ngei
  • Achieng Oneko
  • Kungu Karumba


  • They generate revenue for the government
  • Some provide loans for domestic investment
  • Some provide specific services to the residents e.g.

Any 2×1= (2mks)




  1. (a) Give five reasons which led to the migration of the Cushites from their

original homeland into Kenya during the pre-colonial period?

(i)        They moved in search for pasture and water for their livestock.

(ii)       There was drought and famine in their original homeland.

  • There was outbreak of diseases and epidemics in their original homeland.
  • To escape from constant attacks from their neigbours/or external attacks
  • They moved in search of land for settlements as their population had increased.
  • They moved to know what was beyond the horizon/adventure.


(b) Explain five result of the inter action between the Bantu and the Cushites in the pre-colonial period.

  • Intermarriages which strengthened relationships between communities.
  • Some Bantu adopted Islam from the Cushites.
  • Some Bantu copied some customs of the Cushites such as circumcision and age set systems.
  • The Bantu and Cushites raided other for cattle which led to loss of property and lives/increased welfare.
  • Cushites attacked the Bantu which led to further migration (e.g. Orma/Orma Orma/Galla pushed the Eastern Bantu from Shungwaya)./Displacement
  • The cushites and the Bantu exchanged goods which led to the development of trade.
  • Some Cushites were absorbed/assimilated by the Bantu.

Any 5×2= (10mks)

  1. a) What were the reasons for the construction of Kenya-Uganda railway

during the colonial period?

(i)        To facilitate the movement of the troops to suppress resistances/pacification.

(ii)       To transport the administrators into the interior for effective control of British East Africa.

(iii)      To promote the development of legitimate trade/Abolish slave trade

  • To transport goods from interior to the coast (raw material) and manufactured goods from the coast.
  • The British wanted to exploit the resources in the interior

Any 3×1= (3mks)

  1. Explain six effects of the construction of the Kenya-Uganda railway.
  • It led to the emergence of towns along the railway line e.g. Voi, Nairobi.
  • It enabled people to travel to and from the interior to different destinations easily.
  • It encouraged the construction of feeder roads thus improving transportation in the interior.
  • It led to land alienation and establishment of settler plantations where different cash crops were grown/Displacement
  • It stimulated both internal and external trade./Development of trade.
  • It led to the Indian Coolies settling in Kenya/Introduction of India
  • It led to employment opportunities to many people in Kenya.
  • It provided revenue for the government.
  • It made it possible for the missionaries to spread Christianity into the interior/Led to opening of interior.
  • It enabled the government to administer more effectively /colonists.
  • It led to the alteration of the Kenya –Uganda branch


  1. a) State three methods which were used by the British to establish their rule

in Kenya.                                                                                (3mks)

  • They used military conquest to crash the resistances of African communities./Direct rule
  • They signed treaties of protection with some local leaders/collaboration.
  • They established administrative posts in the interior from where they controlled the protectorate effectively.
  • They tricked African leaders to give away their land.
  • They occupied areas that were previously under the imperial British East African company (IBEACo.) rule
  • They used missionaries to persuade Africans to accept authority.

Any 3×1= (3mks)

(b)       Describe the organization of the Central Government in Kenya during the colonial period.                                                                      (12mks)

(i)        The Central Government was headed by a Governor who represented the British Government.

(ii)       The Governor ensured the implementation of colonial policies.

(iii)      There was a legislative council which made laws for the colony

  • The laws were approved by the Governor
  • The colony was divided into provinces headed by provincial commissioner.
  • The provinces were divided into Districts headed by District Commissioners.
  • Divisions were divided into locations headed by African Chiefs.
  • Locations were divided into sub-locations headed by sub-chiefs.
  • The sub-locations were divided into villages headed by headman.
  • All administrators from the rank of the District Officer to Governor were British.
  • Divisions headed by the District Officers

Any 6×2= (12mks)


  1. (a) Why did the British use direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya?

(3 mks)

Most communities did not have centralized administrative systems therefore the British appointed chiefs

There were many ethnic groups with diverse social- cultural systems which made it difficult for the British to apply indirect rule

Most communities resisted British rule and so they had to be controlled directly.

There was an existing system of direct rule used by the imperial British East Africa company on which the British built their administration

Had enough administration administrators

Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b)       Explain six ways through which Ronald Ngala contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya ( 12 mks)

  • He advocated for equal living standards for all races in Kenya
  • He was a founder member of the Mijikenda Union formed in 1947, which

played an important role in the Mijikenda political awareness

  • As a member of the legislative council (Legco) he advocated for increased African representation
  • He organized many political rallies in coast province during which he demanded for the release of people who had been detained under emergency laws
  • As president of Kenya African Democratic Union ( KADU) he advocated for independence
  • As African elected members Organization (AEMO) he mediated between extremes and moderates to create unity.
  • As a leader to the Lancaster House Conference he participated in the drafting of the independence constitution
  • In 1961, Ngala as leader of KADU accepted to form a coaliation government with new Kenya Party so as not to delay the independence process.

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)








  1. (a) Identify three types of local authorities in Kenya

(i)        Municipal Councils

(ii)       Town councils

(iii)      Country councils

(iv)      Urban councils

(v)       City councils

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b)       Explain the relationship between the central and local government in


  • The local authorities operate the policy guidelines formulated by the central government.
  • The minister in charge of the government approves all the activities that the local government plan to undertake
  • All the councilors nominated by political parties into the local authorities are approved by the minister of the local government.
  • All the by- laws made by the local authorities are approved by the minister before being implemented.
  • Records of all council meetings and business transactions are submitted to the Minister for verification and approval.
  • Any local authority which does not operate according to the guidelines of the central government can be dissolved by the minister
  • The minister for local government scrutinizes the annual reports of the local authorities to evaluate their performance
  • The minister appoints senior officials who sit in the local authorities meetings to give guidance on government policy.
  • The financial records of all local authorities are audited by the officers of the central government
  • Local authorities submit their loan applications and intended revenue sources to the central government through the minister of local government.
  • The central government gives grants/ financial aid to local authorities for their operations.
  1. (a)
  • The national flag
  • The national Anthem
  • The coat of arms
  • The loyalty pledge
  • The presidency
  • The constitution
  • The National language

Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)

(b)       Explain six factors which undermine National Unity in Kenya

(i)        Unequal distribution of natural/ National resources causes imbalanced

regional economic development. This causes dissatisfaction and disharmony.

(ii)       Different religious beliefs and practices may lead to discrimination on

religious grounds.

(iii)      The practice of tribalism leads to favouring people of one’s tribe in

employment and allocation of resources. This creates hatred among people.

(iv)      Nepotism leads to use of public resources to favour one’s relatives

resulting to unfair treatment of other people

(v)       Asking for and offering of bribes to obtain and give services violets

peoples right to equal treatment/ corruption

(vi)      Ethnic conflicts/ disputes/ clashes discourage co- operation among the


(vii)     Racism leads to discrimination on the basis of colour/ race. This creates

suspicion and hated among people.

  • Discrimination on the basis of gender denies people the right to participate equally in national development (Any 6 x 2 = 13 mks)


  • What are the functions of the Attorney General in Kenya?
  • Gives legal advice to the government
  • Gives consent for a person to be prosecuted
  • Can institute/ undertake criminal proceedings against any person
  • Can terminate any prosecution proceedings at nay stage
  • Drafts and presents government bills for debate in parliament
  • Participates in parliamentary debates/ ex officio

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)

  • Explain six responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen
  • Obeying the laws of the country to promote peace and harmony
  • Respecting other citizens, their views and property to ensure peaceful co- existence.
  • Taking part activities that promote national development for example contributing towards famine relief fund/ Harambee
  • Participating in meetings organized by government official and other community leaders to ensure effective implementation of policies.
  • Contributing to the income of the government by paying axes
  • Offering positive criticism to the government to promote good governance/ Participating in contribution making process and referendum
  • Exercising one’s voting rights during presidential, parliamentary and civic elections to enhance democracy.
  • Taking part in community policing and volunteering information about criminal activities to the police to enhance security
  • Avoiding corrupt practices and adhering to accountability and transparency norms for sustainable economic development
  • Being loyal and patriotic to the country in order to promote national security and social cohesion ( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)



SECTION A (25 mks)

  1. State one theory that explains the origin of people
  • The evolution theory
  • The creation theory
  • Mythical or traditional theory ( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Give TWO advantage of using the steam engine in the transport Industry in the

nineteenth century                                                            ( 2 mks)

  • It did not pollinate the air
  • It was cheap
  • It increased the speed of locomotives ( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Give TWO factors that led to the growth of urban centers in Greece
  • The area was secure from external attacks
  • The area had a well organized administrative system
  • There was population increase due to existence of religious and educational institutions
  • There was development of trade and commerce
  • Existence of well organized military systems

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Identify one form of picture writing during the early civilizations
  • Cuneiform
  • Hieroglyphics (Any 1 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Give ONE importance of the Odwira festivals in the ancient kingdom of the Ashanti.
  • Promoted unity of the people
  • It brought the kings together to pledge loyalty to the Asantehene/ or Emperor
  • It provided opportunity for the kings to settle disputes
  • It provided an opportunity for the Kings to honour the dead

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Identify the main commodity in the Trans Atlantic trade ( 1 mk)

(i) slaves                                                                     ( 1 x 1) = 1 mk)


  1. State TWO economic effects of the industrial revolution in North America
  • Machines replaced human labour in factories
  • There increased demand for raw materials in North America
  • The search for markets for manufactured goods increased

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Name TWO missionary societies which worked West Africa in the nineteenth century.
  • Base missionary society (B.M.S)
  • Church missionary Society (C.M.S)
  • Presbyterians
  • Bremen missionary Society (B.M.S)
  • Methodists

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. State one way in which European nationalism contributed to the colonization of


  • Countries competed to acquire many colonies to prove that they were powerful
  • France wanted to restore her past glory after defeat in Franco- Prussian War
  • New nations such as Italy and Germany wanted to be equated with the rest of Europe.


  1. Identify TWO chartered companies which were used to administer European colonial possessions in Africa

(i) The Royal Niger Company

(ii) The British South Africa Company

(iii) The Germany East Africa Company

(iv) The imperial British East Africa Company        (Any 2 x 1 = 2mks)


  1. Give one reason why the Shona supported the British during the Ndebele resistance of 1893.

(i) To stop raids from the Ndebele

(ii) They did not want to be ruled by Ndebele           (1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Name one political party fought for independence in Ghana

(i)        The united Gold coast convention (UGCC)

(ii)       The convention Peoples Party (CPP)

(iii)      The national League of the Gold Coast (NLGC)

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Give TWO reasons why there were civil wares in the democratic Republic of

Congo (DRC) soon after independence

  • Lack of qualified personnel to administer the country
  • The economy of the county was in the hands of the foreigners
  • Ethnic differences between Katanga and Kasai provinces
  • Army mutinies due to the control by foreign officers

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. State two advantages of being a member of the commonwealth organization

(i)        Enables one to get aid either capital or technical

(ii)       Enables one to develop trade links

(iii)      Benefits from innovative economic ideas

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Name the type of constitution used in great Britain

(i)        Unwritten constitution                       ( 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Give ONE disadvantage of a federal system of government

(i)        There is a great  temptation for succession by parts of the country

(ii)       It can lead to unequal development   ( Any 1 x 1 = 1mk)


SECTION B (45 mks)


  1. (a) What were the stages in the development of tools by early people?

(i)        The earliest tools were made from stones

(ii)       People hunted animals and used bones and ivory to make tools

(iii)      Later people used sharpened sticks as tools

  • As people improved in technology they developed iron tools

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b)       Explain SIX ways through which the development of iron technology affected African communities in the pre- colonial  period

(i)        Better farming tools were made which were used to clear large areas of forests

(ii)       Strong weapons were made and were used to conquer weaker communities

(iii)      Iron  technology enabled communities to establish strong defence items

(iv)      Centres where iron working took place developed into towns e.g. Meroe

  • A class of highly respected professionals ( Blacksmiths with the knowledge of iron technology emerged)
  • Items made of iron were exchanged in trade
  • The possession of iron tools enables many communities to migrate and settle in different areas such as the Bantus
  • Ornaments were made from iron for decoration

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) Give THREE classes of people in Hinduism

(i)        At the highest level are the priest/ Brahmins

(ii)       The second level consists of merchants and farmers/ Vaishyas

(iii)        Then there are servants and workers/ Sudras

(iv)      At the lowest level are outcasts/ Pariah

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b)       Explain   SIX effects of the spread of Islam in Africa up to the end of the

19th Century

  • Some of the Africans who were converted to Islam completely left their traditional beliefs and practices
  • Islamic Law was adopted in the administration of states where Islam spread/ Sharia
  • Islamic education based on the Koran was introduced
  • The use of Arabic language by Moslems led to the development of languages such as Kiswahili and Hausa
  • The building of mosques and residential houses introduced Arabic architectural designs in Africa.
  • Arabic style of dressing, music and diet were copied by Africans who had been converted to Islam
  • Moslem traders introduced new crops such as cloves/ dates
  • Islam created cohesiveness among the believers
  • There was intermarriages between Arabs and Africans leading to emergence of new communities such as the Waswahili
  • In areas where Islam was spread through Jihads there was great loss of life
  • The spread of Islam encouraged the development of slavery and slave trade
  • The spread of Islam encouraged establishment of Islamic empires
  • Over dependence on donations and foreign and has made people to be reluctant to grow food crops
  • Poor implementation of food policies has led to inadequate food production
  • Poor/ inadequate food storage facilities leads to wastage.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) What were the effects of using electricity in industries inn Europe in the

nineteenth century

  • It lowered the cost of production since it was a cheaper source of energy
  • Work was carried out for long hours as there was light
  • It enabled goods to be produced quickly and large quantities
  • Work became lighter as machines operated efficiently
  • Transportation was made easy and faster
  • There was a clean working environment in factories
  • It led to the location of industries away from sources of energy


(b)       Explain FIVE effects of scientific inventions on agricultural development

in Europe during the nineteenth century

  • Invention of machines such as tractors promoted large scale farming
  • Use of artificial fertilizers to improve soils led to high yields of crops
  • Use of pesticides in farming led to improved quality/ exotic products
  • Cross breeding of crops and animals led to improved quality/ exotic products
  • Improved infrastructure such as roads and railways led to effective marketing of farm products
  • Refrigeration/ canning led to effective preservation of farm products
  • Controlling temperatures in the storage rooms led to preservation of farm products for long

( 10 mks)

  1. (a) Give THREE problems which Europeans colonialists faced as they

established their rule in Africa in the second half of the nineteenth century

  • They were attacked by tropical diseases
  • Difficult terrain hindered their movement
  • They faced hostility from some African communities
  • The region lacked developed means of transport and communication
  • They faced shortages of food and medicine
  • There was lack of a common language between the Europeans and Africans

(Any 3 x1 = 3 mks)


(b)       What were the result of the collaboration between Lewanika of the Lozi

and the British in the nineteenth century

  • Lewanika received payment of £ 2000 yearly
  • He lost his authority as the administration was taken over by the British South Africa Company
  • The British South Africa Company took over the control of the minerals
  • The Lozi land was alienated and given to British settlers
  • The Lozi were forced to pay taxes in order to maintain the administration
  • The Lozi were forced to work as labourers on settler’s farms
  • The Lozi were employed in the civil service
  • The British South Africa Company developed infrastructure in Barotseland
  • The British established their rule peacefully in Northern Rhodesia
  • Lewanika was honoured with the title paramount chief until his death
  • The British used Barotseland as a base to conquer the neighbouring communities.

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


SECTION C (30 Marks)

Answer any TWO questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a) State THREE  privileges which were enjoyed by assimilated Africans in

the four communes of Senegal

  • They were allowed to vote during elections
  • They were allowed to vie for posts in the French Parliament
  • They were exempted from forced labour
  • They were allowed to work and live in France
  • They received French education
  • They had freedom of movement within the French empire
  • They were exempted from paying taxes
  • They were allowed to become French citizens

(Any 3 x1 = 3 mks)


(b)       Why did French system of assimilation fail in areas outside the


  • The Africans were not willing to become Christians
  • The Africans were not able to get the French type of education
  • The system faced opposition from the Muslim
  • The French parliamentarians did not want to compete with Africans for Cabinets posts
  • The African traditional rulers feared they would lose their positions
  • French traders feared competition so they opposed the system
  • It was expensive to implement the system because of the vastness of the French empire
  • The varied African cultures made it difficult for them to be absorbed into the French culture. ( Any  6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) What were the causes of bombing of Nagasaki and Heroshima in Japan

(i)        Many people lost their lives

(ii)       Property of great value was destroyed

(iii)      The radio active elements caused many diseases

(iv)      Many people were maimed

(v)       There was economic decline

(vi)      Many People suffered psychologically

  • Japan surrendered unconditionally

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b)       Explain SIX factors which contributed to the rise of Japan as an industrial

power after the second World War

  • The government made education compulsory and encouraged research leading to innovative ideas
  • People were encouraged to study abroad leading to technological advancement
  • There was financial support for industrialization
  • The availability of raw materials for industrialization from in and outside Japan
  • The culture of hard work encouraged local and foreign investment
  • The Government policies encouraged local and foreign investment
  • The cheap and skillfully made products attracted market locally and abroad
  • The topography was unsuitable for agriculture. This made Japan to develop other sectors thus diversifying the economy
  • The development of hydro- electric power provided energy for industrialization
  • The Prevailing peace promoted development
  • The improvement in transport accelerated the process of industrialization

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) What are the functions of the  Security Council of the United Nations

(i)        It investigates disputes which are reported

(ii)       It advises member states to settle disputes peacefully

(iii)      It uses diplomacy and economic sanctions to bring World peace

(iv)      It appeals for peace keeping  force from member states

(v)       It admits/ suspends/ expels members from the United Nations


( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)



(b)       Explain SIX problems which the United Nations is facing in its efforts to

maintain World Peace.

  • The increase in terrorist activities has created tension/ hatred among member countries thus threatening World Peace
  • Frequent border/ ethnic disputes make the work of the United Nations difficult
  • The organization faces shortage of funds because many member countries fail to remit their annual subscriptions




  1. Identify two source of Kenyan Historic
    • Archaeology/ Paleontology
    • Anthropology ( Myth & Legends)
    • Linguistics
    • Oral tradition
    • Written sources
    • Geology
    • Rock paintings/ art
    • Genetics
    • Electronic sources

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Name one community in Kenya that belongs to the River Lake Nilotes

(i) The Luo                                                          ( 1 mk)


  1. State two economic activities of the Abagusii in Kenya during the Pre- colonial period
    • They grew crops
    • They kept livestock
    • They hunted animals and gathered wild fruits
    • They traded with their neighbours
    • They made handicrafts/ Basketry
    • Iron working

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Give one reason which led to the decline of Gedii during the 15th century
    • External attacks
    • Inadequate water supply/ Drought

( Any 1 x 1

  1. Name  the type of constitution used in Kenya
    • Written

( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Identify two peaceful ways of resolving conflicts
    • Negotiation ( Reconciliation)
    • Mediation
    • Arbitration
    • Litigation ( court system)

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. What is direct democracy?

It is a government where people themselves make rules/ decisions that  effect

their welfare                                             ( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Identify two development rights of children
    • Right to education
    • Right to leisure/ play
    • Right to participate in cultural and artistic activities
    • Right to express themselves
    • Access to information
    • Right to social security/ parental love


  1. Name the document which contains the rights of citizens in Kenya?

The constitution of Kenya/ bill of right                           ( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)_


  1. Identify one method used by the British to administer Kenya Colony between 1920 and 1963
    • Direct
    • Indirect rule ( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)
  2. State two ways through which European settlers in Kenya wee able to get labour force during the colonial period
    • Forced recruitment/ conscription/ Denying African rights/ growing crops
    • Though introduction of Kipande system
    • Creation of African reserves
    • Through introduction of taxation by the British government

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Name two political parties which were formed in Kenya between 1960 and 1963
    • Kenya African National Union (KANU)
    • Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU)
    • African People Party ( APP)
    • New Kenya Party ( NKP)

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks  (1/2 mrk for abb)


  1. Give one reason why an aspiring candidate for a parliamentary seat in Kenya must be nominated by a political party
    • In order to limit the number of candidates
    • So as to identify party candidates
    • To adhere top constitutional requirements/ rules

( Any 1 x 1 = 1  mk)


  1. Give two reasons why corruption is being discouraged in Kenya
    • To promote economic party
    • To promote peace and stability
    • To promote national unity
    • To provide fair distribution of national resources
    • To gain international confidence
    • To promote patriotism and ethical behaviors



  1. Identify one Philosophy adopted at independence to promote social justice in Kenya
    • African socialism
    • Harambee

( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Name two types of local authorities in Kenya
    • City councils
    • Municipal Council
    • Town council
    • Urban council
    • County Council ( Area Council)


  1. Give one example of indirect taxes in Kenya
    • Sale taxes/ exercise duty/ customs duty
    • Value added tax
    • Cess/ fines/ fees
    • Land rates
    • Domestic borrowing




  1. (a) Why did the highland Nilotes migrate from their original homeland during the Pre- colonial period?
    • They moved in search of water and pasture for their livestock
    • The outbreak of diseases/ epidemics forced them to move
    • Attacks from their communities forced them to move/ external attacks
    • There was population pressure in their original homeland
    • They moved due to draught and famine
    • Family/ clan dispute/ conflicts forced them to migrate/ internal conflicts
    • They moved for adventure

( Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)


(b)       Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Highland

Nilotes sin Kenya

  • They displaced some communities they found in the area where they

settled e.g. Abagusii, the Kwavi, Maasai and the Abaluyia ( example a must)

  • Some highland Nilotes were absorbed/ assimilated by the Bantu such a the Teriki and the Tachoni
  • The Highland Nilotes traded with their neighbours/ they exchanged animal products for grains from the Abaluyia and the Abagusii. This led to the expansion of trade in the region.
  • Their settlement increased the population of the region
  • The highlands Nilotes intermarried with the Luo, Abagusii and Abaluyia. This strengthened their relations.
  • There were ethnic wars/ conflicts due to cattle raids
  • There was cultural exchange leading to enrichment of their lives

( Any 5 x 2 =  10 mks)


  1. (a)   What were the activities of the Imperial British East Africa Company

(IBEA Co) Between 1888 and 1895?

  • It traded with the local communities/ promoted legitimate ttrade
  • It established administrative posts/ maintained law of order
  • It discouraged slave trading
  • It provided information about the interior of East Africa
  • It built the Uganda Railway
  • It secured the British sphere of influence/ promoted the spread of Western civilization
  • It suppressed African resistance against the British
  • It pioneered the construction of roads/ improved infrustruct

( Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)


(b)       Why did the imperial British East Africa Company (IBEA Co.) Rule come

to an end in 1895?

  • The company lacked qualified administrators
  • There was mismanagement of funds by the company officials/ corruption
  • The area was too vast for the few officials to manage
  • Some African communities resisted/ rebelled against the company rule
  • The company lacked adequate funds/ capital for its day to day activities
  • There was poor communication between the company officials and the colonial office in Britain/ poor communication
  • Company official were affected by unfavourable climate conditions/ tropical diseases
  • Translation of the Bible into local languages enhanced missionary activities
  • The discovery of quinine which was cure for malaria facilitated missionary work
  • Some African rules were friendly to missionaries therefore they supported missionary activities
  • African convents became evangelists and thus spreading Christianity

(Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks)




  1. (a) What five situations can make registered voter to be denied the right to

vote in Kenya?

  • When one is in custody
  • When one is insane/ unsound mind
  • When one presents oneself in a constituency where one s not registered
  • When one is discovered to have registered twice
  • When one does not have a voter’s card on the voting day
  • When one does not have a national identification Card on the voting day/ one has a defective National Identification Card
  • When ones name does not appear in the voters register
  • When one is time barred/ late

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)


(b)       Explain the rights to an accused person during trial in a court of Law in Kenya

(i)        The accused person is presumed innocent until proven guilty

(ii)       He/ She should be informed of the charge with sufficient detail so as to

prepare a defence.

  • One should be given adequate time to consult with the advocate/ witness
  • One should be present when court proceedings are taking place
  • One should be given a chance to plead for leniency
  • One should not be forced to give evidence
  • One should be allowed to be heard
  • One should be allowed to appeal against the ruling
  • Right to legal representation

(Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks)


  1. (a) What is the composition of the executive Arm of Government in Kenya?
    • The executive consists of the president
    • It also consists of the Vice President
    • The minister/ cabinet
    • The civil servants
    • The Attorney General


(b) Describe six functions of the Civil Servants in Kenya

(i)              Civil servants interpret and explain government policies to the people

(ii)                         They implement government policies and programmers/ training

(iii)            Civil servant such as permanent secretaries advise their respective

Ministers on matters of government policy

(iv)                         They collect government revenue

(v)              They maintain law and order

(vi)                         Civil servants prepare development plans

(vii)            Civil servants link the people with central government through the

Provincial administration

(viii)           Civil servants keeps the government operations running after the

dissolution of parliament

(ix)             Senior Civil Servants ensure proper use of public funds and resources/ protect and conservation of National Resource

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)

  1. (a) What are the units of the Kenya Police Force?

(i)        Traffic police which controls traffic and inspects vehicles

(ii)       Regular police who maintains law and order

‘           (iii)      The Criminal investigation department/ C.I.D ( ½ for abb

(iv)      Anti – stock theft unit

(v)       The general Service Unit/ G.S.U (½ abb

(vi)      Anti- narcotics unit

(vii)     Tourism police

(viii)    National security intelligence service

(ix)      Special crime prevention unit. (flying squad, Kenya police reserve)

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)


(b)       Explain FIVE factors that make it difficult for the prison department in

Kenya to work effectively

  • Inadequate/ dilapidated facilities have led to congestion and frequent outbreak of diseases inadequate vehicles and equipment.
  • Increase in number of Prisons has led to poor living conditions
  • Inadequate finances have led to provision of poor service such as food
  • Inadequate number of prison warders leads to overworking hence brutal handling of prisoners
  • Poor living conditions low salaries of prison officers has demoralized them and affected their performance of duty
  • Corruption of prisons has forced some prisoners to pay so as to get better services
  • Shortages of trained counselors to assist in reforming the inmate effectively
  • Inadequate food, medical facilities and clothing for inmates
  • Some inmates have become hardened thus, difficult to rehabilitate
  • Political interference/ rapid changes affecting prisoners.

( Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks)



SECTION A (25 marks)


  1. Give one reason why Homo Habilis was referred to as “able” man

(i)  Because of the ability to make tools              (Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Identify one area in Africa where agriculture began

Along the Nile Valley in Egypt               ( Any 1 x 1= mk)


  1. Identify one type of trade
    • Local trade
    • Regional trade
    • International trade


  1. Identity two improvements which were made on macadamized roads in the Nineteenth century.
    • Tar was put on the top surface to make them smooth
    • Roads were widened to create highways
    • Roads were straightened
    • The roads wee strengthened by adding more layers of gravel/ stones made durable

( Any 2 x1 = 2 mks)

  1. State two advantages of use of electricity in industries during the industrial revolution
    • The supply could be regulated/ could be switched on and off
    • It could be used in different ways. E.g. lighting, heating, trucing
    • It could be used far from the source/ industries could be established anywhere
    • There was a clean working environment/ Non pollutant
    • The cost of production of goods was made cheaper

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. State the main contribution of the discovery of chloroform in the field of medicine

It reduced pain during operation


  1. Identify two factors that led to the growth of Athens as an urban centre.
    • It was surrounded by mountains and sea making it secure/ Security
    • It was a centre of learning and art which attracted people. Educational cent.
    • It was a religious/ culture centre
    • It was a trading centre/ commercial centre
    • There were valleys with fertile soils for food production./ Availability of food
    • It was an administrative centre.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Name two official who assisted the ruler of the Shona to administer the kingdom
    • The head cook
    • Head gate keeper/ chancellor
    • The court steward/ chamberlain/ chancellor
    • The Queen Mother
    • The head drummer
    • The head of the Army
    • The Treasurers
    • The Senior son in law
    • The Nine principal wives of the King
    • The King sister

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. What is the difference between the scramble and partition of Africa in the nineteenth century?

The scramble was the struggle by competition/ rush by Europeans for colonies in African whereas partition was sharing/ dividing up of Africa into European spheres influence.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Name one colony of Britain in West Africa
    • Nigeria
    • Ghana/ Gold Coast
    • The Gambia
    • Sierra Leone

(Any 1 x 1 =  1 mks)

  1. Give one reason why the Africans in Tanganyika were against the use of Akidas by the German Colonial administrators.
    • Akidas were foreigners
    • Akidas took Africans chance in Administering their country
    • Akidas were brutal/ harsh to the Africans/ Whipping Africans E.g. flogging

(Any 1 x 1 = 1mk)

  1. Identify two peaceful methods which the nationalists used in South Africa in the struggle for independence
    • Demonstrations
    • Sending petition to the British government
    • Seeking support organization of Africa Unity and United Nations
    • Forming political parties
    • Condemning apartheid in churches
    • Hunger strikes
    • Use of mass media/ newspapers/ pamphlets
    • Trade unions/ boycotts/ seating or go slow

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)




  1. Give one reason why the united States of America (U.S.A) did not join the first world war until 1971
    • She did not want to get involved in European affairs. Manvue doctrine
    • She feared the war would be fought in America because of  German population
    • American interest had not been interfered with/ had commercial relation on both sides

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Give the main reason for the failure of the league of Nations

The rearmament of Germany

(Any 1x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. State two achievement of Pan- Africancism between 1945 and 1963
    • It promoted the spirit of togetherness among Africans all over the world
    • It gave moral support to African nationalists during the struggle for independence
    • It provided a forum for Africans to discuss common matters
    • It led to the establishment of the organization of the Africa Unity (O.A.U)

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. State two political challenges that faced Tanzania during the rule of president Mwalimu Nyerere
    • 1964 Army mutiny over delayed African promotions
    • Protests by universities of Dar-es- Salaam students in 1966 over National Youth Service
    • President Idi Amin attacked Tanzania
    • The country hosted large number of refugees from war torn neighbouring countries
    • The failure of the Ujamaa Policy
    • The assassination of Abeidi Karuma

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Who is the heard of government in India?

The prime minister

(Any 1x 1 = 1mk)




  1. (a) What were the physical changes which occurred in early human beings as they evolved from ape- like creature to modern people?
    • The skull was enlarged
    • The jaws and teeth became smaller
    • The arms and hands become shorter
    • The creatures assumed an upright posture
    • The feet and toes reduced in size
    • The creatures had less hair on the body
    • They became taller
    • They had slander body
    • The brain became bigger

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)

(b)       Describe the way of life of early Human Beings during the Old Stone Age


  • They made simple stone tools for domestic use/ oldulvan tools
  • They lived in small groups in order to assist each other
  • They obtained their food through hunting and gathering
  • They used simple hunting methods such as chasing wild animals and laying traps
  • They ate raw food because fire had not been discovered
  • They had no specific dwelling places
  • They sheltered from predators by climbing trees and hiding in caves
  • They wore no clothing but their hairy bodies kept them warm
  • They lived near rivers and lakes
  • They communicated by use of gestures and whistling

(Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks)


  1. (a) Give three factors which should be considered when sending a message
    • The urgency of the message/ speed
    • The complexity of the message/ simplicity/ clarity
    • The distance between the sender and receiver of the message
    • The availability of communication facilities/ methods/ mean

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b)       Explain the effects  of telecommunications on modern society

(i)        The message are conveyed over long distances/ shorten distances

(ii)       It has led to spread of ideas to different parts of the world/ the world has

become a global village/ sharing of ideas

(iii)      Television, videos, computers and cinemas transmit entertainment

through pictures

(iv)      Telecommunication systems are medium of transmitting education

programmes all over the world

(v)       Weather forecasting navigation and space exploration have been made easy by use of satellites.

(vi)      Information can be relayed through radio, television or cell phone remote places easily

  • It has promoted trade through advertisement on radio, television and computers
  • Security has improved through camera/ close circuit TV
  • Modern weapons have telecommunication services which are efficient
  • Various job opportunities employment has been created
  • Communication devises have made tax collection/ revenue collection easier for the government e.g. electronic tax registered
  • Management/ storage of information has been made easier through the use of computer/ internet
  • It has immorality through pornography
  • It has encouraged idleness as viewers get addicted to programmers on T.V etc.
  • It has promoted business transaction e.g buying and selling in internet
  • The government earns revenue through taxation on telecommunication services

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)

  1. (a) Give three reasons why Lobengula was defeated by the British in 1893?

(i)        The British had superior weapons compared to the Ndebele

(ii)       The British army was better organized than the Ndebele

(iii)      Lobengula and his soldiers were weakened by small pox

(iv)      The British had better trained army

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)

(b)       What were the results of the British Ndebele war of 1893?

(i)        The Ndebele lost their independence/ company rule was established over

Matebele land

(ii)       There was massive loss of life

(iii)      The Ndebele lost of property through destruction

(iv)      Bulawayo the capital of the Ndebele Kingdom was destroyed

(v)       The Ndebele lost  land to British settlers the Ndebele  were moved to


(vi)      The economic activities of the Ndebele such as agriculture, trade and mining were disrupted

(vii)     Their was widespread fear and insecurity among the Ndebele

  • The war provoked anti- British feelings which Party contributed to the Chimurenga wars of 1896 and 1987
  • The Ndebele military power was weakened
  • The Shona were made policemen over the Ndebele
  • The Ndebele were subjected to taxation
  • The Ndebele cattle were confiseatead
  • The Ndebele were subjected to forced labour


  1. a) What five reasons encouraged the nationalists in Mozambique to use

armed struggle to attain independence.

(i)        Portugal refused to listen to the grievances of the Africans.

(ii)       The nationalists were trained in fighting skills.

  • The liberation committee of the Organization of African Unity/Tanzania and other (O.A.U) supported the nationalists with finance and weapons.
  • The nationalists were supported and encouraged by communist countries.
  • The success of MauMau freedom fighters in Kenya inspired them.
  • The country was forested and conducive for guerilla warfare.
  • The United Nations(UN) denounced colonialism thus boosting the morale of the nationalist. Any 5×1=5mks
  1. Describe the problems which undermined the activities of nationalists in Mozambique.
  • They lacked basic need such as food, cloth and medicine.
  • Ideological differences led to the formation of rival guerrilla movements such as MANU, COREMO and FRELIMO.
  • The nationalist were demolished due to the assassination of their leader Eduardo Mondlane.
  • The Portuguese government ruthlessly suppressed the nationalist movement.
  • The South African apartheid government assisted the Portuguese to fight the nationalists.
  • Portuguese government ruthlessly suppressed the nationalist movement.
  • Portugal outlawed political movements.
  • The Christian church in Mozambique condemned the nationalist movement.

Any 5×2 =10mks)




22        (a)       Give three ways through which trade contributed to the rise of Asante

Kingdom during the eighteenth century.

  • Participation trade enabled the kingdom.
  • Acquired weapons which were used to expand the kingdom.
  • Wealth from trade boosted the kings prestige/frame.
  • The need for goods for export encouraged the kings to conquer more territories.
  • The king used wealth from trade to reward loyal provincial rulers

Any 3×1= 3mks


(i)        The Kingdom was composed of many communities who spoke the Akan language.

(ii)       The Asante were organized in clans

  • Marriage between members of the same clan was prohibited
  • Inheritance of property was matrilineal.
  • The community was bound together by the Golden stool
  • There was an annual cultural festival (odwira) held at kumasi to honour the ancestors.
  • The society was divided into social classes/stratification
  • The kings were regarded as semi-divine/religious traders
  • The Asante were polytheists/worshipped many gods and goddesses
  • The ancestors mediated between god and the people
  • The Asante had a supreme God called Nyame Any 6×2=12mks.


23 a)    Give three categories of the Prime ministries in Britain

(i)        Members elected by universal suffrage

(ii)       Members nominated by the monarch

  • Hereditary peers/ Royal family members
  • Senior statement/ knighted peers/ life peers
  • Senior leaders of the church of England

( Any 3 x 1= 3 mks)

  • What are the duties of the Prime Minister in Britain?
  • Appoints/ dismiss ministers with the consent of the monarch
  • Recommends to the monarch the appointment of high ranking officers in the government/ award of civil  honours
  • Chairs cabinet meetings
  • Settlers dispute between various governments  ministers/ departments
  • Heads the government/ Chief Executive
  • Overseas the implementation of cabinet decisions
  • Leads the house of Commons
  • The prime minister with the support                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of parliament can change. Amend and re appeal  laws
  • Represents the country in international forums/ conferences
  • Determines when elections are held
  • He/ she is the leader of the party that nominated him/ her

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) Give three organs of the Economic community  of West African States


  • There is the authority of heads of States  and  Heads of governments
  • The tribunal
  • Executive secretariat
  • Specialized commissions
  • Council of minister

( Any 3 x 1 =  3 mks)


  • What are the achievements of Economic Community of W. Africa States (ECOWAS) since  its formation
  • It has standardized education in the region  by use of common examination syllabus
  • It has fostered peace through its military wing
  • It has promoted cultural exchange among the member states
  • It has improved regional Transport/ Communication system/ links
  • Improved agriculture through sharing of technological know- how
  • It has facilitated free movement of people in the region
  • There is na increase in job opportunities in the region
  • It has promoted spirit of togetherness
  • It has promoted mutual co-operation
  • It has promoted interregional trade  within regions.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)



Paper 1 Oct. /Nov .2007

2 ½ hours


Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.


  1. Give two reasons for studying Government. (2mks)


  1. State two advantages of the discovery of fire by Early Man.             (2mks)


  1. Name the dispersal area of the Eastern Bantu. (1mk)


  1. State two duties of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi. (2mks)


  1. Give the main reason why the rulers of Malindi welcomed the Portuguese in the 16th century. (1mk)
  2. Give two factors which influenced Seyyid Said to develop agriculture in Zanzibar in the 19th Century. (2mks)
  3. Apart from the Nandi, name two other communities that resisted the establishment of colonial rule in Kenya.
  4. State the main duty of the Governor during the British colonial rule in Kenya                                                                                                                                     (1mk)
  5. State one reason why the colonial government established Local Native Councils in Kenya in 1924. (1mk)


  1. Identify two features of African farming in Kenya during the colonial period                                                                                                                                     (2mks)
  2. State one recommendation of the Lennox-Boyd constitution regarding the legislative Council in Kenya. (1mk)


  1. Name one Ex-official Member of Parliament in Kenya. (1mk)


  1. Who was the fist vice president of independent Kenya (1mk)
  2. State two ways through which a person can become a citizen of Kenya. (2mks)


  1. State two ways in which poor leadership affects sporting activities in Kenya.                                                                                                                                     (2mks)
  2. State one type of government expenditure in Kenya. (1 mk)
  3. Who gives assent to a parliamentary bill before it becomes law in Kenya? (1mk)










Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. a) Give five reasons for the migration of the Luo from their original

homeland into Kenya.                                                                                 (5mks)

  1. b) What were the social effects of the expansion of the Luo into Western Kenya?.                                                                                                 (10mks)
  2. a) Identify five factors that led to the growth of town along the coast of

Kenya before the 19th Century.                                              (5mks)

  1. b) Describe the way of life in the Coastal towns of Kenya before the 19th (10mks)
  2. a) give reasons why the British colonial government encouraged Europeans

to settle Kenya by 1939.                                                         (3mks)

  1. b) Explain the effects of land alienation in Kenya during the colonial period.


  1. a) Identify five methods that the colonial government used to discourage the

activities of the Mau Mau movement in Kenya.                   (5mks)

  1. b) Explain five reasons why the MauMau movement was able to last for a long time (10mks)



Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.


  1. a) Give three reasons that can make the parliament in Kenya to be dissolved.


  1. b) Explain six functions of the National assembly in Kenya.   (12mks)


  1. a) Apart from the High Court, identify five other types of Courts in Kenya.


  1. Why should there be separation of powers between the Legislature, Executive in Kenya?


  1. a) State five functions of the Kenya police.                              (5mks)
  2. b) Describe five duties performed by a District Commissioner in Kenya.                                                                                                                               (10mks)


PAPER 2 OCT. / NOV. 2007


Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.


  1. Give two sources of information in history and government (2 mks)
  2. State two methods used by Early Man to find food during the Stone Age period.(2mks)
  3. Give the main reason why early agriculture developed in Egypt (1mks)
  4. Identify two early sources of energy.
  5. State one disadvantage of using a messenger to pass on information (1mk)
  6. State the main advantage of using air transport. (1mk)
  7. Identify the main method of trade in Africa during the pre- colonial period.(1mk)
  8. Identify one reason that led to the decline of Meroe as an early urban centre.
  9. State the role of the ‘golden stool’ in the Asante Kingdom during the 19th century. (1mk)
  10. Identify the two European powers that acquired colonies in East Africa.(2mks)
  11. Give one reason why the Lozi collaborated with the British during the colonization of Africa. (1mks)
  12. Give two results of the French assimilation policy in Senegal. (2mks)
  13. Identify the immediate cause of the First World War. (1mks)
  14. State the main reason why nationalism developed in Ghana during the colonial rule. (1mks)
  15. State two duties of the United Nations Secretariat. (2mks)
  16. Give two achievements of the commonwealth. (2mks)
  17. Identify two types of democracy. (2mks).



Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.


  1. a) State three ways in which people in developing countries are affected

by food shortages.      (3mks)

  1. b) Explain six ways that the developing countries can use to reduce the problem of food shortages. (12 mks)
  2. a) Identify the three types of trade. (3mks)
  3. b) Describe the organization of the Trans – Saharan trade. (12mks)
  4. a) State three factors that have contributed to the growth of

Johannesburg city (3mks)

  1. b) Describe six social problems faced by the residents of Johannesburg since the end of apartheid. (12mks)
  2. a) How did the invention of the steam engine contribute to the

process of colonization in Africa? (3 mks)

  1. b) Explain six positive effects of European colonization of Africa. (12mks)






Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.


  1. a) Identify three terms of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. (3mks)
  2. b) Give six reasons why the Central Powers were defeated in the

First World War. (12mks)

  1. a) Give three political changes introduced by Mobutu Sese Seko

which led to dictatorship in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (3mks)

  1. b) Explain the economic problems faced by the Democratic Republic of congo since independence.(12mks)
  2. a) Give three requirements for one to be allowed to contest as a

presidential  candidate in the United States of America.(3mks)

  1. b) What are the functions of the United States Congress? (12mks)


Paper 1



Oct. /Nov. 2007


  1. Give two reasons for studying government. (2mks)

(i)        To understand how different organs of government function.

(ii)       To understand how laws are made/enforced

  • To have knowledge of the duties/responsibilities of citizens.
  • To enable citizens know their rights.
  • To be able to compare political systems of the world.

Any 2×1=2mks

  1. State two advantages of the discovery of fire by early man. (2mks)

(i)        Man used fire to cook food.

(ii)       Fire provided light at night.

  • Man used fire to keep himself warm
  • Fire was used to harden tips of tools.
  • Fire was used to frighten/keep off dangerous animals. (Any 2×1=2mks)
  1. Name the dispersal area of the Eastern Bantu.

-Shungwaya                                              1×1=1mk

  1. State two duties of the Orkoyot among the Nandi. (2mks)

(i)        He presided over religious functions

(ii)       He foretold future events/seer.

  • he was a medicine man.
  • He was a rain maker

Any 2×1 = 2mks

  1. Give the main reason why the rulers of Malind welcomed the Portuguese in the 16th century. (1mk)

-They wanted

  1. Give two factors which influenced Seyyid Said to develop agriculture in zanzibar

in the 19th Century.                                                                 (2mks)

  • Zanzibar had favourable climate for clove growing.
  • Availability of labour/slave labour
  • Zanzibar had a natural deep harbour which would promote trade in agricultural products.
  • Zanzibar had fwertile soils. Any 2×1=2mks
  1. Apart from the Nandi name two other communities that resisted the establishment of colonial rule in Kenya. (2mks)

(i)              Agiriyama

(ii)             Bukusu

(iii)                        Somali

  1. State the main duty of the Governor during the British colonial rule in Kenya. (1mk)

– To facilitate effective administration of the colony                       1×1=1mk

  1. State one reason why the colonial government established local native councils in Kenya in 1924. (1mk)

(i)        To serve as a link between African people and the Central government.

(ii)       To involve African in the management of their affairs.

  • To provide a forum through which African would express themselves.

Any 1×1=1mk

  1. Identify two features of African farming in Kenya during the colonial period.


  • Small scale farming was practiced
  • Africans mainly grew foods
  • Traditional methods of farming were used .Any 2×1 = 2mks
  1. State one recommendation of the Lennox-Boyd Constitution regarding the

legislative council in Kenya.

  1. Name one Ex- officio member of parliament in Kenya? (1mk)

(i)        The Speaker

(ii)       The Attorney-General.                                   Any1x1= 1mk

  1. Who was the first Vice-President of independent Kenya? (1mk)

Oginga Odinga                                   (1×1=1mk

  1. State two ways through which a person can become a citizen of Kenya? (1mk)

(i)        By naturalization

(ii)       By birth

(iii)      By registration                                                Any 2×1=(2mks)

  1. State two ways in which poor leadership affects sporting activities in Kenya.


  • Constant Wrangling leading to negligency of duty
  • Mismanagement of funds/greed
  • Demoralization of sports men and women
  • Discrimination/ favouring teams over others. (Any 2×1=2mks)
  1. State one type of government expenditure in Kenya (1mk)

(i)        Capital

(ii)       Recurrent                    Any 1×1=1mk

  1. Who gives assent to a parliamentary bill before it becomes law in Kenya?
  • The president



  1. a) Give five reasons for the migration of the Luo from their original

homeland into Kenya.

(i)        They were looking for new settlements as a result of overpopulation

(ii)       Diseases and natural disasters forced them to migrate.

  • They migrated in order to escape internal conflicts.
  • Overstocking and Overgrazing led them to look for more pasture.
  • They moved to search for fertile lands with favourable climate.
  • Some people migrated for adventure (spirit of adventure)

Any 5×1 = 5mks


  • What the social effects of the expansion of the Luo into Western Kenya?


  • They intermarried with their neighbours, such as Luhyia, Kalenjin, Abagusii and Kuria.
  • They shared the name ‘Nyasaye’ with some Luo communities as a title of God
  • They had similar funeral rites and burial customs with their neighbours
  • They assimilated other communities.
  • They displaced other communities
  • Their movement and settlement increased conflicts.
  • Their settlement in Western Kenya led to population increase.
  • They influenced their neighbours to adopt their language and naming system.

Responses to be written in prose.                        Any 5×2=10mks

  1. a) Identify five factors that led to the growth of towns along the coast of

Kenya before the 19th Century.                                              (5mks)

(i)        The coming and establishment of settlements along the coast by early visitors.

(ii)       The development of the Indian Ocean trade.

  • Some towns were established on Islands/security.
  • Existence of deep, well sheltered harbours.
  • Climatic conditions were favourable.
  • Increase in population due to intermarriages.
  • The settlement of Muslim refugees from Arabia.
  • Effective administration by the rulers of the towns enabled them to expand. Any 5×1= 5mks.


  1. Describe the way of life in the coastal towns of Kenya before the 19th


Each town had a leader whose title was the Sultan or sheikh.

The towns were governed using Islamic Laws/Sharia.

People developed and spoke the Kiswahili language.

Women wore ‘Buibui’ and men put on ‘Kanzu’

The main religion practiced was Islam.

The people adapted Arabic and Persian architectural designs.

They ate oriental foods.

They carried out trade with Europeans as well as with the communities in the interior of Kenya.

They practiced mixed farming/or grew bananas, cashew nuts as well kept animals.

They carried out fishing.

Education was provided in ‘Madrasa’                 Any 5×2= 10mks

Responses should be in prose.




  1. a) Give reasons why the British colonial government encouraged Europeans

to settle in Kenya by 1939.                                                    (3mks)

(i)        Governor Northey saw the need to develop the highlands to meet administrative costs.

(ii)       The British industries needed cheap raw materials

  • They thought the area had no occupants/was empty land.
  • The government wanted to make the protectorate economically viable
  • In order to control further influx of Asians into the protectorate

Any 3×1=3mks.

  1. b) Explain the effects of land alienation in Kenya during the colonial period.


  • Africans who lost their land became poor.
  • The displaced Africans were confined to Native Reserves thus leading to congestion/over use of land.
  • May Africans became squatters and lived in misery and hopelessness.
  • The landless were to supply labour in setter farms for wages in order to pay taxes.
  • The displaced Africans were forced to move to towns to look for employment.
  • The movement to towns by the displaced African was disrupted.
  • The traditional Social-Economic set-up of the African was disrupted.
  • Loss of land led to bitterness and made Africans later to form political organizations to demand for their land.

Responses should be in prose.           Any 5×2= 10mks

  1. a) Identify five methods that the colonial government used to discourage the

activities of Mau Mau Movement.

(i)        Many people were arrested/or detained in various camps.

(ii)       The armed forces were used to suppress the movement

  • They killed/or executed the activists.
  • They used traitors and spies to reveal hiding grounds of the fighters.
  • The activists houses were destroyed/looted/villages burned down.
  • The people were put in concentration camps to curtail their movement
  • Kenya African Union (K.A.U.) was banned.
  • The people were put in concentration camps to curtain their movements.
  • State of Emergency was declared.
  • The government tortured Mau Mau supporters any 5×1=5mks


  1. Explain five reasons why the MauMau movement was able to last for a long time. (10mks)
    • Oathing united people and this made them to be committed to the cause.
    • Fighters used guerrilla warfare which made it difficult for the British government to contain the rebellion.
    • The civilian population sustained the rebellion by supplying food, weapons and information.
    • The movement was led by able leaders.
    • The aberdares and Kenya forests provided goods hideouts for the Mau Mau fighters.
    • The fighters were ex-service men and were therefore able to apply the military experience they had gained in the first and second world wars.
    • The movement received moral and material support from Indepents African countries. Any 5x 2= 10 mks.

Responses should be in prose.




  1. (a) Give three reason that can make the parliament in Kenya to be dissolved.                                                                                                       (3mks)
  • It can be done when a vote of no confidence is passed on the government president.
  • The constitution allows the president to dissolve it at will.
  • It can be done after the expiry of the five year parliamentary period.
  • During a state of emergency
  • It can be done when the opposition has more members then the ruling party in Parliament. (Any 3×1=3 mks)

Responses should be in prose.


  • Explain six functions of the speaker of the National Assembly in Kenya. (12mks)
  • The National Assembly Parliament debates and makes laws which are used to govern the country.
  • It amends/changes existing laws and the constitution when necessary.
  • It acts as a check on the possible abuse of power by either the judiciary.

Executive or any other institution in the country.

  • It represents the views of the people /elected members provide a link between the people and the government.
  • It ensures that the rule of law is respected/everyone is governed by the same laws.
  • It approves and controls sources of government revenue and expenditure/the budgets which contain the estimates of the two sums are read/debated and approved annually.
  • It monitors the government spending through the public Accounts

Committee/This Committee can summon public servants for misuse of public funds.

  • The National Assembly debates issues of national and international concern and makes recommendations for appropriate action.
  • The National Assembly has power to pass a vote of no confidence in the president and Government /It can terminate the life of a government when two thirds of its members pass a vote no confidence in the two thirds of its members pass a vote of no confidence.
  • Parliament can fire an individual member through a vote of no confidence/The member of parliament is forced to resign.
  • It creates parastatal or other government agencies through Acts of


(xii)     The members of the National Assembly elect the speaker and the deputy


Responses should be in prose.                 Any 6×2=12mks


  1. a) A part from the High Court identify five other types of courts in Kenya.


(i)       The Court of Appeal

(ii)      The Chief Magistrates Court

  • The resident Magistrates Court
  • The senior Principal Magistrates Court
  • Special Courts/Tribunals.

Any 5×1=5mks

  1. b) Why should there be separation of powers between Legislature, Executive and Judiciary in Kenya. (10mks)
  • In order to make the co-ordination of government programmes and administration effective.
  • To enable the government to facilitate division of labour.
  • It helps prevent abuse of power/provides checks and balances.
  • It promotes efficient service delivery.
  • It is a constitutional requirement
  • To enhance accountability
  • It promotes transparency/openness in government dealings.
  • It ensures that no arm of the government interferes with the other.

Any 5×2=5mks.

Responses should be in prose.


  1. a) State five functions of the Kenya Police.                  (5mks)

(i)        Maintain law and order

(ii)       Quelling civil disturbances.

  • Prosecute criminals.
  • Inspect vehicles to ensure roadworthiness.
  • Entertain people during national functions.
  • Conduct driving tests.
  • Detect and prevent crimes/investigate
  • Arresting suspected criminals.
  • Guarding the country’s entry points.
  • Combining crime.
  • Protecting government property/senior government officers.

Any 5×2=5mks


Describe five duties of the District Commissioner in Kenya.          (10mks)

  • Represents the president in the district.
  • Oversees the implementation of government policies.
  • Interprets and explains government policies to the people in the district.
  • Interprets and explains government policies to the people in the district.
  • Conducts civil marriages on behalf of the state.
  • Chairs the district security committee.
  • Co-ordinates disaster management activities.
  • Issues licences and trade permits in the districts
  • The accounting officer.
  • Ensures law and order is maintained in the district.
  • Acts as a link between the people and the state Any 5×2=10mks.

Responses should be in prose.



–           Archaeology / palaeontology.

–           Oral tradition, Linguistics.

–           Anthropology

–           Genetics / Botany / Zoology / Biology

–           Written records,

–           Geology.

–           Electronic sources.

  1. i) Hunting ii) Gathering   iii) Farming       iv) Fishing
  2. Availability of water from the River Nile

-The River Nile also brought rich fertile silt from the highlands.

  1. i) Wind ii) Water         iii) Wood        iv) Sun            v) Animals / man
  2. i) It is slow
  3. ii) One can give the wrong message or forget the message.

iii)       One can die on the way

  1. iv) A person carrying verbal message can be tortured to reveal it.
  2. i) It is the quickest in terms of speed.
  3. Barter
  4. i) The rise of Axum Kingdom which developed East of Merowe

denied Merowe access to the red sea causing decline in trade.

  1. ii) The king of Axum subdued and destroyed Merowe in 350 A.D

iii)       Desertification due to deforestation led to decline of food supply

for her people.

  1. iv) Deforestation caused the decline of food supply for her people.
  2. It was the symbol of unity within the Asante Empire.
  3. i) Britain ii) Germany
  4. i) Lewanika collaborated with the British in order to protect his

Kingdom against the Germans and Portuguese / European enemies.

  1. ii) Lewanika  desired Western education and civilization and wanted

the British to introduce it in his country / wanted his son to be educated.

iii)       Lewanika wanted the British to protect him against his internal enemies e.g. in 1884 Lewanika faced an internal rebellion / safeguard his position.

  1. iv) Lewanika who had already sought British protection against the Boers.
  2. v) Lewanika saw the futility of resisting a strong power like Britain,

so he chose to collaborate.

  1. vi) Lewanika wanted the British to protect his kingdom from attacks

by other African communities such as the Ndebele and Shona /

African enemies.

vii)      Lewanika  was influenced by the European missionaries who had

visited earlier to collaborate.

viii)     In order to preserve the economy structure of his people.

  1. ix) Desire for the promotion of trade between Britain and his people.
  2. i) All colonies were subjected to the same law.
  3. ii) Racial discrimination was minimal in the colonies.

iii)       It undermined African culture.

  1. iv) French goods and modern ways spread in West Africa.
  2. v) Educated African spearheaded nationalism in Africa.
  3. vi) Africans were represented by deputies in the National Assembly.
  4. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife in Sarjevo.
  5. i) Loss of independence
  6. ii) Exploitation of African resources e.g. land and minerals.

iii)       Western education

  1. i) Register treaties
  2. ii) Publishing reports

iii)       Interpret speeches and translate documents into the UN’S

official languages.

  1. iv) Implement policies
  2. v) Bring to the attention of the Security Council any problem that

threatens international peace.

  1. vi) Administer peace keeping operating and mediate international dispute.
  2. i) Member states have received technical know – how through the

provision of experts and advisers in various field e.g. agriculture.

  1. ii) The developing member states of the organization have acquired skilled man power through the provision of scholarships and training programmes by the developed member states of the organization.

iii)       Members states have conducted trade among themselves with relative ease.

  1. iv) There has been cultural interaction among member states e.g. games& exchange programmes.
  2. v) The developed member state have provided financial aid to the developing member states.
  3. vi) The organization has provided a forum for member states to air their views with one voice on international issues.

vii)      The organization had provided a mechanism of maintaining peace among member states, e.g. the common wealth eace keeping force which was sent to Zimbabwe.

viii)     It has promoted friendship and understanding among members states through conference.

  1. ix) It had enhanced democratization process in developing countries by sending observers to monitor elections.
  2. i) Direct or pure democracy – This is where the people in a state are

allowed to freely participate in an important decision making forums that pertain matters of the state.

  1. ii) Indirect or representative Democracy – This is where citizens exercise their right in decision making through their chosen representatives.




18        i)         It has led to deaths of hundreds of people due to famine.

  1. ii) Increased suffering as many people due to famine.

iii)       It has led to social problems like raids and theft.

  1. iv)       It had caused migration of people affected by food shortage.
  2. v) It affects agricultural based industries.



  1. i) Land reclamation through irrigation or draining swamps.
  2. ii) Extensive research on better quality animal and crop breeds and on

how to control pests and diseases.

iii)       Establishment of agricultural training institutes to train

agricultural officers.

  1. iv) Soil conservation and restoration as well a forestation and re- a forestation.
  2. v) Encouraging people to eat different types of food especially indigenous


  1. vi) Control the rate of population growth through family planning.

vii)      Use of democracy and diplomacy to solve political problems.

viii)     The governments are trying to subsidize by providing farmers with

seeds and tools.

  1. i) Local trade      ii) Regional trade       iii)       International trade.
  2. b) i) It involved traders from North Africa and people of North Africa

and people of West Africa.

  1. ii) The people involved were Arabs and Berbers from the North, Tauregs from the desert and the people of West Africa.

iii)       Arabs in the North organized the caravans. Preparations were made in advance to have enough goods, food especially indigenous foods.

Iv)       Departure dates were set after the end of the rainy season when the storms were minimal.

  1. v) The Berbers and Tauregs acted as guides and provided security in the desert.
  2. vi) The traders moved in caravans of up 1000 camels for security in the desert.

vii)      In the south the traders stayed for up to three months selling goods.

viii)     If they had not finished selling the goods by the end of the tree months they hired local agents to continue selling goods and buying others on their behalf.

  1. ix) The local agents also maintained good relations with local rulers by giving them gifts and paying tribute.
  2. x) In return the local rulers offered security to the traders. They also regulated the precaution and supply of gold.
  3. xi) From the North they brought salt, copper, needles, spices, beds, grass ware horses, clothes , daggers, firearms e.t.c.

xii)      There were several trade routes that were used by the traders e.g. the Western route, central and eastern route.

  1. i) Discovery of Gold in Witwatersrand.
  2. ii) There was clean water supply from river Vaal which was used for domestic as well as industrial use.

iii)       It is situated on a plain (veld) which make building constructions and communication easy.

  1. iv) Existence of minerals e.g. diatomite’s.
  2. v) The areas surrounding the town have fertile soils therefore agriculturally productive.
  3. b)
  4. i) Poor working conditions for African living around Johannesburg.
  5. ii) Most people live in Shanties mainly because of unemployment. This led to development of slums.

iii)       Poor living conditions in the slums e.g. poor sanitation.

  1. iv) Criminal activities have increase due to unemployment.
  2. v) Pollution from industries and garbage.
  3. vi) HIV / AIDS is a major health problem.

vii)      Wide gap between the affluent who are the minority and the poor majority who area Africans.

viii)     Inadequate social facilities e.g. education and health facilities.

  1. i) It helped in the development of transport e.g. steam ship and trains.

This helped in the transportation of people in Africa.

  1. ii) With the development of railway Europeans were able to move into the interior of Africa and exploit minerals.

iii)       There was demand for coal to produce more steam.

  1. iv) It was possible to move troops to conquer the people of Africa using

steam trains and vehicles.

  1. v) There was demand for raw materials as the steam engine was

manufacturing goods at a faster rate.


  1. i) Formation of states:- Colonization helped in the formation of

states. During the struggle for independence different communities came together to fight for independence. These later became independent states with many different tribes.

  1. ii) It speeded economic growth in Europe through trade.

iii)       Africans were introduced to international commerce.

  1. iv) Development of infrastructure e.g. roads and railways by the Europeans

in Africa.

  1. v) Development of urban centres in areas where Europeans settled.
  2. vi) Fame and prestige: – Europeans powers who gained more colonies

in Africa gained fame and prestige.

  1. a)i) German to surrender some of other territories in European e.g. Alsace

and Lorraine were returned to France.

  1. ii) German to surrender all her colonies.

iii)       German to pay £6.6 million to the allies as reparation money.

  1. iv) The city of Danzing to be a free city under the league.
  2. v) German was restricted to an army of 100,000 men and it’s equipments

were limited.



  1. b)
  2. i) The allied powers had more states supporting them.
  3. ii) Allies had more financial and industrial resources.

iii)       Allied powers controlled the North sea and Atlantic Ocean and

blockaded the central powers.

  1. iv) The invasion of neutral Belgium by Germany made the world

to turn against the central powers.

  1. v) The entry of USA into the war helped to defeat the central powers.
  2. vi) The central powers were located in the central part of Europe and

Were surrounded by enemies from every side.

vii)      Multines in German army weakened the Germany resistance.

viii)     The failure of the schlieffen plan

  1. ix) Good political leadership among the allied powers.
  2. a)i) He made himself head of state and government thus centralized

power in his hands.

  1. ii) He banned all political parties . In 1967 he formed the

people’s revolutionary movement and made it the only legal party.

iii)       He reformed the constitution and stripped parliament off its powers.

  1. iv) Mobutu abolished the federal system of government and local assemblies.\
  2. v) He declared himself president for life in 1970.


  1. i) Political upheavals have hindered exploitation of Congo’s resources.
  2. ii) Belgium had led other western nationals in dominating the exploitation

of   Congolese mineral wealth. Profits are repatriated to Europe

and Congolese have not benefited from mining activities on their land.

iii)       Excessive reliance on foreign aid have created large debts which are

hard to pay.

  1. iv) There is trade imbalance between Congo and her partners.
  2. v) Corruption and mismanagement of country’s key sectors.
  3. vi) Poverty and lack of capital had hindered the exploitation of resources.

vii)      Lack of a clear policy of economic recovery after the colonial exploitation.

viii)     Inflation due to printing of currency.

  1. ix) Unemployment: – lack of job opportunities
  2. x) Poor transport means.


  1. a)
  2. i) Be at least 35 years old.
  3. ii) Be an American citizen by birth.

iii)       Must have been a resident of the country 14 years.


  1. i) It acts as a check on the executive arm of the government by

examining administrative work.

  1. ii) It approves taxation measures and make sure that the government expenditure is properly used and accounted for.

iii)       Making laws

  1. iv) Amend laws.
  2. v) Senate approves treaties with foreign countries
  3. vi) It can appoint a commission of inquiry to investigate any problem.

vii)      Senior civil servants are appointed by the president with the approval

of the senate.

viii)     Congress closely monitors the conduct of the president, vice president and other senior public officials.

  1. ix) Congress is a representative body elected by people and it reflects

the aspiration an interest of the American people.


SECTION A: (25 marks)

  1. Identify one branch in the study of History and Government of Kenya
    • Social
    • Economic
    • Political

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Apart from the Maasai name one other plain Nilotes found in Kenya
    • Turkana
    • Samburu
    • Njemps
    • Iteso

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. What was the main economic activity of the Cushites in the pre- colonial period?

(i) Pastoralism/ livestock keeping

(1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. State two political functions of the council of elders  among the Agikuyu during the  colonial period
    • To settle disputes
    • To make laws for the community
    • To punish the law breakers/ wrong doers
    • To declare war/ make peace

(2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Name two groups that rivaled the Portuguese for the control of the  Kenyan coast  in  the 16th century
    • Egyptians
    • Turks
    • Arabs
    • Persians
    • The British
    • Dutch
    • French

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Identify two communities which resisted the British Occupation  of Kenya
    • Agiriama
    • Bukusu
    • Somali
    • Nandi

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Give the main reason why poll tax was introduced in Kenya during the colonial period

–           To force Africans to work on European settler farms.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Who was the chairman of the East African Association during the colonial period in Kenya?

Harry Thuku

(1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Name the first African to be nominated to the legislative Council in 1944 in Kenya

Eliud Mathu

(1 x 1 = 1mk)

  1. Identify two methods  used by Trade Unionists to demand for their rights during the  colonial period
    • Strike/ riots
    • Boycotts
    • Go slows/ sit – ins
    • Demonstrations
    • Petitions

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. State the main reason why the second  Lancaster House Conference was held  in 1962

To come up with a constitution for independent Kenya

(1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. State two roles played by the Kenya African Democratic union in the struggle for independence in Kenya.
    • It united the smaller communities in Kenya
    • It educated/ mobilized Africans against  colonial domination
    • It pressed for the  release  of Jomo Kenyatta
    • It participated in the drawing up of the independence constitution

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. State two ways through which the government has encouraged the preservation of African culture through music and dance.
    • Creation of the Ministry of Culture and social Services
    • Allowing the various ethnic communities to perform at  public gatherings
    • Inclusion of music as a subject in the national curriculum/ promoting music/ drama festivals
    • Development of cultural Heritage Centers
    • Allowing the media  hoses to play traditional music/ dance

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. State one way though which  the Minister for Local Government Exercises control over Municipal Councils  in Kenya
    • Regulates the issuing of grants
    • Monitor expenditure/ auditing
    • Approves levies/ taxes

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Name the unit of the police department  which is responsible for maintaining law and order at the Chief’s  office

The Administration police     ( A.P  ½ for  abbre)

(Any 1 x 1  = 1 mk)

  1. Who appoints the Head of the Civil Service in Kenya?

The president

(Any 1x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Identify two characteristics of African Socialism that promote national development in Kenya
    • Democracy
    • Equal opportunities
    • Respect for human dignity
    • Mutual; social responsibility

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. (a) Give the evidence which shows that the early visitors reached the Kenyan Coast before  the 15th century
    • The Greeks and  Chinese coins were found at the Kenyan Coast
    • There are fragments of Chinese  Pottery which  have  been preserved
    • Documents that mention the presence  of early visitors  to the  Kenya  coast have been  preserved
    • Presence of  monuments  constructed by the early  visitors

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)

(b) Explain six results of the interaction between the people of Kenyan Coast    and the Arabs

(i)        Some African people living along the Kenya coast were converted to


(ii)       The volume of trade increased between the interior and the coastal towns

(iii)      Arabs introduced Islamic culture/ architecture to the coastal people

(iv)      The Arabs introduced new crops which were later adopted by the coastal


  • Demand for imported goods led to the decline of traditional industries
  • Some communities such as Akamba resorted to long distance trade in search of commodities.
  • There was an increase in population as many traders settled  at the coast
  • The Arabs established city  states/ towns at the coast
  • The Islamic law  and system  of administration was introduced by Arabs at the coast
  • There was the development – Kiswahili language  as  a result of the interaction  between Arabs  and Coastal  people
  • Intermarriage between Africans and Arabs led to emergency of Washahili people.
  1. (a) Give three causes of Somali resistance to the British  rule in Kenya

                        during the 19th century?

  • The Somali were opposed to the division  of Somaliland into the British  and Italian spheres of  influence which separated  the clans
  • They were opposed to punitive expeditions sent against them by the British
  • The Somali people  being Muslims  were  opposed to being  controlled by  the British who were  Christians
  • The British attempted to stop the Somali raiding activities against their  neighbours
  • The Somali were against British Control of their pasture  land and  watering  points
  • The British wanted the Somali to drop their nomadic way  of life

(b) Explain six negative effects of British Colonial rule  on the people of Kenya

(i)        Colonial rule led to the loss of political independence

(ii)       Creation of reserves for Africans led to the emergence of Squatters

(iii)      It led to the introduction of forced labour among the Africans

(iv)      Led to the introduction of taxation on Kenyans

(v)       Creation of colonial boundaries split communities and affected their social cohesion.

(vi)      Africans in Kenya lost their land to Europeans settlers leading to landlessness

  • Colonial rule undermined African cultural practices
  • It destroyed traditional African political systems  replacing them  with appointed leaders
  • Introduces segregation/ colour bar which  created divisions among Kenyans

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)

  1. (a) Why did the colonial government deny the Africans the right to grow

                        cash crops in Kenya before 1954?

  • Africans were expected to provide labour on settler  forms
  • Europeans settler did  not want to compete  with Africans  in cash crop  growing
  • The settlers claimed that Africans did  not  have enough knowledge of growing cash crops as this would  lead to low  quality products
  • They feared that crops diseases would spread from African Farms to settler plantations.
  • Europeans setters claimed that African farmers would produce low quality crops due to inadequate resources

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)

(b)       Explain six problems faced by Africans in urban centers during the colonial period in Kenya

(i)        There were inadequate housing facilities to meet the demand of the people

(ii)       The social services provided to the Africans were inadequate and of poor


(iii)      Increased population in urban centers led to serious water shortages

(iv)      Lack of planning of housing led to poor drainage and sanitation


  • Establishment of industries in urban centers led to pollution of the environment which affected the health of the inhabitants.
  • There were  many  unemployed people who got involved in social vices/ crimes
  • Overcrowding especially in slums/ shanties led to the  outbreak  of diseases
  • Inadequacy in housing led to the development  of shanties/ slums
  • Africans working  in urban centers received  low  wages which affected  their standard of living

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)

  1. (a) Give three reasons  for the coming of European Christian

                        Missionaries to Kenya in the 19th century.

  • To spread Christianity
  • Some came to spread western culture
  • They came to stop slave trade/ establish legitimate trade
  • To explore/ gain geographical knowledge of Kenya
  • To counter the spread of Islam

(Any 3 x 1= 3 mks)

(b)       Explain six factors that hindered the work of the early Christian missionaries in Kenya

(i)        Lack of knowledge of local languages made it difficult for missionaries to spread Christianity

(ii)       Tropical diseases led to ill- health/ death of the missionaries slowing down their work.

(iii)      Lack of transport and communication facilities limited their movement into the interior

(iv)      There was opposition from Muslims who were already established at the Kenyan Coast

(v)       Lack of security led to loss of their property

(vi)      Lack of support from the Africans due to missionaries interferences with

traditional African cultural practices

(vii)     They had inadequate funds to maintain/ sustain their activities

(viii)    They faced hostility from slave traders/ raiders because of condemning

the practice

(ix)      They were few in numbers compared to the vast population of  Africans

to be converted

(x)       Lack of geographical knowledge of the area which made them look for guides

  1. (a) Identify five elements of good  citizenship in Kenya
    • Respect for other people/their property
    • Obedience to the laws of the country
    • Participation in development projects
    • Participation in the democratic/ electoral processes
    • Being loyal/ patriotic to ones country
    • Practicing integrity/ honesty when performing duties
    • Reporting law- breakers to the authorities
    • Efficient use of  national resources

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)

(b)       Explain five ways in which the Harambee philosophy has promoted the development of education in Kenya since independence

(i)        Many education institution have been constructed using funds raised through harambee effort.  Thus enabling many children to attend school

(ii)       Many students have been assisted to pay school fees/  pursue further studies thus enabling the needy to go on with learning

(iii)      Physical facilities have been constructed/improved through harambee this enables learning in a conducive environment

(iv)      Teaching/ learning materials have been purchased/ donated to schools to improve the quality of Education

(v)       Additional staff/ workers in schools have been paid through harambee contributions by the parents to offsets the inadequacy.

(vi)      Through the Harambee spirit co- curricular activities have been supported by well wishers thus helping the learners to exploit their talents.

(a)       State five reasons that may lead to a presidential by – electron in Kenya

(i)        President’s election may be nullified by court due to electron offences

(ii)       The serving president may die while in power

(iii)      The president may resign

(iv)      If the president becomes physically/ mentally incapacitated

(v)       Parliament may pass a vote of no confidence in the president/ government

(vi)      If the serving president deserts/ defects from the party that sponsored her/ him to parliament

(vii)     If the serving president ceases to be a Kenyan citizen

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)

(b)       Explain five functions of the speaker of the National Assembly in Kenya

(i)        Chairs parliamentary sessions during which he invites members of   parliament to contribute to motions/ debates

(ii)       He maintains order by enforcing  standing orders/ rules

(iii)      He gives permission to members who wish to be absent for eight consecutive sittings

(iv)      Swears in members of parliament after election before they can participate in proceedings

(v)       He is in charge of the general administration of the National Assembly

(vi)      He chairs the standing order committee which interprets the standing  orders of the National Assembly.

(vii)     He declares parliamentary seats vacant in order to pave way for general and by elections

(viii)    He receives and accepts letters of resignation from members of parliament who have left/ defected to other parties

  • He chairs the parliamentary service commission which looks after the welfare  of the members
  • He represents parliament in international for dealing with matters of common interest.

(Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks)

  1. (a) What is the importance of the rule of Law in Kenya?
    • It protects rights of individuals/ groups
    • It spells out of conduct/ responsibilities among people
    • It promotes fairness in the administration of justice/ equality before the law.
    • It creates peace and order in society
    • It gives direction  on what  is right or wrong

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)

(b)       Describe six functions of the High Court of Kenya

(i)        To hear cases that cannot be heard by the lower courts

(ii)       It listens to appeals from the lower courts when the parties involved are

not satisfied.

(iii)      It correct/ amends irregularities in decisions made by lower courts

(iv)      It hears cases that carry death sentences/ involves large sums of money

(v)       It deals with cases involvement land/ succession disputes

  • It deals with disputes that take place outside Kenya’s territorial waters/ maritime
  • It hears appeals from decisions made by professional disciplinary tribunals  involving advocates of the high court and other members of the profession
  • It acts as a constitutional court  by  determining whether a case  brought  before  it is constitutional  or unconstitutional
  • It listens to appeals from special courts when the parties are not satisfied with the decisions made.

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks).



  1. Name two types of written materials used by historians  as a source of history and government
    • Books/ charts/ maps/ scrolls/ painting/ clay labels/ stone  table
    • Newspapers/ magazines
    • Diaries/ biographies
    • Journals/ periodicals
    • Official/ government records
  2. State two ways in which the early man obtain food
    • Hunting
    • Gathering
    • Growing crops/ farming
    • Livestock keeping/ rearing animals
    • Fishing
  3. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution

Simple life forms gradually develop into higher forms of life over millions of years                                                                     ( 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Identify the greatest contribution  of Michael Faraday in the field of science

He invented electricity                                         (1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Give the main use of steam powder during industrial revolution in Europe.

Driving engines/ machines in industries             ( 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. State two disadvantages of using wood as a source of energy
    • wood is affected by rain
    • It products smoke/ choking/ pollutes the air/ soot
    • Leads to deforestation / scarcity of wood
    • It is cumbersome to use (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)
  2. Give two means of water transport used during the  ancient time
    • Sailing boats/ our driven  boats
    • Rafts/ logs
    • Canoes
    • Sailing ships
  3. State two advantages of the use of money of barter as a medium of exchange
    • Money is lighter to transport than goods
    • Money is easily divisible into smaller units than  the actual goods
    • Money is convertible into electronic devices  for payment unlike  goods
    • In barter trade,  one cannot determine  the  actual value of the  goods  transacted
    • Money can be stored in a longer period

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Give two reasons  why the early  urban centers in ancient Egypt developed in the Nile Valley
    • Water from the river was used for transportation
    • Water from the river was used for domestic use/ industrial  use
    • Nile valley contained fertile soil for farming/ availability of food
    • Nile valley had cool temperature which encourages settlement
    • Vegetation along the river provided building materials

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. State two economic activities of the Shona during the pre- colonial period
    • They grew crops/ agriculture
    • They kept livestock
    • They traded with Arabs and Swahili traders/ took part in long distance trade/ trade
    • They hunted elephants for ivory
    • They were iron worked/ blacksmiths
    • They made clothes from wild cotton/ bark fibres
    • They mined gold
    • They were fishermen
    • They gathered/ gathering
  2. Define the term “ sphere “ of influence as used by the European powers in Berlin conference of 1884 and 1885
  3. Identify one political reform introduction by President Fredrik de Klerk that led to the achievement of black majority rule in South Africa.
    • He released all the political prisoners
    • Appealed apartheid Laws, E.g. pass laws
    • Allowed Africans to join political parties/ participate in electrons

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Give one way  in which the policy  of “ nationalism allowed down economic development in Tanzania  during the reign of Julius Nyerere
    • Many Tanzanians developed a negative attitude to work/ relied on government support
    • Most foreign investors withdraw from the country
    • Some industries collapsed
  2. Name the organ of the United organization that promotes justice in the world.

The international Court of Justice

(1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Identify one superpower that was involved in the cold water
    • United States of America ( USA)
    • Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ( USSR)

(Any 1 x 1  = 1mk)


  1. Name two English speaking member countries of the Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS)
    • Liberia
    • Gambia
    • Ghana
    • Nigeria
    • Sierra Leone

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Identify one house of the Congress in the united   States of America
    • The House of representatives
    • The Senate

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. (a) Give three stages in the evolution of man before Homo Erectus
    • Aegytopithecus/ Egyptian ape
    • Dryopithecus/ Africans/ Proconsul/ woodland ape
    • Kenyapithecus/ Ramapithecus/ woodland ape/ Kenya ape/ Asian ape
    • Australopithecus/ Southern ape/ man ape/ Zinyanthropus/ Nut erect man
    • Homohabilis/ Handy man/ practical man

Note any order of responses earns marks                        (any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)

(b) Describe six ways in which the discovery of fire by Early Man improved

      his way of life

  • The fire was used to roast/ cook thus he stopped eating raw food
  • Fire was used to provide warmth at night when it was cold
  • Fire was used to provide light in the dwelling/ sites/ caves
  • Fire improved hunting as man could use it to push animals to confined areas thus kill them easily.
  • Fire was used to frighten animals from man’s dwelling places thus improved security
  • Tool making was improved through the use of fire to harden sharpen tips of tools
  • Communication between people living at different places was made possible by the of fire and smoke signals
  • Early man preserved food by drying it over the fire
  • Fire enabled man to harden pottery which was used for storage / cooking/ trade

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)

  1. (a) Identify three ways in which water was used in industries during the 18th century
    • To turn waterwheels/ grinding stones in four miles
    • To wash/ clean the machines/ maintain cleanliness
    • To cool the machines
    • To turn spinning machines in textile industries
    • To produce steam power to drive  machines

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)

(b) Explain six social effects of the industrial revolution in Europe during the 18th century

(i)    Many people migrated to towns to look for jobs leading to overcrowding

(ii)   Increased population in towns led to shortage of houses thereby resulting

to the development of slums

(iii) There was poor sanitation which made people to suffer from various diseases

(iv) The factories emitted pollutants into the air, water and land thus affecting in people health

(v)   Those who did not secure employment in the industrial town engaged in crime and other social evils.

(vi) Industrial revolution led to social stratification where the poor were

Discriminated by the rich

(vii)             Women and children were exploited because they worked for long hours for little pay.

(viii) Trade union developed in order to fight for the rights of industrial

workers to settle industrial disputes.

(ix) Due to long working schedules, some industrial workers neglected their homes leading to family breakups

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)

  1. (a) Identify the three methods used by the French to acquire colonies in

                        West Africa

  • Signed treaties with the African rulers/ used diplomacy
  • Played off one community against the other/ divide and rule/ treachery
  • Used force to conquer the African / Military expedition

(Any 3 x 1= 3 mks)

(b)       Explain six factors that led to the defeat of Samori Toure by the


(i)        The constant movements of his army and people denied them time to concentrate on gainful activities. This resulted to inadequate food supplies

(ii)       The scorched earth policy that he used when fighting made his people to be impoverished and thus turned against him.

(iii)      Some African communities in the area supported the French against Samori Toure. E.g. Liebba of Sekosso & Ahmiadu Sekou of Tuklor

(iv)      The Diplomatic tactics of playing off the British against the French worked against him as the British refused to give him support when attached by the French

(v)       The determination by the French to establish an overseas empire made them to use their superior weapons on Samori Toure

(vi)      The non- Mandinka and non Muslim communities in his empire supported the French against him because he had conquered/ mistreated them.

(vii)     The British refused to support Samori Toure against the French due to their policy of non – interference.

(viii)    The French besieged Samori Capital/ blocking his retreat thereby forcing him to surrender

(ix)      The establishment of the second empire from the East denied him access to the coast thus affecting supply of arms

(x)       The loss of Baire gold mine cleared him the finances to sustain his forces.

(6 x 2 = 12 mks)

  1. (a) Give the reasons why it look long for Mozambique to achieve independence from Portugal
    • Portugal was reluctant to part with the economic wealth of Mozambique
    • Portugal was ruled by kings who had no regard for human rights
    • Portugal regarded Mozambique as one of its provinces and not  a colony
    • Portugal had succeed in suppressing revolts by Africans before nationalism took root in Mozambique
    • Lack of unity among  African until 1960’s
    • Illiteracy among Africans  in Mozambique

Any 3 x 1= 3 mks)

(b)       Explain six factors that favoured the success of FRELIMO nationalists during their struggle for independence in Mozambique

  • Use of Guerilla tactics to attack the Portuguese from different parts of country strained colonial resources.
  • The local population was recruited in the army which  out numbered the Portuguese  forces
  • Mozambique was highly forested  thus provided good  cover for  the  guerrilla  fighters  from  Portuguese war planes
  • FRELIMO fighters were working on familiar ground/ Terrain
  • The Frelimo nationalists  cultivated their own  food thus being  self sufficient in food supplies
  • The nationalist were aided financially, materially and morally by communist  countries which enabled them  to continue with the struggle
  • Support by the organization of African Unity (OAU) inspired  the nationalists to keep on  the struggle
  • The practice of Frelimo of setting up administrative structures in Liberated areas encouraged the Africans in Mozambique to support the struggle
  • The recognition of the role of women helped  the nationalist to mobilize the communities to support the struggle.
  • Elimination of ethic difference appealed to all the Mozambicans to join   in the common cause/ they were united.
  • The Frelimo leaders were  well organized./ co- ordinated the struggle effectively
  • Frelimo fighters received constant flour of information about the movement of the Portuguese troops.


  1. (a) List three Europeans Countries that formed the Tripple alliance before the outbreak of the First World War.
    • Germany
    • Austria – Hungary
    • Italy
    • Romania

(b) Describe six functions of the General Assembly of the United Nations (U.N)

(i)              The general Assembly liaises with the Security Council in making recommendations on maintenance of peace and security

(ii)             Discusses issues relating to international peace and security.

(iii)            It elects jointly with the Security Council, the judges of the international court of Justice/ appoints the secretary/ general

(iv)            It receives/ acts on report from Security Council and other U.N organs

(v)             It approves U.N budget/ apportions the amounts of construction to be paid by each member state.

(vi)            It elects non- permanent member of the security/ Economic/ Social fields

(vii)           It promotes the development / codification of the international law

  • It facilitates the realization of human fundamental freedoms
  • It promotes higher/ better standards of living among nations.

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)

  1. (a) State five characteristics of the commonwealth member  states
    • Members of the commonwealth use English as the official language of communication
    • Members appreciate each others cultural values
    • Member countries co- operate in the field of Education
  • They recognize the queen/ king of England as the head  of commonwealth
    • Member countries have similar government/ institutions/ parliamentary system/ judiciary/ civil service/ military practices
    • They participate  in commonwealth games
    • They have economics ties/ the rich nations assist the poor ones with economic/ technical aid

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)

(b)     Explain five challenges facing commonwealth

(i)        The commonwealth is dominated by the developed nations. This

Undermines policies/ decisions made by the less developed members

(ii)       Lacks adequate funds to finance its operations since most of the members

are from the less developed countries.

(iii)      Political instability/ civil wars in many member countries in Africa and Asia has affected the performance of the association in promoting peace/ good governance.

(iv)      Members of the commonwealth have a divided loyalty/ lack commitment due to their involvement in their organizations

(v)       Members of the commonwealth withdraw their membership at will and hence affect smooth operation of the club

(vi)      Ideological differences between the member countries/ capitalism/ communism make it difficult for the members to speak with one voice on matter of international concern.

(vii)     Personality difference between heads of states/ government have negatively affected the association.

(viii)    The association lacks an executive authority to enforce its decisions/ has no standing army

(ix)      The need to correct colonial injustices has created misunderstanding among the members thus making it difficult for it  to effectively  implement its plans

(x)       Racial discrimination reflected by lack of free movement/ restricted visa rules adopted by some counties has undermined social cohesion

(xi)      Some member countries put their national interest before those of the association thus making it difficult for the association to achieve its objectives

(Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks)

  1. (a) State three ways in which a person can become a member of parliament in Britain
    • Election of the member to the house of commons
    • Nomination of the person by the Monarch
    • Through inheritance of the house of lords
    • By virtue of office
    • By appointments due to outstanding performance

(b)       Describe six duties of the Monarch In Britain

(i)        The Monarch approves/ assents bills before they become laws

(ii)       The monarch approves all appointments to important state of offices

(iii)      The monarch is involved in enacting treaties between government and

other countries in relation to foreign policy

(iv)      The monarch summons/ prorogues/ dissolve parliament in consultation

with the prime minister.

(v)       The monarchy gives consent to all cabinet appointments

(vi)      The Monarchy has powers to pardon people who have been accused of

committing various  offences.

(vii)     The Monarch appoints bishops/ archbishops of the church of England

(viii)    The Monarch advises/ Counsels the head of government

(ix)      The monarch confers honours to persons who have rendered

distinguished/ outstanding.

(x)       The monarchy is the commander – in chief of the Armed Forces

NB:  The prime minister appoints while the monarch approves the appointments.








SECTION A (25 marks)


  1. Give the meaning of history

– The study of man’s past events/activities                                                         1 x 1 = 1mark


  1. Identify one age-grade for elders among the Akamba.
  2. i) Junior elders / anake
  3. ii) Intermediate elders / medium Nthele

iii)       Full elders / Atumia ma Kivalo /Ithembo

  1. iv) Senior elders / Atumia ma Ithembo any 1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. State the first settlement area of the Luo during their migration from Sudan.

– Pubungu/Pakwach          1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Name one early Christian Missionary who worked in Kenya.
  2. i) Johann Ludwig Krapf
  3. ii) Johann Rebman

iii) Jacob Erhardt                                                                                                       any 1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. State two characteristics of Independent Churches in Kenya during the colonial period.
  2. i) They were formed/started by the Africans
  3. ii) They accommodated African cultural beliefs/values

iii) Africans held senior positions/they were led by the Africans

  1. iv) The churches worked closely with the African political Associations     any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Identify the constitutional change that increased the number of African members to the legislative council in Kenya in 1957.

– The Lennox – Body constitution                                                                                          1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Identify one Asian who took part in the struggle for independence in Kenya.
  2. i) M. Jevanjee
  3. ii) Pio Gama Pinto

iii) M.A. Desai

  1. iv) Makhan Singh       any 1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Name one African political party whose leaders attended the second Lancaster House Conference in 1962.
  2. i) Kenya African National Union (KANU)
  3. ii) Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU)       any 1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Identify Two Education Commissions appointed by the government of Kenya to review the Education system since independence.
  2. i) The Kenya Education commission/Ominde Commission of 1964.
  3. ii) The National Committee on Education objectives and polices/Gachathi commission of 1976.

iii) The presidential working party on the second University/Mackay Commission of 1981.

  1. iv) The Kamunge Commission 1988
  2. v) David Koeche Commission                                                                                   Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Give the main reason why the government of Kenya introduced the Constituency Development Fund.

– To speed up development/uplift peoples living standards in the constituencies.        (1 x 1 = 1 mark)


  1. State two ways in which the government has promoted the culture of the people of Kenya since independence.
  2. i) Encouraging people to take part in traditional dances/music/festivals
  3. ii) Establishing/preserving cultural centres/sites

iii) Licensing vernacular radio stations which enhance culture.

  1. iv) Encouraging the production/marketing of traditional handworks/crafts
  2. v) Establishment of ministries of sports, gender and culture.                           Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Identify two ways in which the government has promoted the culture of the people of Kenya since independence.
  2. i) One must be 18 years old and above.
  3. ii) A person should be a Kenyan citizen with an identity card.

iii) One must not have been convicted of any election offences or sentenced to imprisonment for a period of 12 months and above.

  1. iv) One must be of sound mind.                                                                          Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Give two special courts in Kenya.
  2. i) Kadhi’s courts
  3. ii) Military courts/criminal marital

iii) Juvenile courts/children’s courts

  1. iv) Industrial courts/special tribunals/rent restrictions/business premises tribunal, LSK       Any 2 x 1 = 2 mark


  1. State two duties of the leader of Government Business in Parliament in Kenya.
  2. i) Second bills moved by ministers.
  3. ii) Chairing committee meetings on all procedural motions.

iii)       Regularly consulting with the leader of official opposition.

  1. iv) Is in charge of the government’s debating team
  2. v) Notifying the house on when to adjourn.                                                       Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Identify two symbols of National Unity.
  2. i) The National Anthem
  3. ii) The Coat of Arms

iii)       The Constitution

  1. iv) The National Flag
  2. v) Parliament
  3. vi) The Presidency Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Give two reasons that can make a registered person lose citizenship in Kenya.
  2. i) If one is disroyal to the state.
  3. ii) If during war one trades/communicates with the enemy.

iii)       If one reveals the country’s secrets to another country.

  1. iv) If one is sentenced for a period of twelve months within five years from the date of registration.
  2. v) If one stays out of the country continuously for seven years without registering with the Kenyan embassy abroad.
  3. vi) If registration was obtained through fraud. Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Give one type of human rights.
  2. i) Economic rights
  3. ii) Political rights

iii) Social/cultural rights

  1. iv) Solidarity rights Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark




      SECTION B (45 marks)

  1. a) Give five reasons which influenced the migration of the plain Nilotes to Kenya during the pre-colonial period.
  2. i) They moved in search of pasture and water for their livestock.
  3. ii) Due to outbreak of disease/epidermics

iii)       Pressure/raids from other communities forced them to move to safer areas.

  1. iv) Family/clan disputes forced them to migrate
  2. v) There was over population/population pressure in their original homeland.
  3. vi) They moved due to drought/famine

vii) The spirit of adventure made them search for new lands.


  1. b) Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Maasai in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.
  2. i) They displaced some communities that they found in areas that they settled.
  3. ii) Their settlement led to increased population in the region.

iii)       They intermarried with their neighbours. This strengthened their relations.

  1. iv) Some section of the Maasai (Kwavi) became cultivators/assimilated
  2. v) There was ethnic conflict due to cattle raids/land for settlement.
  3. vi) There was borrowing/exchange of cultural practices among the communities

vii) There was increased trade between the Maasai and their neighbours.

viii) They influenced the socio-political organization of the Nandi who created the institution of Orkoyoit similar to Oloibon of the Maasai.                                                    Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks


  1. a) Give three reasons why the early visitors came to the Kenyan Coast before 1500A.D.
  2. i) They wanted to participate in the trade/control the commercial activities along the coast.
  3. ii) Some came as political/religious refugees

iii) Some came as explorers/wanted to find out about the resources along the coast

  1. iv) They wanted to spread their religion.
  2. v) They wanted to establish settlements along the coast Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


  1. b) Explain six factors that contributed to the development of trade between the Kenyan Coast and outside world by 1900.
  2. i) Availability of items of trade encouraged traders to come to the coast.
  3. ii) The high demand for goods/trade items from Kenyan coast by consumers in the outside world led to increased trade.

iii)  The existence of local trade among the Africans along the coast provided a base upon which Indian    Ocean trade developed.

  1. iv) The Monsoon winds facilitated the movement of vessels/ships to and from the coast thus enabling the merchants to take part in the trade.
  2. v) The Indian Ocean provided access to traders from Asia and Europe.
  3. vi) The relative peace/political stability provided conducive environment for trade.

vii) The availability of credit facilities from Indian Banyans/money lenders enabled many people to take part in trade.

viii) Existence of enterprising merchants at the coast/foreign lands promoted trading links enabled trade to flourish.

  1. ix) The natural harbours along the coast ensured safe docking of ships for loading and unloading of items of trade.
  2. x) Advancement in ship/boat building led to better sailing vessels thus increased trading activities to and from the coast. Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


  1. 20. a) State three socio-economic reasons why Britain colonized Kenya in the 19th Century.
  2. i) To obtain raw materials for her industries.
  3. ii) To stop slave trade/establish legitimate trade.

iii)       To establish market for her manufactured goods.

  1. iv) To protect her trading empire from other European powers.
  2. v) To protect Christian Missionaries who were already operating in Kenya.
  3. vi) To invest surplus capital in Kenya

vii) To impose their cultivation/culture.                                                             Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


  1. b) Explain six factors that contributed to the formation of Political Associations in Kenya before 1939.
  2. i) Africans organized themselves to fight for the return of their land which had been alienated for Europeans settlers.
  3. ii) The association offered a forum for the Africans to demand representation in the Legco.

iii) The introduction of the Kipande system limited their movement which was resented by the Africans.

  1. iv) Introduction of taxation was oppressive because it made Africans work for Europeans against their
  2. v) They were meant to work for long hours and yet they received low wages.
  3. vi) Africans were against the introduced forced labour by colonial administrators.

vii) The prohibition of the Africans to grow cash crop denied them participation in economic development of their country.

viii) Racial discrimination practiced by the European created ill-feelings among the Africans.

  1. ix) The limited educational opportunities of the Africans made them to feel inferior.
  2. x) The desire of Africans to maintain their independence without foreign interferences.
  3. xi) The introduction of the destocking policy/undermining African culture.  Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


  1. a) State three ways in which the government of Kenya facilitated the acquisition of land for Africans after 1963.
  2. i) Resettling people in the irrigation schemes.
  3. ii) Encouraging people to form co-operative societies/land buying companies.

iii)       Opening up the former white highlands to willing buyers

  1. iv) Giving/providing loans to those who were willing to buy land.
  2. v) Consolidation/adjudication of land to enable farmers to maximize production.
  3. vi) Issuing of land title deeds to make ownership legal/lease land transfers.        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


  1. b) Explain six challenges facing the agricultural sector in Kenya today.
  2. i) Poor infrastructure in some parts of the country has led to great losses of farm produce thus reducing earnings of farmers.
  3. ii) The unstable prices of agricultural commodities on the local/world market has discouraged farmers.

iii)       Various parts of the country have been hit by drought/famine thus forcing the government to provide relief food.

  1. iv) Farmers produce is often destroyed by pests after harvest leading to food shortages/poor storage.
  2. v) Poor technology/use of traditional methods has contributed to low yields.
  3. vi) Politically instigated ethnic clashes have discouraged farmers from carrying out immense farming due to insecurity.

vii) The population of Kenya has been growing faster than gains made in the agricultural sector.

viii) Corrupt government officials have grabbed/sold research land thereby affecting the operations of research institutions/mismanagement of funds for agricultural development.

  1. ix) Farming has become a costly venture for most farmers are not able to meet the high costs of farm inputs.
  2. x) Overproduction of similar agricultural products leads to wastage due to lack of buyers.
  3. xi) Shortage of agricultural extension officers has made it difficult for farmers to get advice on how to improve yields.

xii) Mismanagement of cooperatives has impoverished farmers.

xiii) Competition from COMESA/Industrialized nations has frustrated Kenyan farmers.



      SECTION C (30 marks)

  1. 22. a) Give the structure of the provincial administration in Kenya.
  2. i) The province is headed by a provincial commissioner.
  3. ii) The province is divided into districts each headed by a District Commissioner.

iii)       The District is sub-divided into divisions each headed by a District Officer/Divisional officer.

  1. iv) The Division is divided into locations each headed by a Chief
  2. v) The location is then divided into sub-locations each headed by an Assistant chief.      5 x 1 = 5 marks


  1. b) Describe five functions of the president of the Republic of Kenya.
  2. i)  Being the head of state, the president represents the people locally and internationally.
  3. ii) Determines the parliamentary life/calendar by opening/prologuing/dissolving it.

iii)        Appoints the cabinet ministers/senior civil servants.

  1. iv) Chairs cabinet meetings where matters of national importance/policies are made.
  2. v)  Appoints senior officers in the armed forces in his/her capacity as commander-in-chief of the armed
  3. vi) Leads the people of Kenya during national celebrations/important national functions.

vii)  Grants freedom/pardons a convicted person unconditionally.

viii) Assents the bills passed by the National Assembly.

  1. ix) Attends/participates in parliamentary proceedings.
  2. x)   Receives/hosts heads/envoys of foreign countries who visit Kenya.
  3. xi) Can declare a state of emergency for a maximum of 14 days when the security of the country is

xii)  Confers honours on people who have rendered distinguished service.

xiii) Ensures that the constitution is safe guarded so that Kenyans enjoy their rights.


  1. a) Give three reasons why the constitution is important in Kenya.
  2. i) It defines the structure/outlines the functions and powers of various branches of government.
  3. ii) It clearly states the rights/responsibilities of individuals.

iii) It spells out the responsibilities of those in power/limits their authority/promotes good governance.

  1. iv) It ensures equality of all Kenyans.
  2. v) It is the basis of all legislation in the country. Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


  1. b) Explain six factors that may undermine the administration of justice in Kenya.
  2. i) Lack of impartiality during trials may lead to unfair judgement.
  3. ii) Censoring judges publicly on decisions made in court may influence the final judgement/political interference.

iii) Corrupt practices in courts of law may lead to unfair/oppressive decisions.

  1. iv) Confining suspects in remand for longer periods without presenting then to a court of law for prosecutions.
  2. v) Failure to protect the legal rights of the ordinary people when they conflict with the rich and powerful.
  3. vi) Lack of commitment/inability by the police to carry out thorough investigations on suspected criminal activities.

vii) The inability of ordinary people to meet the costs of prolonged court cases.

viii) Lack of knowledge regarding legal procedures hence find themselves implicated unfairly.

  1. ix) Failure by the legal officers to attend to cases promptly due to pressure of work/inadequate legal officers to handle the many cases.
  2. x) Use of outdated colonial laws which do not address the current/contemporary issues/lack of modern technology.
  3. xi) Lack of one common law derails the effective administration of justice. Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


  1. a) Identify five stages in the preparation of the national budget.
  2. i) Each government ministry prepares its estimates.
  3. ii) The Ministries are forwarded to the ministry of finance.

iii) The Ministry of Finance compiles the estimates into a single budget/the proposed budget.

  1. iv) The proposed/compiled budget is discussed by the cabinet.
  2. v) The government announces the budget day.
  3. vi) The Minister of Finance presents/reads the budget before parliament.

vii) Parliament discusses/debates/approves the budget. Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks


  1. b) Explain why it is important for the government to prepare the national budget annually.
  2. i) It enables the government to identify sources of revenue that will be required to meet its financial obligations.
  3. ii) It enables the government to explain to the public that tax structure/set the tax levels.

iii) It ensures that there is a balance in the country’s revenue and expenditure hence avoiding budget deficit.

  1. iv) The government is able to identify ways of spending without any wastage.
  2. v) Parliament is able to monitor public resource utilization through its watchdog committees.
  3. vi) It enables the government to identify/prioritize the development projects to finance in the coming year.

vii) The government is able to assess its performance in the previous year and improve where necessary.

viii) The government is able to set aside some funds to be used in case of emergencies in the course of the financial year.

  1. ix) The budget provides useful information to individuals/organizations that may be interested in keeping track of government expenditure/enhances accountability and transparency in the eyes of the public.
  2. x) The government is able to win confidence among local and international development partners/donors through its plans and policies spelt out in the budget.
  3. xi) Ensure equitable share of resources and balanced development.           Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks





SECTION A (25 marks)


  1. State the scientific theory that explains the origin of human beings.

– The Evolution theory/Darwin                                                                            1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. State two uses of stone tools by early people during the Old Stone Age period.
  2. i) For skinning animals after hunting.
  3. ii) For digging uproots

iii) For cutting meat

  1. iv) For sharpening one/wood
  2. v) For scraping animals skins/softening
  3. vi) For killing animals during hunting

vii) For protecting/defence                                                                                        any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Identify the method used to plant cereal crops when early agriculture began.

– The broadcasting method                                                                                              1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Name two metals that were used as currency in pre-colonial Africa.
  2. i) Iron
  3. ii) Gold

iii) Copper

  1. iv) Silver
  2. v) Bronze


  1. State one advantage of using the pipeline over vehicles in transporting oil.
  2. i) The pipeline delivers oil faster than vehicles.
  3. ii) It is safer to transport oil by pipeline than vehicles

iii)       The pipeline ensures regular/continuous supply of oil to required areas/depots.

  1. iv) It is easier to maintain the pipeline than vehicles. 1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Give the two main items of the Trans-Saharan trade.
  2. i) Gold
  3. ii) Salt


  1. Give tow social functions of the ancient city of Athens in Greece.
  2. i) It was a cultural centre/music/art/theatre
  3. ii) It was an educational centre

iii)       It was a sports centre

  1. iv) It was a religious centre Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Name any chartered company that was used to administer Tanganyika during the process of colonisation.

– The German East Africa Company                                                                               1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Which was the main factor that unified the communities of the Shona Kingdom during the pre-colonial period?

– The Mwari religious cult/Mlimo/religion                                                                     1 x 1= 1 mark


  1. State two functions of the Lukiko in Buganda Kingdom during the 19th Century.
  2. i) It advised the Kabaka.
  3. ii) It represented the wishes of the people.

iii) It assisted in settling disputes/acted as final court of appeal.

  1. iv) It directed the collection of taxes/how the wealth of the kingdom would be spent.
  2. v) It was the law formulating body in the Kingdom.
  3. vi) It assisted/no general/administration Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Give one economic reason which made European Countries to scramble for colonies in Africa.
  2. i) To obtain raw materials for the industries.
  3. ii) To search for markets for the manufactured goods.

iii)       To acquire areas to invest their surplus capital                                       Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. State one way in which the Ndebele benefited after the British-Ndebele War of 1893 to 1896.
  2. i) The Ndebele Indunas were made headmen.
  3. ii) The Shona police were removes from Matebeleland. Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Identify two economic results of the First World War.
  2. i) European governments spent huge sums of money.
  3. ii) There was massive destruction of property.

iii)       It led to economic depression/employment/starvation/unemployment. Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Give two principal organs of the United Nations.
  2. i) The General Assembly
  3. ii) The Security Council

iii)       The Economic and Social Council

  1. iv) The Secretariat
  2. v) The Trusteeship Council
  3. vi) The international Court of Justice Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Identify two ways in which Mwalimu Julius Nyerere promoted the development of Education in Tanzania after independence.
  2. i) He established the universities of Dar-es-Salaam and Sokoine
  3. ii) He made Kiswahili the medium of instruction in schools.

iii)       He made education to be free and compulsory from primary school to university.

  1. iv) He popularized the philosophy of “Education for self reliance”
  2. v) He introduced Adult education.         Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. 16. State one condition that a country should fulfill in order to become a member of the Non-aligned Movement.
  2. i) A country should be independent.
  3. ii) A country should not be a member of either NATO or WARSAW pact military.


  1. Identify one parliamentary duty of the Monarch in Britain.
  2. i) Summons parliament after a general election.
  3. ii) Prologues parliament

iii) Dissolves parliament

  1. iv) Assents bills of parliament
  2. v) Nominates members to the House of Lords.                                                 Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark


SECTION B = (45 marks)

  1. a) State five reasons why early people domesticated crops and animals during the Neolithic period.
  2. i) Due to increased Human population more food was required.
  3. ii) There was competition for food between human beings and animals.

iii) Over hunting developed stocks of animal on which human beings relied on for food.

  1. iv) Hunting and gathering had become tiresome/insecure.
  2. v) Calamities such as bush fire/floods destroyed vegetation/drove away animals.
  3. vi) Some crops and animals had economic value.

vii) Animals were domesticated to provide security.

viii) There was a change in climate which caused aridity/weather sometimes hindered gathering and hunting.                                                                                                           Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

  1. b) Explain five causes of food shortages to Africa today.
  2. i) Many parts of Africa experience little or no rain at all over several years leading to crop failure and hence food shortages/natural hazards.
  3. ii) The rapid population growth rate has overtaken food production rate resulting into food shortages.

iii)       Inadequate/food storage facilities had contributed to food wastages as farmers cannot store store food for a long period.

  1. iv) Poor state of roads in many African countries hinders transportation of food from the areas of surplus to those of deficit.
  2. v) Low prices of food stuff has discouraged many farmers who may have invested so much capital leading to food shortages.
  3. vi) Many farmers in Africa lack enough capital to buy required farm inputs.

vii) Due to crop diseases and pest, a lot of food is destroyed either on the farms or in stores resulting to food shortages.

viii) The emphasis on cash crop farming at the expense of food crops has contributed to low food production leading to food shortages.

  1. ix) Environmental degradation through deforestation/overgrazing of animals had led to soil erosion leading to wasteland, hence low food production/desertification.
  2. x) Civil wars in many African countries have displaced people from their farms and therefore diverted their attention from farming resulting in food shortages.
  3. xi) Poor food policies have discouraged farmers as they are not given enough incentives incase of crop failure/poor economic planning.

xii) The young-able bodied persons migrate to urban centres thus leaving farming to the aged who are not able to contribute much towards food production.

xiii) HIV and AIDS pandemic has impacted negatively on the labour force in food production.

xiv) Poor land tenure system/land fragmentation has reduced the acreage that would have been used for production scarcity.

  1. xv) Over reliance/dependence on famine relief food/other forms of aid has made people not to look for permanent solutions to food shortages.

xvi) Lack of modern farming methods her led to low food production.            Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks


  1. a) Give three problems faced by factory workers in Europe during the industrial revolution.
  2. i) They were paid low wages/salaries
  3. ii) They worked for long hours

iii) They were exposed to accidents

  1. iv) Accidents victims were laid off without compensation.
  2. v) Inadequate housing made them live in slums.
  3. vi) They suffered from diseases due to poor sanitation/pollution.                    Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


  1. b) Explain six factors that have promoted industrialization in South Africa.
  2. i) The availability of many sources of energy to provide the required power of industrialization.
  3. ii) The existence of varied mineral resources to sustain the process of industrialization.

iii) The presence of well developed transport network/infrastructure to facilitate the movement of raw materials and finished industrial goods to the market.

  1. iv) The availability of both internal and external markets for their manufactured goods.
  2. v) The availability of both skilled and unskilled manpower required for industrialization.
  3. vi) The availability of capital generated from South Africa trade in other goods has enabled her to set up industries.

vii) The government’s sound industrial policies which encouraged both local and foreign investors to boost industrialization.

viii) The high quality of goods has led to increased demand for South Africans manufactured goods.

  1. ix) The political instability in the country since the end of apartehid era has created a conducive environment

for industrial development.                                                                            Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


  1. a) Give three methods used by European powers to establish colonial rule in Africa.
  2. i) Military conquest/expenditions
  3. ii) They signed treaties/agreements with African rulers/diplomacy/collaboration

iii)       Deception/treachery/luring Africans with European goods.

  1. iv) Chartered trading companies
  2. v) Playing off communities against each other in order to weaken.


  1. b) Explain results of the collaboration between the Buganda Agreements of 1900.
  2. i) It led to the loss of independence.
  3. ii) Introduction of Christianity and European influence in buganda.

iii) Islamic influence declined.

  1. iv) Buganda got protection from the British against their traditional economic e.g Bunyoro.
  2. v) Kabakas power were reduced in the peace of the growing educated member of the Lukiko.
  3. vi) Kabaka gained recognition and was referred to as his luglilness.

vii) Buganda an administration position in the colonial administration and was used to conquer other communities.

viii) Buganda advanced more economically than other communities as it acquired European manufactured goods e.g cloth, guns.

  1. ix) Buganda benefited from Western Education and medicine. Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


  1. a) State three ways used by nationalists in ghana to fight for independence.
  2. i) They formed political parties.
  3. ii) They used boycotts/demonstrations/strikes/go-slows.

iii)       They organized political rallies to mobilise mass support.

  1. iv) They used newspapers to articulate their views.
  2. v) They used the legislative council
  3. vi) They composed songs/poems to attack colonialism.

vii) They used trade unions.

viii) They used international forum.                                                                    Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


  1. b) Explain six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in Ghana.
  2. i) Inadequate African representation in the Legislative council based discontent among the Ghanaians.
  3. ii) Loss of powers by the traditional African chiefs created discontent against the colonial government.

iii) The need to guard against possible land alienation by the British united the Africans.

  1. iv) Introduction of taxation by the colonial government was resented by Ghanaians.
  2. v) The meagre earnings by Africans from the sale of cocoa to Europeans created discontent among them.
  3. vi) The order by the colonial government that farmers uproot their crops due to prevalence of the “swollen shoot” disease upset them.

vii) Then involvement of the ex-servicemen in the Second World War inspired them to fight for their independence.

viii) The attainment of independence by India/Pakistan in 1947 encouraged the Ghanaians to demand for their right to govern themselves.

  1. ix) The existence of young educated Ghanaians who had understood the ideals of democracy/freedom who inspired the masses towards a worthy cause.
  2. x) High rate of unemployment among the Africans created resentment/discontent.
  3. xi) The United Nations Charter’s declaration of the importance of political independence for all people inspired the Ghanaians and other leaders.

xii) The charismatic leadership provided by Kwame Nkrumah united the people in their struggle against colonial domination.

xiii) The selective granting of trading licenses to Europeans traders while denying the same to the Africans created discontent.       Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


      SECTION C (30 Marks)

  1. a) Give three conditions which one had to fulfil in order to become a French Citizen in Senegal.
  2. i) Literate/able to read and write in French.
  3. ii) Able to speak in French

iii)  Be a Christian

  1. iv) One must have worked in the French Civil service/be loyal in the French government/military service.
  2. v) Practice monogamy                                                                                        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


  1. b) Explain six differences between the use of British indirect rule and the French assimilation policy.
  2. i) The British used traditional rulers as chiefs while the French appointed assimilated whereas chiefs to become chiefs.
  3. ii) African traditional rulers under British rule retained most of their powers whereas chiefs under French rule had limited powers.

iii) British colonies were administered as separate territories while French colonies were administered as provinces of France.

  1. iv) Most French administrators were represented in the French Chamber of Deputies in France while in British colonies Laws wee made by the Colonial Legislative Assemblies.
  2. v) Africans in French colonies were military officers while the British administrators were both as provinces and non-professionals.
  3. vi) Laws used to govern French colonies were made in the chamber of Deputies in France while British colonies Laws were made by the Colonial Legislative Assemblies.

vii) Assimilated Africans in French colonies became full French citizens while in the British colonies, educated Africans remained colonial subjects.

viii) British indirect rule preserved African cultures while assimilation undermined African culture.                                                                                                                                  Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


  1. a) State the role played by United States of America in ending the Second World War.
  2. i) The U.S.A provided modern military equipment to the allied forces.
  3. ii) She gave financial support to the allied forces.

iii)       She provided military personnel to the allied powers.

  1. iv) S.A blockaded the Panama Canal against the central powers.
  2. v) She dropped atomic bombs at Horishoma and Nagasaki which forced Japan to surrender.


  1. b) Explain six causes of the Cold War after 1945.
  2. i) The disagreements between the Soviet Union and the United States of America over reduction of arms led to arms race.
  3. ii) The occupation of Eastern Europe by Soviet Union caused fear among U.S.A and its allies in Western Europe/Iron curtain policy by the USSR.

iii) The ideological differences pursued by the U.S.A and U.S.S.R created mistrust/suspicion among them leading to hostility.

  1. iv) The domination of United Nations by United States of America and her allies was checked by U.S.S.R through the use of her veto power thus increasing the tension.
  2. v) The involvement of both United States of America and U.S.S.R in European conflicts in the late 1940s created tension among them.
  3. vi) America’s Marshal plan to revive European economies after the war made U.S.S.R to counteract by arming a similar one/comical thus enhancing tension.

vii) Formation of military alliances/N.A.T.O by United States of America and her allies led to U.S.S.R and her allies to form a similar alliance/Warsaw pact thus intensifying the rivalry.

viii) Construction of the Berlin wall by U.S.S.R in Germany to block Western after the Second World War.                                                                                                     Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


  1. a) Identify three duties performed by the Secretary General of the new East African Community established in 2001.
  2. i) Is the head of secretariat.
  3. ii) Authorizes expenditure on behalf of the members.

iii)       Is the secretary to the summit/take minutes

  1. iv) Keep records of the proceedings.
  2. v) Implements decisions adopted by East African Community Summit.
  3. vi) Prepares agenda for the meeting any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
  4. b) Explain six benefits of the new East African Community established in 2001 to its members.
  5. i) There is wider market for different types of goods produced by each member states.
  6. ii) The citizens of member states buy goods at fair prices due to low tariffs levied on goods.

iii) Opening of border closed establishing a common visa/East African passport has boosted free movement of people within the region.

  1. iv) The community provides a forum for heads of states to discuss issues harmoniously thus promoting mutual understanding/co-operation/friendship.
  2. v) There are employment opportunities for people of member countries in the established common services.
  3. vi) Establishment of the common market create room for enhanced economic development of member countries/spurs greater industrial growth.

vii) The member countries are working together towards establishing East African Federation in order to apply common laws.

viii) There is improvement in transport and communication network to facilitate the movement of people and goods.                                                                                            Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks





























SECTION A (25 marks)


1          Give two unwritten sources of information on History and Government.   (2 marks)

  1. Oral traditions/oral source
  2. Archaeology/paleontology
  • Genetics
  1. Linguistics
  2. Anthropology

Any 2×1 = 2 marks

2          What was the main reason for the migration of the Eastern Bantu from Shugwaya during

Pre-colonial period.                                                                                        (1 mark)

  1. Due to attacks by the Galla

1×1=1 mark

3          Give two reasons why Kenyan Communities fought against each other during the pre-

Colonial period.                                                                                              (2 marks)

  1. Competition for land for cultivation/settlement.
  2. Competition for water/pasture.
  • To demonstrate their military power.
  1. To raid for cattle.

Any 2×1=2 marks

4          Identify the two main items of trade from the interior of Kenya during the long distance

Trade.                                                                                                             (2 marks)

  1. Ivory
  2. Slaves

5          Identify two contributions made by the early Christian Missionaries in the field of

Education in Kenya.                                                                                      (2 marks)

  1. They set up schools/encouraged Africans to go to school.
  2. They taught Africans how to read/write.
  • They taught Africans vocational Skills.
  1. They translated the Bible into African Languges
  2. They wrote books/dictionary

Any 2×1 = 2 marks


6          Give the meaning of the term ‘national integration’                                    (1 mark)

  1. It is the process of bringing together people of diverse backgrounds in a country.

1×1=1 mark

7          What constitutional amendment made Kenya return to a multi-party state?  (1 mark)

  1. Repeal of section 2A of the constitution in 1991.

1×1=1 mark

8          Name the document which contains the Rights of the Child in Kenya.       (1 mark)

  1. The Children’s Act of 2001

9          Identify two economic benefits of the Kenya-Uganda railway during the colonial period.

(2 marks)

  1. It facilitated the transportation of goods/services.
  2. It led to the development of urban centres.
  • It facilitated the movement of traders/promoted trade.
  1. It opened up the interior for economic development e.g Plantation Agri & Industry
  2. It led to the creation of employment opportunities.
  3. It led to the development of other forms of transport & communication e.g roads & telecommunication
  • It was the major source of revenue for colonial Authority

10        Give two ways through which the white settlers acquired land in Kenya during the

Colonial period.                                                                                             (2 marks)

  1. The colonial government provided land to the settlers.
  2. The white settlers bought land from the colonial government.
  • The colonial government passed land legislations that encouraged white settlers to own land.

Any 2×1=2 marks


11        State two problems faced by trade union movement during the colonial period in

Kenya.                                                                                                             (2 marks)

  1. It had insufficient funds to run its activities.
  2. The colonial government harassed its leaders.
  • Constant wrangling among the leaders which weakened the movement/poor leadership.
  1. Most people did not support trade unions due to ignorance.

Any 2×1 =2 marks



12        State one change introduced by the Lyttleton constitution of 1954 that benefitted the

Africans in the struggle for independence.                                                    (1 mark)

  1. It led to the establishment of a multi-racial council of ministers to replace the Governor’s executive council.
  2. The ban on political organizations was lifted/allowed political organizations to operate at district level.

1×1 = 1 mark


13        What was the main contribution of Thomas Joseph Mboya to the History of Kenya?

  1. He led/organized the trade union movement.

1×1 = 1 mark


14        State the main functions of parliament in Kenya.                                        (1 mark)

  1. To make laws

1×1 =1 mark


15        Give one member of the AEMO at its inception in 1957.                            (1 mark)

  1. Daniel Arap Moi
  2. Masinde muliro
  • Lawrence Oguda
  1. James muimi
  2. Tom Mboya
  3. Ronald Ngala
  • Bernard Mate
  • Oginga Odinga

Any 1×1=1 mark


16        Name the education commission that recommended the introduction of 8.4.4 education

System in Kenya.                                                                                           (1 mark)

  1. Mackay Report/Commission. 1×1 = 1 mark


17        Give two external sources of Government revenue in Kenya.                      (2 marks)

  1. Loans.
  2. Grants.
  • Donations. Any 2×1 = 2 marks


SECTION B (45 marks)

18        (a)       State five economic activities of the Borana during the pre-colonial period.

(5 marks)

  1. They participated in trade.
  2. They kept livestock.
  • They hunted wild animals.
  1. They were gathers.
  2. They practiced crafts.
  3. They practiced fishing.
  • They made iron tools.
  • They grew food crops.

Any 5 marks x 1= 5 marks


(b)       Describe the social organization of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period.

(10 marks)

  1. The lowest social unit was the family which comprised of the father, his wife/wives and children.
  2. Several related families formed a clan.
  • The Maasai were organized into age groups age sets which were made up of people who were circumcised at the same period.
  1. There was a warrior class whose duty was to defend the community/conduct raids.
  2. The Maasai believed in the existence of a supreme God Enkai, who was the creator of the universe.
  3. There was a religious leader, Laibon who mediated between the community and Enkai.
  • They offered sacrifices to God in special places/celebrated the century that mark graduation of Martin
  • They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits whom they revered.

Any 5 points x2 = 10 marks





19        (a)       State three reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan Coast in the

15th Century.

  1. They wanted to find a sea route to India.
  2. They wanted to spread Christianity/reduce the Muslim influence.
  • They wanted to take part in the Coastal trade.
  1. To control strategic points on the East-African Coast from other European rivals/to act as a supply base for their sailing vessels.
  2. Due to desire for exploration/adventure.

Any 3×1 = 3 marks


(b)       Explain six effects of the Portuguese rule on the East African Coast.    (12 marks)

  1. The Portuguese built fort Jesus for defence purpose which later became a tourist attraction.
  2. Their harsh and cruel manner of suppressing rebellions led to loss of lives.
  • They introduced new food crops which are staple foods for many Kenyans.
  1. Constant rebellions against the Portuguese rule interfered with the trading activities leading to its decline.
  2. The coastal towns that resisted Portuguese rule were destroyed and left in ruins.
  3. They educated the coastal people on how to use animal manure in farming and thus increasing crop yields.
  • Some words borrowed from Portuguese language were used to enrich Kiswaili language.
  • The Portuguese imposed heavy taxation which impoverished the coastal people.
  1. They fostered good relation between the E.A and India

Any 6×2 = 12 marks


20        (a)       Identify three methods used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya.

(3 marks)

  1. Signing treaties between colonial agents and Africans rulers/collaboration.
  2. Use of military attacks against unfriendly communities/ use of force
  • Establishing administrative stations/operational basis.
  1. Offering gifts to friendly chiefs/treachery.
  2. Use of missionaries to pacify Africans through preaching.

Any 3×1=3 marks





(b)       Explain six results of the Nandi resistance against British occupation.  (12 marks)

  1. The land belonging to the Nandi was alienated for white settlement.
  2. The Nandi lost their independence as the British established their rule.
  • The Nandi were resettled in reserves where they could not carry out their farming activities.
  1. They were forced to live as squatters on European farms where they provided cheap labour.
  2. There was massive loss of life as the British forces raided/carried our punitive expeditions.
  3. The Nandi lost property which was either destroyed or confiscated by the British.
  • The Nandi lost their military superiority in the region as they were subdue by the British.
  • The Nandi warriors were conscripted into the colonial security forces.

Any 6×2 = 12 marks


21        (a)       State five demands made by the East African Association (EAA) to the British

Colonial Government in Kenya.                                                        (5 marks)

  1. They demanded for the return of alienated land.
  2. They wanted the colonial government to abolish hut/poll tax.
  • They demanded for the abolition of the Kipande.
  1. They demanded for better working and living conditions.
  2. They demanded that elections to the legislative council be on a common roll.
  3. They demanded for the abolition of forced labour.
  • They demanded for more education for Africans.
  • They demanded an end to compulsory destocking.
  1. They demanded for the revocation of colonial status

Any 5×1 = 5 marks


(b)       Explain five factors that promoted the rise of African nationalism in Kenya after

1954                                                                                                    (10 mrks)

  1. Acquisistion of Western Education by many Africans enabled them to understand political developments at international level and forcefully demanded for independence.
  2. The experiences of the ex-soldiers in the second world war made them realize that Europeans were not superior hence the demand for self rule.
  • The realization by Britain that colonies were expensive to administer hence the need to grant them self rule. The rise of power of the British labour per
  1. The granting of independence to India in 1947 inspired Africans to demand for political independence.
  2. The support given by pan-Africansists in demanding for political independence gave Africans confidence to press for political freedom.
  3. The decolonization policy by the United Nations inspired African nationalists to press on for independence.
  • The failure by the colonial government to reward the ex-world war II soldiers increased the agitation for independence.
  • Signing of Atlantic charts in 1941

Any 5×2 = 10 marks


SECTION C (30 marks)


22        (a)       State three circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be denied the right

To life.                                                                                                (3 marks)

  1. When defending one self/property
  2. When effecting a lawful arrest
  • When preventing escape of a lawfully detailed person
  1. When preventing a person from committing a crime/folony
  2. In a situation of war
  3. When suppressing a riot/rebellion/mutiny

Any 3×1 = 3 marks



(b)       Explain six Civic responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen.                                (12 marks)

  1. A responsible citizen pays tax to enable the government meet its financial obligation
  2. To participate in community development activities to improve the welfare of people in the community.
  • To participate in the democratic process by electing leaders/being elected to ensure good governance.
  1. To obey laws so as to enhance peace in the society.
  2. Takes care of the environment in order to promote healthy living.
  3. Prevents/fights corruption to promote proper utilization of resources by all.
  • Promote/protects the rights and freedom of all people in society for harmonious co-existence.
  • Promotes the rule of law by reporting wrong doers/law breakers to the police.
  1. To participate in National debates/Barazas.

Any 6×2 =12 marks




23        (a)       Give three reasons why general elections are important in Kenya. (3 marks)

  1. They provide Kenyans with an opportunity to choose political leaders.
  2. They enable Kenyans to exercise their democratic rights.
  • They offer alternative ideas of running the government through different political parties manifestos.
  1. It is a constitutional requirement.
  2. They make elected leaders/prospective leaders work hard to ensure that they are reelected/ elected.

Any 3×1 =3 marks


(b)       Explain six functions of the body in charge of elections in Kenya.  (12 marks)

  1. To maintain and revise the voters’ register to ensure it is up to date.
  2. To prepare, distribute and ensure safety of election materials/pooling stations.
  • To conduct voter education in the country in order to prepare citizen for the voting exercise.
  1. To conduct and supervise elections so as to endure they are free and fair.
  2. To conduct language proficiency tests for candidates interested in for different posts before nomination is carried out.
  3. To announce and provide a time-table to be followed during the election period.
  • To receive nomination papers from the candidates cleared to vie by the political parties.
  • To announce the results and declare the winners for the respective seats.


24        (a)       Identify three social functions of local authorities.                          (3 marks)

  1. They issue trade licenses.
  2. They provide market areas.
  • They provide employment opportunities.
  1. They approve building plans/provision of housing services.
  2. They impose cess/other levies.
  3. Provision of education services e.g. ministry of primary schools
  • Provision of health/sanitation services e.g.
  • Provision of security and fire bridge services

Any 3×1 = 3 marks


(b)       Explain six challenges facing local authorities in Kenya.    (12 marks)

  1. Most local authorities have inadequate funds hence not able to provide quality services.
  2. Increased population has led to congestion in urban centres hence overstretching the social amenities.
  • Corruption/mismanagement of funds by some officers has made if difficult for the local authorities to pay its employees and provide quality services.
  1. Some local authorities are too small to be able to sustain themselves.
  2. Influential politicians interfere with the running of the local authorities hence making it difficult for them to operate efficiently. Lack of authority from central Government.
  3. Increased crime rate has led to vandalization of properties belonging to local authorities hence leading to heavy losses.
  • The presence of street families/children has contributed to insecurity/put strain on provision of social services.
  • Slums have mushroomed which have interfered with proper planning leading to poor service delivery/poverty eradication.
  1. Poor disposal of waste has resulted to environment degradation leading to outbreaks of diseases/epidemics.
  2. Shortage of quality material/shortage of personnel.
  3. Traffic congestion.



























SECTION A (25marks)


1          Give two archaeological sources of information on History and Government.                                                                                                                                                                     (2marks)

  1. Tools/utensils/ornaments/onions used by man
  2. Weapons used by man
  • Settlements/ruins of the past/rock paintings
  1. Remains of human/animals
  2. Plant remains.
  3. Garments/ornaments
  • Coins used by man

Any 2×1 =2 marks


2          Give two reasons that made early human beings to live in groups during the Stone Age

Period.                                                                                                           (2 marks)

  1. For companionship
  2. For security
  • To share resources
  1. To help one another Any 2×1 =2 marks


3          Identify two ways through which early agriculture spread in Africa.          (2 marks)

  1. Through migration
  2. Through trade
  • Through intermarriages
  1. Through wars


4          State two limitations of using animal transport.                                           (2 marks)

  1. Animal are affected by poor health/injuries/attacked by wild animals
  2. Rugged terrain/extreme weather conditions hampers the movement of animals
  • Animal transport has limited carrying capacity
  1. Animal transport is time consuming/slow
  2. Animal transport is cumbersome. Some animals are stubborn
  3. Animal transport is limited to day-time and not right time.


5          Why was silent trade practiced by Trans-Saharan traders? (Open)              (1 mark)

  • Due to language barrier/ lack of common language.


6          Identify the main factor that led to the growth of an ancient town of Meroe.      (1 mark)

  • Existence of iron ore.


7          What was the main function of the Council of elders among Africa societies during the

Pre-colonial period?                                                                                       (1 mark)

  • They mediated/settled disputes/made peace in the community.


8          State two social factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa by European

Powers.                                                                                                           (2 marks)

  1. The need to abolish slave trade
  2. The desire to spread Christianity/to protect missionaries
  • The desire to spread western civilian/education/western civilization
  1. The need to settle surplus population (any 2×1 = 2 marks)


9          Name one African country that was not colonized by the European powers. (1 mark)

  1. Ethiopia
  2. Liberia (any 1×1 =1 marks)


10        state two roles played by the African Chiefs in the British Colonial administration in

Nigeria.                                                                                                           (2 marks)

  1. They represented the colonial government at the local level
  2. They recruited labour for public works
  • They collected taxes for the colonial government
  1. They communicated colonial government policies to the people
  2. They tried/heard cases in the local courts (any 2×1 = 2 marks)


11        Name the chartered company that administered Zimbabwe during the process of

Colonization.                                                                                                  (1 mark)

  • The British South Africa Company (BSAC) (1 mark)


12        Give the main reason for the formation of the League of Nations in 1919. (1 mark)

  • To promote/sustain World peace/security. To prevent the occurrence of another war.(1 mark)


13        Give two economic reasons for the growth of African nationalism in Ghana. (2 marks)

  1. The order by the colonial government that Africans uproot cocoa trees affected by diseases
  2. The colonial government denied Africans trading licenses
  • African farmers earned low incomes from the sale of cocoa to European firms
  1. High unemployment rate for the Africans.
  2. Sharp increase in prices of goods. (any  2×1 = 2 marks)


14        Outline two factors that enable Tanzania to maintain national unity since independence.

  1. Adherence to the policy of socialism (ujamaa)
  2. Application of the constitution
  • Use of Kiswahili as a national language
  1. Leadership that was willing to embrace changes. Good leadership.(any 2×1= 2 marks)


15        What is ‘veto power’ as used by the United Nation?                                    (1 mark)

  • A decision cannot be adopted if any of the permanent members of the Security Council votes against it. (1 mark)


16        Name one Major political party in the united state of America.      (1 mark)

  1. Republic party
  2. Democratic party (any 1×1 =1 mark)


17        Name one type of election held for the House of Common in Britain.        (1mark)

  1. General election
  2. By-election (any 1×1 = 1 mark)


SECTION B (45 marks)


Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provide.


18        (a)       Give three physical characteristics of the Home erectus.                (3 marks)


  1. Had upright posture/bipedal
  2. Had protruding jaws
  • Was about 5 feet tall/1.5 m
  1. Had slopping forehead
  2. Had deep set eyes/deep eye sockets
  3. Had hairy body (any 3×1 = 3 marks)


(b)       Explain six cultural practices of Homo Sapiens during the New Stone Age



  1. Made microlithic tools which were small and more efficient that the earlier tools
  2. Lived in rock shelters/cave/hats to protect themselves from harsh weather/wild animals
  • Decorated shelters with animal paintings/hunting scenes
  1. Began to domesticate animals/plants in order to ensure regular food supply
  2. Developed speech which made communication easier
  3. Developed government by setting up rules/laws
  • Developed religion as evidence by the practice of burying the dead with their possessions
  • They practiced simple Art and Craft work/pottery/basketry/weaving
  1. They started a settle way of life where they established villages
  2. They were a variety of garments/ clothing
  3. They decorated their bodies with red ochre/wore orama (any 6×2 =12 marks)

19        (a)       state three disadvantages of coal as a source of energy.      (3 marks)


  1. Coal is bulky to transport
  2. Coal causes pollution
  • Mining of coal can lead to injuries/death
  1. It is a non-renewable source of energy
  2. Coal was expensive to mine and transport (any 3×1 = 3 marks)


(b)       Explain six effects of the scientific inventions on industry.             (12 marks)


  1. Machines have been improved which produce goods on a large scale
  2. Alternative sources of energy have been developed for use in industries
  • Invention of steam engine has improved transportation of raw materials to the industries/finished goods to the market
  1. The development of the printing press has enabled people to read and acquire knowledge/information about industrialization
  2. There has been loss of lives through industrial accidents
  3. Data processing/ storage has been improved by use of computers
  • Robots have been developed which have reduced over reliance on human labour/reduced labour costs.
  • Development of telecommunication has led to buying/selling of goods on the internet/e-commerce
  1. Research has enabled industries to recycle waste products in manufacturing usable goods

(Any 6×2 = 12 marks)


20        (a)       State three factors that contributed to the development of the Trans-Atlantic

Trade.                                                                                      (3 marks)


  1. Availability of trade items
  2. Demand for slaves in the New World
  • Availability of sailing ships
  1. The discovery of the compass
  2. Availability of fire arms
  3. Existence of trade routes/links (3×1 = 3 marks)


(b)       Explain six negative effects of Trans-Atlantic trade on African Communities.

(12 marks)


  1. There was increased instability/conflicts among communities as traders raided for slaves
  2. Many Africans lost their live during the slave raids
  • Traditional industries declined as Africans acquired a taste of European goods
  1. There was increased suffering among families as their loved ones were separated/sold to slavery
  2. Some kingdom declined due to continuous attacks from their neighbours in search of trading items
  3. There was destruction of property as communities raided each other for trade items
  • It contributed to the decline of the Trans-Sahara trade as many people found it more profitable
  • There was a decline in agricultural production as the able bodies people were taken away into slavery.
  1. There was serious depopulation in west and parts of Central Africa due to slave trade.
  2. Africans lost confidence in their who sold them to slave dealers
  3. The trade exposed W.A to new diseases
  • There was fear and insecurity due to frequent raids on African settlements
  • Weakened African communities could not resist colonial

(any 6×2 = 12 marks)


21        (a)       State three factors that enables European powers to colonise Africa in the late

19th Century.


  1. Disunity among African Communities
  2. Superior weapons used by European armies
  • Weak African communities due to wars/natural calamities
  1. Some communities collaborated with the Europeans
  2. African ignorance about Europeans intentions (any 3×1 = 3 marks)


(b)       Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on African communities.


  1. Africans lost independence as European established colonies
  2. African economies weakened by the European exploitation of the resources
  • The Africans system of government were replaced by European system
  1. Africans adopted European language which became official languages in the colonies
  2. Modern African state were created by the boundaries drawn during the partition
  3. Some African communities were split by the boundaries which were drawn during the partition
  • Africans lost land as Europeans established permanent settlements
  • Africans lost their lives/property as they resisted occupation
  1. African culture were undermined through the introduction of Western education/spread of Christianity/health
  2. Closer ties were forged between Africans and Europeans which created overdependence on Europe.
  3. Intensification of warfare among African community
  • Infrastructure was developed in ling major mini and Agricultural areas
  • Introduction of new policies e.g. forced labor



22        (a)       Give three functions of the Kabaka of Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial



  1. He was the Commander in-Chief of the armed forces
  2. Kabaka appointed/dismissed Saza chiefs/senior government official
  • He was head of traditional religion
  1. He was the head of judiciary/final court of appeal
  2. He awarded honours to officers who offered distinguished service/land as award

(any 3×1 =3 marks)


(b)       Describe the political organization of the Shona During the pre-colonial period.

  1. The shone were ruled by an emperor/King who had absolute authority over the subjects
  2. The emperor’s position was hereditary so as to reduce succession dispute
  • The emperor was assisted in the administration by the queen mother, the queen sister, army commander, head drummer, head door keeper or head cook
  1. There was an advisory council whose work was to advise the emperor
  2. The empire was divided into provinces which were headed by Provincial/lesser kings
  3. The provinces were divided into Chiefdoms ruled by chief
  • Under the chief were headmen who were in charge of the villages
  • The empire had a standing army whose main duty was to defend/expand the empire
  1. The king/Emperor was symbol of unity as he was semi-divine
  2. There existed priests who acted as spies for the emperor/king (any 6×2 = 12 marks)


23        (a)       Identify five ways through which the United Nations (U.N) promotes good

Governance in the world.                                                       (5 marks)


  1. Send observers to monitor national elections in various states
  2. Provides financial/logistical assistance to countries during national elections
  • Helped countries to attain independence/establish democratic government
  1. Sends peace keeping forces to war torn countries
  2. Ensures representation of member states in the general Assembly
  3. Arbitrates disputes between countries/warring groups.
  • Monitors/condemns violation of human rights (any 5×1 = 5 marks)




(b)       Explain five achievements of the Non-aligned movement (NAM) since its

Formation.                                                                              (10 marks)


  1. Provided a platform where member countries would speak with one voice in international for a
  2. He encouraged member countries to articulate their national interests before those of the super power
  • Enables the member countries to exert their voting power/influence in world affairs
  1. Hastened the attainment of independence to those countries that were still under colonial rule
  2. Has promoted peace/security by encouraging member countries to observe neutrality in super power conflicts
  3. Has played a key role in disarmament by condemning the arms race.
  • Has promoted the creation of a new international economic order by encouraging member countries to trade with any of the two super power blocs/financial assistance from each power bloc
  • Has given funds to the needy countries through a fund, created to address demanding circumstances. (any 5×2 = 10 marks)


24        (a)       State three objectives for the formation of Common Market for Eastern and

Southern Africa (COMESA)                                                  (3 marks)


  1. To cooperate in creating a conducive environment for foreign/cross border/domestic investment
  2. To cooperate in the promotion of peace/security/stability among member states
  • To strengthen relations between COMESA members and the rest of the world/adopt a common position in international for a
  1. To cooperate in realizing the objectives of the African economics community
  2. To promote a more balanced/harmonious development of its production/marketing structures
  3. To promote joint development in all economic fields in order to raise the living standards of the people. (any 3×1 = 3 marks)


(b)       Explain six challenges facing the Common Market for Eastern and Southern

Africa. (COMESA)                                                                            (12 marks)


  1. Poor transport network has hampered movement of goods/services between member states
  2. The member countries produce similar goods thus limiting the market
  • Some member countries belong to other regional economic blocks/hence not fully committed to COMESA
  1. Civil wars in some members states hamper smooth flow of goods due to insecurity hence lowering the volume of trade
  2. Border disputes among some members states make it difficult for them to cooperate
  3. Some members states prefer trading with their former colonial masters thus posing stiff competition to products from COMESA region
  • Failure of some member states to harmonize tariffs has undermined free flow of goods/services
  • Withdrawal of some members’ states has undermined the planning/financial of COMESA operations.
  1. Member states pursue their national interests thereby working against the objectives of COMESA
  2. Personality differences btw leaders e.g. museveni and Al-Bashir
  3. Quarrels over trading rights under COMESA Egypt and Kenya.
  • Natural calamities e.g. draughts, floods leading to massive food shortages and famine.



























SECTION A (25Marks)


  1. Give two limitations of using anthropology as a source of information on History and

Government.                                                                                                   (2 marks)

(i) It is time consuming

(ii) It is an expensive method

(iii) Information collected may be inaccurate/ distorted

(iv)  Information  collected  may be biased.

Any 2×1=2 marks

  1. Identify one community in Kenya which belongs to the southern Cushitic group.                                                                                                                                                                (1mark)

(i) Dehallo/ Dahallo/ Dahalo/ Sanye

Any 1×1 = 1 mark

  1. Name two Bantu groups in Kenya which settled in Mount Elgon area before migrating to their present homeland.                                                                                                  (2 marks)

(i) Abaluhya

(ii) Abagusii

(iii) Abakuria

Any 2 xl = 2 marks

  1. State two religious functions performed by the Oloiboni of the Maasai during the

pre-colonial period                                                                                        (2 marks)

(i) He foretold the future/consulted God.

(ii) He presided over religious ceremonies/activities

(iii)    He offered prayers on behalf of the community

(iv)     He blessed warriors before going to war.

Any 2 x 1=2 marks

  1. Give two factors that enabled the early visitors to come to the Kenyan coast by 1500 A.D (2 marks)

(i) Existence of national harbours

(ii) Accessibility of the East African coast

(iii) Existence of monsoon/trade winds

(iv) Knowledge of boat making/sailing ship/dhows

Any 2×1=2 marks

  1. Name one Arab family which ruled the Kenyan coast on behalf of Oman. (1 mark)

(i) Mazrui

(ii) Nabahan

(iii) Buraidi

Any 1 x 1 = 1mark

  1. Name the African Community that organized the long distance trade in Kenya during the  pre-colonial period.                                                                                                    (1 mark)

            (i) TheAkamba                                                                                   lxl = 1 mark


  1. Give the main reason why a Kenyan citizen should obey the law. (1 mark)

To keep peace.                                                                                    lxl = 1 mark


  1. Give two ways in which education has promoted national unity in Kenya. (2 marks)
  2. i) Common curriculum/ syllabus is used

(ii)  Learners from different schools interact through co-curricular activities

(iii) Learners from different comnrunities background attend the same schools

(iv) Learners in all public schools sit for a common national examination.

(v) Common medium of commumcation/English/Kiswahili is used in schools.

Any 2×1=2 marks

  1. State two advantages of representative democracy . (2 marks)

(i) People elect leaders of their own choice

(ii) Supreme power is vested in the people

(iii) It is easy to make decision

(iv) Elected leaders are accountable to the people/ people are able to air their                            grievances

Any 2×1=2 marks

11        Give the main reason why the colonial government created African reserves in             Kenya.                                                                                                             (1 mark)

            (i) To create room for European farming/ settlement.                      Any 1 x 1 = 1mark

  1. What was the main reason for the formation of Kenya African Democratic Union in 1960                                                                                                                (1 mark)

(i) To protect the rights/interests of the minority groups.    1×1=1 mark

  1. Name the administrative head of the Kenya Parliament (1 mark)                                                                                                          (i) The clerk                                                                                        (1×1 = 1 mark)

14        State the main function of the prisons department in Kenya.          (1 mark)

(i) It reforms/rehabilitates convicts.                                                  1×1 = 1 mark

  1. Give the main reason why the government of Kenya introduced Free Primary             Education in   2003.                                                                                       (1 mark)

(i)To enable more people access education.

(1×1 = 1 mark)

  1. State two ways in which government of Kenya ensures effective utilization of public funds.                                                                                                              (2 marks)

(i)  It budgets for the funds /finance

(ii) It undertakes regular auditing of funds.

(iii) It investigates /prosecutes corrupt officers.

(iv) It procures goods/services through open tendering System

             (v) Parliament approves/monitors public funds                   Any 2 x 1 = 2marks

  1. Give two disadvantages of Kenya’s reliance on foreign aid as a source of revenue.

(2 marks)

(i) It is given with conditions.

(ii) It attracts high interest rates.

(iii) It creates donor dependency syndrome/debt crisis

(iv) It limits the choice of trading partners.

(v) It delays the implementation of projects.

Any 2×1=2 marks







SECTION B(45Marks)


  1. a) State five causes of the Nandi resistance against the British invasion. (5 marks)                  (i)They wanted to safeguard  their independence

(ii) They were proud people who disliked interference by strangers

(iii) Had successfully raided /fought their neighbours/intruders in the past

(iv) They disliked the whiteman’s/European skin colour/dressing.

(v) They did not want to lose their land.

(vi) They fought to avert the fulfillment of Kimnyole/Orkoiyors prophecy

(vii)  They had an able leader who inspired them to fight/resist.

Any 5 x 1= 5 marks

(b)      Explain five effects of the Maasai collaboration with the British in the early 20th             Century.                                                                                                          (10 marks)

(i) Lenana was made a paramount chief of the Maasai because of his cooperation.

(ii) They lost land which was taken up by the British for farming/settlement.

(iii) They were rewarded with material wealth/granted favoured status due to their                    cooperations.

(iv) They lost their independence/were manipulated as their land became a

British protectorate.

(v) It led to the division/separation between those for/against collaboration thereby                weakening them further.

(vi) They were hired as mercenaries to assist the British in subduing/suppressing                               communities that were resisting establishment of colonial rule.

(vii) It led to the eviction/displacement of the Maasai thereby causing untold suffering           /loss  of livelihood.

(viii) It led to the disruption of their economic structure thereby causing loss of                            wealth.                                                                               Any 5×2=10 marks

19.(a) State five ways in which the construction of the Kenya Uganda Railway promoted             economic development in Kenya during the colonial period                                   (5 marks)

(i) It hastened transportation of goods/services.

(ii) It promoted the growth of trade/commercial activities.

(iii) It opened the interior for better farming/agriculture.

(iv) It led to the growth of industries/mining.

(v) It led to the growth/development of urban centres.

(vi) It generated revenue to trie colonial government. A

(vii)  It created employment

(viii) It led to the development of other means of transport and communication eg                  trade.                                                                                  Any 5 x 1=5 marks

(b)       Explain five problems encountered during the construction of the Kenya Uganda-            Railway.                                                                                                          (10 marks)

(i) The harsh climate created difficult working environment thus slowing down the      work.

(ii) There was inadequate labour which led to importation of workers from India.

(iii) The workers were attacked by tropical diseases/pests leading to their                                               ineffectiveness/death.

(iv) The terrain was poor/difficulty thus slowing down the constructions work.

(v) Some communities attacked the workers/stole equipments thereby delaying the                   construction.

(vi) They were attacked by wild-animals/man-eaters of Tsavo thus leading to deaths of some  workers.

(vii) The transportation of some constructions materials was difficult due to

their  bulkiness.

(viii) There was irregular/delays in the supply of construction materials/equipment                   which slowed down the work.

(ix) There was inadequate supply of essential/basic commodities which made life                             unbearable                                                                                  Any 5 x 2=10 marks


20 (a)  Give five grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association which were presented by             JomoKenyatta to the Colonial Secretary in 1929.                                         (5 marks)

(i) Land alienation.

(ii) Taxation of Africans.

(iii) Lack of African representation of Legco

(iv) Lack of quality/poor education for Africans.

(v) Release of Harry Thuku.

(vi) Abolition of forced labour

(vii)    Abolition of Kipande system

Any 5 x I = 5 marks


(b)     Describe five roles played by Thomas Joseph Mbo’ya in the development of trade

union  movement in Kenya.                                                                           (10 marks)

(i) He was instrumental in the formation of trade union movement.

(ii) He served as a leader in trade union organizations both locally and internationally. :        (iii) He organized protests/ demonstrations against the arrest and harassment of trade

union members/workers.

(iv) He liaised with international trade union organizations where he gained         knowledge/    experience of running trade unions.

(v) He solicited for funds to finance the activities of.tradeUnion movement in Kenya.

(vi) He organized trade union courses/ seminars in various parts of the country to              educate the workers/leaders.

(vii) He agitated for better terms/conditions for workers.

(viii) He attended courses on industrial relations abroad where he gained knowledge   on  labour   relations                                        Any 5×2= 10 marks

21 (a) State five ways in which the government of Kenya has improved the health of its                         citizens since independence.                                                              (5 marks)

(i) It has established/created the Ministry of Health.

(ii) It has established hospitals/clinics/dispensaries.

(iii) It has encouraged NGOs/religious organizations/individuals to provide health                  services.

(iv) It has established medical training institutions.

(v) It has recognized the use of herbal medicine.

(vi) It has established National Health Insurance Fund

(vii) It has established Medical Research Institutes.

(viii)It has employed health workers.

(ix) It has subsidized the cost of healthcare/ free medical services.

(x ) It educates people on health matters.

Any 5×1=5 marks

(b)      Explain five factors which have undermined the provision of health services by the

government of Kenya.                                                                        (10 marks)

(i) High population growth rate has limited government ability to finance health                           services.

(ii) High poverty levels among the people has hampered access to medical services   due to the cost involved.

(iii) Lack of enough medical personnel has compromised the quality of the services              provided.

(iv)  Lack of adequate funds to provide enough facilities has lowered the quality of                   services  provided/ lack adequate medical equipment.

(v)    The continued pollution of the environment has led to increased ailments                              thereby jeopardizing the government’s efforts.

(vi)  Malnutrition /poor diet has made it. difficult for the government to maintain good

health among the people.

                         (vii) The increased number of terminal diseases has  led to the diversion of resources             from  the core health services

(viii) Unforeseen high rate of accidents/injuries has strained the scarce resources.

(ix) Traditional/cultural practices have frustrated the government’s effort to provide              health care.

(x) Corruption  in the health sector has compromised delivery of services.


SECTION C: (30 marks)


22 (a)  Give three circumstances in which one’s right to life may be taken away. (3 marks)

(i)  When sentenced to death bv a court of law.

(ii)  In self-defence – somebody might kill another in the process/defending ones                               property

(iii) When the life of a law enforcing office is endangered

(iv) When the health/ life of a mother/ pregnant woman is in danger

(v) During the war

(vi) When preventing escape of lawfully detained person

vii) When preventing a person from committing a crime/ felony

viii) When suppressing a riot/ rebellion/ mutiny.

(3×1=3 marks)

  1. Explain six reasons why it is important to respect human rights. (12 marks)

(i) It promotes human dignity as the rights of the people are observed

(ii) It promotes unity among the people by encouraging harmonious co-existence.

(iii) It promotes the rule of law by enhancing justice/good governance in society/                           gives citizens control in decision making organs of the state.

(iv) It promotes respect for other people’s cultures by appreciating cultural diversity.

(v) It promotes tolerance by accommodating other  people’s views/ideas

(vi) It promotes democracy as other people’s opinions/views are respected.

(vii) It promotes international relations by observing conventions/ treaties on human                    rights.

(viii)   It promotes development by creating an enabling/conducive environment.

(ix) It justifies special treatment of minorities/disadvantaged group

(x) It provides guidance to state organs

23 a)    Give the composition of the Judicial Service Commission in Kenya.  (5 marks)

(i) The Chief Justice.

(ii) One supreme court judge

(iii) One court of appeal judge

(iv) One high court judge and one magistrate

(v) The Attorney General

(vi) Two advocates, one a woman and one a man

(vii) A nominee of the public service commission

(viii)   One man and one woman to represent the public

(ix) Chief Registrar of the judiciary                                                  (any 5×1=5marks)

  1. b) Describe five ways through which independence of the judiciary is guaranteed in

                                                                                                                                    (10 marks)

(i) It is established by the constitution as an arm of the national government.

(ii) Its authority is guided/controlled by the constitution when carrying out its                            mandate.

(iii) It draws its expenses directly from the Judges Consolidated Fund in order

to  ensure independence.

(iv) Judges of the superior courts have security of tenure of office/ can only be                       dismissed m

(v) Members of the judiciary are not held accountable to their actions/decision if they are

taken in the best interest of dispensing justice.

(vi) The judges/magistrates swear the oath of allegiance to the constitution

(vii) Remuneration/benefits given to judges cannot be varied in such a way as

to   disadvantage them

(viii) The appointment of magistrates is done by the Judicial Service Commission in              order to guarantee its independence.

(Any 5 x2 = 10marks)

  1. a) Name three categories of the Kenya Defence forces.
  2. i) The Kenya Army
  3. ii) The Kenya Air force

iii) The Kenya Navy

  1. b) Explain six challenges faced by the Kenya Police Service in the course of discharging     their
  2. i) Lack of support/negative altitude from the members of the public who                               refuse/withhold useful information
  3. ii) Corruption among some officers renders them ineffective in discharging their                    duties

iii) Inadequate transport facilities hampers their movement thereby making it difficult for   them to respond to emergencies.

  1. iv) Sophisticated weapons used by criminals threatens/endagers police officers’ lives.
  2. v) Inadequate modern communication equipment makes it difficult for them to         relay/pass  confidential information.
  3. vi) Interference by politicians/members of the public demoralizes/frustrates their                   efforts

vii) Betrayal by some officers who collude with the criminals to break the law/subvert             justice.

viii) Inadequate training of the officers renders them incompetent in discharging their         duties

  1. ix) Increased acts of terrorism/crime
  2. x) Poor working and living conditions eg. Poor housing/low salaries.










 PAPER 2 2012


  1. Identify one type of artifact that is likely to be found in an archeological site                                                                                                             (1mark)
  • Tools
  • Weapons
  • Pottery
  • Garments
  • Coins                                                             (any 1×1=1mark)
  1. Name one source of information on the Creation Theory of man.
  • The Bible
  • The Koran


  1. State two ways in which the Sumerians in Mesopotamia reclaimed land for agriculture
  • They built banks/dykes along rivers to stop flooding.
  • They dug ditches to drain water from swamps.
  • They used canals to irrigate the land.
  • They used the shadoof to draw water to irrigate the land.Any 2
  1. Give the main form of transport that was used in the Trans-Saharan trade,

(i)       Animal transport/Carmel/ horse                                      1 x 1=1 mark

  1. Name two groups of people that were involved in the Trans-Atlantic trade.
  • The Europeans
  • The Africans
  • The Americans.                         1 x 1 = 1 mark



  1. State two negative effects of the development of motor vehicle transport:

– It causes traffic jams especially in urban areas;

– It contributes to environmental pollution;

– It damages roads;

– It causes accidents leading to loss of lives/injuries

Any 2×1=2 marks

  1. Give two inventions that revolutionalized the textile industry in Britain during the 18th Century.                                                                          (2 marks)

(i)        The flying shuttle by John Kay

(ii)       The spinning jenny – James

(iii)      The water frame; – Richard Arkwright

(iv)      The spinning mule – Samuel Criton

(v)       The power loom; – Edmund cartright

(vi)      The cotton gin – Eli witney

(vii)     Sylindrical calico printing machine by Thomas bell     Any 2×1=2 marks


  1. Identify the main factor that contributed to the growth of Athens in Ancient Greece,

(i)      Trade/ commercial activities.


  1. State two European activities in Africa before 1850


  • They were involved in trade.
  • They were spreading Christianity.
  • They were involved in exploration.
  • They were involved in spreading Western

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

  1. State one way in which African collaboration with the Europeans hastened colonization in Africa.


  • It encouraged Europeans to settle on African land/loss of African land.
  • It created disunity among Africans.
  • It assisted the Europeans in conquering other communities.
  • It assisted/enabled Europeans to establish their control/entrench themselves.

Any 1×1 = 1 mark

  1. Give the main reason why the European powers held Berlin conference of 1884 to                                                                   (1 mark)

– To discuss how to partition/share/divide Africa among themselves.

1×1 = 1 mark

  1. State one way in which the rise of dictators in Europe contributed to the outbreak of the Second World War. (1 mark)


  • They overthrew democratic government
  • They rearmed themselves.
  • They engaged. In acts of aggression/attacked other countries.

Any 1 x 1= 1 mark

  1. Give two economic benefits enjoyed by the members of the commonwealth.(2 marks)
  • Favourable trading opportunities to members.
  • Financial assistance given to the poor nations.
  • Technical/research assistance to member countries.
  • Support for youth programmes/projects for development.

Any 2×1=2 marks

  1. Give the main reason why the Pan African movement was formed at the beginning of the 20th (1 mark)

-To unite peoples of African descent.                                                1×1 = 1 mark

  1. Name one financial institution established by the African Union. (1 mark)
  • The African Monetary Fund
  • The African Central Bank
  • The African Investment Bank

Any 1×1 = 1 mark

  1. Identify two factors which have undermined the exploitation of mineral resources in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence. (2 marks)
  • Civil war in the country;
  • Shortage of labour due to displacement of people;
  • Smuggling of minerals;
  • Political interference by neighbouring states;
  • Poor transport network.

Any 2×1=2 marks


17     State two ways in which poor transport has slowed down economic           development in Tanzania since independence.                  (2 marks)

(i)      It has made transportation of goods/services difficult

  1. ii) It has hindered exploitation of some resources;

iii)          It has slowed down the movement of labour;

  1. iv) It has increased the cost of transport.



                                                    SECTION B (45 marks)

18 (a)      State three disadvantages of hunting as an economic activity of the early man.

(3 marks)


  1. i) It is difficult to locate/spot the animals
  2. ii) Animals are a threat/dangerous to humans;

iii)          It requires many people;

  1. iv) Hunting is time consuming;
  2. v) It is tiresome/cumbersome;
  3. vi) Animals run faster than man.

Any 3×1=3 marks


(b)     Explain six benefits of settling in villages during the late stone age period.                                                                                                                                                                              (12 marks)

  1. i) There was security as people could protect themselves against enemies.
  2. ii) Living as a large group enabled people to work together hence accomplishing tasks with ease.

iii)          Settling in villages assured man of permanent dwelling thereby reducing movement.

  1. iv) Man began growing crops thereby ensuring regular food supply.
  2. v) Man domesticated animals which provided animal products thereby reducing his hunting
  3. vi) Living in villages promoted interactions thereby increasing social cohesion/sharing of ideas

vii)         People were able to exchange goods/services hence getting what they did not have.

viii)        It enabled them to build better shelter thereby protecting themselves from harsh         weather conditions.

Any 6×2= 12 marks

  1. (a) Give three uses of wind as a source of energy in ancient times. (3 marks)


  • To winnow grains;
  • To drive/turn wind mills;
  • To propel boats/sailing ships;
  • To drive water pumps;
  • To dry grains Any 3×1=3 marks


(b)     Explain six effects of iron working technology on African communities before the

19th Century.                                                                                                               (12 marks)

  1. i) The use of iron tools made cultivation of the land easier/faster as they were                more efficient.
  2. ii) Iron tools were used to clear forests thereby enabling people to migrate/settle in new

iii)       Iron weapons were used to fight other communities thereby increasing                              warfare/ conflicts.

  1. iv) It led to the rise of professional smiths who were accorded high status in the                         community
  2. v) The demand for iron tools enhanced trade between communities.
  3. vi) Communities were able to protect themselves better using iron we were


  • Powerful states emerged as iron weapons were used to conquer/annex weaker communities/territories
  • Iron implements were used as a medium of exchange thereby facilitating trade
  1. x) The use of iron tools/implements led to increased food production. Since                         more land was brought under cultivation
  • Has led to development of towns eg Meroe.
  1. (a) State live economic activities of the Asante during the 19th Century.
  • They grew crops for food/trade;
  • They carried out trade among themselves/other groups.
  • They were involved in mining;
  • They practiced Art and crafts/basketry/weaving
  • They practised iron working/black smithing;
  • They did hunting/gathering;
  • They practiced pottery making. Any 6 x 2= 12 marks


(b)       Describe the social organization of the Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial             period.                                                                                                (10 marks)

  • They were organized into clans which had their own traditions/customs. .
  • They worshipped many gods with Katonda as their supreme God /polytheism
  • The people highly regarded the Kabaka whom they considered to be semi-divine.
  • The people believed in life after death since they worshipped the spirits of the dead.
  • The umbilical cord/jaw bones of Kabaka were preserved for future remembrance.
  • The people performed sacrifices during the time of misfortune/fortunes.

vii)      They had symbols of royalty in form of royal drums/spears/crowns which were kept at the Kabaka’s

viii)     They had religious shrines which were scattered all over the Kingdom.

  1. ix) They were polygamous /married many wives in order to strengthen social relations.


  1. a) Outline five grievances by Africans against apartheid in South Africa.
  2. i) Africans were not allowed to vote for black representatives in government.
  3. ii) They were prohibited from living in urban areas/sharing facilities with whites.

iii)       The pass laws restricted African movement.

  1. iv) They were confined into Bantustans/reserves.
  2. v) The labour laws denied them equal employment opportunities.
  3. vi) Low quality education prepared them for only low cadre jobs.

vii)      The Land Acts gave whites exclusive rights over land.

Any 5×1=5 marks

  1. b) Explain five challenges faced by African nationalist in their struggle for a majority rule     in South Africa
  2. i) some nationalist were arrested/detained which crippled their activities thereby slowing down the struggle

(ii)       The political parties were banned by the government making it difficult for the             nationalists to coordinate their activities.

(iii)      The nationalists were not united, creating tension among themselves thus hampering       their struggle less effective.

(iv)      The government enacted pass laws which restricted movement thus hampering their             interactions.

(v)       They lacked adequate funds to finance the struggle thus slowing down their             operations.

(vi)      They lacked press freedom making it difficult for them to spread their ideas.

(vii)     They lacked advanced weapons thereby making them less effective in their armed             struggle.

(viii)    They had different approaches in their struggle (moderated/radical wings) thus             creating a loophole which      was exploited by the government.

(ix)      Some nationalists were killed which led to low morale hence slowing down the

  1. a) Name three communes that were established by the French in Senegal during the colonial period.

(i)         St Louis

(ii)       Goree’

(iii)       Rufisque

(iv)       Dakar

Any 3×1=3 marks

  1. b) Describe the structure of the British colonial administration in Northern Africa.                                                                                                                                     (12 marks)
  2. i) The colonial secretary was based in London

(ii)       Under the colonial secretary was the governor who was in-charge of the

administration of the colony.

(iii)      The colony was divided into provinces headed by a Resident/Provincial

Cornrnissioner who co-ordinated administration in the provinces.


(iv)      The provinces were further subdivided into districts headed by District officers who             were answerable to the Provincial Commissioner/Resident.

(v)       Districts were sub-divided into locations/Emirates headed by the Chiefs/Emirs

(vi)      There were headmen who were in-charge of the villages and assisted the Emirs in             matters of administration.

(vii)    Both the Resident/Provincial Commissioner and the District Officers were British.

(viii)   Each province had a protectorate Court of Appeal which was presided over by the             Resident.                                                                                 Any 6×2= 12 marks

  1. (a) Name three permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.                                                                                                                             (3 marks)

(i) France

(ii) China

iii) Russia

(iv) Britain/United Kingdom

(v) United States of America

Any 3×1=3 marks


(b)      Explain six ways in which the United Nations provides humanitarian assistance.

(12 marks)

(i)        It assists refugees / displaced persons with clothes in order to preserve human             dignity.

(ii)       It assists in resettling displaced persons by negotiating for their resettlement in safe             areas.

(iii)      It provides relief food in drought stricken areas in order to avert loss of lives.

(iv)      It provides medical supplies to the victims of war/other calamities so as to restore             human             health.

(v)       It provides shelter to the deserving cases by building houses/giving materials for             construction.

(vi)      It provides education to vulnerable groups in order to promote literacy.

(vii)     It assists in evacuating people affected by flood to safer grounds to avert suffering.

(viii)    It protects refugees by ensuring their respect/observance of basic human rights.

Any 6×2 =12 marks

  1. (a) Identify three categories of members of the Executive in the United States of America.                                                                                 (3 marks)

(i)        The President.

(ii)       The Vice-President.

(iii)      The Cabinet.

(iv)      The Civil Service.                                                                  Any 3×1=3 marks

  1. b) Describe six functions of the Federal Government of the United States of America

(i)      It handles foreign policy matters which affects her relationship with other             governments or           world.

(ii)     It vindicates/arbitrates disputes involving different states of the union with the view             of         reaching an amicable solution.

(iii)      It conducts/regulates trade/commerce between Federal states/foreign nations.

(iv)      It is in charge of the national defense of federal states against external aggression.

(v)       It establishes federal courts which administers justice in the states of the union.

(vi)      It levies/collects taxes in various federal states.

(vii)     It can declare war with foreign government with approval by the congress.

(viii)    It makes/issues currency/regulates its value.

(ix)      It pays foreign debt owed to other nations .

(x)       It enacts legislation which governs the federation.

                                                                                                            Any 6×2=12 marks

4.8.1    History & Government Paper 1 (311/1)




1.          State two ways in which the study of History and Government promotes a sense of patriotism

in the learner.




It enables one to acquire a positive attitude towards the country.

It enables one to be a responsible citizen.

It enables one to become loyal to his/her country.

It helps one to develop positive values.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

(2 marks)
Name the community in Kenya that belongs to the Southern Cushites.


– the Dahallo (Sanye)

1 x 1 = 1 mark


State two political functions of the Oloibon among the Maasai during the 19th century.

(1 mark)
(2 marks)




He administered the Maasai land/acted as unifying factor.

He settled disputes.

He declared war against his enemies/Adviced and blessed worriors.

Advised the Council of Elders.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

Give two ways through which knowledge in marine technology facilitated the coming of the
early visitors to the Kenya Coast.



It enabled them to use the compass to sail.

It facilitated the construction/use of boats.

It enabled them to develop/apply the skills of map reading.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

(2 marks)
Identify the town that was established by missionaries in Kenya as a centre for freed slaves
during the 19th century.

– Freetown

1 x 1 = 1 mark

(1 mark)
State two ways in which the National Accord and Reconciliation Act, 2008 affected the com
position of the Government in Kenya.



It created a coalition government.

It created the office/position of the Prime Minister.

It created the offices/positions of the two deputy prime ministers.



(2 marks)


It increased the number of ministers/cabinet ministers.

Any 2 x 1 – 2 marks

Give two reasons why the British used the Imperial British East African Company (IBEA) to
administer its possessions in Kenya.




It was familiar with the area.

They lacked a clear policy on the administration of colonial possessions.

They lacked enough personnel.

They lacked sufficient funds/inadequate funds.

Any 2 x 1- 2 marks

(2 marks)
Identify two ways in which the results of the collaboration of the Maasai with the British was
similar to that of the Wanga.




The British recognized their leaders.

Both communities lost their independence.

The people of both communities were hired as mercenaries.

Both communities got material gains/rewards.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

(2 marks)
Give one way in which the construction of the Uganda railway speeded up the colonization of




(1 mark)
It enhanced the transportation of troops/administration.

It open up the country to European settlers.

It led to forceful displacement/loss of land by some communities.

Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark

Give the main political contribution of Christian missionaries in Kenya during the struggle for
independence upto 1939.


– They represented the Africans in the Legislative Council (LegCo).

(1 mark)
Name the first African to be appointed a minister in Kenya by the colonial government.
(1 mark)
– B. A. Ohanga

1 x 1 = 1 mark


State the main result of the Lyttleton constitutional amendment of 1954.


– It allowed for the formation of Multi-racial government/society.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

(1 mark)
Identify the leader who stepped down as the president of Kenya African Union for Jomo

– James Gichuru

(1 mark)


State two ways in which the Harambee spirit promotes national unity in Kenya.





It encourages people to work together.

It promotes cooperation.

It promotes equity in the distribution of resources.

It enhances interaction of the people.

It promotes patriotism.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

(2 marks)
State two ways through which the Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies in Kenya benefit
their members.






They give loans/credit facilities.

They provide banking facilities/saving facilities.

They provide benevolent/insurance services.

They invest on behalf of members.

They create employment.

They educate members on financial management/investment.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

(2 marks)
State one way through which the opposition political parties in Kenya check on the

Government excesses.



They point out the mistakes made by the government.

They point out misuse of public resources.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

(1 mark)
Give the main challenge facing Free Primary Education Programme in Kenya since its

introduction in 2003.


– Over enrollment of the pupils

1 x 1 = 1 mark


SECTION B – (45 marks)

(1 mark)
Give five reasons for the migration of the Mijikenda from Shungwaya during the pre-
colonial period.






Due to attacks by the Oromo/Cushitic speakers.

Due to increased population.

Due to internal conflicts/family/clan feuds.

In search for land for cultivation.

Due to drought/famine.

Due to outbreak of diseases/epidemics.

(5 marks)
(vii)      Due to love for adventure.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks



Explain five social effects of the migration and settlement of the Mijikenda in their
present homeland.








(10 marks)
They intermarried with other groups thereby strengthening relationships.

There was cultural exchange due to their interaction with other people/


There was an increase in population in the areas where they settled.

There were inter-community conflicts/wars in the areas they settled.

It caused redistribution of people in the areas they settled leading to further


Some were converted to Islam due to their interaction with Arabs.

(vii)      It led to the establishment of Kaya/villages which were fortified in order to

protect themselves against external attacks.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks


State five factors which influenced the Akamba to participate in the long distance trade.









(5 marks)

The central/strategic location of the community between the coast and the


There existed items of trade.

The existence of merchants/leaders/entrepreneurs.

There existed trade routes between the coast and the interior.

There existed markets for trade goods.

The establishment of trade links with their neighbours/experience.

There was demand for goods.

(viii)    Drought/unreliable rainfall experienced in their area/poor soils.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks


Describe five effects of the long distance trade on the people of Kenya.









(10 marks)
It let the settling of people in urban centres that developed along trade routes.

It led to the emergence of a class of wealthy people along the coast/in the

interior of Kenya/emergence of powerful chiefs & kingdoms.

It led to acquisition of foreign/new goods through trade/traditional industries.

People acquired /cultivated new crops leading to increased food production.

Some people were converted into Islam by Muslim traders.

People were introduced to money economy thereby making transactions easy.

African slave labour led to the development of plantation agriculture along the


(viii)    There was depopulation as many Africans were captured/sold as slaves.



It caused untold suffering/misery as people were raided/captured as slaves.

It opened up the interior leading to colonization.

The trade routes later developed into roads and highways.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks



Give five factors that influenced the location of urban centres in Kenya during the
colonial period.







Existence of administrative centres.

Existence of social amenities eg, mission stations.

Availability of minerals/mining activities/industries.

Availability of security.

Agricultural activities.

Commercial activities/trading activities.

Availability of transport/communication.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

(5 marks)
Explain five factors which led to the migration African to the urban areas in Kenya
during the colonial period.













(10 marks)
The overcrowded/unproductive reserves created by the colonial government

made living conditions difficult/unbearable thereby resulting into migrations to


Availability of better social services/amenities/health centres/education provided

in towns attracted them.

The taxes imposed on Africans forced them to migrate to towns in search of


Availability of infrastructure/piped water/paved roads/electricity attracted many

people to towns as they hoped for a better life.

Employment/job opportunities attracted people to towns as it promised them

better wages.

Mistreatment/frustrations by the labour/public works forced them to move to


The widespread poverty in rural/reserves caused untold suffering thereby

making them to migrate to town.

(viii)    Loss of land/landlessness caused by the colonial land policies resulted into a
state of despair thereby forcing people to move to towns.

African enterprenuers wanted to take advantage of wider markets in towns.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks

Give five factors that undermined the activities of the Kenya African Union in the
struggle for independence?









Betrayal by some Africans undermined its activities/wrangles between

moderates and radicals.

Insufficient/inadequate funds hampered its activities.

Opposition from the colonial government/settlers.

Repressive laws restricted its activities.

Arrest/detention of its leaders after the declaration of a state of emergency

frustrated its members.

Lack of proper communication channels.

Banning of the party in 1953.




(viii)    Ethnic divisions/fear of dominance by larger communities.
Lack of political awareness due to illiteracy.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

Describe five political roles played by the African elected members of parliament
during the struggle for independence in Kenya.









(10 marks)
They demanded for the release of detained/imprisoned African nationalists.

They networked with other Pan-Africanists to hasten the achievement of


They aired/presented African grievances in international fora.

They formed political parties/movements to demand for independence/rights of


They popularized Kenyatta thereby making him acceptable as a national leader.

They took part in the writing of the independence constitution/Lancaster House.

They enlightened/educated other Africans on the need to struggle for


(viii)    They advocated for an increase in African representation in the LegCo.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks



SECTION C (30 marks)


Give three conditions that a person should meet to qualify to be a Kenyan citizen by







(3 marks)


A child found in Kenya who is/appears to be less than eight years of age and

If the father or mother of the person is a Kenyan citizen.


whose nationality and parents are not known.

A former Kenyan citizen by birth who reapplies to regain Kenya citizenship.

3 x 1 = 3 marks

Explain six social rights of the individual in Kenya.







(12 marks)
The right to health care services which are of a reasonable standards.

The right to housing facilities which are accessible and adequate.

The right to have adequate food which is of acceptable quality.

The right to regular supply of water which is clean and safe.

The right to appropriate social security to persons who are unable to support

themselves and their dependants.

The right to accessible formal education inorder to promote literacy.

(vii)      The right to embrace culture/language of one’s choice regardless of his/her


(viii)    The right to clean environment/sanitation which is free from pollution.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks



State three qualifications for a person to be eligible for election as a member of the
National Assembly in Kenya.





(3 marks)
Must be a registered voter.

Must be literate.

Must be supported by at least 1,000 registered voters in the constituency/must

be nominated by a political or an independent candidate.

Should uphold good moral values.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

Explain six functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of














(12 marks)


It registers prospective citizens who intend to participate in the elections.

It draws the boundaries of the constituencies/wards in all parts of the country

inorder to ensure equitable representation of the people.

It regulates nomination of candidates by political parties so as to ensure

proportional nomination of members.

It settles electoral disputes other than petitions arising from the electoral process

in order to ensure smooth/fair elections.

It registers that all candidates who intend to contest for positions during

elections/announces and provides an election timetable.

It educates voters on their  rights/importance of participating in the electoral

process so as to make informed decisions.

It monitors/observes the elections in order to ensure transparency/honesty.

(viii)    It regulates the amount of money spent by a candidate/political parties to







prevent some candidates from influencing the voters.

It develops code of conduct for candidates/parties participating in elections with

the view of checking malpractices.

It ensures compliance with the electoral laws by all the parties involved in order

to promote free and fair elections.

It distributes/transports electoral materials to all polling stations.

It appoints election officials.

It announces the results and declares the winners.

Any 6 x 2 =12 marks

State three objectives of devolving the government of Kenya.







(3 marks)
To promote democratic exercise of power.

To promote unity in the country.

To empower the people to participate in decision making /to make informed


To protect the interests of the minority/marginalised groups.

To promote equitable development in the country.

To enable people access services/take services closer to the people.




To decentralize state organs/functions from the capital.
(viii)    to enhance checks and balances/accountability.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


Explain six ways in which the county governments raise their revenue.












(12 marks)
They impose property rates within their territories to enable them raise revenue

for their operations.

They charge for the services they render to the residents of the counties in order

to generate income.

They are allocated part of the annual national revenue in order to supplement

their supplement.

By borrowing loans from the national government international organizations to

finance development projects.

They levy taxes on the services/goods generated in the county to finance their


Through licences granted to businesses/services operating in the counties.

(vii)      By charging fees for the use of the counties property/fines.

(viii)    By renting property/houses to people inorder to raise funds for development.

Through grants eg. local and external sources.


Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks



4.8.2    History & Government Paper 2 (311/2)


SECTION A (25 MArKS) Answer ALL the questions in this section

1.          Give the relationship between “History” and “Government”.

(1 mark)
History is the study of man’s past activities while Government is the study of how people are
1 x 1 =1 mark
Name two types of dwellings used  by the early man during the Early Stone Age period.
(2 marks)





Rock shelters;

Tree trunks;

On trees;

Caves/stone caves.

In forest

Give two inventions that led to the Agrarian Revolution in Britain.






The seed drill by Jethro Tull;

The horse-drawn hoe by Jethro Tull;

Selective breeding of livestock by Robert Bakewell;

Introduction of fertilizer by Sir John Lawes;

Mechanical thresher by Andrew Melkel;

Mechanical reaper by Patrick Bell.

Any 2 x 1 =2 marks


(2 marks)

Any 2 x 1 =2 marks
NB.  For marking purposes, the candidate will get right at the mention of the invention

without the inventor.

State one theory of origin about the knowledge of iron working in Africa.


(1 mark)
It spread to North Africa from the Middle East/diffusion/one area theory;

It developed independently in different parts of Africa/independent theory.

1 x 1 = 1 mark





Identify the earliest method of trade used during the Trans-Saharan Trade.

Barter trade.


State two ways in which Africans participated in the Trans-Atlantic Trade.






(1 mark)

1 x 1 =1 mark


(2 marks)

They acted as middlemen between Europeans merchants and interior communities;

They acquired /raided slaves;

Rulers sold their own subjects/they were sold as slaves;

They marched slaves to the coast;

They transported trade items to the coast.

Identify two modern means of print media.








Any 2 x 1  =2 marks


(2 marks)










(viii)    Posters

(ix)       Pamphlets

State the main factor that led to the growth of ancient town of Kilwa.


–  Its control of Sofala gold trade/ trade in gold.


Give one reason why the Golden Stool was important in the Asante Empire:



It was a symbol/source of unity among the states.

It was considered sacred.

Any 2 x 1  =2 marks


(1 mark)


1 x 1  =  1 mark

(1 mark)



1 x 1  = 1 mark

Apart from an empire, name one other type of government that existed in Africa during the
pre-colonial period.



The Kingdoms/monarchy;

The Chiefdoms/chieftain;

The Council of elders.

(1 mark)
1 x 1  = 1 mark
State two ways in which Chief Lewanika of the Lozi collaborated with the British in the late
19th Century.




(2 marks)
He allowed Christian missionaries to settle/operate in his territory;

He allowed the British to exploit minerals in his land;

He accepted the British protection over his territory;

He allowed a British resident to perform administrative duties in the area.

Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks

Name one African Community that took part in the Maji Maji uprising between 1905 and







(1 mark)









(viii)    Bena;




1 x 1  = 1 mark
Outline two roles played by the ex-war soldiers in the growth of African Nationalism after






(2 marks)
They applied military skills/tactics acquired to fight colonialism;

They trained African Nationalists in military fighting skills;

They joined/formed Nationalist movement;

They organised/mobilised African Nationalists;

They made/serviced the weapons used by the Nationalists.




Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks


Highlight one way in which economic rivalries between the European powers contributed to
the outbreak of the First World War.




Competition for overseas market caused tension/friction;

Competition for sources of raw materials/colonies fuelled tension;

Tariff wars among them created tension / suspicion.

Competition for surplus capital.

(1 mark)
1 x 1  = 1 mark
Give the main incident which made Japan to surrender unconditionally to the allied powers in

–  The dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.


State two factors which promote economic relations between nations.






Loans given to other nations;

Offering grants/aid to other nations;

Trading activities between nations;

Investments in foreign nations;

Debt relief to other nations.

(1 mark)

1 x 1 = 1


(2 marks)

Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks
State two ways in which non-aligned members safeguard their national security.







By keeping off from conflicts of non-member countries;

By maintaining their sovereignty/independence;

By maintaining their economic independence;

By not identifying with either Communism or Capitalism;

By taking independent decisions/actions in international fora;

By maintaining their cultural identity.

By not joining military alliances.


SECTION B (45 MArKS) – Answer three questions

(2 marks)
Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks
18.(a)   Give five reasons why hunting of wild animals was mainly a group activity during the Stone
Age period.






Wild animals are dangerous/could kill people;

They could surround the animals;

Spotting/locating the animal was easier;

Less time was taken to catch the animals;

To give moral encouragement/team spirit;

They could catch more animals.

(5 marks)
Any 5 x 1  = 5 marks
(b)     Describe five ways in which the development of the upright posture improved the early man’s
way of life.



The early man was able to move/walk/run faster with long strides;

Man could use the hands to carry out farming activities;

Man could use the hands to grasp items conveniently;



(10 marks)







Man could spot/sight the animals/wild fruits which he used to hunt/gather from far


Man could see the impending danger from a distance and take appropriate measures;

Man used hands to make tools/ weapons which were used for different purposes.

Man used the hands to defend himself/attack the enemies.

(viii)    Man used the hands to perform/carry out domestic chores/young ones.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks

19.(a)   What were the uses of coal during the Industrial Revolution in Europe.






To drive steam engines;

To provide lighting;

To heat water;

To drive locomotives;

To manufacture dyes/pharmaceutical products/raw materials in industries;

To produce coke.
(5 marks)
Explain five effects of scientific inventions on medicine.

Positive effects














Any 5 x 1  = 5 marks


(10 marks)

Through medical researches/experiments terminal diseases which used to kill/disfigure

people have been reduced/eradicated;

Advancement in medical science has helped to reduce suffering/ to relieve people from


It has made surgical operations safer thereby reducing the number of people who die

during and after operations;

The invention of vaccines has helped to prevent/control the spread of diseases leading

to increased life expectancy;

The technology of developing test tube babies has helped childless couples to have


The inventions have made it possible for transplants of body parts such as heart, liver

and kidneys, thereby sustaining human life;

Advanced/sophisticated medical equipment which perform computer assisted surgery

have been developed.

(viii)    It has led to job creation for medics/other workers who perform various duties in health

It has led to the discovery /manufacture of drugs for treating/curing different diseases.

Negative effects



(xii)      Drugs are sometimes expensive and beyond reach of many people.

(xiii)    Careless disposal of used medical products cause harm to human beings.

It has led to loss of lives through abortion.

It has weakened the immune system due to overdependence of drugs/drug abuse.

Use of contraceptives has led to sexual immorality in the society.

Any 5 x 2  = 10  marks



20.(a)   Outline five European activities in Africa during the 19th century.







Were involved in trade;

Were spreading Christianity;

Were involved in exploration;

Were establishing settlements;

Were signing imperial treaties/establishing colonial rule;

Were mining;

Were involved in farming.

(5 marks)
(viii)    Were involved in stamping out slave trade.


Were involved in spreading Western education.

Were involved in establishing health facilities.

Any 5 x 1  = 5 marks
Explain five effects of the Mandinka resistance against the French invasion in the late 19th












(10 marks)
Many lives were lost due to the protracted war between the two groups;

There was destruction of property as the Mandinka applied scorched earth policy during

the war;

The Mandinka were defeated and hence subjected to French colonial rule/

loss of indepence;

The traditional institutions of the Mandinka were disrupted/weakened rendering them

ineffective in discharging their duties/functions/loss of leadership;

The Mandinka experienced famine as most of the people were engaged in the war at the

expense of farming activities;

Many people were displaced by the war, thereby becoming refugees in the

neighbouring states;

The war created suffering /misery among the people leading to a state of despair;

(viii)    Samore Toure was captured and deported to Gabon;


Disruption of economic activities eg. gold mining and trade;

It laid down ground for African nationalism.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks
21.(a)   Identify five contributions made by Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana in promoting Pan-








He attended Pan-African Conference in Manchester in 1945.

He organized/hosted Pan-African Conference in Accra in 1958.

He inspired African leaders to unite;

He encouraged the formation of nationalist movements;

He co-ordinated plans to decolonize West African states/African states.

He supported black civil rights movement in the U.S.A;

(5 marks)
(vii)      He condemned European domination in Africa.
Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks


(b)   Describe five factors undermining the activities of the African Union (AU) since its formation
in 2001.












(10 marks)
Political instability/civil wars in many countries makes it difficult to execute some of

its programmes;

Border disputes between member countries creates disunity in the continent;

Lack of democracy in some countries has contributed to its inability to end human

rights abuses/violations;

Interference of African affairs by the developed countries undermines the union’s effort

to implement its policies;

Due to neo-colonialism, the members are more attached to their former colonial

masters at the expense of the union;

Ideological differences between some African states creates divisions within the union

thus making it difficult to reach at an agreement;

Lack of a standing army renders it ineffective in implementing decisions which call for

military intervention;

(viii)    National interests are given priority at the expense of the union’s interests;



Inadequate funds makes it difficult for the union to fulfil all its obligations;

Divided loyalty;

Personality differences among African leaders.
Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks
SECTION C (30 MArKS) – Any two questions


22.(a)  State three similarities between the French and the British structure of administration in








(3 marks)
Both had a governor as the chief executive of the colony;

They had provinces as administrative units;

Both had districts as administrative units;

Both had locations as administrative units;

They had sub-locations.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
(b)    Explain six problems experienced by the French administration in Senegal.










(12 marks)
Communication/language barrier made it difficult for the administrators to be effective;

Poor transport network hampered their mobility thereby making it difficult to reach

certain areas.

Resistance by African traditional leaders created obstacles – fear for loss of their


The policy of assimilation required patience/was time consuming since some Africans

were reluctant to forsake their way of life;

They faced hostility from Muslims who were opposed to French values which

embraced Christianity;

The appointed chiefs were undermined by their fellow Africans as they were viewed as

colonial agents;




They lacked adequate funds to sustain their operations.
(viii)    Resistance by the French traders/businessmen – fear for competition from African

Resistance by the French parliamentarians – fear for competition of being outnumbered

in the Chamber of Deputies.
Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
23.(a)   State three ways in which the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
promoted the education of Africans after independence.





Education facilities were expanded/construction of schools;

More Africans were encouraged to join school;

The curriculum was revised to conform to the needs of the people/ provided

quality education;

The government established universities/tertiary institutions.
Any 3 x 1 = (3 marks)
3 marks
(b)     Explain the political challenges faced by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) during the
reign of Mobutu Sese Seko.













(12 marks)
The banning of opposition political parties created a one party state which stifled

democracy in the country;

The dictatorial regime was introduced by replacing federal system with the central

government under his control;

Appointments based on loyalty/kinship in administration created disunity in the


The stripping off parliament of its powers through constitutional amendments led to the

establishment of a totalitarian regime;

The opposition to the government created uncertainty/tension in the country leading to

the arrests/harassment of opposition leaders;

The riots/demonstrations due to the civilians’ dissatisfaction with the regime caused

political tension/stability in the country;

Civil wars divided the country along tribal line hence compromising national unity;

(viii)    Rebellion against the regime backed by external forces led to the overthrowing of the
Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
24.(a)   Identify three circumstances that may make a vice-president assume presidency in India.

(3 marks)





When the sitting president dies;

If the president becomes incapacitated;

When the president resigns;

When the president is removed/impeached.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks



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