Home Teachers' Resources KCSE GEOGRAPHY TOPICAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS PDF

KCSE GEOGRAPHY TOPICAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS PDF

TOPICS COVERED

 TOPIC QUESTION PG ANSWER PG 1. Introduction to Geography 3 53 2. The earth and the solar system 3 53 3. Weather and climate 5 55 4. Statistical methods 8 60 5. Maps and map work 10 61 6. Field work 14 69 7. Minerals and rocks 17 76 8. Mining 18 77 9. Internal Land-Forming Processes 20 82 10. Photograph work 23 89 11. Vegetation 24 90 12. Forestry 27 94 13. External land forming processes 28 99 14. Soils 34 117 15. Agriculture 36 124 16. Land reclamation and Rehabilitation 39 135 17. Fishing 41 142 18. Wildlife and tourism 43 146 19. Energy 44 148 20. Industry 46 153 21. Transport and communication 46 153 22. Trade 49 159 23. Population 50 161 24. Settlement 51 164 25. Management and conservation of the environment 52 165

1. INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY

The topic entails:

• Definition of Geography and Environment
• Description of the branches of Geography
• Explaining the importance of studying Geogrpahy and its relationship with other disciplines.

1. Explain why the study of Geography is beneficial in the management and conservation of the

environment.

1. THE EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM

The topic entails:

• Definition of Solar System.
• Explaining the origin of the earth
• Explaining the effects of rotation and revolution of the earth.
• Description of the structure of the earth

1. The diagram below represents the earth on its axis. Use it to answer question (a)

1. a) i) Name the latitude marked G
2. ii) What is the angle of inclination of the earth’s axis from its orbit
3. b) i) State two effects of the rotation of the earth
4. ii) When the local time is 2.00 p.m at longitude 45°E, what is the longitude of a place

whose local time is 10.30 a.m

1. c) Name two local winds experience around lake Victoria region
2. The table below represents rainfall and temperature figure for a town in Kenya .Use it to

 MONTH J F M A M J J A S O N D Temp (ºC) 27 28 28 28 27 25 25 24 25 26 27 26 Rainfall(mm) 25 38 99 140 277 439 277 69 142 201 71 25

a)i) calculate  the annual range  of temperature  for  the town

1.    ii) Calculate the total annual rainfall for the town (1mk)
2. b) State three characteristics of the climate experience in the town
3. a) What is a solstice
4. b) State three effects of the revolution of the earth
5. (a) (i) Give two theories that explain the evolution of the solar system and the origin of the earth

(ii) Identify the force that causes the earth to bulge at the equator

(b) Give two reasons that support the belief that the interior of the earth is very hot

1. a) State two theories that are used to explain the origin of the earth
2. b) What is solar “system”?

6          a). Name two planets without natural satellites in the solar system

(b) (i) What is a time zone?

(ii) Give the reason why the International Date Line is significant.                               (2mks)

(c) State any two characteristics of Latitudes.

1. (a) What is the solar system

(b) Give three reasons why the interior of the earth is very hot

1. (a) The diagram below represents an eclipse. Use it to answer the following questions:

(i) Name the type of eclipse

(ii) Identify the parts marked Q and T

(b) State three effects of the rotation of the earth

1. a) State three reasons why the interior of the earth is known to be very hot
2. b) Give two effects of the elliptical shape of the earth
3. (a) (i)What is an equinoxal date?

(ii) Name two equinoxal dates

(iii) State two changes caused by the earth’s revolution around the sun

1. The diagram below represents the internal structure of the earth. Use it to answer question (a.)

a)Name the  arts named u, v and x

1. b) Describe the characteristics of

i)Crust                      ii) Core

1. WEATHER AND CLIMATE

The topic entails:-

• Defining weather and stating its elements
• Explaining conditions necessary for siting a weather station.
• Use instruments to measure elements of weather
• Analyse and interpret data on weather conditions
• Description of the structure and composition of the atmosphere
• Explain factors influencing weather
• Carrying out a field study on weather station
• Distinguish between weather and climate
• Explain the factors that influence climate
• Description of the characteristics of the climatic regions of Kenya.
• Description of characteristics of major climatic regions of the World.
• Accounting for the causes of aridity and desertification
• Explaining the effects and possible solutions to aridity and desertification
• Discussing the causes and impact of climate change on physical and human environment

1. State three causes of desertification.
2. a)i) Differentiate the term aridity and desertification
3. ii) Differentiate between weather and climate
4. b) State two causes of temperature inversion
5. c) Explain the occurrence of a land breeze
6. a) Give three characteristics of the inter- tropical convergence zone
7. b) (i) State three natural causes of climate change
8. ii) Explain four consequences of climate change on the physical environment
9. c) Give four reasons why some areas within the equatorial belt do not experience true

equatorial climate

1. (a) Describe the climatic conditions experienced in the Kenya highlands

(b) Explain four effects of folding to human activities

1. (a) Distinguish between weather and climate

(b) State six characteristics of equatorial climate

1. (a) Explain how the following factors influence climate:

(i) Ocean currents

(ii) Altitude

(b) Study the map of Africa below and answer the following questions:

(i) Describe the characteristics of climate marked A.

1. (a) State three conditions necessary for the formation of dew

(b) State two climatic reasons why the government should evict settlers from the Mau

forest complex in the Rift valley of Kenya

1. (a) (i) What is a fog?

(ii) State any two conditions necessary for the formation of fog.

(b) Name any two isothermic layers of the atmosphere.

1. (a) What is an air mass?

(b) Give two climatic characteristics of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)

1. (a) Describe two characteristics of a mountain climate

(b) (i) State two human causes of climate change

(ii) Explain three consequences of climate change

(c) Four classes intend to visit a weather station near your school to study the instruments

for measuring weather element:-

(i) Describe how you would use a rain gauge to measure rainfall

(ii) Name two instruments you would find inside a Stevenson screen

1. a) What do you understand by:
2. i) Micro- climate
3. ii) Green house effect
4. b) Name two weather recording instruments that are placed in a Stevenson’s screen
5. (a) What is an air mass?

(b) What two conditions favour formation of air mass?

1. (a) What is the Inter-tropical convergence Zone?

(b) Account for any four characteristics of tropical rainforests.

1. (a) What is an air mass?

(b)Study the diagram below and name the air masses marked A, B , C and D

Key

LP- Low Pressure

HP- High Pressure

15        (a) (i) What is global warming?

(ii) Give any four causes of climate change.

(iii) Name four Green house gases

(b)(i) Explain five effects of climate change

(ii) Identify with evidence two climatic aspects that could have influenced the distribution

of  vegetation

1. (a Differentiate between:

(i) Aridity and desertification

(b) Give three reasons why the recording of weather data at a weather station may be inaccurate

(c) State two qualities that makes Stevenson screen suitable for its work

1. The map below shows the climatic regions of Kenya

(a) Use it to answer the question a and b

.           (a) Name the climatic region name 2 and 3

(b) State three characteristics of climatic region marked 7

1. The map of Africa below shows the different climatic regions of Africa. Use it to answer

question 18.(a).

a )i)Identify the climatic types marked X and Y

1. ii) Name any four characteristics of the climate marked Z
2. b) i) Briefly explain the green house effect and the global warming
3. ii) Explain three effects of climatic change on the physical environment
4. c) Explain how the following factors influence climate
5. i) Altitude
6. ii) Continentality

iii) Ocean currents

1. STATISTICAL METHODS

The topic entails:-

• Defining statistics
• Identifying types and sources of statistical data
• Identifying and describing methods of collecting and recording data.
• Analysis, interpretation and presentation of statistical data using appropriate graphical methods.
• Explaining the advantages of each method of data presentation.

1. Study the table below and answer questions that follow:-

 CROP 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 COFFEE TEA PYRETHRUM MAIZE 1000 750 300 500 990 700 250 450 870 650 350 550 830 700 400 600 840 600 450 350

(a) (i) Using 1cm to represent 500 tons, draw a compound bar graph to represent the data.

(ii) Give two disadvantages of using the method to represent statistical data.

1. The table below shows leading import crops by value (Kshs. Million). Use is to answer

questions a – c

 CROP Year Un milled wheat Maize Rice Wheat flour 2000 6,989 4,664 1,968 180 2001 7,515 3,342 2,619 639 2002 5,577 229 2,104 237 2003 6,099 1,417 2,981 168 2004 6,754 4,647 3,659 200

(a) (i) Using a scale of 1cm represents 100,000 , draw a comparative bar graph to represent

the data in the table above

(ii) Give three advantages of suing comparative bar graphs

(b) Explain three reasons why Kenya is a producer of the commodities shown in the table

above yet she imports the same

1. The table below shows milk production in ‘000 units in selected Districts
 District 1982 1992 2002 Trans nzoia 24 26 40 Kiambu 23 25 31 Meru 25 27 32 Bungoma 12 14 20
1. a) i) Using a vertical scale of 1 centimeter to represent 10,000 units, draw a compound

bar  graph to represent the above given data

1. Study the figure below and use it to answer question 6. The figure depicts proportional

divided circles showing the extend of network coverage in Kenya between 2007 and 2009

 Uncovered

1. a) i) State four deductions that can be made from the above representation

ii)State three advantages of using proportional circles in representing data

1. The table below shows four principal crops produced in Kenya in the years 2000 and 2001.

CROP              AMOUNT IN METRIC TONS

 YEAR 2000 2001 Wheat Maize Coffee Tea 70,000 200,000 98,000 240,000 13,000 370,000 55,000 295,00

(a) (i) Using a radius of 5 cm, draw a pie chart to represent crop production in the year 2000.

(ii) State two advantages of using pie charts.

(b) Calculate the percentage increase in wheat production between the years 2000 and 2001.

1. Study the data given and use it to draw a pie chart showing mineral production in Kenya;

 Mineral Amount  (000 tonnes) Gold 26 Flouspar 14 Soda ash 32 Zink 28

(a) Using a radius of 5cm, draw a pie chart to represent the above data

(b) List three advantages of using a pie chart in representing data

1. MAPS AND MAP WORK

The topic entails:

• Definition of pictures, Plans and maps
• Explaining the relationship between pictures, plans and maps
• Identifying types of maps and stating their uses.
• Identifying and use of marginal information on maps
• Identifying types and uses of scales
• Determining distances and areas using scales
• Distinguishing direction and bearing
• Identifying traditional and modern methods of locating places and features
• Locating places and features on maps using various methods.
• Description of different methods of representing relief on topographical maps.
• Enlargement and reduction of topographical maps
• Drawing cross-section from topographical maps
• Calculation and interpretation of vertical exaggeration and gradient
• Determination of indivisibility.

1. (a) Identify any two adjoined map sheets to the area covered by the map

(b) (i) Give two features of the map which shows that the area to the south east of the area

covered by the map receives high amount of rainfall(cite evidence)

(ii) Name two physical features found in grid square 4548

(c) (i) Reduce by a half the area covered by easting 23 to 30 and northing 47 to 53

(ii) On the reduced area mark and label the following:-

District boundary

(d) (i) Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map to the south of northing 50

(ii) Citing evidence from the map give three economic activities carried out in the area

covered by the map

1.     (a) (ii) What is the latitudinal and longitudinal location of shopping centre at grid square 5863

(b) (i) Apart from spot height, give two other methods which have been used to show

relief on  the map

(ii) Measure the length of the road D313 between Northing 68 and Northing 70.

(iii) Calculate the bearing of the culvert in grid square 6066 from river confluence in

grid  square 6269

1. (a) (i) Draw a cross-section along Easting 67 from Northing 67 to Northing 71.

(Use a vertical scale of 1cm rep. 80m)

On the cross section you have drawn, mark and name:

– Hill

– Pass

(ii) Calculate the vertical exaggeration of the cross section you have drawn

1. Study the map of Belgut 1:50,000 (sheet 117/3) provided and answer the following questions

a)i)Give the general direction  of the flow  of river Itare

1. ii) What is the bearing of a trigonometrical station 117S 13 at grid reference 443512 from

a tea nursery found at grid reference 443447?

iii) Name two types of trigonometrical station that have been used to show the relief in

the area covered by the  map

1. iv) Calculate the area that s found on the western side of river Sondo. Give answers in meters

b)i) Using a vertical scale of 1cm to represent 100 meters draw a cross-section  from grid

reference 260520 to grid reference 340520

1. ii) On the cross-section, mark and label the following
• A hill
• A provincial boundary
• All weather road, loose surface
• Riverine trees

iii) Calculate the vertical exaggeration of the cross-section

1. c) Students from Chemamul School set out to carry out field work in the area of Belgut
2. i) With evidence, name two crops they found being grown in the area

Use the diagram below to answer questions 5

1. (a) Name the vegetation types marked X and Y

(b) Give two reasons for the absence of vegetation at Z

(c) Name any one part in Kenya represented by this diagram

1. Use the map of Kericho (1:50,000) to answer the questions

Study the map of Belgut  1: 50000 (sheet 117/3) provided and answer the following questions

.       (a) (i) What is the height of the highest contour in the area covered by the map?

(ii) Give the longitudinal extent of the area covered by the map.

(iii) Calculate the area of the part of Kisii district shown on the map.

(iv) What is the six figure grid reference of the junction at Marumbasi?

(b) (i) Draw a rectangle 10cm by 14cm to represent the area between easting 30 and 40

(ii) On the rectangle mark and name the following:-

– A plantation

– River Yurith

– A seasonal swamp

– The bridge at Kabirigut

(iii) Calculate the new scale of your reduction

(c) Describe three ways in which physical factors have influenced the construction of all

(d) (i) Citing evidence from the map, explain three factors that favour the growing of tea in Belgut.

(ii) With evidence from the map name any other crop grown in the area other than tea.

1. Study the map of Belgut: 1:50000 (sheet 117/3) provided and answer the following questions

.           a) i) Convert the scale of the map into statement scale

1. ii) Give the longitudinal extend of the area covered by the map

iii) Calculate the bearing of the posho mill at Kiptule from the spot height at Kiptere

1. b) Apart from forests name other vegetation types in the area covered by the map

c)i) Draw a rectangle measuring 15cm by 8cm o represent the area south of northing 50 and

West of  easting 30. On the rectangle mark

• River Sondo
• Coffee mill
• All weather road loose surface
• Wood land
1. ii) Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map
2. d) What factors on the map can promote trading activity
3. Study the topographic map of Belgut provided and use it to answer this question

(a) (i) Name the two provinces covered in the area by the map

(ii) What is the general direction of Ikamu school from Chemamul school?

(iii) Write the six figure grid reference of the Posho Mill at Kiptule

(b) (i) Measure the distance of all weather road (bound surface) from Kapsuser shops to

its ends in the North-East to Kericho. Give your answer in Kilometers

(ii) Identify two methods used in the map to locate places

(iii) Name three types of natural vegetation found in the area

(iv) Citing evidence from the map, name three agricultural activities carried out in Belgut area

(c) Citing evidence from the map, explain three physical factors which have influenced

settlement in the area

(d) Describe the drainage of the area covered y the map

1. a i) What type of map is Belgut sheet?
2. ii) Give two methods used in representing relief on the map extract.

b i) What is the length of the Murram road from Marumbasi to Kiptere Sunchen

1. ii) Name the main crop planted under plantation from the map

c i) Explain how relief has influenced settlement in the area covered by the Map

1. ii) Citing evidence from the map, give two social – economic activities carried out in the

area covered  by  the map.

d i) Using a vertical scale of 1 cm to represent 100 metres, draw a cross section from the

East 440000 to easting 500000 on the cross section label:

– River

– Forest

1. Study the map of BELGUT 1:50,000 provided and answer the following questions

a)i) Give the longitudinal extent of the area covered by the map

1. ii) Convert the scale of the map into a statement scale

iii) Name two methods that have been used to represent relief on the map

1. b) i) Draw a cross-section between grid references 29050 and 33050. Use scale of 1cm

to represent 20 meters

1. ii) On the cross-section Mark and name:.

– papyrus swamp

– All weather road loose surface

iii) Calculate the vertical exaggeration

1. a) Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map
2. b) Citing evidence from the map, give three economic activities carried out in the area

covered by the map

1. c) State two functions of the tea factory to the population around.
2. d) Give three reasons to show the area covered in the map receives high rainfall. The evidence

should be deducted from the map

1. Study the map of Belgut 1:50,000(sheet 117/3) provided and answer the following questions

(a) (i) What type of a map is Belgut ?

(ii) Give the grid square in which Matongo school is found

(iii) Calculate the area enclosed by Kendu-Kisii, all weather roads (bound surface) to

the  West of the map

(iv) Citing evidence from the map, identify four social activities taking place in the map

(b) (i) Draw a cross-section along Northings 54 between Eastings 26 to 32. Use vertical scale of

1cm to represent 20m. On it mark and name:-

(I) River

(III) Swamp

(ii) Calculate the vertical exaggeration

(c) Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map

(d) Citing evidence from the map, explain two conditions that favour cattle rearing in the

area  covered by the map

1. Study the map of Kericho (1:50,000) sheet 117/4 provided and answer the following questions

(a) i) What is the bearing of the secondary trigometrica station 2173 around Kapcheptoror

school form the dry weather road junction at Kipchimchim school

(ii) Give a six-figure grid reference of the trigometrical station (other) 1811 near

Poiywek school

(iii) Convert the scale of the map into a statement scale

(iv) Using liens of latitudes and longitudes give the position of Keongo school at gird

square 5662

(v) Give two methods used in representing relief in the are covered by the map

(b) Citing evidence from the map, state:-

(i) Two social functions of Kericho Municipality

(ii) Two economic activities carried out in the area covered by the map

(c) Using a vertical scale 1cm represents 20m

(i) Draw a cross section form grid reference 550640 to 590660

(ii) On the cross-section, mark and name the following:-

• A river
• A hill

(d) Describe the drainage of the are covered by the map

1. Study the map of Belgut (117/3) provided and answer the questions that follow:

(a) Identify two provinces covered by the map of Belgut

(b) (i)Using a vertical scale 1cm represents 50m, draw a cross section from grid reference

260590 to 330560. on it mark and name;

• All weather loose surface roads
• Marshes
• River

(ii) Calculate the vertical exaggeration of the cross section.

(iii) What type of map is Belgut?

1. Study the map of BELGUT (1:50000 sheet 117/3) provided and answer the questions below:

a)i) Give the six figure grid references of the confluence of the river Itare and river Kitoi.

1. ii) Measure the length in kilometers of all weather roads loose surface from the junction

at grid square 3957 to the junction at Kipmaso grid square 3751.

iii) Give the name to the adjoining sheet found in the North East of Belgut           .

1. b) i) What is the longitudinal extent of the area covered by the map?
2. ii) What is the approximate height of the school at kiptere grid square 3658?
3. c) i) Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map.

1. ii) Using a vertical scale of 1cm to represent 40 metres draw a cross-section along northing

53 from easting 24 to 29.

On it mark and name

– regional boundary

– Foot path

– main track (motorable)

1. d) i) Describe the distribution of the settlement of the area covered by the map.
2. ii) Citing evidence from the map, explain two factors that may favour trading activities

in the area covered by the map.

1. FIELD WORK

The topic entails:-

• Definition of field work
• Stating different types of field work
• Explaining the importance of field work
• Explaining the procedure to be followed during field work
• Identifying possible problems during field work
• Carrying out field work within the local environment.

1. a) Form four students of your school carried out a field study on beef farming in Narok District.

(i) State four objectives of their study.

(ii) Give four follow up activities they carried out.

(b) Students of Kakao secondary school intend to undertake a field study of Olkaria I geothermal

power generating project. Answer the following questions;

(i) State three objectives they would write down for the field study

(ii) List three preparations they would undertake before the actual field study

(i) Describe how it was constructed

(ii) List three raw materials the class may have identified which are used in the production

of biogas

1. a) You are planning to carry out a field study on soil in an arid region.
2. i) What are some of the characteristics you would observe?
3.             ii) Why would you prepare a working schedule for the study?

1. a)i)Give three natural vegetation zones  on mount Kenya
2.    ii) Name three temperate grasslands found   in the world

iii) Describe the characteristics of the hot desert vegetation

1. b) Explain three causes of the decline of the areas under forests in Kenya
2. c) You are supposed to carry out a field study of a weather station near your school

i)What preparations would you make for the study

1. ii) What instruments are you likely to find within the Stevenson box

1. (a) You are required to carry out a field study on vegetation within the local environment;

(i) Apart from identifying different types of plants, state other activities you will carry

during the field study

(ii) How will you identify the different types of plants

(b) Form four students from Kisumu west district carried out a field study in an area of soil

erosion in Machakos district

(i)  State three causes of soil erosion they could have identified

(ii) Name two effects of soil erosion they have identified

(iii) State any one objective for their study

1. (a) Students from Kisumu West secondary school carried out a field study in the area

covered by the map

(i) What three preparations did they make?

(ii) State any null hypothesis for the study

1. b) Your class intends to carry out a field study on weathering within the vicinity of the school
2. i) State the type of information you are likely to collect
3. ii) State two follow up activities you are likely to carry after the study

1. (a) Students from Kericho school set out to conduct a field study on the relationship between

climate and vegetation of the area covered by the map.

(i) What preparation did they carry out for the study?

(ii) State three evidences they would identify to support climate change.

(iii) State two possible alternative hypotheses for the study

(b) Students are planning to carry out a field study in the area affected by climate change;

(i) State three ways in which observation would be the best method of data collection.

(c) Citing evidence from the map, explain three factors that have influenced settlement in the

area covered by the map.

1. (a) Students of Chepkosilen school carried a field study on economic activities in the

area covered by the map.

(i) Give two preparations they made before the study.

(ii) State two hypotheses for their study.

(iii) Citing evidence, identify three economic activities that they studied.

(iv) What type of map is Belgut?

(b) Students from your school have conducted a field study on a Lake in Kenya

(i) In their study they identified some of the problems affecting the lake to have been

caused by nearby industries and deforestation in the surrounding areas. Explain how

each of the two could have  affected the lake.

(ii) Name any two methods they might have used to collect the data.

(iii) State any two reasons why it would be important to do follow-up after the study

(d) You are required to carry out a field study on soil erosion around your school

(i) State two methods you would use t record data

(ii) Give three problems you may encounter during the field study

1. a) Students of Masabot School carried out a field study of Changoi tea factory.
2. i) Name two types of roads they used to travel to Changoi tea factory.
3. ii) What preparations they were likely to make for the study

b)(i)  Suppose you were a student in the school at Tegat and you plan to carry out a day’s

field study  of Changoi tea factory.  Design a working programme (schedule) you would

use during the day of study

.                ii) Your class is required to carry out a field study of a river. What would be the advantages

of  dividing the class into groups according to the stages   of the long profile of the river ?

1. a) You intent to carry out a field study on a desert landscape.
2. i) Apart from conducting oral interviews, state two other methods you would use to

collect information

1. ii) State two problems that you are likely to encounter in the field
2. b) You are provided to carry out a field study of the vegetation within the local environment;
3. i) Apart from identifying the different types of plants, state three other activities you

will carry out during the field study

1. ii) How will you identify the different types of plants?

1. a) Your class went for a field study in Samburu.
2. i) List three methods they are likely to have used to present their findings
3. b) i) State three activities they would be involved in.
4.        ii) Identify three problems they are likely to encounter.

1. (a) You are required to carry out a field work on soils around your school:-

(i) State three objectives for your study

(ii) State two reasons why it would be necessary to carry samples back to school

(b) You carried out field work ion soils around your school:-

(i) State three preparations you made before the actual day of field work

(ii) State any three problems you encountered during the field work

1. (a) You are to carry out a field study on rivers near your school:-

(i) Name three methods you will use to collect your data

(ii) Why is it important to carry out a pre-visit

(iii) How will your findings be useful to the local community?

1. (a) A field study was carried out around the rift valley lakes:-

State two characteristics of the lakes they would have identified

1. b) You intend to go for a field study to a region where folding has occurred.
2. i) State three reasons why you would conduct a pre-visit.
3. ii) Identify two methods you would use to record data.

c)i) State two problems they may face during their study

1.        ii) State two follow up activities they may have been involved in after the field study

1. The table below shows the crops produced in Kenya between the years 2000 to 2002

 CROPS ‘000’ 2000 2001 2002 WHEAT 22 37 83 MAIZE 131 255 325 BARLEY 12 26 47 TOTAL 165 318 455

(a) (i) Calculate the percentage of wheat production in the year 2000

(ii) Using a scale of 1cm rep 200 units, draw proportional circles to show the production

of  crops each year. Show your calculations

(b) Explain three physical conditions which favour wheat growing in Kenya

(c) Compare wheat growing in Kenya and Canada under the following:-

(i) Mechanization

(ii) Marketing

(iii) Size

(d) State four uses of wheat

1. (a) Use the following information to answer the questions below:
 Type of energy No. of families using each type Average monthly income per family (Kshs.) Fire wood Kerosene Charcoal Liquid Petroleum Gas Saw dust Hydroelectricity 13,400 11,200 9,100 5,300 4,000 2,000 900 1600 1000 3000 900 4500 Total 45,000 11,900

(i) Draw a pie-chart with a radius of 4cm to represent the number of families using each type

(b) Students from Matungu district went to study gold mining in Kakamega South district

(i) State any two main preparations made before field study visit

(ii) Give any two follow-up activities they engage in after the study

(c) Suppose you were to conduct a field study in Kakamega forest

(i) State three problems that are likely to hinder your work

(ii) How could you determine the following:-

-Heights of a tree

-Diameter of stem

-Tree of the same species

(d) You have been asked to conduct field study on land pollution in an urban set up;

(i) State three problems that you may encounter;

(ii) Your class carried out a field study on forests in your area. List four measures you

would  recommend to conserve forests in the area

1. MINERALS AND ROCKS

The topic entails:-

• Defining minerals and rocks
• Stating the characteristics of minerals
• Classification of rocks according to mode of formation
• Stating the characteristics of rocks
• Accounting for the distribution of major types of rocks in Kenya.
• Explaining the significance of rocks
• Identifying major types of rocks and their uses within the local environment.

1. (a) State two formations in which mineral ores occur

(b) Give three negative effects of open cast mining on the environment

1. a) Briefly describe how minerals occur in veins and lodes

(b) Describe how coral rocks are formed

1. State three classification  of sedimentary rocks based on their mode of formation
2. a) A part from Thermol Metamorphism, name two other types of metamorphism
3. b) Describe the following types of rocks
4. i) Calcareous rocks
5. ii) Carbonaceous rocks.

iii) State three examples of rocks that are dominant at the coast of Kenya.

1. c) i) Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed through the following processes.

Mechanical Process

1. ii) Chemical Process
2. (a) Give three ways through which rocks may be metamorphosed. (3 mks)

(b) Name two examples of plutonic rocks

1. c) State three conditions that favour the formation of an artesian basin.
2. MINING

This topic entails

• Defining mining
• Explaining the factors influencing:-

-The occurrence of minerals

-Mining activities

• Describing methods of mining
• Locating major minerals on the map of East Africa
• Explaining the significance of minerals in Kenya
• Accounting for the problems facing the mining industry in Kenya.
• Explaining the effects of mining on the environment in Kenya.
• Describing the occurrence of specific minerals and their exploitation in selected countries.

1. (a)  (i) What problem has been brought about by uncontrolled mining of minerals in Kenya?

(ii) Where is fluorspar mined in Kenya?

(iii) Describe how trona is mined and processed in Magadi

(b) (i) List two ways in which mining leads to loss of biodiversity

(ii) List two ways in which mining leads to pollution

1. (a) (i) Name three methods of mining.

(ii) State five factors that influence the exploration of minerals.

(iii) State three ways in which mining derelicts can be reclaimed.

1. (a) State two ways in which gold in South Africa occurs.             (2mks)

(b) Give three ways in which abandoned mined sites could be rehabilitated.

1. (a) Name two countries in Africa where oil is mined

(b) State two by-products of crude oil

1. (a) (i) Define the term ‘mining method’

(ii) Explain how the following factors influence mining:-

– Technology

– Quality of the ore

(b) Use the map of East Africa below to answer question (i)

MAP OF EAST AFRICA

(i) Name the minerals found in the areas marked P, Q, R

(ii) Name two areas in South Africa where diamonds are mined

1. c) Open-cast method of mining.
2. d) Benefits of trona to Kenya.
3. e) Problems facing the mining industry in Kenya.

1. Use the map of East Africa below to answer question (a) (i)

(a) (i) Name the minerals mined in the areas marked W, X, Y and Z

(ii) Give four ways in which minerals occur

(b)Identify any five factors that influence the exploitation of minerals

(c) Explain any four problems associated with mining

(d) List any four main minerals mined in Kenya

1. (a) Give three main methods of mining

(b) The following data shows the value of minerals exported from Tanzania between the

years 2000-20003. Use it to answer the following questions:

 Value of mineral exports in millions of Tshs. 2000 2001 20002 2003 Gold 680 700 500 400 Diamonds 1000 800 700 900 Mica 400 100 400 100

(i) Calculate the percentage decline in the value of diamond exports between 2000 and 20001.

(c)Explain any four ways in which trona mining contributes to the growth of the economy

in Kenya

1. (a) (i) State three methods used in mining

(ii) Name the mineral found in the following areas;-

– Mwandui

– Kasese

(b) Describe the following factors influence mining of minerals

(i) Technology

(ii) Quality of ore

(iii) Accessibility

(c) Explain four problems facing the mining of Gold in South Africa

(d) (i) List two leading to oil producing countries in the middle East

(ii) State three uses of petroleum

(e). State three problems of land dereliction

1. The diagram below shows

(a) Identify the parts marked X and Y

(b) Give three reasons why Kenya imports petroleum in crude form and not as refined

by-products

1. (a) Differentiate between veins and lodes

(b) State three effects of land dereliction

1. (a) (i) Give three methods of mining.

(ii) Name two places where gold is mined in Tanzania.

(b) Explain four factors which influence the exploitation of minerals.

(c)  State four negative effects of mining on the environment.

(d) (i) Describe how solution  mining is carried out.

(ii) State three ways n which mining contributes to the economy of Kenya.

1. (a) (i) Name three methods of mining

(ii) Explain three ways in which soda ash contributes to the economy of Kenya

(iii) Identify four problems facing gold mining in South Africa

(b) (i) State three conditions necessary for the formation of petroleum

(ii) Give two by-products obtained when crude oil is refined

(c) What three benefits would Kenya get if the current prospecting for oil yields good results

(d) (i) Name two minerals mined in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

(ii) Name two ports through which minerals from East Africa are exported through

1. INTERNAL LAND-FORMING PROCESSES

This area covers :-

1. Earth Movements
2. Folding
3. Faulting
4. Vulcanicity
5. Earth Quakes

It entails:

• Definition of earth movements
• Explaining the causes of horizontal and vertical earth movements.
• Explaining theories of continental drift and plate tectonics
• Defining folding, faulting and vulcanicity and earthquakes.
• Explaining the
• Description of types of folds, faults, and forms of vulcanicity
• Explaining the resultant features due to folding, faulting and vulcanicity
• Explain causes of earth quakes.
• Describing how earth quakes are measured
• Account for the world distribution of earth quake ones, fold mountain systems and features resulting from faulting and vulcanicity
• Explaining the significance of the resultant features of folding, faulting, vulcanicity and the effects of earth quakes.

1. a) Composite volcano

b)i)What are earthquakes?

1. ii) Name two types of earthquakes waves

iii) Explain three ways in which volcanic mountains positively influence human activities

1. a) Using well labeled diagrams, distinguish between a simple symmetrical fold and an

asymmetrical fold.

1. b) i) Name two fold mountains of the Alpine Orogeny
2. ii) With the aid of well labeled diagrams, describe how a fold mountain is formed.
3. c) Explain three positive effects of folding on the physical & human environment.

1. (a) State three ways in which the earth’s crust is affected by the earthquakes

(b) State two evidences of continental drift theory

(c) Name three types of plate tectonic boundaries

1. (a) (i) What are tectonic plates

(ii) Give any two examples of oceanic plates:-

(b) Describe how the following cause earth movements:

(ii) Magma movement in the crust

(iii) Convectional currents in the mantle.

1. (a) Give any two natural causes of earthquakes

(b) Name three characteristics of the rift valley lakes of Kenya

1. (a) State three characteristics of the rift valley lakes of Kenya

(b)(i) What are earth quakes?

(ii)Name three types of earth quake waves

c). Differentiate between extension boundaries and compression boundaries.

7          a. i) What is an earthquake

1.     ii) Give two ways in which earthquakes can be predicted
2. b) State two ways in which faulting interferes with transport and communication lines.

1. The diagram below represents a feature resulting form faulting

(a) Name the feature

(b) Name part x and y

(c) Give three negative of an earthquake

1. (a) Differentiate between hot springs and geysers

(b) The feature below show an extrusive landform in a volcanic area

(c) Using well labelled diagrams, describe how the following are formed:

(i) An anticlinal fault

(ii) An overthrust fold

(d) (i) Explain any three ways in which features resulting from volcanicity are a problem

to people

(ii) Describe how subsidence can lead to formation of a caldera.

1. (a) What is the plate tectonic theory ?

(b) Name three types of tectonic plate boundaries   .

(c) Explain two evidences that support continental drift theory.

1. (a) (i) Name two fold mountains in Africa apart from Atlas mountains

(ii) Differentiate between symmetrical and asymmetrical folds

(iii) Apart from symmetrical and asymmetrical folds, name other types of folds

(b) (i) With the aid of well labeled diagrams explain the formation of fold mountains

(ii) Give two-examples of fold mountains in North America

1. a) Effects of the elliptical shape of the earths orbit
2. b) Mention three causes of the earth movements

1. a) List two characteristics of destructive plate boundary
2. b) Outline three natural causes of earthquakes
3. b) State two effects of earthquakes on crystal rocks

1. a) List two factors that determine the degree of folding in rocks
2. b) State three effects of faulting on drainage systems

1. (a) State any one evidence that support the theory of the drifting of continents

(b)(i) Apart from Africa, name any two other continents that form the Gondwanaland

(ii) What is panthalassa?

1. a) Give two reasons why hardwood trees species in Kenya are in danger of extraction
2. b) State three problems that affect forestry in Canada

1. The diagram below shows a simple fold

(a) (i) Name the part marked A, B and C

(ii) Name two fold mountains outside Africa

(iii) Give thee landform associated with folded regions

(b) With the aid of well labeled diagram describe the process of formation of Fold Mountain

(c) Explain four ways in which folding influences human activities

1. PHOTOGRAPH WORK

The topic entails:-

• Identifying types of photographs
• Describing parts of a photograph
• Estimating the sizes of features appearing on photographs
• Making sketch form photographs
• Identifying and interpreting features on photographs.

1. Study the photograph (a) and (b) and use them to answer the questions below:-

 Photo A
 Photo B

(a) (i) Name the type of photograph shown in the figure (b)

(ii) Name three human activities carried out in photographs (a) and (b)

(b) If the two photographs were taken from western province, name four districts in the

province the photographs are likely to have been taken from?

(c) Explain five physical conditions that encourage the growth of crops in photograph (a)

(d) State five problems facing farmers of this crop in Kenya

1.  (a) (i) State three characteristics of the  animal breeds

(ii) Explain why the above activity is mainly located in the highlands in Kenya

1. VEGETATION

The topic entails:

• Definition of vegetation
• Discussing the factors influencing the distribution of vegetation
• Identifying and describing the characteristics of major vegetation regions of Kenya and the world
• Discussing the significance of vegetation and explain their uses within the local environment

1. a) Name two areas of the world with temperate grasslands.

(b) Explain how the characteristics of the vegetation in climate B are adapted to the.

environmental conditions

1. The diagram below shows mountain vegetation zones, use it to answer the questions that follow.

(a) (i) Name the vegetation zone marked X,Y,Z.

(ii) Give four char characteristic of tropical savannah vegetations

(b) Explain how the following factors influence vegetation:

(i) Aspect

(ii) Human activities

(c) Name the specific countries of the world where the following grassland vegetation types are

found:-

(i)Velds

(ii) Pampas

(iii) Dawns

(d) Explain three factors that have led to a decline of natural grassland in Kenya

1. (a) (i) Define the term ‘natural vegetation’

(ii) State thee climatic factors influencing distribution of vegetation

(b) (i) Give two zones of the temperate grasslands

(ii) State five characteristics of coniferous forests

(c) Explain four ways in which vegetation of the Nyika region of Kenya has adapted to the

region of Kenya has experienced in the area

(d) Give five factors that have led to a decline of the natural grasslands in Kenya

1. The map below shows major vegetation zones of the world. Use it to answer the questions

that follow:

 X

(a)  Identify the temperate grasslands marked Y and Z

(b) Explain four ways in which desert vegetation are adapting to the extremely harsh

conditions

1. The map below shows the location of some vegetation regions of Africa. Use it to answer

the questions that follow:

1. (a)i) Name the grassland region marked L
2. ii) Describe the characteristics of the natural vegetation found in the shaded area P
3. b) i) Explain four ways in which the vegetation found in the area marked Q adapts to the

environmental conditions of the region

1. c) i) Give two reasons why the mountain top has no vegetation
2. ii) State two ways in which vegetation is of significance to the physical and human

environments

1. (a) (i) Name two types of vegetation

(ii) Give two physiographic factors influencing vegetation distribution

(b) The diagram below shows vegetation zones of a S. Africa mountain. Use it to answer

the question below:-

(b) (i) Name the zones a, b, c, d

(ii) Give one reason why there is no vegetation cover on to p of the mountain

(c) (i) State the names given to temperate grassland vegetation in:-

– North America

– Argentina

(ii) Explain three used of Savanna vegetation

(d) Explain four characteristics of Tropical desert vegetation

1. (a) The map below shows the grasslands of the world. Use it to answer the questions that follow:-

(i) Name the grasslands marked S, T, Y and Z.

(ii) State any four characteristics of temperate grasslands.

1. (a) (i) What is meant by derived vegetation?

(ii) Mention three factors that influence the vegetation of a place.

1. b) i)Give three natural vegetation zones  on mount Kenya
2. ii) Name three temperate grasslands found in the world

iii) Describe the characteristics of the hot desert vegetation

1. a) Explain three causes of the decline of the areas under forests in Kenya

(b) Explain four factors that limit the exploitation of tropical rain forests in Africa.

1. FORESTRY

The topic entails:-

• Definition of forest and forestry
• Discussing factors influencing the distribution and types of natural forests.
• Discussing the significance of forests and forest products in Kenya
• Identifying and explaining problems facing forestry in Kenya
• Discussing ways and means of managing and conserving forest.
• Comparing and contrasting softwood forests in Kenya and Canada.
• Demonstrating the ability to manage and conserve forests and forest resources.

1. (a) Give three reasons for over-exploitation of hardwoods in Africa.

(b) State four measures taken to conserve forests in Kenya.

(c) (i)  Name two major lumbering maritime provinces in Eastern Canada.

(ii) Explain the factors that have favoured forestry in Canada.

(d) Explain three differences between softwoods in Kenya and Canada.

1. (a) (i) What is agro-forestry?

(ii) State four reasons why agro-forestry is being encouraged.

1. (a) (i) Distinguish between pure and mixed forests

(ii) Show how natural forests differ from planted forests in Kenya

(c)  (i) State three measures that are being taken in Kenya to conserve forests

(ii) Explain three factors favouring the exploitation of softwoods in Canada

1. (a) Define agro forestry

(b) Outline four benefits of agro forestry

(c) Explain how the following factors influence growth of forests;

(i) Altitude

(ii) Aspect

(d) Explain three measures being undertaken to conserve forests in Kenya

(e) Give four consequences of forest depletion in Kenya

1. (a) (i) Distinguish between indigenous and exotic forest

(ii) Explain four ways in which natural forests differ from planted forests

(b) Explain three factors that influence the distribution of forests in Kenya

(c) State three measure that are being taken to conserve forests

1. (a) (i) What is forestry?

(ii) Explain three factors that favour the growth of natural forests on the Kenya highlands

(b) Explain five problems hindering the exploitation of tropical hardwood forests

(c) (i) Explain three measures that the government of Kenya is taking to conserve forests

in the country

(ii) State three factors that have led to the reduction of the area under forest in Mau forest

1. (a) (i) Distinguish between forestry and forest

(ii) Discuss the influence of the following factors on the destruction of natural forests

1. a) Climate
2. b) Human activities
3. c) Topography

1. (a) Explain three measures which have been taken to manage forests in Kenya

(b) Give the differences between the soft wood forests in Kenya and

(i) Species

(ii) Problems

(iii) Marketing

(d) Your class intends to carry out a field study on the erotic trees of the Kenya highlands:-

(i) Name two types of tree species they are likely to observe

(ii) Identify three methods you will use to record the data in the field

1. (a) Define the term agro-forestry

(b) Name three topical hardwoods found in Kenya

(c) Name one indigenous soft wood found in Kenya

1. EXTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES

The topic entails ;-

• Definitions of :
1. Weathering
2. Mass weathering
3. Hydrological cycle and action of rivers
4. Oceans, Seas and their Costs
5. Action of wind and water in Arid areas
6. Action of water in Limestone areas
7. Glaciation
8. Lakes
• Distinguishing between oceans and seas
• Description of water movements in oceans and seas
• Explaining the external land forming processes and the resultant features
• Identifying the sources of under ground water
• Discussing the significance of the resultant physical features to the environment
• Carrying out field work of land forms within the local environment

1. (a) Name two rivers in Kenya West of the Rift Valley that cause frequent flooding

(b) State three factors that lead to frequent flooding in the Lake region of Kenya

1. (a) i) Other than seif dunes, name two other types  of sand dunes
2.      ii) Give five characteristics of seif dunes

iii) State four factors that facilitate the formation of the sand dunes

1. b) Describe how a desert rock pedestal is formed
2.  c) Explain four positive effects of desert features to human activities

1. a) i)Give three reasons why there are no ice sheets in Kenya
2.    ii) Explain three factors that influence the movement of ice from the place of accumulation
3. b) Describe the process through which the following features are formed.

i)an arête

1. ii) A crag and tail
2. c) Explain four positive effects of glaciation in lowland areas

1. a)i) Give the dates in a  year during  which  the number  of hours  of darkness is equal in

both the north and the  south poles

1. ii) Why do the lengths of days and nights vary from one part of the earth to another?
2. b) State two effects of the rotation of the earth on its axis

1. a)What is a lake ?
2. b) State three ways through which lakes are formed

1. a) i) What is desertification
2. ii) Differentiate between wind deflation and wind abrasion

iii) Describe how wind transports its materials through the following processes:

1.              I) Saltation
2. II) Suspension

III) Surface creep

1. b) Describe how the following features are formed
2. i) Zeugens
3. ii) Oasis
4. a) State two ways in which glacier moves
5.  b) State three differences between a young river valley and a glaciated valley

1. The diagram below represents the action of waves on the coastline. Use it to answer

questions  (a) and (b)

1. a) Name the features marked X and
2.  b) List three ways in which waves erode the coastline.

1.  Name two sources of underground water.

1. a)i) What is chemical weathering
2. ii) State five factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering in equatorial regions
3. b) Explain the following chemical weathering process
4. i) Carbonation
5. ii) Hydrolysis
6. c) Explain four economic importance of weathering to physical and human environments

1. a) Name two types of tides
2. b) Give three ways in which the shape of the landmasses may influence movement of ocean

waters

(c)  State four sources of underground of water

(d) State five ways in which springs occur

(e) Account for four ways in which desert vegetation adopt to the climate of their environment

(b) Explain three processes of wind erosion

(c) With the aid of well labeled diagrams, describe the formation of:

1. i) A Barchan

(ii) Rock pedestal

(iii) An oasis

(d) Name three features resulting from water deposition in desert

1. State three reasons why wind erosion is predominant in desert areas.

(b) Describe three processes by which wind erodes.

(c) With aid of well labeled diagrams, describe the formation of the following desert features;

(i) Rock pedestal.

(ii) Zeugen.

(d) State four ways in which desert land forms influence man’s activities.

1. (a) Differentiate between oceans and seas.

(b) Explain three sources of salinity in the oceans  .

(c) State three features on the ocean floor.

1. (a)(i) What is the difference between a sea and an ocean?

(ii) Explain any three ways in which islands are formed.

(b) (i) Describe how Lake Victoria was formed.

(ii) Explain any three ways in which Lake Victoria has influenced the climate of

surrounding areas

(c)   (i) Distinguish between aridity and desertification

(ii) Explain any three physical causes of aridity and desertification

1. 16. (a) (i) What is chemical weathering?

(ii) Name any three surface features that result from carbonation.

(b) The diagram below shows a feature resulting from weathering. Use it to answer the

questions that follow:-

(i) What is the name of the feature?

(ii) Describe how the feature is formed.

1. 17. (a) Differentiate between a river system and a river regime.

(b) The diagram below shows a drainage pattern. Use it to answer the questions that follow:-

(i) Name the drainage pattern.

(ii) Name the parts labelled P and Q

1. (a) Name any two features deposited by glacier in lowland areas.

(b) Describe how a roche moutonee is formed.

1. (a) The diagram below shows zones of underground water. Use it to answer the questions

that follow:-

(i) Name the parts labelled U and V.

(ii) Name the surface water feature likely to form at the part labelled W.

(b) Explain how the nature of underground rocks influences the existence of underground water

1. (a) (i) State two ways in which wind erodes the surface of the earth

(ii) Explain three ways thorough which wind transports its load

(b) Using well labeled diagrams, describe how the following desert features re formed:-

(i) Zeugen

(ii) Rock pedestal

(c)(i) Give the name given to rocky desert in the Sahara

(ii) Explain three positive effects of desert features to both human and physical environment

1. (a) What is a lake?

(b) (i) Name two types of lakes formed due to vulcanicity

1.      ii)   explaining  how  lake Victoria has influence the climate of the  surrounding area

(c) (i) State four main reasons why lakes within the Rift valley are salty

(ii) Name any three fresh water lakes in Kenya which are within the rift valley

(d) Explain any four economic significance of lakes to Human activities

1. (a) Name three types of tides

(b) Differentiate between oceans and seas

1. (a) (i) Differentiate between aridity and desertification

(ii) Describe three ways through which wind erodes the desert areas

(b) Using well labelled diagrams describe how the following desert features are formed:

(i) Rock pedestals

(ii) Yardangs

(c) State five uses of desert features

1. (a) State four factors which may cause a waterfall to form

(b) (i) Describe how river braids are formed

(ii) Name three features resulting form river rejuvenation

(c) Describe how a river capture occurs

(d) Give two reasons as to why Lake Naivasha is a fresh water lake

25 .      Give three ways through which rocks may be metamorphosed

1. (a) (i)State two processes though which the wind erodes the surface.

(ii) Explain three ways though which wind transport its load

(b) Describe how the following desert features are formed :

(i) Oasis

(ii) Zeugen

(c) Explain four ways in which desert land forms are of significance to human activities

1. (a) (i)Name two ways in which ice moves

(ii) State two factors which facilitate the movement of ice

(b) Identify two erosional features in glaciated lowlands

(c) Describe how the following features are formed:

(i) Outwash plain

(ii) Moraine-dammed lake

(d) Explain four ways in which a glaciated landscape is of significance to human activities

1. (a) Differentiate between mechanical and chemical weathering

(b) State three factors which influence weathering

1. a) Differentiate between a spring and well.
2. b) With aid of a well labeled diagram, show the three Zones of ground water.
3. c) List four candidates necessary for the formation of an artesian well.
4. d) Explain three ways in which ground water is of significant to human activities.
5. e) i) Define the term Karet scenery
6. ii) Give two conditions for the development of Karet landscape

iii) Outline the significance of Karet landscape to human activities.

1. (a) Use the diagram below to answer the following questions

(i) Name the parts labelled :-

(ii) State  four causes of river rejuvenation

1. a i) Differentiate between denudation and mass wasting.
2. ii) Explain two reasons why chemical weathering is dominant in humid tropics.
3. b) Explain three factors that influence mass wasting.
4. c) With aid of a diagram, explain the process of
5. d) i) State four negative effects of mass wasting.

Name the:

1. i) Type of mass movement shown

iii) Features M and N

1. iv) State the factor that influenced the process above

32    a) State three reasons why wind is a major agent of land sculpture in the desert.

1. b) Explain any two processes of wind erosion in deserts.
2. c) With and of well labeled diagram, explain how a deflation hollow is formed.
3. d) State four characteristics of a seif dune.

1. a) State two causes of coastal submergence.
2. b) Name three conditions necessary for the growth of coral polyps.

34        a) State two ways in which wind transport it’s load

1. b) Highlight the factors that influence the formation of a desert sand dune

1. a) Name three sources of lake water.
2. b) State three factors that determine the size of a lake.

1. a) i) What is a river?
2. ii) Distinguish between a river confluence and a river tributary
3. b) Describe how a river erodes its channel by the following processes
4. i) Hydraulic action
5. ii) Abrasion
6. a) Describe the process of a river capture

b)State five characteristics of a flood plain

1. a) i) Name four features resulting from water action in deserts
2. ii) State three factors which contribute to the development of deserts

iii) Name three types of deserts according to the nature of their surfaces

1. b) i)Explain three factors which influence wind transportation in deserts
2. ii) How is an oasis formed?

1. (a) What is the difference between swash and backwash

(b) Why is wave cut platform and cliff line in Mombasa found above the sea level?

1. (a) Define the term river capture

(b) The diagram below shows a river capture, name the features marked X, Y, Z

1. (a) Differentiate between accordant and discordant drainage systems

(b) State three factors that facilitate formation of deltas

1. a) i) What is a desert
2. ii) Name three types of desert landscapes
3. b) i) Name two processes of wind erosion responsible for sculpturing desert landscapes
4. ii) Using well labeled diagrams describe how a zeugen may be formed
5. c) i) Name four desert landforms found in deserts associated with the action of water
6. ii) What is the significance of desert landforms

1. (a) (i)Name three processes of wind erosion in desert

(ii) State three factors which influence the rate of wind transportation

(b) With the help of a well labeled diagram describe the formation of the following features:-

(i) Rock pedestal

(ii) Oasis

(c) (i)List three external land forming processes which lead to the formation of lakes

(ii) Explain three ways in which lakes influence the natural environment

(d (i) With the aid of a well labelled diagram, Describe how limestone pillars are formed

in Karst scenery

(ii) Explain three significance of resultant feature in limestone areas to human activities

1. SOILS

The topic entails:-

• Definition of soil, soil profile, soil cartena, soil degradation and soil erosion
• Discussing the composition of soil and soil forming processes
• Description of properties and characteristics of soils
• Description of soil profile and soil cartena
• Explaining soil degeneration
• Classifying soils according to soil order
• Discussing the significance of soils
• Discussing ways and means of managing and conserving soils.
• Identifying different types of soils and their uses within the local environment
• Demonstrating the ability to manage and conserve soils.

1. a) Differentiate soil profile from soil catena
2. b) Name three types of soil types according to soil structure
3. c) i) Beside planting of trees state any other three measures that can be used to control

desertification.

1. ii) Explain how trees help in the conservation of the soil.

1. a) i) What is soil?
2. ii) Differentiate between soil catena and soil profile.

b)i) Explain how the following factors influence soil formation;

– Climate

– Living organisms

1. ii) Give three factors that determine the colour of the soil.

1. a) Briefly explain the factors that influence the development of soil catena.

(b) (i) Define the term soil profile

(ii) Draw a simple diagram of soil catena

(iii) Give any four soil forming processes

(iv) State four causes of soil degeneration

1. a)i) Define the term soil
2. ii) Name three components of soils

b)i) Apart from living organisms state four other factors that influence soil formation

1. ii) Explain how living organisms influence soil formation
2. c) i) Distinguish between soil air and soil texture
3. ii) Describe the process of podzolisation

iii) State the characteristics of soils in grassland areas

1. (a) Draw a diagrammatic representation of vegetation zones on a slope common in tropical

land

(b) (i) What is soil catena?

(ii) Draw a labeled diagram to show a well developed soil profile.

(iii) State three characteristics of the soils found in the arid regions of Kenya.

(b) Give three factors that determine the colour of soil.

(c) Describe how laterization occurs.

(d) Explain how the following farming practices cause soil erosion;

(i) Burning.

(ii) Continuous application of fertilizer on farm lands.

(iii) Monoculture.

1. (a) (i) Apart from latosols name any two other types of zonal soils

(ii) Describe how lateritic soils are formed

(iii) State any two characteristics of azonal soils

(b) (i) Explain any three ways in which rain water can lead to degeneration of soils.

(ii) Apart from growth of plants, state any three other ways in which soils are beneficial

to people

1. (a) (i) Differentiate between a soil profile and soil catena

(ii) State two processes of soil formation

(b) Explain how the following factors influence soil formation:

(i) Climate

(ii) Living organisms

(iii) Topography

(c) (i) What is soil degeneration

(ii) Explain three ways through which vegetation naturally protects and prevent soil erosion

(iii) Give two sound farming methods that help conserve soil erosion

1. (a) (i) What is soil Catena?

(ii) State three factors  which influence the development of a soil catena

(b) Explain five negative effects of soil erosion

(c) Describe how podzolization occurs in soils

1. (a) Name three components of soil

(b) Explain how the following factors influence the formation of soil        :

(i) Climate

(ii) Parent material

(c) (i) Explain three ways in which human activities contribute to soil degeneration

(ii) Draw a well labeled diagram to show a mature soil profile

1. a) What is a lake?
2. b) State three ways through which lakes are formed

1. a) Define the term “Soil”
2. b) Explain how the following factors influence the formation of soil
3. i) Climate
4. ii) Topography
5. c) i)State two ways in which humus improves the quality of soil
6. ii) State four characteristics of desert soils
7. d) Describe how the following types of erosion occur
8. i) Sheet erosion
9. ii) Gulley erosion

iii) State two economic uses of soils

1. (a) What is soil conservation?;

(b) State three methods that assist in soil conservation

1. AGRICULTURE

The topic entails:-

• Definition of Agriculture
• Discussion of factors influencing Agriculture
• Explaining types of Agriculture
• Location of major cash crops on the map of Kenya
• Discussing the selected crops in respective countries
• Identifying and explaining similarities and differences between selected crop farming in Kenya and that of other parts of the world.
• Discussing Pastoral farming in Kenya
• Comparing and contrasting:

(a)Dairy farming in Kenya and Denmark

(b) Bee farming in Kenya and Argentina

• Carrying out field work on agricultural activities in the local environment

1          (a) (i) State the difference between land reclamation and land rehabilitation.

(ii) Other than tree planting, give three other methods employed in rehabilitation of land.

(b) (i) State three objectives that led to the establishment of Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya

1. ii) Explain four human problems that face irrigation farming in Kenya.

1. (a) Describe the stages followed in the reclamation of land from the sea in Netherlands

(b) State four benefits of the delta plan to the Netherlands.

1. (a) (i) Name two districts in Rift valley where maize is grown in plantations.

(ii) Describe maize production from planting to harvesting.

(b)  Outline the significance of maize growing in Kenya.

1. Explain three problems facing maize farmers in Kenya.

1. (a) Name two exotic breeds of dairy cattle reared in Kenya.

(b) Give three reasons why the Kenya highlands are suitable for dairy farming.

1. (a) Name two horticultural crops grown in Kenya

(b) State three reasons why horticulture is more developed in the Netherlands than in Kenya.

1. (a) Name two horticultural crops that are produced in Kenya

(b) Explain two reasons why horticultural produce is exported by air

1. (a) (i) What is nomadic pastoralism?

(ii) State three characteristics of nomadic pastoralism

1. a)i) Name three exotic breeds of dairy cattle kept in Kenya
2. ii) Apart from milk name three other dairy products

b)i) State three factors which favour the rearing of dairy cattle in Kenya highlands

1. ii) Explain four problems facing dairy farmers in Kenya
2. c) i) Compare dairy farming in Kenya and Netherlands
3. ii) Name two dairy plants in Kenya

1. (a) Name two dairy breed found in the lowlands of Kenya

(b) State three problems that have hindered the dairy activities in the Kenya highland

1. a) State three physical factors that favour wheat farming in Kenya
2. b) Give three problems facing wheat farming in Kenya

1. (a) Name ;

(i) Three provinces in Kenya where wheat is grown on commercial scale

(ii) Three wheat producing provinces in Canada

(b) Explain three conditions that favour wheat farming in Kenya

(c) Explain five factors which enable Canada to produce more wheat than Kenya

(d) State three importance of wheat to the economy of Canada

1. (a) Name three districts in Kenya where wheat is grown on large scale

(b) Account for any four physical conditions needed for the growth of wheat

(c) Describe the cultivation of wheat under the following:-

(i) Processing of wheat

(ii) Marketing of wheat

(d)  (i) Explain two problems facing wheat farmers in Kenya

(ii) Give two reasons why Canada produces more wheat than Kenya                            (2mks)

1. (a) State three physical conditions that favour sugarcane cultivation in Western Kenya

(b) Give two reasons why we need to encourage dairy farming in Kenya

1. (a) (i) Apart from Ghana name two other countries that produces cocoa in Africa

(ii) State three physical conditions that favour large scale cocoa farming in Ghana

(b) Outline the stages cocoa goes through from harvesting to the time it is ready for export

(c) Explain three problems experienced by cocoa farmers in Ghana

1. (a) (i) What is horticulture

(ii) Horticulture is more developed in the Netherlands is more developed in the Netherlands

than in Kenya. Give four reasons for this

(iii) Give three reasons why the growing of flowers in green house is preferred in Kenya

1. Give four physical factors favouring wheat –growing in Kenya
2. (a) State two physical conditions favoring dairy farming in the Kenya highlands

(b) Compare dairy farming in Kenya and Denmark under the following headings:-

(i) Feeding of the animals

(ii) Marketing of the products

1. (a) Name two exotic breeds of beef cattle reared in Kenya

(b) State three physical conditions that favour beef farming in Argentina

1. (a) The figure below shows wheat growing province of Canada

(i) Name the provinces marked X , Y and Z

(ii) State two physical factors favouring wheat farming in the named provinces above

(b) Give one province where coffee is grown on large scale in Kenya

1. a) Differentiate between horticulture and market gardening
2. b) State three factors that favour horticultural industry in Kenya

2. b) Give three characteristics of pastoral farming in Kenya

1.    a) Give four reasons why there has been a steady increase of milk production in Kenya in

the recent past

1. b) Give similarities between dairy farming in Kenya and Denmark
2. c) Explain three benefits of dairy farming in Kenya

1. The table below shows horticultural crop production in Kenya
 Crop Quantity in tonnes flowers 42, 500 oranges 22, 600 tomatoes 20, 300 carrots 15, 400

(a) (i) Draw a divided rectangle 15cm long to represent horticultural crop production in

Kenya in  the year 2000 using the data above.

(a)  (i) Calculate the range of the above data

(ii) What is the percentage of horticultural crop with the lowest tonnage?

(b) (i) State two advantages of using divided rectangle to represent geographical information.

(ii) State two climatic conditions that favour horticultural crops in Kenya

(c) Explain four problems facing horticultural farming in Kenya

1. (a) Name three main breeds of dairy cattle reared in Kenya

(b) State three benefits of dairy farming in Kenya

1. (a) Name two leading export commodities from Kenya

(b) State three problems facing trade in Kenya

1. (a) State any three roles played by livestock in the economy

(b) Identify any two solutions to problems facing pastoralists in the Northern part of Kenya

1. (a) List two economic factors that influence Agriculture

(b) (i) List two uses of cocoa

(ii) State one economic problem experienced in cocoa farming in Ghana

1. (a) Differentiate between horticulture and market gardening

(b) Name two main   types of flowers grown in Kenya

(c) What problem do farmers in Kenya face in carrying out this activity?

1. (a) State three ways in which drought affect the agricultural sector in Kenya.

(b) State three reasons why the government of Kenya is encouraging bee keeping in the

country?

1. (a) List three social factors that influence Agriculture.

(b) State two factors that favour mechanization of wheat farming in Canada.

1. (a) State three climatic factors that favour the growing of oil palm in Nigeria.

(b) State any two products obtained from oil palm.

1. (a) Define the term pollution as used in Geography.

(b) Dither their air pollution name three forms of pollution.

(c) State physical conditions required for the growing of tea in Kenya.

(d) Explain four problems experienced in small scale to production in Kenya.

1. (a) Name two exotic beef cattle breeds in Kenya.

(b) State three steps taken by the government to improve beef farming in Kenya.

(c) State three problems facing beef farming in Kenya.

(d) (i) Explain three physical conditions that favour beef farming in Argentina.

(ii) Explain two ways in which beef farming contribute to the economy of Argentina.

1. LAND RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION

This topic entails :-

• Definition of land reclama;tion and land rehabilitation
• Discussing:

(a) The factors that influence the location of the selected irrigation schemes in Kenya

(b) The significance of irrigation of farming in Kenya

(c) The problems experience in irrigation farming in Kenya

• Description of the methods used in land reclamation and rehabilitation in Kenya
• Comparing the methods of land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands

1. (a) Apart from Mwea, name three other large irrigation schemes in Kenya

(b) (i) Explain four conditions that made Mwea-Tebere a suitable location for an irrigation

scheme

(ii) Explain four problems facing farmers in Mwea irrigation scheme

(c) State six benefits which Kenya derives from irrigation farming

2          (a) A part from draining swamps, state two other methods used to reclaim land in Kenya.

(b) State three benefits that resulted from the reclamation of Yala Swamp.

1. (a) (i) Distinguish between land reclamation and land rehabilitation

(ii) Name any three methods of irrigation.

(iii) State two advantages of irrigation over natural water supplies

(b) (i) Why was Mwea Tebere irrigation scheme initiated?

(ii) Explain four physical conditions that favoured the establishment of Mwea Irrigation

Scheme

(iii) Give three problems that are faced in Mwea Irrigation Scheme

(c) (i) What is a polder.

(ii) Describe how land is reclaimed and prepared in the Netherlands

(iii) Give any three benefits of the delta plan

(d) How does the above activity differ from that in Denmark?

1. Explain three problems caused by a large aging population

1. a) i) Apart from rice name two other crops grown under irrigation at mwea Tabere irrigation

scheme

1. ii) Explain four factors that favoured establishment of Mwea Tabere irrigation scheme
2. b) Give four problems associated with irrigation farming on R.Thiba & Nyamindi
3. c) Explain three benefits of Mwea Tabere irrigation scheme

d)i) Name two other irrigation schemes in Kenya apart from Mwea Tabere

1. ii) State three benefits of rice farming

1. (a) Differentiate between land reclamation and land rehabilitation

(b) Explain four methods of land reclamation in Kenya

(c) Explain any two methods used in land reclamation and rehabilitation in Netherlands

(d) State four factors which influenced the establishment of Perkerra Irrigation Scheme

1. (a) Explain two significance of irrigation farming in Kenya

(b) State three benefits of  syader see projects

1. (a) Name any three crops grown under irrigation farming in Kenya

(b) (i) Explain four conditions that made Mwea Tebere a suitable location for irrigation farming

(ii) Outline two aims of the tsetseflies control project in the Lambwe valley of Kenya

(iii) State four efforts being made to conserve water catchment areas of Kenya

1. (a) (i) What is a polder

(ii) Name three crops grown in the polders.

(b) Describe the stages involved in the reclamation of land from the sea in the Netherlands

(c) Explain four ways that the Netherlands benefited from the delta plan project

(d) State six problems experienced in irrigation farming in Kenya

1. a) A part from Mwea name three other large irrigation schemes in Kenya
2. b) Explain four conditions that made Mwea a suitable location for irrigation scheme
3. c) Explain four ways through which tenants have benefited from Mwea irrigation scheme
4. d) Explain three problems faced by farmers in Mwea Tabere irrigation scheme

1. (a) (i) Differentiate between land reclamation and land rehabilitation

(ii) Name two methods of rehabilitating land in Kenya

(b) (i) What is a polder

(ii) Name two crops grown in the polders

(c) Describe the stages of reclamation of land from the sea in the Netherlands

(d) (i) State three physical factors that influence the establishment of Pekerra irrigation scheme

(ii) Explain four significance of irrigation farming in Kenya

1. (a) (i) Differentiate between land reclamation and land rehabilitation

(ii) List three ways in which tsetse fly menace was controlled in the Lambwe valley

(b) (i) Name two areas in Kenya where swamps have been reclaimed

(ii) State four factors which influenced the establishment of Perkerra irrigation scheme

(c) Explain three problems facing irrigation farming in Kenya

(d) List four benefits of the Delta plan project in Netherlands

1. (a) State two methods used to reclaim land in Kenya

(b) Outline the stages through which land is reclaimed from the sea in the Netherlands

1. (a) List four types of wasteland that can be reclaimed

(b) Give two advantages of irrigation farming compared to rain fed farming

1. FISHING

The topic entails:

• Definition of fishing and fisheries.
• Explaining the factors influencing fishing
• Accounting for the location of the major fishing grounds of the world.
• Describing type sand methods of fishing
• Discussing fresh water and marine fisheries in East Africa
• Assessing the significance of the fishing industry in Kenya
• Discussing problems facing fishing in Kenya and their possible solutions
• Comparing and contrasting fishing activities in Keya and Japan
• Explaining ways and means of managing and conserving fresh water and marine fisheries.

The map below shows some major fishing grounds n the world. Use it to answer questions below:

1.         (a (i) Name the countries marked P and Q

(ii) Explain four conditions that favour fishing in the shaded coastal water

1. 2. (a) The diagrams below represent some fishing methods

(a)  (i) Name methods R and S

(b) Describe how each of the two methods are used in fishing

(c)  Explain three measures used to conserve fish in Kenya

1. (a) (i) What is fish farming?

(ii) Explain three measures that have been undertaken by the government of Kenya

to encourage fish farming.

(b) Explain four problems which face marine fishing in Kenya.

(c)  (i) Name three fishing grounds in the Northern Hemisphere.

(ii) Explain three physical factors that favour fishing in Japan.

1. (a) Differentiate between veins and lodes.

(b) State the effects of dereliction

1. (a) (i) Name two methods of fishing.

(ii) Name two types of fish caught along the Eastern Coast of Canada.

(b) Explain how the following factors favour fishing:-

(i) Indented Coastline

(ii) Ocean Currents

(c) Explain four ways in which fisheries in Kenya can be conserved.

1. (i) Give three methods used to preserve fish.

(ii) Explain three problems experienced by fishermen in Lake Victoria.

1. State four reasons why marine fisheries in Kenya are under-developed

1. (a) (i) Name three types of nets used in modern fishing

(ii) Identify the two main fishing grounds of the Pacific Ocean

(b) Explain any four problems facing fishing in East Africa

(c) Explain any four ways in which fishing is significant to Kenya

(d) Name four areas where fish farmers in Kenya can obtain fingerlings

1. a) i)State the three categories of fish communities
2. ii) Explain four reasons why North East Atlantic is one of the most extends

iii) State four measures taken by the Kenyan government in the management and

conservation of fisheries

1. (a) A part from trawling, name two other modern methods of fishing

(b) State two reasons why the Western Coast of Africa has high concentration of fish than

the Eastern Coast.

1. (a) Name two commercial fishing methods commonly used in Atlantic fishing ground

(b) State three problems Kenyan fishermen face while fishing in Lake Victoria

1. (a) State two measures that have been taken to conserve fish in Kenya

(b) Give three reasons why Norway is a great fishing nation

1. (a) Name commercial methods of fishing shown in the diagrams below:

(b) State three reasons why marine fisheries in Kenya are underdeveloped

1. (a) Differentiate between pelagic fish and demersal fish?

(b) Identify two problems facing the fishing industry in Kenya.

1. WILDLIFE AND TOURISM

This topic entails:

• Definition of wildlife, tourism and ecotourism
• Distinction between:

(a) Game reserves, National Parks, and Sanctuaries

(b) Domestic tourism and International tourism

• Explaining factors influencing;

(a) The distribution of wildlife in East Africa.

(b) Tourism in Kenya

• Location of national parks, major game reserves and sanctuaries on a map of East Africa.
• Identification and discussion of tourist attractions in Kenya.
• Discussion of the significance of wildlife in East Africa.
• Discussion of:-

(a) Problems facing wild life in East Africa.

(b) Problems facing and associated with tourism in Kenya.

• Discussion of the management and conservation of wildlife in East Africa.
• Discussion of the future of tourism in Kenya.
• Comparison and contrast between tourism in Keya and Switzerland.

1. Use the map of East Africa below to answer questions (a) (i)

MAP OF EAST AFRICA

1. i) Name the national parks marked P, Q, and R
2. (a) State two differences between a National Park and a Game Reserve

(b) State three measures being taken to conserve wildlife in Kenya

1. (a) Differentiate between game reserves ands game parks

(b) State three ways in which human activities are a threat to wildlife

1. (a) What is balance of payment?

(b) Identify three problems that face traders dealing with primary goods

1. (a) Why are some parts of Kenya not developed for tourism?

(b) State two factors that hinder domestic tourism in Kenya.

1. (a) State three problems facing wildlife conservation in Kenya.

(b) State two human factors that have made Switzerland a major tourist destination.

1. ENERGY

This topic entails:

• Definition of energy
• Discussion of sources and types of energy.
• Discussion of the development of electric power projects in Kenya and Uganda.
• Identifying and locating other power projects in Africa
• Explaining the significance of energy
• Explaining the impact of the energy crisis in the world.
• Discussing ways and means of managing and conserving energy.
• Identifying sources and uses of energy within the local environment.

1. (a) Name two oil producing countries in the midddle East

(b) Give three contributions of oil to the economies of Middle East countries

1. (a) What is a multi-purpose project?

(b) Name two multi-purpose projects in Africa

1. (a) (i) Name five renewable sources of energy

(ii) State three disadvantages and three advantages of wind as source of energy

(b) (i) What is geothermal power?

(ii) Name two areas in Kenya which have a potential for producing geothermal power

(d) Explain three measures taken by the Kenyan government to conserve energy

1. a) i) What is energy crisis
2.    ii) State four causes of energy crisis
3. b) i) Name three non- renewable sources of energy
4. ii) Apart from seven forks Dam project name two other hydro electric plants in Kenya

iii) Explain four factors that favoured the establishment of seven forks dam project

1. c) State two effects of energy use on environment

1. (a) Give three advantages of suing solar energy

(b) Identify the hydro-power stations marked P, Q and R in the diagram

(c)Explain any five ways in which energy contributes to the growth of the economy

(d) (i) Explain any three problems associated with energy crisis

(ii) Suggest any three ways to minimize energy wastage

1. 6. (a) Define the term renewable sources of energy.

(b) (i) Explain four physical factors influencing the generation of hydro-electric power.

(ii) Outline three limitations in the production of geothermal power in Kenya.

(c) (i) Explain any four negative effects of the energy crisis in the world.

(ii) State four possible methods that the government of Kenya can use to conserve energy.

1. (a) Explain the impact of the oil crisis to Kenya

(b) What measures has the Kenyan government carried out to conserve energy

1. a) What is energy crisis?
2. b) State three environmental impact of energy crisis in Kenya

1. (a) Name two sources of thermal electricity

(b) Explain four benefits Kenya would get by striking oil in Isiolo

(c) Explain three measures taken by the Kenya  government to manage and conserve energy

(d) Form four students of Nyabisawa Girls carried out a field study at Olkaria Geothermal

pour stations

1. (i) State three preparation they made prior to the study

(ii) State three methods of data collection they could have used

(iii) State three uses of Geothermal energy they learnt

1. (a) (i) Name two non-renewable sources of energy

(ii) Explain four physical factors that influence the location of hydroelectric power station

(b) (i) What is energy crisis?

(ii) State three causes of energy crisis

(iii) Explain two effects of energy crisis

1. (a) List two renewable fossil fuels

(b) Identify any three functions of hydro power reservoir other than power generation

(c) State three reasons why Kenya spent so little on importing maize during the year 2002

(d) (i) Name two provinces in Kenya where maize is grown on large scale

(ii) State any two uses of maize

1. (a) Name the dams marked E, F and G

(b) Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable sources of energy.

(c)Explain three factors that influenced the location of Owen falls dam in Uganda

(d) Explain four problems that hinder development of Hydro-electric power projects in Africa

1. INDUSTRY

This topic entails :-

• Definition of industry and industrialization
• Explaining the factors that influence the location and development of industries
• Describing types of industries
• Accounting for the distribution of industries in Kenya
• Explaining the significance of industrialization to Kenya
• Discussing the problems of industrialization and possible solutions
• Comparing and contrasting aspects of industrialization in selected countries.
• Carrying out field work on an industry in the local environment.

1. Give five effects of liberalization of the oil industry in Kenya.

1. (a) Define the term “industrial inertia.”

(b) State three factors that make industrialists prefer to locate their plants near already

established industries.

(c) Explain three benefits that would result from rural electrification in Kenya

1. (a) Define the term industrial inertia

(b) State three negative effects of industrialization

1. (a) Differentiate between a factory and industry

(b) Name any three types of tertiary industry

1. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

This topic entails :-

• Definition of transport and communication
• Identifying modes of transport and types of communication.
• Location of major lines of transport in Africa.
• Outlining the role of transport and communication in economic development of Africa.
• Discussing problems facing transport and communicationin Africa and the efforts being made to solve them.
• Explanation of the role of the Great Lakes and the Lawrence Sea Way in the conomies of USA and Canada.

1. (a) (i) State four factors that influence transport and communication

(ii) State three problems facing transport and communication in Africa

(b) The diagram below shows the Great Lakes & St Lawrence Seaway:

(i) Name the lakes marked A, B, & C       .

(ii) Why was the St. Lawrence Sea way constructed between the Great Lakes and the

Pacific Ocean?

(iii) Identify the problems that initially existed along the seaway and how they were solved    (c)  State four advantages of the Mombasa-Nairobi pipeline.

(d) Discuss the role of transport and communication in development

1. (a) (i) What is transport?

(ii) Name three forms of land transport commonly used in Kenya

(b) Below is a sketch map of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Sea Way. Use it to answer

question (i) below:

(i) Name;

– The Canals marked N and Q

– The lakes marked R and P

– The port marked M

(ii) Explain four ways in which the Great lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway has contributed

to the economies of U.S.A and Canada

(c)State four ways in which communication has contributed to economic development of Kenya

(d) State any four problems facing air transport in Africa

1. (a) Define the term communication

(b) State two recent developments that have taken place in Kenya to improve communication

(c)  State two problems facing telephone as a means of communication in Kenya

1. a) State three benefits that Kenya would derive from road linkage with the rest of East

African countries

(b) Give two major problems experienced by users of Kenyan roads

1. (a) (i) Give two forms of land transport

(ii) State any four disadvantages of water transport

(b) Explain any five ways in which transport and communication is important to the economy                     (c) Explain three attempted solution to African transport and communication problems

(d) (i) Define canal transport

(ii) Name the two major canals of the world

1. The table below shows the number shows the number of passengers that used railway

transport in selected countries in 1966 and 1977. Use it to answer questions (a) and (b)

 COUNTRY PASSENGERS IN MILLIONS 1966 1977 CANADA 4,800 6,000 U.S.A 27,800 16,600 ARGENTINA 14,100 12,000 INDIA 96,000 160,800 JAPAN 258,400 310,900

(a) (i) Using a scale of 1cm to represent 20,000 million passengers, draw comparative bar graphs

based on the data above

(ii) State two advantages of using bar graphs in representing data

(b) Calculate the percentage increase in railway passenger transport in Canada between

1966 and 1977

(c) Explain three factors that hinder the development of railway links among African countrie

(d) One of the problems facing road transport is the high frequency of accidents. Explain three

1. (a) (i) Name three types of communication mainly used in Kenya

(ii) State two advantages of pipelines as a means of transport

(b) (i) Whys is air transport not very commonly used in Kenya?

(ii) Explain four roles of transport and communications in the economic development of Africa

(c)  (i) State three objectives of constructing the St. Lawrence Seaway

(ii) Name two canals on the St. Lawrence Seaway

1. Below is a sketch map of the great lakes and St. Lawrence sea way. Use it to answer

question (a)

(a) Name:- (i) The Lake marked P

(ii) River marked Q

(iii) Canal marked R

(iv) The port marked S

 P

(b) Explain three ways in which the great Lakes and St.  Lawrence seaway has contributed

to the  economy of Canada and United States of America (U.S.A)

(c) Explain the factors that hinder the development of river transport in Africa

(d) (i) State three recent developments that have taken place in Kenya to improve communication

(ii) Explain three problems facing telephone as a means of communication in Kenya

1. (a) Define the term containerization

(b) State three advantages of containerization

1. (a) (i) Explain three economic importance of using mobile phones
2. ii) State four problems associated with the use of mobile phones in Kenya
3. b) Give four reasons why water transport is poorly developed in Africa
4. c) Explain three measures that have been taken to solve transport problems in Africa

This topic entails :-

• Identifying and defining types of trade
• Identifying major exports and imports of Kenya
• Discussing significance of trade to Kenya
• Discussing problems facing trade in Kenya
• Role played by selected trading blocks in the economies of their respective regions.

1. Use the diagram below to answer question 5a and 5b

1. a) Identify the type of trade shown above
2. b) State problems country X is likely to face in the trade shown above

1. (a) Give two types of international trade

(b) State two reasons why there is less trade between Kenya and other African countries

1. (a) State two problems facing trade in Kenya.

(b) Give three benefits of regional trading blocs.

1. (a) Outline two objectives of the common market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)

(b) State two efforts made by the Kenya government to enhance external trade

1. a) i) Differentiate between visible and invisible exports
2. ii) Name three invisible exports from Kenya

b)i) Apart from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) name two

other regional trading blocks in Africa

1. ii) Identify three member countries of ECOWAS

iii) Explain five economic benefits of the Economic Community of West Africa

states (ECOWAS)

1. (a) What is balance of payment?

(b) Identify three problems that face traders dealing with primary goods

1. (a) Distinguish between visible and invisible export.

(b) State three negative effects of a country over relying on import goods.

1. POPULATION

This topic entails :-

• Definition of population
• Explaining the factors influencing population distribution in East Africa
• Explaining the factors influencing population growth.
• Prescribing population structure
• Analysis of the consequences of population growth and structure
• Comparing and contrasting population tends between Kenya and Sweden.
• Presentation of population data using relevant statistical graphs.

1. The table below shows the population of a county in Western Europe in 1000.use it to

 Age group male female 0-4 450 455 5-9 447 449 10-14 448 450 15-19 454 458 20-24 480 472 25-29 630 632 30-34 635 639 35-39 642 671 40-44 670 638 45-49 636 568 50-54 562 641 54-59 633 639 60-64 631 634 65-69 451 452 70-74 470 468 75-79 460 459 80+ 451 453

(a) Using a scale of 1cm to 100,000 people, draw a population pyramid from the above data

(b) State five characteristics of the above population structure as shown by the pyramid

(c) Explain four problems likely to be experienced due to the population trend in the

above country

(d) (i) What is mortality rate?

(ii) State five measures that have been taken in Kenya to reduce infant mortality in Kenya

1. a) Name two primary sources of population data
2. b) Explain four reasons that led to rapid population growth in Kenya in the 1980’s
3. c) State four reasons for increased infertility in Kenyan women today
4. d) Give measures taken by the government to combat child mortality

1. (a) Distinguish between population distribution and population density

(b) State any three problems associated with high population growth rate in Kenya

4          (a) (i) What is life expectancy?

(ii) Give three types of information which can be derived from a population pyramid.

(b) (i) Describe three ways in which population of Sweden differs from that of Kenya.

(ii) Explain four causes of rural-rural migration in Kenya.

(c) Explain three problems which result from the high population growth rates in the

East African countries

1. (a) Define the term secondary fertility

(b) (i) Apart from HIV/AIDS give two other causes of mortality in East Africa

(ii) State two ways in which the spread of HIV/AIDS in Kenya may slow down

economic development

1. c)      State five problems facing regional trading blocks in Africa

1. a)i) What is dependency ratio?
2. ii) State three causes of a high dependency ratio in a population
3. b) i) Explain four factors that have led to the high population density around Lake Victoria
4. ii) Explain three problems associated with high population growth rate in Kenya
5. c) Give three reasons for the low birth rate in Sweden

1. a) What is population census
2. b) State three reasons why countries conduct population census

1. (a) Differentiate between immigration and emigration

(b) State three effects of rapid population increase in Kenya

1. (a) Define the term population explosion

(b) State three reasons why countries conduct population census.

(c) Give two measures the Kenya government has taken to check on high population growth.

1. SETTLEMENT

This topic entails :-

• Definition of settlement and urbanization
• Explaining the factors influencing settlements and settlement patterns
• Accounting for the distribution and functions of selected towns in Kenya
• Explaining the growth an functions of selected towns in Kenya
• Comparing and contrasting selected urban centres in Kenya with those of other parts of the world.
• Discussing the effects of urbanization

1. The diagram below shows part of the urban set up. Use it to answer part (a) and (b)

(a) Name the parts labeled ABC

(b) Give three characteristics of the part labeled A

2          a) Name two settlement patterns common in rural areas in Kenya

1. b) The diagram below shows the internal structure of an urban centre. Name the sectors

labeled 1, 2, 3

1. MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

This topic entails :-

• Definition of management and conservation
• Explaining why it is necessary to manage and conserve the environment
• Naming/identifying environment hazards
• Assessing the impact of selected environmental hazards and suggesting measured for combating them.
• Discussing the measures taken in managing and conserving the environment.

1.       i) Define the term land pollution
2. ii) Explain four causes of land pollution

iii) Explain four effects of land pollution

1. a ) Reasons why National parks are located in marginal areas.

(b)  Explain three ways in which water pollution affect wildlife

(c) (i) State three causes of floods in Kenya

(ii) Explain two methods used to control flooding in Kenya

(d) State six reasons why it is important to manage and conserve environment

1. (a) Give three causes of sound pollution

(b) State two major health effects caused by sound pollution

1. (a) Apart from flooding, name three other environmental hazards experienced in Kenya

(b) (i) Name two rivers to the west of Rift valley which causes large scale flooding

(ii) Explain four problems caused by floods

(c) Explain three effects of land pollution on the environment

(d) (i) State three ways through which land pollution can be controlled

(ii) Give three effects of wind as an environmental hazard in Kenya

1. Use the map of Kenya below to answer question (a)

(a) (i)  Name the wildlife conservation areas marked S, T, and U

(ii) Identify the Marine National Park marked V

(b) (i) Apart from Marine and Wildlife name three other tourist attractions along the coastal

strip of Kenya

(ii) Give four reasons for wildlife conservation in Kenya

(iii) Explain four problems facing wildlife conservation in Kenya

1. (a) Give three reasons why it was necessary to conduct a pre-visit before the actual study (3mks)

(b) State three measures that they could propose to be taken to promote domestic tourism

in Kenya                                                                                                                                (3mks)

1. (a) Apart from floods, name any other environmental hazard experienced in Kenya

(b) State two causes of desertification

(c) Give two reasons why it is necessary for Kenya to conserve her environment

1. (a) Differentiate between management and conservation of the environment.

(b) Give four reasons why we need to manage and conserve the environment.

(c) Explain four effects of air pollution on the environment.

(d) (i)Give five measures that can be put in place to combat pollution.

(ii) Identity three human characteristics you may learn from the garbage;

1. (a) Define the term pollution as used in Geography.

(b) Dither their air pollution name three forms of pollution.

1. Apart from desertification, name two other environmental hazards experienced in Kenya

1. INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY
2. – It creates awareness /understanding in the people of the environment in which they live

hence  the need to manage, and use resources sustainability.

1. THE EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM
2. a i) i) Tropic of cancer

ii)) 66 ½ º

b i)      –     Causes day and night

• Causes high and low tides
• Causes deflection of winds and ocean currents
• Causes time difference between longitudes
• Causes pressure difference on the earths surface
1. ii) Time difference = 1400 hrs – 1030hrs

= 0330 hrs

= 3½ hrs

\Difference in longitude is

7/2 x a5 = 52.5

52.5 – 45

Longitude is 7.5W

(c)  – Sea breeze

• Land breeze
• Anabatic
• Katabatia

1. a i) – 28ºC-24ºC = 4ºC
2. ii) – 1803mm
3. b) – the town experiences high temperature throughout the year (24ºC-28ºC)
• the annual range of temperature is small
• rain fall throughout  the year/there is no marked dry season
• the rainfall patter has double maxima
• the wettest  month is June/the  driest month are December and  January
• the rainfall is high i.e. 1803mm
1. a) Solstice is when the sun’s overhead position is over the tropic of caner and Capricorn
2. b) – Causes seasons i.e. spring, summer, autumn & winter

– Varying lengths of day and night at different times of the year

– Changes in the position of the midday sun at different times of the year

– Changes in the position of the midday sun at different times of the year

1. a i) – Passing star theory

– Nubular cloud theory

1. ii) Centrifugal force
2. b) – Layers of the overlying rocks exerts pressure hence the interior is hot

– After formation of the earth the interior cooled slowly compared to the exterior, thus the

interior still retains much of its original temperature

– Radioactivity – mineral elements with the interior react with each other thus exploding

to   produce heat

1. a) – Passing star/ the big bang theory

– Nebula cloud theory

b)- The solar system is the group of heavenly bodies comprising the sun and the eight known planets which orbit the sun

6          .a)        – Mercury

– Venus

1. b) (i) A time zone is a group of neghbouring countries that use the same standard time
2. ii)  – On crossing this line from east to West,, a day is gained / the clock has to be

– On crossing this line from West to East a day is lose/the clock has to be adjusted

forward by 24hours.

1. c) –  They are circular.

– They decrease in length Northwards and Southwards

– They are measured North and South of the equator

– There values increase Northwards and Southwards

– They are parallel to each other

1. a) – It is the sun and the planets orbiting around it.
2. b) – The radio activity process taking place in the interior leads to a lot of energy

production.

– This keeps the temperature in the interior very hot.

– The overlying materials exert a lot of pressure to the interior resulting to higher

temperature.

– When the earth was being formed the mantle and the core cooled at a slower rate than

the  crust.

– As a result the temperature in the interior are still hot.

1. a i) -Solar/eclipse of the sun

.              ii)  – Q-moon

– T-umbra

1. b) -it cause days and night

-it causes high and low tides

-it causes the deflection of winds and oceans currents

-it causes time difference between longitudes

1. a) – Cooled at a slower rate than the outer exposed part

– Due to the process of radio- activity where atoms break releasing heat

– Weight of the overlying material that exerts pressure on the core

1. b) – Causes seasons

– Varying lengths of day and night

1. a i) It is the date when the sun is overhead at the equator at mid day
2. ii) 21st march√

23rd September√

iii)       –     causes four seasons i.e. winter, summer, autumn and  spring√

• causes varying lengths of day and  night  at different  times  of the year√
• causes changes or  altitude  of the  mid-day  sun at different times  of  the  year√
1. a)  – U-mohorovicic discontinuity

– V-the mantle/asthenosphere

– X-Gutenberg discontinuity

. b i)   – it is  made  up of  solid  rocks

• composed of two layers /sial and  sima/continental crust and oceanic  crust
• sial is rich in silica  and a aluminum
• sima is  rich in  silica and magnesium
• sima rocks are  like plastic/more flexible
• the top layer of the  sima is  made of  sediments  and  volcanic lava
• the bottom layer of  sima is made  up of  basalt/igneous rocks
• the sima  is made  up of  the basaltic/igneous  rocks
• sima is made  up of  dense rocks /2.8-3.0 gm/cc
• the sial is made up of  granites/sedimentary/metamorphic  rocks
• the sial  rocks are rigid/brittle
1. ii) – the  core  is  composed  of two parts  e. inner core and outer  core
• the main mineral of the outer core  are iron and nickel
• the main mineral of the inner core is iron
• the inner core has  a  high density i.e. 16-17gm/cc  than  the  outer core  e. 10.5gm/cc
• the inner core is  made up of a  solid rock mass
• the outer core is molten

1. WEATHER AND CLIMATE
2. -population pressure leading to clearing of forest
• climatic changes/global warming/destruction of ozone layer
• accidental fires
• poor methods of farming /overgrazing
1. a i) Aridity refers to a  state  of  dryness or deficiency of rainfall  in an area  while

desertification refers  to the encroachment  of desert  like  conditions  into

productive  or arable  land  √√

1. ii) Weather atmospheric condition of a place over a short period of time

Climate- Average weather condition of a given place over a long period

b)- Moist warm air meets dry cold air mass

– Mountain slopes adjacent to a valley cause anabatic and katabatic winds

1. c) – Sea heats faster than the land during the day

– Air over the sea rises creating low pressure over the sea

– Cooler air over the land blows towards the sea

– Cool air from the land is called land breeze

1. a) – Zone of low pressure

– High temperature

– High convectional rainfall

– Moves with movement of the sun

(b)i) -Variation of solar output

– Volcanic eruption

– Variations in the earth’s orbital characteristics

– Variation in atmospheric carbon dioxide

iii) –  Increase in temperature causing rise in sea level due to melting ice

– Changes in wind speed causing erosion

– Changes in seasons leading to severe drought

– Increase in precipitation causing flooding of large areas

1. c) – Relief features such as high mountains influence temperature and rainfall pattern
• Presence of large water bodies that modify temperatures of the surrounding lands through breezes
• Continentality- many regions are in the interior of the continents making them receive low amounts of rains
• Winds- some areas are influenced by cold onshore winds that lower temperature of the surroundings
1. (a) – Temperature varies between 17C to 24C
• Lower slopes have higher temperatures than upper slopes
• Mean annual range of temperature is between 3C to 5C
• Rainfall is received throughout the year
• Rainfall is high 1000 -15000 mm
• Rainfall is double maxima
• Rainfall is relief- orographic
• High rain on the wind ward slopes
• Rainfall is caused by S.E trade
• Coolest months are between June and August

(b  – Fold mountains receive heavy rainfall/ snow falls give rise to many rivers for

HEP, irrigation, water for domestic and industrial use

• Wind wards sides receive high rainfall which promote agriculture/ forest growth
• Leeward side have violent wind which destroy crops
• Folding leads to exposer of some minerals or bring minerals near surface for mining
• Folding hinders construction of communication
• Folding acts as barriers during wars
• Folding offer sceneries which attract tourists hence foreign exchange
• Folds mountains make visibility poor hence hindering air transport
1. a) Weather is the daily condition of atmosphere taken in short period usually 24hrs

while climate is  the average weather condition taken for a period of 30 – 35 yrs

1. b) – High rainfall/ no marked dry season/ (1500mm – 2000 mm)
• High temperatures throughout the year/ (24º– 27º)
• High humidity throughout the year with relative humidity about 80%
• Rainfall throughout the year
• Small temperature range/ 4ºC
• Double maxima (March – May and Oct – Nov)
• Major winds are South East and North East
• Low pressure all the year/ Doidrums/ Equatorial low
• Rainfall mainly convectional falling in the afternoon accompanied with lightening and thunderstorm
• Thick cloud cover all the year/ thick cumulonimbus clouds
1. (a) i) – Warm ocean currents raise temperature of the adjustment land/ warm current

increase rainfall

– Cold ocean current lower temperature of the regions/ lower rainfall/ create dryness

1. ii) High areas have low temperatures/ Mt areas receive high rainfall

Mountain sides facing sun are warmer than sides facing away from sun (Aspect)

b i)-  Rainfall of double maxima

– High temperatures throughout the year about 270°C

– Low temperature range

– Rainfall falls throughout the year

– Rainfall is high average 2000mm

– Low pressure due to over head sun

– Rainfall is mainly convectional

–  High humidity content

1. a) – Air should be calm so that it can remain in contact with the ground long

enough to be cooled  below dew point

– Day time should be warm to speed up evaporation and provide a lot of water in the air

– There should be cloudless nights

1. b) – To increase precipitation in the area

– To regulate in the area

– Forest to help air purification

1. a) i) A fog is a mass of water droplets suspended in the lower atmosphere which limits

visibility to less  than a kilometer

1. ii) – Air must have abundant moisture

– The night should be clear/cloudless to facilitate terrestrial radiation

– The air should be clam/gentle air currents to help the water droplets in suspension

1. b) – Troposphere

– Stratosphere

– Mesopause

1. a) -it is a large volume of air whose temperature and humidity are fairly uniform

and covers an extensive surface area

1. b) -it experiences high temperature

-it is a zone of low pressure and the doldrums

-the zone migrates to the north and south of the equator with apparent movement of

-it is a zone where the S.E and N.E trade winds converge

-it is associated with convectional rain and thunderstorms

1. a) – Temperature decreases with increase in  altitude.

– Rainfall increases with height upto 300m then it starts to decrease

– Windward slopes are wetter than leeward slopes.

– Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude.

– Local winds are common, they blow up slope during the day and down slope

during night.

– In temp. regime slopes facing the equator are warmer than those facing the poles

1. b) i)-  Increases air pollution from industrial activities.

– Deforestation /uncontrolled logging.

1. ii) – Widespread changes in the natural ecosystem with grasslands and deserts areas

expanding as  forested areas shrinks.

– Possible rise in temp. may increase evaporation rates leading increased rainfall

in some areas.

– Increased rainfall will cause flooding of low lying areas.

– Water stored in polar glacier will melt leading to rise in sea levels and flooding of

coastal  lands.

– In temperate regions, winters are likely to be wetter and summer drier.

– Wetter & warmer conditions may increase pests & diseases thereby affecting humans,

crops &   livestock.

– Change in climate is likely to cause extinction of various plants and animal species.

– Possible drought might increase in most parts of the world.

– Cause in change in agricultural activities & massive crop failure leading to food

shortage.

c i)  – A rain gauge consists of a funnel, metallic cylindrical container and a collecting jar.

• When it rains, water from direct rain drops collects into the jar through the funnel
• The water collected is then poured into a graduated (in mm) measuring cylinder.
• The readings taken & recorded.

c ii) – Thermometers /six thermometers.

– Hygrometer.

1. a i) – This is climatic conditions in a restricted area due to small differences of aspect

slope, vegetation and human landscapes

1. ii) It is a condition where the incoming solar radiations pass through the atmosphere

while the  outgoing terrestrial radiation is blocked by gases/ clouds/ atmosphere

making the earth retain the terrestrial radiation/ re-radiation. (This makes earth to

be warmer than it would have been)/ it is a condition where the atmosphere

balances the incoming and outgoing terrestrial radiation making the earth to

retain optimum heat

1. b) – A thermometer / maximum and minimum/ six’s thermometer

– A hygrometer/ wet and dry bulb thermometers

12        a) -body  of air/wind  with uniform conditions moving  in a  given  direction

1. b) -same temperature

-air pressure-move  from H.P  to L.P

-earth’s movement

1. (a) Tropical convergence zone is a low pressure belt that lies between the tropics

where the North East  and South East trade winds converge

1. b) – The forest is evergreen due to high rainfall and abundant sunshine

– The trees grow tall to complete for sunlight

– Trees have broad leaves to encourage water loss through evapo-transpiration  /

transpire excess water due to high rainfall

– these are mainly hardwoods due to abundant sunshine

– Trees have buttressed roots to support their great heights and large trunks in the

wet soils.

– Tree roots go deep into the ground for anchorage

– There are many tree species due to the tropical conditions.

– The forest has little underground because the canopies block sunlight from reaching the

ground

– The forests have numerous lianas/climbers which twine around the tall trees to reach

sunlight in the dense forest.

– Trees grow rapidly due to the high temperatures and high rainfall

1. a) It is large volume of air/ wind with similar/ uniform temperature humidity and covers

over a large  area and flows over along distance

1. b) A-  North East polar winds

B- South West westerlies/ S. West winds

C – North east trade winds

D – South East trade winds

1. a i) – Global warming is the increase of average temperatures on earth as result of green

house  effect/ gases reflecting back to earth part of heat radiation

1. ii) –    The orbital position of the earth or effect of the distance of the earth from

the sun

• High amount of carbon dioxide in the air from industries
• The volcanic emption raise heat/ temperature
• High amount of solar radiation reaching the earth due to depletion of Ozone layer

iii) – Carbon dioxide (CO2)

– Chlorofluorocarbons (CFS)

– Methane

– Nitrous oxide (N2O)

b)(i) –  Change in the ecosystems with grass land and deserts expanding while

forests shrink

• Rise in the sea level due to thawing of glaciers that leads to flooding of coastal low lands
• Rise in global temperatures leading to increased rainfall due to increased evaporation
• Wetter winters and dry summers in temperature regions
• Shrinking water bodies e.g. lakes, rivers and drying up of streams
• Reduced animal and plant species due to adaptation difficulties
• Extinction of some species of flora and fauna
• Low production of food due to failing soil fertility and absence of rain/ too much of rainfall

in other areas

(ii) – High rainfall evidenced by many permanent rivers

– Cool temperatures from high altitudes e.g. 2000m

1. a) Aridity is dryness/ insufficient rainfall, while desertification is the expansion/

encroachment of  desert conditions

1. b)     – Use off defective instruments√

– Personnel my have inadequate /limited skills√

– Vagaries of nature such as earth tremous√

1. c) – painted white to prevent over heating√

– raised to a height of 121m to prevent contact with direct radiation from the

earth’s surface√

– it has louvers at the side to  allow free air circulation√

1. a)- 2-modified tropical climate  of the  highland

– 3-modified equatorial  climate  of  the  lake basin

1. b) – it receives very low rainfall of less than 250mm annually
• the mean annual  temperature are  high above 29ºc
• large diurnal range of  temperature
• day temperature are high
• humidity is low
• sand storms are common occurrence
• there are occasional floods caused by sporaduram
• the region is under  the  influence of dry north east trade  winds
1. a i) X – Mediterranean

Y – Equatorial climate

1. ii) – Rainfall is low/ below 250mm per year
• Rainfall is erratic/ unreliable
• Occasional flash floods
• Temperatures are high throughout the year
• Diurnal range of temperature is large/ extreme hot days and cold nights
• High rates of evaporation
• Skies are clear/ high terestial radiation
• Low humidity
• Strong dusty winds

b i)-  Green house effect is general increase of the temperatures of the globe due

to increase  in the level of CO2 and other green houses gases. This result into

a condition where  the  incouncy solar radiation passes through the atmosphere

while the outgoing terrestrial  radiation s blocked by the gases and the clouds

1. ii) Increase in temperature

Effects

• Rainfall increase
• Melting of ice caps
• Rise in sea level
• High evaporation
• Abnormal growth of plants

Change in rainfall pattern

Effects

• Floodings
• Rise in sea level
• Drought
• Soil erosion by water

Change in seasonal patterns

Effects

• Severe winter/ short summer
• Drought
• Shifting of vegetation zones
• Extinct of some species

Change in winds

-More frequent & more destructive

– High waves

– Flooding

– Wind erosion/ wind storms

c i)    – Temperature decreases with increasing height above sea level. This is because

atmospheric air at low altitude is denser than high above. Heat loss is greater at high

altitude than at lower altitude

• Rise in altitude cause fall in temperature and a cooling effect that causes condensation of moisture in the air. This leads to precipitation forming at high altitude
• Atmospheric pressure is higher at low altitude and lower at high altitude. This is because the weight of the atmospheric air at low altitude is more than at high altitude
1. ii) In summer, coastlands are relatively cooler than in land areas. This is because the

winds bring   the cooling effect of the sea to the land, by the time winds reach inland

they are heated  by warm   land resulting in higher temperature over the interior of

the land

In winter the onshore winds bring the warming effect of the sea into the land causing a rise in  temperature. By the time these winds reach the interior of the land, they are cooled by cold land thus enhancing the low temperature

Onshore winds cause a lot of rain in the coastal areas throughout the year. This is because the wind picks up moisture over the sea and drop it on the nearby land. The continental interiors  receive less rain, mainly in summer, because the winds have dropped mot of the moisture in the coastal lands

iii) Ocean currents

• Cold ocean currents bring about the cooling effect in the temperature
• Also bring a dry effect because the cold air is not able to rise

Warm ocean currents

• Bring a warm effect (rise in temperature)
• Heavy rainfall because the warm air is able to rise and condense to form rainfall

1. STATISTICAL METHODS
2. a ii) – Relatively more difficult to draw/time consuming.
• Long bar not easy to compare.
• Number of components to be represented is limited
• Fluctuation in production over a period of time are not easy to see at a glance
1. (a) ii)  –   A better impression of totality and individual contribution.
• Differences in quantities are easier to see.
• Easy to read the bars as they start from a common baseline.
• The value of each bar is easily determined.
1. b) –  Kenya is not self sufficient in the commodities due to the high population.
• Frequent drought which lead to crop failure cause food shortage thus importation to supplement local produce
• Increased cost of farm inputs leading to low production hence the need to import.
• Occasional illegal imports/smuggling /hoarding of the commodities creates artificial shortage hence the need to import these
• Pests and diseases reduce the amount of grain harvested thus the need for importation.
• The requirements to  maintain the trading quotas among the countries African trading  blocks that Kenya imports some  of the commodities in exchange of her  own  imports
1. a i)
 DISTRICT / YEAR 1982 CT 1992 CT 2002 CT TRANS NZOIA KIAMBU MERU BUNGOMA 24 23 25 12 24 47 72 84 26 25 27 14 26 51 78 92 40 31 32 20 40 71 103 123

Milk production in 000 units in selected Districts in Kenya

1. a i) – The year 2009 recorded the highest network coverage in the country

– The year 2007 held the lowest network coverage and uncovered areas respectively

since 2009

• Safaricom network has been the leading in terms of network coverage since 2007

to 2009

• YU network has been the least in terms of network coverage
1. ii) – Suitable for absolute totals in different periods
• Gives a good visual impression of the totality
• Easy to interpret
1. a ii) – It’s easy to compare the various components within a circle.
• They are simple to construct after angles have been calculated.
• Give clear visual impression of individual components.

– It’s easy to determine the value of each component since the size, the sector is

proportional to the value it represent.

1. b) = 130,000 – 70,000 = 60,000 √1 mk

% increase = 60,000 x 100 = 600

70,000

= 85  5/7 % √1 mk

1. a) Gold = 26/100 x 360 = 93.6 = 940Ö 1

Fluorspar = 14/100 x 360 = 50.4 = 500Ö 1

Soda Ash= 32/100 x 360 =115.2 =1150Ö 1

Zinc= 28/100 x 360 = 100.8 = 1010Ö 1

1. b) – Good in showing variant types of dataÖ
• Easy to drawÖ
• Easy to interpret Ö
• Easy to make comparisonsÖ
1. MAPS AND MAP WORK
2. a i) – Kisumu east 116/2
• Muhoroni 117/1
• Lumbwa 117/2
• Nyakach 116/4
• Kericho 117/4
• Kisii 130/2
• Chemagel 131/1
• Chapatarakwa 131/2

b i)      –  Presence of tea  plantation-tea  grows under heavy  amount of  rainfall

– Presence of forest cover

– presence of permanent river

b ii) – R. Kibol

– Scrub vegetation

– Tea plantation

c i)

d i)     – the major river  is R.yurith

– river are permanent

– the river are few

1. ii) – Farming

– Forestry

– Mining

1. a) (i)- 0º201S35º191E
2. ii) – Power transmission line

b i)    – Trigonometrical station

– Contours

– Hunhures e.g. along road in grid square 6867

1. ii) – 3.9Km ± 0.1 (3.8km – 4.0km)

iii) – 180 + 35 = 215º ±1º = (214º – 216º)

1. a)

1. ii) VE = VS/HS = 1/8000/1/50000 = 1/8000 x 50000/1

1. a i) – north west√√
2. ii) – 000º/360º√√

iii) – trigonometrical  station: secondary√

– trigonometrical station :other√

1. iv) full squares=28

½ squares=26x ½ =13

41x1000m=41,000metres√√

b iii)            V.E=VS

GS

= 1

10,000

1

50,000

= 1 X 50,000

10,000          = 5√

c).

 CROP EVIDENCE -coffee -Grains(maize, millet, sorghum -tea -coffee mill (2347) -mills, posho mill (4255) -tea estate, tea nursery, tea factory.(1×2=2mks)

1. a) X – Savanna grass land

Y – Tropical rain forest

1. b) – Has very low temperature

– Thin soils and bare rock

– Soil is permafrost

c)-  Mt.Kenya

1. a i) – 2020m
2. ii) 15’ (35o00’ to 35o15’)

iii) 36.0km2 (35 to 37km2)

1. iv) 28755548

. b i) & ii)

iii) New scale = map scale x scale factor of reduction

= 1/ 500mx ½ = 1/100000= 1: 100000

1. c) – The forestal area has few/no all weather roads because it is reserved for the

growing of trees

– The all weather roads avoid high hills/steep slopes because construction on/along steep slopes is difficult for example the road from Maraboi through Tamungo to Marumbasi detours to  avoid steep slopes and hills.

– The roads avoid swamps because of their water-logged conditions for example the road from Ainaboi through kabionga to Kiptula avoids the papyrus swamp

– the roads avoid river valleys and only crosses them unavoidable

– the roads are constructed on gentle slopes as it is easier to construct them as seen by

the   construction of roads on the gentler slopes to the East and no all weather roads

on the ridge   east of river Sondo

– All weather roads are constructed on ridges/spurs/water sheds due to the gentleness of

the  slopes for example the road from Maragwa to Maraboi/the road from Ainabkoi

to Kerenga

d i) – Cool temperature as evidenced by the high relief – over 1700metres makes the area

suitable for growing of tea bushes.

– The gentle/indulating slopes as evidenced by widely spread contours allows for proper

drainage of soils/mechanization making it ideal for tea farming.

-The high rainfall as evidenced by forest vegetation/many permanent rivers originating from  the area which is suitable for ea growing

– Presence of labor as seen by the fairly dense settlement/labour lines to work in the

tea farms

– Transport is avoidable as seen by all weather roads for transportation of tea from the

farms/transportation of labour

d ii) Coffee evidence coffee mill in grid square 2347

1. a i) 1: 50,000

10000cm represent 1 km

= 50,000      = 0.5

100000

1 centimeter represents 0.5 kilometers

1. ii) –  35o001 – 35o15E

iii)       –  120o   + 1o

. b) –  Wood land

– Riverine trees

– Papyrus

– Scattered trees

–  Scrub

c ii)          –  River Sondo is the main river

– River Yurith flows S. westwards

– Papyrus swamp present to the north and south

– Yurith river has meanders

– Rivers are permanent

– Most rivers show a dendritic pattern

– Dams in grid square 4349 and 4954

1. d) – Shops and trading centre

– Presence of roads foot paths

– Dense settlements provide market

– Police post for security

1. a i) -Rift valley

-Nyanza

1. ii) -south west direction
2. iv) 420557

b i)   – 4.00km=0.1(3.9 to4.1)km

1. ii) -use of place names

-grid reference

-compass direction

iii)  -forest

-woodland

-scrubs

-riverine trees

-papyrus swamp

1. iv) -Tea growing-evidenced by tea factory/tea estates

-live stocks keeping-evidence by veterinary livestock centre

-cereal crops growing-evidenced by posho mill

(c)-Gentle have dense settlement due to gentle gradient which encourages settlement as

evidence by spaced contours.

-Relatively  flat areas have little  or no settlement due to pour drainage as evidenced by papyrus   swamp

-Areas with steep slopes in the western area hear Kebenet have few settlements as evidence by   closely spaced contours

-There has dense settlements due to fertile soil as evidenced by the growing of tea in estates

(d)  -there are several permanent rivers in the area

-rivers Sondu and Yurith are the major rivers in the area

-rivers with their tributaries for dendritic drainage pattern

-there is a seasonal swamp in grid square 3656

-in the west, rivers flow north-west wards in the south they flow westwards

-there are fewer rivers in the north than in the south-

1. a i) – topographical map.
2. ii) – Contours

– Trigonometrical stations.

b i)            1.3 cm                         1 km                 100000 cm

1 km = 100,000 cm     13 cm               1cm  X 100000          = 0.000013km

13

1. ii) – Tea. Evidence by changoi tea factory and tea nursery.

– Coffee, evidence by coffee mill

c i)           – The plains are densely settled as the land is flat/gentle land.

– The basins have been avoided as they land is water logged/flooded/swampy.

– Steep slope/escarpment have been avoided because they are unstable for construction of   houses/for farming.

– There are few settlement on hilly areas because slopes are gentle.

1. ii) – Education/schooling evidenced by Gekonge school, Matongo school, Cheboan school,

Kakibei  school e.t.c

– Trading evidenced by Health centres, Dispensaries

– Social work evidence by labour lines.

– Transportation evidence by murram, Dry –weather roads.

– River

– Forest

1. a i)            35°001 – 35°151
2. ii) Map scale 1:50000 i.e. 1cm represents 50000 cm

50000cm = 50000

100000 km

= 0.5km/ ½ km

Statement scale is 1cm represents 0.5km/ ½ km

iii)       Contours

Trigonometrically stations

b iii)                                    VE = VS

HS

= 1/2000/ 1/50000

= 50000 x 1

1        2000

= 25

11      . (a) – The drainage consists of rivers papyrus swamps, ponds and lakes

– River Yurith is the main river

– River Yurith generally flow West wards

– The river has many meanders

– River Yurith has two main- tributaries Itare and Kitoi

– The area covered by the map are numerous

– River Yurith has many tributaries that form a dendrific pattern along the course

– The river yurith is Permanent River

– There are many disappearing rivers

1. b)
 ECONOMIC ACTIVITY   Transportation     Trading   Crop farming EVIDENCE   Roads/ main tracks/ foot paths Dry weather roads, All weather roads:. Bound surface and loose surface), Air strip Shops, Coffee mill/ tea factory/ posho mill factory   Tea nursery/ tea plantation
1. c) – Employment to people work there is provided.

– Facilitates agriculture in the regions around.

– Processing of tea, ready for use.

– Transportation of people evidence by all weather road e.t.c

d)- Presence of tea that requires high rainfall.

– Forest

– Many permanent rivers.

– Presence of many factories that use a lot of water.

1. a i) Topographical.
2. ii) 24 54

iii) Calculate the area enclosed by Kendu Kisii. All weather roads bound to the West

of the map.

7.5 km2 = (7.00 – 8.00 km2).

1. iv) – Education – evidence school.

– Medical care – evidence hospital.

– Administration – evidence Chief’s Camp, DC’s, D.O’s office.

– Recreation.

1. b) ii) Vertical scale

Horizontal scale

 25

1      x 50,000          =  1

20             1                 5,000

V.S = 2500

1. c) – There are several permanent rivers like Itare and Kitoi.

– River Yurith is the main river.

– Rivers flow from North Eastern to North Western.

– There is a swamp / tree swamp around Kabiaga farm.

– Rivers form dendritic pattern

1. d) – The scrub vegetation shows availability of pasture for cattle.

– The many rivers (like R. Yurith, Itare and Kitoi) in the area shows that there is adequate

water for cattle.

– The high altitude of above 1800m above the sea level indicate cool conditions ideal for

cattle  keeping.

1. a i) 020º
2. ii) 556711

iii) map scale 1:50,000

1 cm rep 50,000cm

50,000=50,000√1

100,000

=0.5         Statement scale is  1cm rep 0.5km/ ½ km

1. iv) 0º 19’S 35º 18’E
2. v) -contours

-trigonometrically stations/pillars

b i)   -education-school/college

-recreational-club/race course

-Health-hospital

. b ii)  – tea growing –tea estate/tea factory

– Quarrying-quarry

1. d) -the main river is  tugenon

-There are many permanent rivers

-River Kipkwes and its tributan’s form Dendntic drainage pattern

-River north of northing 69 flow generally towards the north

-River south of northing 60 flow towards west/south west

1. a)- Rift Valley province                           – Nyanza province

b i)

 1800

1. ii) V.E = VS/HS = 1/50m = 1/50000cm

VE = 10 Ö 2

1. iv) – Topographical
2. a i) i) –  402488
3. ii) – 7.1 ± 0.1 Km

iii)                   – LUMBWA

. b i)                – 35°001E to 35°151E

1. ii) –  1844 – 1847 m

. c i) – The southern part of the area covered by the mp is well drained as evidenced by

presence of many permanent rivers

– The main river is Yurith that flows South Western wards

– There is a seasonal swamp in the northern part of the area covered by the map

– There are several dams along river Kitoi

– River Sondo and its tributaries form dentric drainage pattern

– River Kitoi and Kimugung re in their youthful stages

1. ii)

d i) ) – Steep slopes e.g. along the escarpment have been avoided. There are more

settlement  on gently sloping regions

• Forested areas e.g. to the south eastern part of the map have been avoided
• Swampy areas have no settlement
• Plantation forms have no settlement inside, people tend to settle around the forms
• There are linear settlements along all weather road loose surface especially in the north eastern part of the area covered by the map

d ii) – Presence of well developed transport network in the area ensures movement of goods

and    Services

– Presence of scattered houses in the area ensures there is market provided by those in

the houses

– Tea factories and tea plantation farms is likely indication that people are employed in

the area and therefore have better living standards

1. FIELD WORK
2. a) – To find out where farmers get their livestock/hides

– Find out the significant of beef produce to the local areas.

1. ii) – Displaying the filled questionnaires.
• Displaying photographs taken.
• Giving a lecture on beef farming.
• Carry out group discussions.
• Drawing proper sketches.

b i)    – To find out the various ways in which the power plant benefits the surrounding

communities

• To discover the amount of power generated by the plant
• To find out the problem facing geothermal power generation in Kenya
• To find out the power generation potential of the rift valley area

b ii)   –  Formulator of  objectives before actual field study

• Write to Kengen to seek permission to visit Olkaria
• Collect all the necessary writing materials
• Conduct a reconnaissance to the site
• Prepare a questionnaire for use on the day of study
• Prepare a working schedule
1. c) i) – A pit is dug not too deep or shallow
• The pit is cemented and sealed to prevent gas from escaping
• Pipes are connected to carry the biogas to the burners
• Pour the dung and other waste into the digester and mix with water
• Anaerobic bacteria feed on it giving off biogas
1. ii) – Saw dust
• Agricultural wastes
• Wood

–    Dung

2          . a i)     – Soils are light in colour

– Soils are sandy/ stony

– Soils are loose in texture

– Soils are thin

– Soils have low moisture content

1. ii) 2 columns of time & activity

Time of departure

Two activities indicating data collection

Time back to school

 TIME 8 a.m 8.30 9.00       4 p.m ACTIVITY Departure from school Arrival at the field Testing or feeling of soil texture Measuring the alkalinity of soil Carrying out experiment on water retention Observing of the soil e.t.c. Going back to school
1. a i) – Savanna vegetation
• Rainforest
• Bamboo forests
• Health and moorland
1. ii) – prairies
• steppes
• downs
• veld

iii)   – some have thick/fleshy/succulent  leaves /barks

• some have long tap roots
• some have no  leaves /have  thin/spiky/waxy/needle like leaves
• some plants have thick/hard  barks
• some plants have  thorns
• some plants  are  stunted/dwarf like
• shrubs are common
• some plants spout during wet seasons (short  time)
1. b) – fire-often ,large  areas of  forests are destroyed  by accidental  and sometimes intended

fire.  such forests takes long  to recover

• diseases causes by pests and parasites attack  mainly  the planted  forests causing many trees  to die
• human activity /settlement /charcoal burning/logging have  destroyed  many  forests areas of which are transformed in to farms and  grasslands
• over-exploitation leads to depletion of certain tree  species such as Meru oak, camphor and Elgon teak. these trees take long  to mature
• government policy of degazetting  of some forests  made  people free to clear  many  forested areas
• prolonged droughts lead  to degeneration  of forests some of which  take long to recover
1. ci) – Conduct a previsit

–   Collect the tools and equipments needed for the study

– Prepare a working schedule

– Read secondary sources at information

– Formulate the objectives and hypothesis

– Decide on the method of data collection

1. ii) – Hygrometer (wet and dry bulb thermometer)

– Ordinary thermometer

– Six’s thermometer (max & min thermometer)

1. a i) –  Stating either activities to be carried out during the field

– Recording the data an types of vegetation

– Collecting data on vegetation types and conditions favoring their growth.

– Drawing the structure of plants leaves

– By classification and characteristics of leaves of different plants.

– Observing types of roots and stem of the different plants

b i)  –    high population increase

• poor grazing methods
• poor management of bench terraces
• nature of the   landscape
• charcoal burning
1. ii) –  loss of top soil
• siltation of water reservoirs and H.E.P dams on Tana  river
• deposit of sand along river  leading to sand harvesting
• intensification of soil conversation awareness in  the district

iii)-  to find out the cause  of soil erosion in machakos district

– to find out  the effect of soil erosion  in machakos  district

1. a i) –   formulation of hypothesis /objective
• reconnaissance survey
• prepare route map
• prepare a working schedule
• carry out secondary research(content analysis)
• seek permission from relevant authority
• prepare necessary stationery
• make travel arrangement
1. ii) – the residents of the area covered by the map sheet do not have access to tea products

meant for  export

– The tea plantation does not stretch outside the Belgut district boundary

b i)   – Factors that influence weathering

• Types and processes of weathering
• Effects of weathering on physical and human environment
1. ii) – Draw sketches of features

– Data analysis

• Data interpretation
• Discuss the findings

6          .a) i)    –  Pre – visit/ reconnaissance

• Preparing equipments to be used
• Asking permission from relevant authorities
• Setting objectives/ hypothesis
• Preparing map of the place/ route map
• Discussion before the field day
1. ii) – Climate of the area have direct influence on vegetation

– The vegetation of the area changes with the change of climate

b i)  – Reduced amount of vegetation cover

• Reduced mountain shows in the tropical highlands
• Severe wind and soil erosion
• Presence of strong winds
• Failing of crop yield
• Reduced size of water bodies
• High localized temperatures
• Low plant/ animal population densities

1. i) – First hand information would be collected

– Data collected would be reliable

– It is a quick method of data collection

. c)       –       Relief – steep slopes have no / sparse settlements evidenced in western side (KEBEWET  AREA) since  such slopes are not ideal for erection of houses/ gently sloping slopes have dense settlements as is in control part of near (Chemalul, Kablanga, Kapwaso) areas

since  they form ideal sites for erection of structures

• Vegetation areas with thick vegetation e.g. forests, plantations have scarce settlements (Tea estates and forests in S.E). Such vegetation discourages settlement
• Drainage – poorly drained places like mashes have no settlements since the places cannot provide firm sites for erection of houses/ well drained places have dense settlements such sites provide water for a domestic use and provide firm sites
• Transport lines – Areas with good road network have dense settlements for easy transportation of people and goods e.g. along loose surface roads

1. a i) – Reading from secondary sources

– Carrying out reconnaissance

– Formulation of hypotheses and statement of objectives

–  Division of class into smaller groups

– Asking permission from relevant authorities

1. ii) – Most of the crops grown are cash/ most crops grown are subsistence

– Crop farming is more dominant than livestock keeping

– Most of the economic activities take place in areas with good transport network

iii)

 ACTIVITY – plantation farming – Livestock farming – Manufacturing – Transport – Trade EVIDENCE – Existence of estates – Existence of dips – Tea factory (4647) – Existence of roads – Shops
1. iv) – Topographical

b i) INDUSTRIALIZATION

-Has led to disposal of industrial wastes into the lake contaminating /polluting the

water and  interfering with aquatic life

• Agro-chemicals/industrial effluents washed into the lake has promoted weed loons
• causing  the  lake to be colonized by weeds/water hyacinth

DEFORESTATION

• Has exposed soils to agents of erosion; the eroded soils have been carried and deposited

in the lake siltation. This had diminished the depth of the lake.

• Deforestation in water catchment areas has interfered with the water cycle causing low

rainfall  and less water from feeder rivers. this has led to drying of the lakes

1. ii) – observation

– Taking photographs

– Taking measurements

– Collecting samples

iii) – In order to write the report/summarize the data

– So as to a group/process/ analyze the data collected

– so that the various groups can report/discuss the findings from the field

– So as t display any collected samples

– So as to assess the importance of he information collected I the field

– To test samples collected from the field

. c i) -note  taking

-filling in questionnaire

-tabulation

-field sketching/drawing maps

-tallying

-photographing

-tape recording

-labelling samples

-in accessibility of some area

-lack of sufficient data

-illiterate respondent

-arrogant respondents

ii )- Formulate hypothesis/objectives.

– Makes a short survey/reconnaissance of the area to be studied.

– Preparation of route map.

– Carrying out literature review/secondary information.

– Organize into groups.

– Make transport arrangements.

– Prepare the necessary stationery and equipment required.

– Prepare a working schedule.

– Seek permission from relevant authorities.

.          b)(i)    –     Assemble equipment

• Depart for the area of study
• Report to the factory authorities
• Embark on data collection
• Report back to the factory authorities
• Report back to school
1. ii) – The class will be able to study the entire course of the river

– It will enable them to obtain detailed information on each stage of the river

– It will save on time

– It will enable the study to be carried out in an orderly way

– It will encourage participation of all the members of the class/ encourage individual roles

– It will facilitate more interaction among the group members

1. a i) –  Administering questionnaire observation

– Collecting samples of rocks/ deposits

– Drawing sketches/ diagrams/ maps

– Measuring/ calculating

– Taking photographs

– Reading secondary materials/ content analysis

1. ii) – The hot/ scotching sun would make it difficult to collect data

– Torrential rain/ flash floods/ dust storms would disrupt data collection

– The rugged terrain would make it difficult to reach certain features

– Attack by wild animals

b i)-  Measure distances/ estimation of distances/ heights

– Collect samples of plants

– Draw sketches/ transects

– Record/ take notes

– Take photographs of plants/ area

– Count plants

1. ii) –   By their appearance
• Their colour
• By their leaf size/ pattern/ arrangement/ type
• By their age
• By the nature of their barks
• By the texture of their leaves

10 .      i)- Graphs

– Pie charts

– Preparing a written report.

– Displaying rock samples

– Displaying photographs.

– Drawing maps showing distribution of area underlying desertification.

.    b i ) – Breaking the rocks.

– Digging the rocks.

– Collecting samples.

– Tasting the rocks

– Observing the rocks

ii)- Tiredness because of rugged /steep terrain.

– Lack of testing Material.

– Accidents e.g slipping/getting cut by rocks.

– Hindrances by poor /harsh weather conditions.

– Attack by wild animals.

– Difficulty in carrying heavy rock samples.

– Difficulty in climbing /ascending steep rocks.

1. a i) – To determine the type of soil

– To find out the soil colour.

– To establish the use of the soil

1. ii) – Inadequate time for detailed study.

– For further analysis in the lab.

– Keeping for future reference in the geography room.

(b) i)      -carried out a reconnaissance /persist

-identified the tools to be used during the fieldwork

-prepared a working schedule

-asked for permission from relevant authorities

-held discussions in groups

-state the objectives/hypotheses

1. ii) -hostile weather due to heavy rains

-attacks by wild animals

-lack of resource pesos

-some areas were inaccessible

1. a) i) -direct observation

-taking photographs

-taking measurements

-interviewing the local people

1. ii) -to identify the route

-to prepare time schedule

-to ask for permission from the local community

-to identify the particular features location

iii) -can be advised on ways of controlling flooding

-can be advised on several uses of the river and need to conserve it

1. a ) – long and narrow
• some are salty
• some are fresh
• some have underground  outlets e.g Naivasha
• deep

b i)       – Helps the researcher to decide on appropriate method of data collection

– Helps in identifying the appropriate tools to be used during the study

– Helps the researcher to design a working schedule

– Helps the researcher identify problems likely to be identified

– Helps the researcher estimate the cost to be incurred

– Helps the researcher to familiarize with the area

1. ii) –   Note taking
• Filling in questionnaire
• Mapping
• Photography

. c)i)  – the area is  too wide/extensive

• some areas are  inaccessible-steep  slopes
• harsh weather/weather changes
• field study can take  too long
1. c) ii) – report writing
• class discussions
• displaying of  collected samples
• reading more abut the topic
• analysis photographs/tape recorded work/collected samples

1. a i) 22   x 100  = 13.33

105

= 13.33%

1. ii)            2000                            2001                            2002

165 000                       318 000                       455000

= 406.20                        = 563.914                    = 674.536

r . 2.0                           r 2.81                           r 3.37

1. b) – Moderate to high rainfall/500 – 1270 mm p.a. for growth.

– Dry spell for harvesting.

– Warm to hot temps/15 – 200c to facilitate growth/maturity.

– Well drained volcanic soils increases yield.

– Gentle/undulating topography to facilitate mechanization..

c i) In Canada cultivation is highly mechanized while Kenya in Kenya its less.

1. ii) In Canada wheat is mainly for export while in Kenya its mainly for local

iii) The farms in Canada are more extensive and wide while in Kenya the cultivation is

done  mainly in small scale.

1. d) – Used in industries to make alcohol and glue.

– Wheat flour is food /bread/ cake.

– The wheat stalks are livestock feed.

– Straws are used for making papers/ straw gourds/ bedding in cow sheds.

1. a i) Firewood    –    13400   x 360     =107.20

45000

Kerosene     –      11200 x 360     = 89.60

45000

Charcoal     –       9100 x 360      = 72.79

45000

Liquid petroleum gas – 5300 x 360   = 42.40

45000

Saw dust   –      4000 x 360    = 32.00

45000

Hydro electricity – 2000 x 360   = 15.99

45000

b i)             –  Previsit/ reconnaissance

• Literature review
• Class discussion
• Data collection instruments
• Preparation of working schedules
• Obtain permission
• Transport arrangement

b ii)              – Discussion of findings

– Write better notes/ draw better diagrams

– Display photographs/ maps/ diagrams

1. c) i) –  Inaccessibility of some parts the to presence of tendrils.
• Wild animals’ attack/insects sites.
• Unfavourable weaken conditions/cold conditions.
• Rainfall
1. ii) Height of a tree measure the shadow then calculate.

Diameter of the stem – use a tape measure.

Trees of the same species – study leaf structures.

d i)   – Foul smell

• Garbage may habour smokes which are
• Paths may be blocked.
1. ii) – Tree forming should be practiced in the area Ö
• Agro – forestry should be practiced Ö
• People should be encouraged to use alternative sources of energy/ energy saving jikos Ö
• Mature trees felled should be replaced immediately Ö
• Villagers/ people should be educated on importance of trees Ö
• Nurseries should be established to provide seedlings Ö
• Indigenous trees should be planted Ö

1. MINERALS AND ROCKS
2. a) – Veins and loads

– Beds  and seems

– Weathering products

–  Alluvial/places deposits

1. b) – causes  soil erosion/encourages  soil erosion

– derelict  landscape/make landscape  ugly

– destruction of bio-diversity

– creating hiding  outs  of  thugs/thieves

– create  breeding  grounds for mosquitoes if the  pits are  filled with water

1. a) – That is when minerals occur in crevices, crack or faults

– If they occur in small quantities in cracks or crevices then they are referred to as veins while those in large quantities are said to be in lodes

– They are formed when minerals in molten form solidify in cracks and faults or crevices

1. b) – tiny marine organisms called coral polyps live in colonies in the sea
• polyps extract calcium from the sea water to make their shells
• the polyps die and their hard skeletons of calcium carbonate accumulate into solid  mars
• successive colonies grow
• space between the dead corals  polyps are cemented by Algae to form coral rocks

1. – Mechanically formed sedimentary rocks.

– Organically formed sedimentary rocks.

– Chemically formed sedimentary rocks.

4          a )       – Dynamic/Regional/Kinetic

– Contact

i)- They are sedimentary rocks which are formed from the hard parts of

shells/skeletons  of  Marine. The rocks are rich in calcium.

ii)- Are sedimentary rocks which are formed from the remains of plants that were buried

deep in many years. The plants are transformed into rock because of pressure of

crystal   rocks and   resultant heat.

iii)- Coral limestone/dolomite/calcite/chalk/colite

– Sandstone

– Gypsum

– Quartzite

c i)   – Particles are derived from existing rocks through process of weathering /Erosion.

– They are then transported by water/wind/ice and are deposited on land/large water bodies.

– They are deposited in layers.

– Over a period of time, they are compacted by pressure to form rocks such as acluvial, clay,

sand, conglomerates.

1. ii) – Minerals are dissolved from land and are carried in solution into bodies such as

cakes/sea.

The mixing of water of different types  may result in chemical reactions followed by precipitation leading to accumulation at bottom of water body and are compressed into a rock  OR

Dissolved minerals can also be precipitated directly from water through evaporation.

This happens in very hot regions where there are constricted/shallow bays of lakes/seas ,such rocks are known as evaporates.

1. a) -due to pressure changes/dynamic metamorphism

-due to intense heat/thermal metamorphism

-due to a combination of heat and pressure/thermal-dynamic metamorphism

1. b) -Granite

-Diorite

-Peridotite

-Gabbro

-Syenite

1. c) – The aquifer must be sandwiched between impermeable rocks so that it can retain water

– The aquifer must outcrop in a region which is a source of water

– The mouth of the well must be lower than the intake area to allow water to be forced out

by pressure

• The aquifer must dip from a region of water intake and the rock layers must form a

1. MINING
2. (a) i) Mining has led to exhaustion of most mineral mines in Kenya e.g. Gold in macalder
3. ii) Flourspar is mixed in Kerio ValleyÖ

iii) Trona is mined on Lake Magadi through redging

• The dredger accumulates and digs out the mineralsÖ
• Inside the dredger, trona is crushed into crystals from the lake bedÖ
• It is then mixed with lake liquor and pumped to the factory on the lake shoreÖ
• At the factory, the trona is mixed with water to clear it of impuritiesÖ
• It is then dried and send to dessicators for heatingÖ
• After heating it is allowed to coolÖ
• After cooling it is then crushed into soda ash Ö

b( i) –  Mining results in the destruction of various species of vegetationÖ

– The destruction of plant like destroys the habitat for wildlifeÖ

1. ii) – Mining leads to emission of toxic gases from undergroundÖ
• When it rains, such gases and chemicals are washed into rivers and lakes hence affecting aquatic lifeÖ
• Heavy machinery used in mining causes noise pollutionÖ
• Heavy machinery and trucks used raise a lot of dust that causes air pollution

1. a i) – Open cast mining.

– Underground mining.

– Alluvial mining.

1. ii) – The value of minerals.

– The rise of the mineral deposit.

– Methods of mining.

– Technology.

– Capital.

– Market.

– Transport cost.

– Security.

iii)            – By filling the pits or the holes using the heaps of soils.

– Through planting trees and keeping a wide range of animals thus creating a tourist   centre.

– By changing the pits or holes into a man made lake which could serve as in land

fisheries or a sporting centre.

1. a) – As veins and lodes

– As alluvial deposits

1.  b)    – By planting trees in the area
• By filling up the pits with fresh soils
• By upgrading the abandoned mine into a tourist attraction
• By keeping a wide variety of animals in the area to restore its natural ecosystem

1. a) Angola                       – Nigeria

Sudan

. b)   Wax                             – Bitumen/Tar/Pitch/Osphel

Sulphur                          – Petro – Chemicals

Lubricants e.g grease

1. (a) (i) – method used to extract mineral and fossil fuels from the ground
2. ii) –  Availability of skills and relevant modern machines are important for specialized mining

operators.

• If the skills /technology is inadequate then there would be need to bring in foreign experts mini therefore becomes dependent on foreign control.
• High quality ores are economical to extract as they yield a large amount metal/low quality ores are rarely extracted for their metal content is very low.
• Some rare minerals e.g uranium are exported despite their ores having low mineral content because they are important

b i)     P – Copper

Q – Gold

R – Trona

b ii)   –  Kimberley

• Pretorca
• Jagers Foutein
• Koffie fontein
• Unwanted materials /overburden is removed.
• Excavators are used if surface materials are soft but if they are hard then explosive are used to loosen the materials.
• Excavators are used to dig up the mineral
• The extracted ore is loaded into lorries using excavators and transported to the  processing plant.
• Kenya earns foreign exchange from the exportation of trona. This is used to import other essential items like machinery.
• Trona mining has created employment opportunities for many Kenyans thus improving their living standards.
• It has led to the development of related industries e.g glass making industries in Nairobi, Mombasat.c.
• It has led to the provision of social amenities which have improved the living conditions of the people around e.g schools.
• It has stimulated construction of transport lines e.g the Magadi – Konza railway live.
• Has led to the growth of Magadi town.
• Provision of water  for both the domestic and industrial  use  within the area. This has improved the living standards of the people.
• Government earns revenue through taxation.
• Air pollution by dust and smoke emitted from blasting, quarrying & processing  of the ores.

• Derelict land is dangerous to both people and animals.
• Wastage of agricultural and settlement land as the mine holes become useless.
• Inadequate skilled personnel who are required for the industry leading to reliance on imported skilled workers.
• Insufficient capital for the exploitation of minerals.
• Inaccessibility of some minerals due to hilly or mountains landscape.
• Pollution of groundwater sources as well as rivers by water leakage from processing plants

6          a i) W- Fluorspar       X – Gold        Y – Diamonds                  Z – Copper

1. ii) – Veins/ lodes

– Beds/ seams

– Weathering products

– Alluvial deposits

1. b) –  Mode of occurrence

– Value/ cost of mining

– Size of deposit

– Level of technology

– Capital availability

– Labour supply

– Transport

– Government policy

– Market availability

(c)   –  Land dereliction – waste agricultural land/ makes land ugly/ limits town expansion

– Health and accident hazards – collapse of mines/ fall in open pits/ drowning in water filled  pits/ toxic gases and dust

– Unemployment/ depressed economy – after exhaustion of the minerals

– Conflicts – cross boarder minerals

– Loss of biodiversity – clearing vegetation for mining

– Soil erosion – clearing of vegetation

1. d) – Trona/ soda ash

– Flour par/ Fluorite

– Limestone/ lime

– Carbon dioxide

– Gold

1. a) –  Under ground/ shaft/ adit/ solution

– Alluvial/ panning/ placer/ dredging/ hydraulic

– Open cast/ strip

b i)          1000 – 800 = 200Ö

200/1000 x 100 = 20%

1. c) – Exported to earn foreign exchange for economic development
• Creates employment opportunities reducing unemployment/ crime/ improving living standards
• Provides raw materials for industries leading to industrialization
• Leads to development of social amenities improving the living standards
• Led to growth of  town – magadi
• Led to growth of tourism – revenue
• Provides revenue through taxation for provision of facilities

1. a i) – Underground mining

– Open-cast mining

– Alluvial/place mining

(ii) –trona

-gold

– copper

b i) – Availability of technology skills and modern machines are important for specialized

mining operations

– Mining operations may up becoming dependent on foreign control

1. ii) – High quality ores economical to extract as they yield a large amount of metal

– Low quality ores have low metal content and  are rarely extracted

– Rare metals e.g. uranium are exploited despite the ore having a low mineral content

iii) – Minerals in remote areas with poor transport systems are less likely to be exploited

– Almost all ores are heavy and bulky and are therefore costly  to transport. it becomes

hard to   exploit them in the absence of good transport systems

– Deposits at  or neat ports enjoy cheap transportation compared to inland deposits

– Deposits near the ports are likely to be more  exploited

c ) – Exhaustion of the mineral because gold is non re-newable and the old mines in  the rand

are being depleted

– The gold grade being worked now is of poorer quality that of some years back

– The mines are becoming deeper hence mining costs have escalated and also required

new  technology which  is more costly

– Inadequacy of water for processing gold  due  to seasonal rainfall received and

increased  population on the rand

– High cost f labour because of increased demand for higher  wages and competition from

other   factors of the economy

(e). – Ugliness – all the natural beauty of the landscape has been lost

– Health hazard- mineral exploitation can create open pits that become breeding grounds for   mosquitoes

– Lost productivity – the soil left behind after mining may not be able to support any meaningful  economic activity

1. a) x – Non porous rock.

y –  Porous gas.

1. b) – It is cheaper to transport oil in crude form.

– Oil refining creates employment opportunities to most Kenyans.

– Some of the refines by-products are exported to land locked countries in East & Central

Africa thereby earning foreign exchange.

– Oil refining has led to establishment of industries e.g. oil refinery at Changamwe and

other related industries such as fertilizer manufacturing, plastic making e..t.c.

1. a) A vein is a small crack containing minerals deposited in crystalline form wile a lode

is a large crack containing minerals in crystalline form
b)  –  waste of Agricultural land

– Waste of industrial land

– Lightness where land has lost its beauty

– Health and accident hazards)

1. a i) – Shaft/underground
• Open cast mining
• Placer/alluvial/panning/slope boring
• Submarine mining
1. ii) –      Geita
• Mpanda
• Irambal/Sekenke
• Musoma
• Mabuki

. b)   – The value of mineral-valuable minerals e.g. gold will be mined since it earns

higher profits

• Size of the deposits – should be large enough to justify mining
• Capital- mining needs a lot of money to pay workers and purchase machinery
• World market prices which are controlled by international bodies when prices are high more minerals will be mined
• Transport cost- it is economical to extract ores near major industrial centres because of good transport routes

1. c) –  Mining leads to pollution of air/water/land/noise
• Mining leads to depletion of land
• Mining disrupts/lowers the water table
• Mining leads to loss of biodiversity /plants and animals
• It leads to soil erosion/degeneration of soil

d i)  –  Apply where mineral is dissolved by water

• A well vertical shaft is sunk to reach the mineral
• Pipes are laid down though this vertical shaft
• Superheated water is pumped into the deposits of mineral
• Mineral dissolves in hot water and form a solution
• Solution is pumped to the surface where it is evaporated and the mineral is extracted
1. ii) – Exported to earn foreign exchange
• Generates employment opportunities
• Has led to development of settlement
• Has led to establishment of industries
• Earning higher income hence better living standards

1. a i) – Alluvial miningÖ

– Under ground miningÖ

– Open cost miningÖ

1. ii) – Creation of employment opportunities which helps in reducing unemploymentÖÖ
• When exported it earns foreign exchange which is used in other sectorsÖÖ
• Development of related of related industries that helps increase the wealth of the countryÖÖ
• Leads to provision and improvement of social facilitiesÖÖ
• It helps in the development of infrastructure e.g. roadsÖÖ

iii)       – Water shortage for power supply and processingÖ

• Labour shortage and competition from other industries/ sectorsÖ
• Increase depth of mines makes mining expensive and riskyÖ
• Decreasing quality of one Ö

b)(i)-  Presence/ deposition of remains of flora and fauna fossils over a long period of time

• Presence of non- porous rocks under neath the deposits of flora and faunaÖ
• Deposition of other layers of rocks/ non- porous rocks over the remains of flora and faunaÖ
• Compression of the remains of fauna and flora due to folding of the layer of rocksÖ
1. ii) – Bitumen/ pitch/ asphaltÖ
• Grease/ lubricantsÖ
• Resin/ petro chemicalsÖ
1. c) – Employment opportunitiesÖ
• Saving of foreign exchangeÖ
• Earning of foreign exchange from exportsÖ
• Industrial developmentÖ
• Earnings would raise the standards of living/ raise the per capita incomeÖ
1. d) i) – CoalÖ

– Iron oreÖ

1. ii) – KilindiniÖ
• Dar- es- salaamÖ
• Tanga Ö

1. INTERNAL LAND-FORMING PROCESSES
2. a) – it  has  vertical vent/pipe
• compose of alternating layers of ash/pyrodast and lava
• it is conical in shape  /steep sided
• it has side  vents
• it has conelets/parasitic cones on the sides
• at the peak, it  may  have a  caldera /crater/plug

b i) Earth quakes are sudden earth movement which cause vibrations/trembling within the crust√√

1. ii) – primary/push/p-waves                                                                                      s

– secondary/shear waves/shake waves/s-waves

– longitudinal/L-waves/lore waves/Raleigh waves

iii)   – volcanic  mountains re  sources  of  rivers  which  provide  water for

domestic/agricultural/industrial  use

• volcanic mountains  have  forests  which provide  valuable timber used in  building and construction industries
• volcanic mountains influence  formation  of  relief rainfall which encourages  agricultural activities
• volcanic mountains  modify temperatures  making them attractive to human   settlements

1. a)

• Formed when compressional forces of equal magnitude and of moderate strength act on crustal rocks
• The rocks bend evenly and the anticline is symmetrical about its axis

• Results from unequal compressional forces acting on crustal rocks
• One of the forces is slightly stronger than the other resulting to limbs that are assymetrical about the axis

b i)       – Atlas mountains of Africa

– Alps mountains of Europe

– Himalayas mountain of Asia

– Rockies of N. America

– Andes of S. America

b ii) – An extensive depression called a geosynclines is formed on the surface of the earth    – The geosynclines is then filled with water to form a sea

• The surrounding land masses are eroded and resultant materials deposited in the geosyncline in layers
• Accumulation and weight of sediments causes the floor of the geosycline to subside further
• Further subsidence of the geosynclines triggers off compressional forces drawing higher grounds close
• The layers of sediment in the geosynclines are the folded bending upwards form mountains

1. c) – Fold mountains are often forested on their windward slopes and provide valuable

timber for construction

– The windward slopes receive rainfall hence supports agriculture

–   Heavy rainfall and snow that collects in some fold mountains give rise to rivers which

in turn provide water for both domestic &industrial use

–  The process of folding could bring valuable minerals to the surface cutting down the

cost  of mining e.g. coal in Appalaction

– The unique mountains landscape attracts tourist thus earning the country foreign

exchange

1. a) – earthquakes causes lateral and vertical  displacement  of  rocks
• they cause raising and lowering and down warping of  parts of  the sea  floor
• it causes landslides/slumping
• it leads to faulting  of the c rust
• they lead to  volcanic eruptions
1. b) – The jig saw fit of continental magins e.g. Southern Africa and Southern America

– Spreading of the ocean floor- rocks are younger at the oceanic trenches and younger

outwards

– Geological evidence i.e. the rock structure in some continents are similar e.g. South Africa   and South America meaning that they were together

– Palaeoclimatic evidence, similar fossils/ remains have been found in different continents

1. c) – Extension boundary/ divergence
• Comprisin/ convergence
• Transform fault boundary
• Conservative boundary

1. a i) Tectonic plates are seirigid blocks that form the earth’s crust
2. ii) – Pacific plate

– Nazca plate

. b i) This disrupts the balance between the sial and sima causing movement of continental

masses

1. ii) This force themselves in cracks/crevices displacing crustal rocks

iii) These cause frictional drug/pull on the crustal rocks causing their movement

-Gravitation pressure

-Tectonic movement

-Magma movement (volcanic activities)

-Energy release in upper mantle

. b)    -primary (P) waves

-secondary (S) waves

-surface longitudinal waves

1. a) -they are long deep and narrow

-most of them are salty

-they are fault lakes

b)i) -They are sudden earth movement which cause trembling/vibration within the earth’s

crust.

(ii)    – Primary/ puse waves/p. waves.

– Secondary/shear/S. waves

– Longitudinal/love/L. waves

c ) Extension boundaries are zones where tectonic planets diverge or move away from

each other.  Space may be created and magma fill the space found in between. While

compress ional  boundaries are zones where tectonic plates moves towards each other.

There is thus destruction  of materials found at the edges

1. a i) – Is a sudden and rapid movement/tremor of the earth crust.

ii)- Use of change of velocity of seismic waves

– Use of exotic pre-quake signals.

1. b) – Faulting causes disjointing of the land which results in disruption of transport and

communication lines.

– The presence of fault scarps can cause difficulty in construction of transport and

communication lines.

– It is expensive to construct and communication lines in faulted region.

1. a) reverse fault
2.  b) X-up throw

Y-down throw

. c) – Fire outbreaks

-destruction of transport and communication lines

-loss if life and properties/collapse of buildings

– Change directions of rivers flow

1. a) -hot springs are  place where hot water or  steam is emitted from the ground while

geysers are   jep of  hot water  or steam and  gasses which  are  ejected explosively

from   fissure  in the  ground

1. b) A-crates                   B-plug            C-strato volcano
2. c) i) – Crustal rock layers are subjected to compressional forces

– This leads to formation of a massive article /up fold

– Further compression to the same crustal rocks causes stress/tension at the crest of the  anticline

– Eventually a crack/fault and around the crust of the anticline called an anticline fault

. c ii)  – Crustal rock layers are subjected to compressional forces

– Intense folding results into formation of an overfold

– With increased pressure the over fold is compressed further to form a recumbent fold

– When pressure if very great, a fracture occurs along the axis producing a thrust plane

to form  an overthrust fold

d i)  – Volcanic mountains experience low rainfall on their  leeward slopes making them

unsuitable   for agriculture/settlement/forestry

– Volcanic mountains have steep slopes which hinder transport and communication

– Some volcanic features like moffetes, solfataras steam jets produce poisonous which

pollute  the environment/are harmful to people

– Some volcanic rock weather to form infertile solid unsuitable for agriculture/forestry

d ii) – Outpouring of Lava forms a volcanic cone

– When the pressure beneath stops, a hollow, void is left beneath

– The weight of the overlying cone leads to collapse of the top of the cone into the how-

/void    beneath

– This leaves a wide depression at the top of the volcano called a caldera

1. a) – It is a theory that states that the crust is divided into blocks of land (plates) that

float and move towards, away or parallel

1. b) – Compressional boundary
• Extension boundary
• Transform fault boundary
1. c) – Geological evidence – Rock similarities in structure, age and type of rocks found in

various continents e.g. in Eastern coast of S. America and Western coast of Africa

• Jig- saw- fit – of continental coastlines. Some coastlines can fit each other when pulled together e.g. Western coast of Africa can fit with Eastern coast of South America
• Ancient glaciations – All the four Southern continents reveal signs of a period of large scale glaciations at one time. It is evidenced by presence of glacial deposits – Tillites produced by ice sheets in Southern continents
• Archeological evidence – Some plant and animal remains found in various continents show a striking similarity

1. a i) – Atlas

– Cape ranges

– Akwapim

1. ii) – Atlas

– Cape ranges

– Akwapim

iii)-  Symmetrical folds have limbs dipping uniformly about the axis while asymmetrical

fold one limb is steeper than the other about the axis

. b i)

b i)   – Extensive shallow depression called geosynclinal develop

– Sediments from high areas are deposited in the geosyncline

– Compression on either side push towards geosyncline

– Sediments compress to form fold mountains which rise above sea level to form fold

mountains

b ii)            – Over fold

– Recumbent folds

– Nappe or overthrust fold

– Anticlinical/ synclinal fold

– Isoclinal

1. a) – Causes seasons

– Varying lengths of day and night time

– Changes in the position of the mid-day sun at different times of the year

– Causes eclipses

1. b) – Movement of magma within the crust

– Gravitational force towards the center of the earth

– Convectional currents in the mantle

– Isostatic adjustment of sial and sima layer

1. a) – Frequent earthquakes

– Presence of faults

– Presence of fold mountains

1. b) – Tectonic movements

– Volcanicity

– Gravitative pressure

– Energy release in the mantle

1. a) – Nature and age of the rocks

– Intensity of compression forces

. b)  –  May cause a river to disappear

– Changes the rivers direction of flow

– Forms depressions hat are filled with water forming lakes

– Faulting across a river forms waterfalls

1. a) – The jig-saw fit√

– Glaciatean/ancient glaciation√

– The coal deposits√

b i) – Australia√

– South Africa√

1. ii) this was the water body that occupied the region surrounding the  pangae

1. a) – High demand for hard wood has led to over exploitation
• They take long to mature hence can not match the exploitation rate
• Population pressure has led to cutting trees to give room for settlement and agriculture
1. b) – Accidental fires which destroy the forests
• The Northern part is inaccessible (during winter) for exploitation of the forests
• Over exploitation in some areas
• Trees take long to mature due to cold climate
• Rugged landscape especially mountainous landscape makes exploitation difficult

1. (a) i) A-axis     B-syncline      C-limb of a fold
2. ii) – The rockets
• Andes
• Himalayas
• Alps
• Appalachians

iii)   – fold mountain

• cuesta
• escarpment
• plateus
• basins

1. b) – Geosynclines are formed on the earths surface

– prolonged  and extensive erosion occurs  on the  surrounding higher grounds

– sediments are deposited in the geosyncline forming thick layers

– the weight of the sediments causes subsistence  of the geosyncline leading  to

accumulation of more  sediments

– further subsidence of the geosyncline triggers off compressional forces which draw the

higher   grounds closet forming fold mountains

1. c) – Fold Mountains are water catchments area. They brap rainfall which rivers which that

provide water for domestics  use

– fold mountains are often forested and provide valuable timber used in construction

and building industry(due to high rainfall)

– some fold mountains have valuable mineral deposits  such as coal and petroleum for  mining

– fold mountains  influence transport  system enter as  barriers  or as passed

1. PHOTOGRAPH WORK

1. a) i) – Ground close up
2. ii) – Photograph (A) – Harvesting of sugarcanes

– Photograph B – Transportation of sugarcane

. b)    – Kakamega district

– Busia district

– Bungoma district

– Mumias district

. c)       – it requires high rainfall of about 1270mm and rainfall should reduce towards harvesting

Twice to allow for concentration of sugar

– It requires hot climate with temperatures ranging from 20oC to 27oC throughout the year

— It requires a dry sunny period for ripening and harvesting

– It requires well drained soils, with nutrients

– It is grown on fairly level gentle sloping land. This allows for the use machines during ploughing, planting and harvesting

1. d) – Small farm sizes

– Pests and diseases e.g. ratoon stunting lowering the yields

Corruption in factory management over production

– Delayed payment kills the morale of the farmers

– Low earnings form sugarcane production

1. (a) i)- Well developed udder

-Have wide hind quarters, big stomach and small chests

-Have big milk veins

-Short legs well set to support their heavy bodies

1. ii) – The highlands have high population that offers ready market for the product
• They have well established infrastructure which is a major factor in dairy farming activity
• Reliable rainfall and constant supply of water
• The region has low temperature best for exotic breeds. Survival
• There is humid condition
• High quality cover of grass due to fertile soils in the region
• The high nutrient pasture characteristic

1. VEGETATION
2. a) – Pampas of Argentina

– Veldt of S. Africa

– Downs of Australia

– Steppe of Asia

– Prairies of N. America

1. b) State three characteristics of temperate grasslands.
2. b) – Almost airless except along water courses

–  Grass is tall and nutritious in most areas

– Grass is shorter, tougher & less nutritious in drier areas

– Grass withers in autumn

– It sprouts in spring

1. ii) – Some trees are umbrella shaped to reduce evaporation below the stems

– Some plants have long roots to reach the water table below

– Some plants have thick/ fleshy/ succulent leaves to store water

– Some plants/ grass wither in absence of rainfall but have abiding to recover quickly   when rain falls

– Some plant seeds remain dormant for long periods awaiting the start of rainfall

– Some plants have thin leaves/ spiky/ waxy needle like leaves to reduce water loss

1. a i) X-rainforest

Y-bamboo forest

Z-heath and moorland

1. ii) – it  consist of a mixture of tree and grass
• in wetter areas the grass are tall and close to each other
• in drive areas the grass are shorter and tufted
• grass dominate the vegetation
• trees are  shorter  and more scattered
• trees are umbrella shaped
• acacia trees are a  dominant species
• some trees i.e. bamboo have thick barks
• river valleys have trees and  thick bushes
• during drought grass withers/trees  shed their leaves

b i) Areas on leeward slope of mountains have different vegetation from those on wind

ward slope because they received  different amount  of  rainfall√√

1.  ii) Settlement, farming and mining interferes with original vegetation leading to growth of

secondary and dissertation√√

c i) south Africa√

1. ii) Argentina√

iii) New Zealand√

. d) The frequent outbreak of bush fires destroys  the  grass retarding  its  regeneration√√

the increasing human population is  encroaching  into the   grasslands replacing them  with settlement and cultivated land√√

pests such as  army worms /locust destroy the grass and the vegetation degenerations into a semi- desert type√√

wild and  domestic  animals overgraze  and cause stunted growth of grass√√

1. a i) -Natural vegetation is the plant cover that exists in an area without the interference

of external  modifying influence especially people and their animals

1. ii) -Temperature

-Precipitation(rainfall)

-Sunlight

-Wind

b i)  -The prairies (of N. America)

-The veid (of S Africa)

-The pampas (of Argentina)

-The downs (of Australia and New Zealand)

1. ii) -They are conical in shape

-They have needle-shape leaves

-In most coniferous forests a thick carpet of mosses occur

-Forest species are generally few and large tracts of forests can consist of only one or

two species of tree(occurs in pure stands)

-Most of the species are softwoods which mature faster

-Most species are evergreen but a few she their leaves eg fir,pine and larch.

– Trees have a widely spread shallow root  system for utilizing moisture from the top soil

since  most of the  time subsoil is permafrosted

1. c) -some plants have thick leaves and banks for storing water.

-some plants produce seeds  which lie dormant for along time and germinates when the

rain falls

-some plants sheds leaves  during the onset of the dry season to reduce loss of water

through  transpiration

-trees in the region have long rots to tap water from the water table below

-tress in the region are umbrella shaped to provide shade that reduces the rate of

evaporation  around the stem

. d)    – Frequent outbreak of bush fires destroy grass and retard its regeneration

-frequent drought destroy the grass and so the vegetation degeneration into a semi-

desert type.

-overgrazing of domestic and wild animals causes stunted growth of grasses

-human activities due to increased population which encroaches grasslands

-pests such as army worms and locusts destroy the grass, thus reducing the rate of

growth

1. a )     X –  Veldt

Z –  Stepper

1. b) – Some plants have a short life-cycle this enables them to survive during the short

period of  wetness.

– Most are salt tolerant (Halophytes) to enable them survive in the saline soils of the

deserts.

– Most plants have succulent leaves that store water to enable them survive the long

drought  period.

–  Some plants have fibrous stems which they use as breathing surface.

– Most have deep roots to reach the deeper water table.

– Some have spines/thorns which protect them from browsing animals.

– Some are drought resistant & deciduous which enable them shed their leaves during

dry  season.

1. a i) L is savanna (park savanna)
2. ii) – The vegetation is tropical rainforest/ equatorial forest

– The forest consist of mixed variety of tree species

– The trees shed their leaves at different times of the year/ ever green

– The trees are tall with large trunks

– The trees have broad; leaves/ drip tipped leaves

– The trees take long to mature

– The tree species are mainly hard woods

– The forest trees grow close together

– The forest has numerous lianas/ climbing plants/ epiphytes

– Some of the trees have buttress roots

– The forest has crowns that form three distinct canopies/ layers

b i) – Some plants have thick/ fleshy/ succulent leaves/ barks to enable them store water

– Some have long roots to tap the ground water

– Some have no leaves/ have thin/ spiky/ waxy/ needle- like leaves to reduce transpiration

– Some plants have shiny surfaces to reflect light

– Plant seeds remain dormant awaiting the short rains

– Some plants have thick/ hard barks to reduce transpiration

– Some plants wilt in the absence of moisture that have a quick recovery ability

– Some plants have thorns to protect themselves from browsing animals

– Most plants are stunted/ dwarf like due to the harsh conditions

– Some plants are quick sprouting to take advantage of the short lived desert rays

– Some plants have underground bulbs that remain dormant awaiting short the rains

c i) – The temperatures are too low to support vegetation

– The surface is mainly bare rock, so no soil has formed to support vegetation

– Water is always  in a frozen state, i.e. snow, so it is not available to plants

1. ii) – Vegetation is of aesthetic value as it adds beauty to the landscape

– Vegetation binds soil together using its roots. Its aerial parts reduce the impact of raindrops  on the soil. In this way, it protects the soil against erosion

– Plant remains decay to become humus. This improves the fertility of the soil

– Some plants are of medicinal value to people. Their leaves, barks or roots are extracted and  prepared into medicines, both traditional and modern

– Some trees are used in the manufacture of paper while others are used for the manufacture   of plywood, veneer or production of timber

– Some plants are eaten by people e.g. bamboo shoots

1. a i) – Natural  vegetation

– Derived  vegetation

– Cultivated vegetation

ii)-  altitude√

– aspect√

– terrain and drainage

b i)         A-health and  moorland

B-bamboo forest√

C-rain forest√

D-savanna grassland

1. ii) -too cold for  plants to survive covered  by  snow√

-rocky surface

c i) prairies

Pampas

1. ii) – Grazing the plenty tall and short grasses are used for grazing livestock and wild

animals

– Reduces  soil erosion-savanna  vegetation act  as  soil cover  hence  reduces soil

erosion

– Habitat  for  bees  and  wild animals-trees  in savanna are  habitat for  bees which   provide     honey  and  home  foe wild animals e.g. gazelles, giraffe

– Some shrubs   and  herbs  growing in the savanna  are  used as medicine

– Fuel-trees provide  wood fuel and fuel  wood for the people in the tropics

– Gross increases humus  in the  soil making  areas  suitable for cereal farming e.g.

wheat and maize

d )-  some plants have  long roots to enable them tap water far deep the  ground√√

– some pants  have shallow root system  which enables them to take  moisture from the

soil layers

– some plants have  sunken  stomata  and waxy leaves  to  reduce rate of

transportation√√

– some  plants have succulent stems  to  allow  them store water√√

– some plants are short lived i.e.  Complete their  cycle  within the short wet period√√

– some  plants  e.g.  tubers and  corns  remain dormant during dry spell until wet period

stimulate

1. a i) S- Steppes

T- Pampas

Y – Savanna

Z – Downs

ii ) – the vegetation consists of a continuous cover of grass, the grass is tufted

– The grass is interspersed/mixed with bulbous/leguminous plants/shrubs

– The grass is nutritious. Grass is tall in moist area

– The grass is short and tough in drier areas about 15-30cm in height

– The grass is green in spring/brownish yellowish and strow like in summer/Grass

withers in autumn and die in winter/rare grass sprouts in spring/Trees are only found

along rivers/ rive rine trees/ trees found in hollows where rain water collects.

– common grass varieties are gamma graze/buffalo grass

– In drier, areas, the short grasses form bunches separated by bare soil

– Tress found along river courses are temperate trees like popler, willo adler

1. a i) – It is a plant cover existing naturally in a place but has been interfered with by man
2. ii) –     Altitude
• Aspect
• Soil
• Climate/ temperature/ rainfall
• Man’s activities

1. b) i) – Savanna vegetation
• Rainforest
• Bamboo forests
• Health and moorland
1.  ii)   – prairies
• steppes
• downs
• veld

iii)   – some have thick/fleshy/succulent  leaves /barks

• some have long tap roots
• some have no  leaves /have  thin/spiky/waxy/needle like leaves
• some plants have thick/hard  barks
• some plants have  thorns
• some plants  are  stunted/dwarf like
• shrubs are common
• some plants spout during wet seasons (short  time)

1. a) – fire-often ,large  areas of  forests are destroyed  by accidental  and sometimes

intended  fire. such forests takes long  to recover

• diseases causes by pests and parasites attack  mainly  the planted  forests causing many trees  to die
• human activity /settlement /charcoal burning/logging have  destroyed  many  forests areas of which are transformed in to farms and  grasslands
• over-exploitation leads to depletion of certain tree  species such as Meru oak, camphor and Elgon teak. these trees take long  to mature
• government policy of degazetting  of some forests  made  people free to clear  many  forested areas
• prolonged droughts lead  to degeneration  of forests some of which  take long to recover

(b) Rain forest have closely set trees with these districts canopies.

• This crowns and closeness of the trees form a dense shade for the lower layer which makes arvesting cumbersome.
• Most trees are tall, and have huge trunks. This makes them cumbersome to be harvested and most of them are heavy to be transported.

High amount of rainfall.

• This forest lies within the equatorial climatic region where high amount of rainfall is

• This means that harvesting of trees can not take place throughout the year because of the very dump condition in the forest and general disturbance caused too much rains.

• Rainforest do not have pure stand and this become a problem if one need to harvest only one species meaning moving from one part of the forest to another as one harvest.

Majority of the species are hardwood.

–           These species are hard to be cut and also heavy to be transported

1. FORESTRY
2. a) – High demand for hardwoods
• Population pressure which has led to increased deforestation in creation of room for farming and settlement
• Hardwoods take too long to mature and this doesn’t match the rate of felling
1. b)  – Agro forestry programme
• Public awareness and education through mass media
• Creation of forest reserve
• Recycling of waste papers to make newsprint
• Enacting law governing forest conservation
• Forest research stations to conduct research on new tree species
• Establishment of government tea zones at the edge of forests to act as buffer zones

c i)   – New found land

• Nova Scotia
• Prince Edward Island
• New Bruswick
1. ii) – The landscape is rugged hence does not favour agriculture
• High rainfall thoughout the year favours forest growth
• Coastal location favour establishment of ports for timber exportation
• Constant supply of H.E.P for industrial use due to many rivers with water falls
• Plenty/abundant water supply for processing purposes e.g. bleaching of pulp
• Cheap means of transport or rivers like Ottawa, Fraser e.t.c
• Low temperatures in the highlands discourage settlement hence forestry is the main use of land
1. d)  – In Canada they grow naturally while in Kenya they are planted
• In Canada they cover extensive areas while in Kenya they cover small areas
• In Canada they exist in a wide variety while in Kenya the species are limited
• In Canada they are indigenous while in Kenya they are mainly exotic

1. (a) i) – This is a collective term used to cover a variety of land uses that combine tree

growing,   pasture and crop production practices on the same piece of land for

the purpose of increasing or improving the output of the soil.

1. ii) – Remedy to deforestation.
• Source of income.
• Environmental benefits.
• Aesthetic saving.
• Labour saving especially for women who spend more time fetching firewoods.

1. a i) – Pure forest is composed of trees of two or more species
2. ii)
 Natural forest Planted forests –        consists of hardwood –        mixed the species –        random occurrence with different canopies –        take long time to mature –        mainly softwoods –        – pure woods –        Planed in rows and of same height –        Take 15-30years mature

.

1. b) – High rainfall in Kenya highlands favours tree growth

– Kenya Highlands experiences cool temperatures ideal for coniferous forests

– High market for wood products and timber encourages forestry

– Forestry areas are rugged and steep, discouraging settlement and agriculture

c i)   – Tree planting /re-a forestation

• People are required to seek permits if they have to cut trees
• Forests reserves have been ser aside to conserve indigenous forests
• Forestry department carry out research to produce and distribute seedling
• People are educated through mass media importance of the conservation
• People are being encouraged to use of alternative source of energy/saving jikos

1. ii) – Presence of cool to cold climate enhances growth
• High rainfall promotes growth of trees
• Step and rugged landscape discourages agriculture
• High local and international market for forest products
• Low population density in Canada provides more land for forestry

1. a) Agro-forestry involves cultivation of both crops and trees on the same piece of land

. b)   – Provides source of firewood and charcoal

• Source of income to farmers after selling tree products like fruits
• Trees act as windbreakers
• Trees create micro-climate within the farm
• Some trees are of medicinal value
• Trees leaves decomposes to form fertile soils

c i)   – Tree growth is limited to altitudes below 3500 because beyond this level

• the temperatures are too low for tree growth
• Lower level of tropical mountains have rainforests, which give way to
• coniferous forests and then to bamboo thickets, with increase in altitude
• In highland areas where the slope is too steep trees do not grow because the so

is thin due to heavy erosion

c ii)   – Windward slopes of mountains are generally wetter than the leeward slopes thus

more fores

• The forest zone starts at a much lower altitude on the windward than on the
• leeward slopes
• In the northern Hemisphere, southwards facing slopes are warmer with
• luxuriant forests, while North facing slopes are in the sun’s shadow, cooler and

with less vegetation

. d)    – People are being encouraged to plant trees and food crops in the same farms

• Regions which previously were devoid of trees are being planted with trees
• Tree farming is practiced in many parts with the aim of raising trees for future use
• Mature trees felled are replaced immediately
• The reduction of wastage e.g. the use of waste paper to produce newsprint
• People are required to seek permits if they have to cut trees. This reduces the rate of tree felling
• The forest reserves are patrolled by guards to ensure that fires are reported promptly and also ensure unlicensed people do not cut down trees
• Forest reserves have been set aside to conserve indigenous species
• Forestry department carries out research to produce and distribute seedlings to ensure the extension of forts
• People are encouraged to use alternative sources of energy or energy saving jikos
• People are educated through mass media on the importance of trees
1. e) – Desertification
• Extinction of some tree species
• Loss of plants with medicinal value
• Loss of aesthetic value
• Decrease in wild animals
• Decline in employment for those in forestry related areas

1. a i) Indigenous forest are those trees which have been traditionally growing in the

country while exotic forest consists of tress that have been imported into the country.

1. ii) – Natural forest grows in the wild while planted forests are tended by man.
• Planted forests are usually softwood while national forest are mainly hardwood.
• Natural forest takes a longer time to nature as compared to planted forest.
• In natural forest, trees are scattered while planted forest are found in rows/lines.
• Natural forest here mixed species of tree while planted forest have pure strand in a given area.
1. b) – Temperature (100c – 350c)
• Tropical Ban forest domestic high temperature areas (210 – 350c)
• Human activities
• Altitude
• Soils
1. c) – Afforestion /Reafforestion
• Legislation
• Education
• Alternative sources of energy use.
1. a i) Is the science of cultivation development and managing forests

ii)- availability of deep fertile volcanic  soils  in the  highlands  has led  to the growth

of thick  Forests

– the high reliable rainfall throughout the  year in the  highland has  promoted the growth

of thick  forests

– their location in the low latitude region which experience high temperature has  led  to

faster  growth  and early  maturity for  most  of the trees

– government’s efforts to  protect destruction of the natural forests and  protect  them

from  human settlement

1. b) – there  is  a wide variety of tree  species in a  given  This makes exploitation  of

valuable  species difficult

– the valuable trees are scattered not in pure  stands. this   makes exploitation difficult

and  expensive.

– The buttress roots make the falling cumbersome

– The dense undergrowth/thick forest   any quick generation of plants hinder accessibility

– Humid  climate makes working  condition unfavourable

– The  forests form a  habitat  for dangerous could animals  which make  the exploitation

insecure

– The hot  humid conditions climate encourage pests and  disease  which are harmful to

man and trees

– The heavy rainfall thought  the year results in muddy roads-which makes exploitation

difficult

– Inadequate capital limits the use of modern techniques in the exploitation of forests

– River transport is hindered by waterfalls and rapids. this  make transportation expensive

c i)    –  carrying  out public campaigns  on the  value   of  trees forests  through mass media

– carrying out  research on suitability  of soils and the effects  of  pests  diseases on

forests

– Established of training institution dealing  with forestry e.g.  lodiani

– reduction of wastage in the  forestry  industry  by recycling waste  to  produce other

products

– employment of  forests  guard and  officers  to  guard against destruction of  forests

– creation   of  forest measure  with  the aim  of  protecting indigenous  tree

c ii)   –  frequent outbid of  bush forest destroying  forests

– increasing  human population encroaching in to the forests

– pests and diseases  destroying some species of trees

– frequent  drought experience in the country  destroying  the vegetation

– wild animals and  domestic animals  destroying vegetation causing stunted growth

1. a i) Forest is a continuous growth of trees and under growths covering a large tract of

land while forestry is the science of developing and managing forests including

cultivating  them

ii a) – Mainly temperature and precipitation

– Proper growth of tree can only take place where there is heavy precipitation

throughout the   year.

– Different plants require different amount of warmth e.g. in tropical regions where

rainfall is very high, big trees are common very low temperature discourage tree

growth.

1. b) – Human beings have destroyed any natural forests to create room for subsistence

agriculture  and settlement. Deforestation has been rampant while collecting wood

fuel.

At the same time human being are conserving and maintaining trees in other area

1. c) – Forests do not grow on steep mountains where the surface is bare rock, the soils are

thin   and temperatures are low

– The windward slopes of high mountains like Kilimanjaro usually receive higher rainfall

and are therefore forested. the lee  ward slopes are covered with scrub  vegetation

1. (a) – Research is being carried out on soil requirements for different  species of trees

which enables  foresters to plant trees in suitable areas

• Public campaigns on the importance of forests are always being conducted through mass media
• Alternative sources of energy are increasingly being encouraged to minimize over-dependence or wood fuel e.g. sun, wind, biomass, water, oil, kerosene, and natural gas
• Introduction and promotion of energy saving stores to reduce the amount of wood fuel being used
• Timber merchants and those involved in logging are being enlightened on how to improve their cutting practices through rational and selective felling and replanting to replace the ones cut.
• Improving the infrastructure within he forested area by improving roads and providing roads and providing machinery, saw mills, tractors and seed beds
• Control of pests and diseases which attacks trees
• Establish of training and research institutions which specifically deal with forestry e.g. londiani forestry training college
• Government has enacted laws that enable effective management of forests e.g. forest bill 2000
• Creation of forest reserves to protect the indigenous trees and other plant species from extinction
• Posts for forest guards have been set up within the forest to protect against illegal tree felling

. c)

 i)species Kenya There are both exotic and indigenous  softwoods ii)problems large tracts of forests especially exotic trees are affected by pests and diseases e.g. Aphids iii)marketing most of the wood products  are sold locally but some are exported to Arabian countries, USA and Europe Canada The main species are of coniferous type (2mks) Large tracts of  forests are  destroyed by fires and diseases(2mks) Most of the wood products have ready markets in Canada, USA, Britain and Europe

1. di) – Pines
• Cypress
• Eucalyptus
1. ii) –     Note taking
• Field sketching
• Photographing /filming
1. a) It is the growing of trees together with crops on the same piece of land at the same

time Ö

b)-  Meru oakÖ

• Elgon teakÖ
• MvuleÖ
• Elgon oliveÖ
• CamphorÖ
• MangroveÖ

. c)       – African pencil Ö

– Cedar Ö

– Podo Ö

1. EXTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES
2. a) – River NzoiaÖ

– River NyandoÖ

b)-  Heavy rainfall from the highlands Ö

• When a river contains excess water that it cannot hold in its channel Ö
• Cultivation along river banks Ö
• Deforestation in the surrounding areas Ö
1. (a) i)   – barchans

– transverse/wake dunes

1. ii) – they lie  parallel to each other
• they rise up  to 100m/high and their  length can exceed 100km/long
• they lie parallel to  the  direction  of the prevailing  wind
• they have a sharp knife like crest

iii)   – availability  of sand

• strong winds blowing in one  direction  for  a long time
• presence of obstacles e.g. rocks or vegetation
• occasional rainfall hardening the ground causing deposition
• presence of ground water reaching the surface
• human activities like mining, heaping materials on the surface  that acts  as anchors  for  sand deposits
1. b) – there  is existence  of a rock out crop  of alternative layers of  hard  and  soft

rock/heterogeneous

• the rock lies on the  path  of a  wind   carrying weathered materials
• through abrasion, the softer  parts of the rock are eroded  faster than  the  hard parts
• wind is more effective  near the   ground surface
• the irregular shaped feature is a rock pedestal
1. c) – desert features like zeugen dunes etc attract tourists
• deflection hollow as/oasis contains water used  for  irrigation and other  domestic uses
• loess is deposited in water areas  is  fertile and used for  farming
• dwelling are curved out of loess which provide warm and cool home stead  during  winter and summer respectively
• desert land forms are ideal for military training testing of  weapons and  space  craft experiments
• the seasonal streams can  be  dammed  to supply  water for  domestic use
• desert features provide suitable scenery for  film  making

1. a i) – Kenya experience high temperature under  which ice-sheets cannot  form
• Most parts  of Kenya  have  low  attitudes
• Kenya is found  at low latitudes
1. ii) – gradient of the land-ice moves  faster  when the  slope  is  steep
• temperatures-higher temperatures result  in to thawing  leading to  faster  movement  of  ice
• nature of  the slope-when the  surface  on which  ice  is  moving  is  rough, it causes friction  lowering  the speed of the  movement of ice
• size/thickness of  glacier-large masses of  ice exerts  pressure which  leads  to  melting of ice  this  increases  the speed of ice  movement.

1. b i) – two adjacent hallows on a mountain  side
• the two hallows are  filled  with  ice
• the ice  erode  the side  through plucking and  deepens  the  hollow  through abrasion
• through erosion, the back walls of the  hollows  slowly recede
• eventually the hollows(cirques)are separated by a  knife-edge  ridge
• the ridge is called an arête

b ii) – a large block  of  rock  stands  on the  path  of  on-coming  glacier

• the ice  plucks off /erode rock fragments from  the upper side of the  block
• as the ice  moves round and over the resistance rock, it carries the  eroded  materials to the  lee-ward side
• the lee side  does  not experience erosion
• deposits materials on the lee-ward and together with weak rocks  forms
• flat corridors separate them from  each other
• they occur I groups
• the width of the corridors vary  from 25m to 50m
• where the wind  blows  from the same  direction for long, dunes  become gentle on the  wind ward and steep on  the  lee ward
1. c) – glacial till provides fertile soils  for  arable  farming
• ice sheets in their scouring effect reduces the  land  surface and depth to expose mineral seams  which  become easy  to  extract
• out wash plains comprise of sand and gravel which are used  as materials for  building and construction
• lakes formed  through  glaciations can be exploited for various uses  such  as  fishing, transportation or as tourist
• glaciated feature are tourist attractions
• glaciated lowlands are generally flat due to erosion  and  deposition and  these  are  ideal

1. a)- 21st March – 23rd September

ii)- because the  earth is  titled on its axis

• because of the movement  of the sun within the tropics
• because of the revolution of the earth
1. b) – it causes the occurrence of  day  and  night
• it causes  the  deflection of winds and  ocean currents
• it causes the  rising and falling  of  ocean  tides
• it causes the  variation in time  at different longitudes
• it causes differences in the  atmospheric pressure on the  earth’s  surfaces
1. a)- An accumulation of water  in a wide hallow or depression
2. b) – by erosion
• by earths movements
• by vulcanicity/volcanic activity
• by deposition
• by human activity
• falling meteorites
• mass movements g.  land slides
• weathering by solution

1. a i) – Desertification is the process through which marginal lands are degraded through

climatic variations and human activities/ or encroachment of arid conditions into

formerly productive areas

ii)- Wind deflation is the removal of loose unconsolidated materials by a lifting and

rolling action of wind

– Wind abrasion is the process whereby wind picks loose materials and uses it to scratch

and grind the earth surface

1. Wind transportation through saltation: larger fragments of rock are lifted from the

ground in a series of hops and jumps within the wind currents

1. The fine dust are lifted clear off the ground and eventually are blown away by wind

currents

III.  Heavy materials are dragged along the ground by wind currents

b i) – Zeugens are formed in desert areas where alternating layers of hard and soft rocks occur

– The top layer of hard rock is jointed

– Weathering opens up the joints

– Wind abrasion erodes the joints widening and deepening them to reach the soft layer

of rocks

– Deflation blows away the loose broken materials

– Furrows are formed and gradually widened as abrasion continues on the soft rock

– The hard rock forms the ridges separately the furrows

1. ii) – A pre- existing depression is formed through faulting
• Wind eddies remove unconsolidated materials through deflation
• As deflation continues, the depression is deepened and enlarged resulting into a wider depression
• The process of deflation is aided by weathering and abrasion
• With continued deflation, the level of water table is reached
• Water comes out of the ground and collects into the depression to form an oasis
1. a) – Plastic flowage

– Basal slip

– Extrusion flow

1.  b)
 Young river valley Glaciated valley Has interlocking spur Has inundated spur Has gently sloping cliff Has steep rock cliffs Has a V- shaped Has a U shaped Follows a winding course Flat on the floor

1. a)        X – Swash       Y – Back wash
2. b) ) – Hydraulic action

– Corrosion

– Solution

– Attrition

1.  – Rainwater

– Melt water

– Lake and sea water

– Magmatic water

1. a i) –  Chemical weathering- is the breakdown or disintegration of rocks as a result of

chemical reaction or changes that cause decay of rocks

1. ii) –   Chemical composition of rocks
• Presence of moisture/ water
• Presence of gases
• Temperature changes
• Rock permeability
• Vegetative matter

b i)  – Water in air combines with carbon to form a weak carbonic acid

• Carbonic acid reacts with calcium carbonate to form soluble calcium bicarbonate
• Solution is washed away causing weathering to take place
1. ii) – Water enters the rocks
• Water breaks down into ions which combine with minerals
• Rocks break down to form completely new compounds e.g. fluorspar with clay
1. c) – Produces clay that is vital in brick making
• Weakens rocks making them easier to exploit i.e. mining
• Important in soil formation
• Weathered rocks provide scenery for tourist attraction
• May break down large rocks hence leveling the landscape for settlement

1. a) – Spring tides

– Neap tides

– Perigan tides

– Apogean tides

1. b) –  Change direction of flow

– May force currents to flow along the coastline of the land mass

– May split currents into two parts and flow in different directions

1. c) –  Rainfall that infiltrate into the ground
• Melt water from the thawing ice
• Manmatic water that are trapped in the rock
• Lakes and seas/ oceans that sink into the ground
1. d) – When permeable rock overlie on top of an aquifer
• When well jointed rocks form a hilly country absorb water via joints which later spring out when water table meet surface
• When dyke cuts across a layer of permeable rock
• When a limestone or chalk locupement is under long impermeable layers
• When urgently sloping layer of permeable rock alteranateS with layers of impermeable rock
1. e) – Some plants have long roots to reach water table

– Some have small leaves to reduce transpiration

– Some have thick stem/ barks to store water

– Some are leaflets to minimize water loss

– Some have leathery leaves to reduce water loss

1. a ) Hamada is rocky desert while an erg is sandry desert
2. b) – Deflation – wind remove dry and unconsolidated materials like dust and sand by

lifting

– Abrasion – wind use materials like sand as erosive tool, where particles are hurled n rock  surface causing undercutting

– Attrition – materials carried by wind rub against each other and against rocks producing

rounded land grains

c i) A Barchan

– An obstacle on path of wind e.g. rock/ bush block wind causing deposition

– Materials continue to built until windward side is smooth and leeward side steep forming

a moon  shaped feature called barchan

c ii)

c iii)

– Pre- existing depression/ localized fault attacked by wind eddies

– Depression is excavated by removal of unconsolidated materials/ wind erosion by

deflation

– When water bearing rock is reached/ aquifer water oozes out to collect in depression

and an oasis is   formed

1. d) – Alluvial fan

– Salinas

1. a ii) – Presence of loose unconsolidated gravel/ stones/ soil particles that can easily

picked by wind

– Presence of little or no vegetation on the surface of desert

– Presence of strong prevailing winds in deserts

1. b) – Deflation – it is the blowing away of any dry unconsolidated materials like dust and

fine particles by rolling them on the ground and lifting them up in the air

– Abrasion – materials carried by wind such as sand scratch and grind rocks and

ground surface

– Attrition – particles carried by wind hit against each other and rocks and reduce in size

in the    process

c i) –  Rock outcrops with alternate layers of hard and soft layers project above the surface

• The softer rocks are eroded by abrasion faster than the hard rock. They are worn out more rapidly than resistant ones. This results in an irregular rock with protruding layers that alternate with hollows called pedestal

c ii)  – Formed where hard and soft rocks lie horizontally

– Weathering attacks the soft layer leading to the formation of cracks

– Wind abrasion deepens the cracks deepening them forming furrows

– These furrows separate the ridges forming Zengens

1. d) – Desert land forms e.g. Zeugeus, dunes yardang attract tourists who bring foreign

exchange

-Oases provide water for domestic use/ irrigation/ livestock

– Oases attract settlements

– Loess provide fertile land for agriculture use

– Rocky and sand surfaces can hinder communication and transportation

1. a) – An ocean is a large/ extensive body of salive/ salty water occupying large basins

between continents while a sea is a large body of salice/ salty water boarding a continent

. b  – Volcanic materials from the ocean flour add salts to the water

– Some salt is dissolved by sea water from the underlying rocks it is in contact with

– Some salt is added by rivers that have dissolved it from the land

– Most of the salt is thought to have been present when water bodies were formed

1. c) –       Ocean deeps
• Continental shelf/ continental slope
• Ocean ridges
• Deep sea plains

–      Islands

1. a i) A sea is a mass of saline water  occupying  depressions at the margins of

continents  whereas an ocean is a mass of saline water occupying depressions in

between continents

1. ii) – As the coastline retreats due to marine erosion resistant rocks are isolated as islands.

– Deposition of materials across bays, river mouths and lagoons build up barriers which

project    above the water level as islands.

– Volcanic eruptions within the sea/ocean builds up islands when materials pile up above

the water level.

– Accumulation of coral into reefs form coral islands

– When upland coasts sub-merge valleys are drowned leaving ridges /hills above the

water level  as islands.

b i)   – Earth movements led to crustal downwarping.

– A shallow depression was created

– The areas around the depression underwent uplifting

– The uplifting reversed the direction of rivers such as river Kagera

– Water from the rivers and from rain eventually filled the depression forming a lake

ii)- Evaporation from the lake leads to high relative humidity in the area

– Evaporation from the lake increases moisture in the atmosphere leading to

increased/high  rainfall in the area

– Evaporation from the lake leads to convectional rainfall

– The lake encourages formation of lake breezes which have a cooling effect on the

areas at the  lake shores

–  Regular land and lake breezes modify the temperatures of surrounding areas keeping

the    diurnal range low

– The breezes cause reversal of local winds/diversion of prevailing winds such as the

Congo air   moss

c i) Aridity is the state of land being deficient of moisture leading to scarcity/lack of

vegetation.  while desertification is the slow but steady encroachment of desert-like

conditions onto formally  productive agricultural land

1. ii) – Continentality/distance from the sea;- Onshore winds drop most of their moisture along

the  coast reaching the interior as dry wind leading to aridity and desertification

• Relief barriers/Rain shadow effect; – Rain bearing winds drop a lot of moisture on the windward side of mountains. They thus reach the leeward side of with less moisture as dry winds causing aridity and desertification
• Cold ocean currents; where on shore winds cross over cold ocean currents, the moisture content of the winds is lowered by the chilling effect f cold currents, the winds thus drop moisture over the sea reaching the land as dry winds that cause aridity and desertification.
• High pressure systems;- Areas with stable, high pressure systems with low humidity and descending air/diverging winds experience aridity since moist air has to rise for condensation to take place.
• Dry wind system;- Hot and dry winds from  land like the harmattan constantly blowing over some regions cause a drying effect the land resulting in development of arid conditions
• High temperature:- Areas constantly experiencing high temperature have high rates of evaporation leading to arid conditions
• Insufficient rainfall:- Areas that constantly receive rainfall less than 250mm annually have scanty vegetation, immature soils making the land barren

1. a i ) Chemical weathering is the breakdown/deeny/decomposition insitu of rocks after

reaction with  other minerals, water or air

1. ii) – Grikes and clints
• swallow –holes
• Dry valleys
• Dolines
• urala
• Polje
• Gorges

(b) i) Exfoliation dome

1. ii) – In hot climate, where rocks high day temperatures cause the surface of the rocks to

expand

• Low night temperatures cause the surface of the rocks to contract
• The inner parts remain cool as the expansion and contraction only takes place on the rock surface because rocks are poor conductors of heat.
• As the process is repeated over a long time a curved sheet of the tock/rock shall from the upper part break away from the upper part break away peeling off like onion peels.
• *This leaves a round rock mass called an exfoliation dome

1. a) A river system refers to a river and all its tributaries while a river regime is the

seasonal   fluctuation/variation in the volume of water in a river

b i) Trellis/ Trellised/ Rectilinear pattern

b ii) P – Obsequent river                         Q- Secondary consequent river

1. a) – Erratics’

– Boulder train

– Till

– Drumlins

– Eskers

– Karme

. b)     – Glacier in a low land area comes across a resistant rock

– As the glacier passes over the resultant rock it erodes its upstream side by abrasion

smoothening it

– The downstream side is eroded by abrasion giving it a rugged nature

– When the ice retreats a rock outcrop with a gentle smooth upstream side and a rugged

steep  downstream side is exposed called a roche moutonee

1. a) i) U – Zone of permanent saturation /phreatic zone

V- Zone of intermittent /seasonal saturation

1. ii) W – Spring /river source

Underground water

– An impermeable rock layer sand witching an aquifer leads to accumulation of

underground   water

1. a i) -Deflation

-Abrasion

1. ii) – Suspension -fine particles are lifted, cleared off the ground

saltation    -larger fragments of sand particles are lifted from the ground by eddy action

-The sand particles are moved in a series of hops/jumps within the wind current

surface creep√/traction

-The heavy materials /small stones/pebbles are tracked along the ground.

-these materials are rolled for short distance in a process called surface creep

b i)    -zeugen are  formed  in desert  areas where alternation  horizontal layers of  hard

and    soft rock   occur, -the top layer of hard rock is jointed/has cracks√

wind abrasion opens up the joints deepening and widening them to reach the soft layer

of    rocks√

deflation blows away the loose broken  materials√

-furrows formed and  gradually  widen as  abrasion  continuous in to  the soft rocks√

-the hard  rock form ridges separating  furrows√

-this  process creates a  ridge and  furrows landscape  called Zeugen

1. ii) -an outcrop rock eg eroded by wind from all  sides

-the rock has alternating horizontal  hard  and  soft rocks

-hard  layers  s  eroded at a  lower rate while  soft layer  is  eroded  faster

-continual  erosion  through abrasion make  hard  layer left outstanding

-near the  ground  more  erosion  narrow  the  base

-the  protruding  layer  are the  bands  f resistance  rock while  the hallows are the  areas

where the  soft  layer  were  positioned

. c ii) loss region have very fertile  alluvial  soils which are used for  agriculture√√

-desert features such as  rock  pedestals yardages and  sand dunes are  tourist  attraction√√

-salty  fats are  economically used  for salt production especially  in north Africa√√

-extensive  and bare  desert are used as testing grounds for car  and  jets  engines√√

-desert landscape  provides good site  for testing military  weapons e.g.   nuclear bombs

1. a) a lake is a large mass of water in  a depressions

b i) -crater lakes

-lava dammed lakes

b ii) -lake  Victoria modify the  climate of the  lake region due  to convention rainfall

– Lake Victoria brings cooling effect on the surrounding area due to Lake Breeze

-convectional   rainfall experienced around the lake is occasionally accompanied by

thunderstorms

-land breeze and sea breeze are due to low and high pressure system√

c i)    -some  lakes  lacks outlets

-rock over which lake water is in contact may contain mineral salts

-some water river to pour into them

-surface run-off and rivers may dissolve a lot of salt from rocks on while they flow

-excessive exploration in areas where temperature are high

c ii)   – Naivasha

– Baringo

– Turkana

. d)     -some  lakes  provide water for both  domestics  and industrial uses√√

-some lakes forms tourist attraction site and thus earning the country foreign

exchange√√

-some lakes provide building materials eg sand√√

-some lakes provide water for irrigation hence enhancing agriculture√√

-some lakes provide transport routes√√

-some lakes are sources of minerals eg magadi

-some lakes provide water for the generation of H.E.P√√

-some lakes are sources of fish (food) which is a source of protein for man

1. a) –  spring  tides

-neap tides

– Perigian tides

– Apogean tides

1. b) Ocean is a large extensive body of saline water occupying a basin between

continents whereas, sea is a large  body of saline water on margins  of continents

1. a i) -acidity is the state of land being deficient in moisture leading to scanty vegetation

which desertification is the slow but steady encroachment of desert like conditions

into  formerly productive land

1. ii) -abrasion-winds uses the transported  materials as tools to grid/scrap the rock

surfaces

-deflation-wind blows away unconsolidated materials by rolling and lifting them up

the air.

-attrition-the materials carries by the  wind rub against each other, breaking and

becoming Smaller

b i)    -a rock pillar of with differing degree of hardness lies in the path of moving wind

-the rock is acted by abrasion and weathering.

-the  soft layer is worm out more rapidly  than the resistant ones

-an irregular mass of rock with protruding layers is formed

-the base of the rock pillar is thinner because wind abrasim is more intense at lower level.

1. ii) -Massive rocks consisting of alternating layers of hard and soft rocks lie vertically to each

other.

-these layers lie parallel to the  direction of prevailing winds

-wind abrasim acts directly on the soft rocks

-wind deflations removes the worn-out parties

-large furrows between the hard layers and formed

– The hard layers are left standing as small ridges known as yardages

. c)      -features like dunes, yardages are tourist attractions

-extensive and bare desert surfaces are used as testing grounds for military weapons

-salty flats are used for salt production

-the loess soils are fertile alumna deposits used for agriculture

-the loess begins of china have caved dwellings in the rocks which warmer during winter

1. a) -a difference in the resistance of the rock into which the  river cuts

-a river may descend over a sharp edge of a plateau

-a river may descent over s fault scarp

-a river descends a cliff into the sea.

-a river descends a lava barrier

-a river descends a hanging valley into a flaccid trough

b i)  -at the mature /old stage of a river, The river channel is wider and shallow

-the river flows sluggishly at low velocity due to due gradient.

-heavy load is deposited on the river bed

-the alluvial deposit grow into island/shoals-the river is blocked and sub-divided into

small   channels called distributaries

-the water joins again later.

-the several channels intertwining each other forms river braids

-the small islands in between them are called aits /eyots /isles

1. ii) -knick points

-river terraces

-incised meanders

-abandoned meanders/meanders score

-rejuvenation gorges

. c)    -two rivers adjacent to each other share a common divide

-one river is more powerful than the other due to high volume of water from a pirate river.

-the pirate river erodes vertically and laterally faster than the weaker river.

-the valley of the pirate river becomes deeper and wider so as the river flows at a lower level   than  the weaker river.

-the stronger river extends its valley backwards by head ward erosion

-eventually the pirate river joins the valley of the weaker river.

-the head wards of the weaker river are diverted into the stronger river hence a river

capture occurs

1. d) -has underground drainage

-rivers from its surrounding have fresh water which dilutes the salts

1. – Due to pressure changes/dynamic metamorphism.

– Due to intense heat/thermal metamorphism.

– Due to a combination of heat and pressure/thermal-dynamic metamorphism

1. a i) – Deflation.

– Abrasion.

– Attrition

1.  ii) –  The fine dust and particles are lifted off the ground. Eventually they

are blown  away by wind currents.

– Saltation: Large fragments / sand particles are lifted from the ground by eddy currents.

They   are moved in a series of hips/jumps within the wind currents. The particles are

moved along   the ground surface through leaping or bouncing.

– Surface creep/Traction:The large materials / small stones/pebbles are dragged along the  ground by wind currents. These materials are rolled along to desert due to their weight

b i)   – A pre existing depression formed through faulting or otherwise is exposed to wind erosion.

– Wind eddies remove unconsolidated materials through deflation.

– As deflation continues, the depression is deepened  and enlarged.

– The process of deflation is aided by weathering and abrasion.

– With continued deflation, the level of the water table is reached.

– Water oozes out of the ground and collects into the depression to form as oasis.

b ii) – They are formed in desert areas where alternative horizontal layers of hard rock &

soft rocks    occur.

– The top layer of hard rock is jointed / has cracks weathering opens up the joints.

– Wind abrasion erodes the joints deepening and widening them to reach the soft layer of rocks.

– Deflation blows away the loose broken materials.

– Furrows are formed and gradually widens as abrasion continues into the soft rock.

– The hard/resistant rock forms ridges separating the furrows

1. c) – The loess regions have very fertile soils which are used for cultivation thus giving food

to  those living in that region.

– Desert land forms like rock pedestals, yardangs and sand dunes are tourist attraction

by   earning foreign exchange in a region.

– Extensive and bare desert surfaces are used for testing grounds for car and sit

engine/they   provide good site for testing military weapons.

– Some deflat on hollows provide oasis which provide water for nomadic

1. a i) – Plastic flowage.

– Basal slop

– Extrusion flow

– Summer season/high temperature.

– Less fraction

– Presence of thick and heavy glacier.

1. b) – Ice –eroded plains

– Depression.

– Roche mountonee

– Crag and tail

. c i)     – Large ice sheets halt their movements on gently sloping low lands. They melt at the

terminus   (snow line)                                                                                                                                 – The melt water from the surface and sub glacial parts of ice sheet flow beyond the

terminus  carrying along fine materials.

– The melt water deposits fine materials as it flows over gentle land.

– Pre-excusting valleys and depressions are eventually burried by these fluvio glacial

deposits.

– When ice sheet retreats it leaves behind an undulating plain of unconsolidated clay, silt,

sand    and gravel which is called an outwash plain

1. ii) – Glacial erosion widens a valley.

– When glacier reaches its terminus it begin to melt.

– Ice remains stagnant at the point of melting for several years.

– Moraine is deposited across widened valley to form a ridge of terminal moraine.

– Glacier begins to retreat towards snow field as it melts.

– The melt water accumulates behind the ridge of terminal moraine to form a moraine dammed    lake.

1. d) – The warm glaciated valleys are suitable for livestock farming.

– Glacial  upland areas have magnificent features like pyramid peak, an arête which

encourage   tourism and recreation.

– Water falls which form at hanging valleys are exploited for generation of hydro electric

power.

– Some U-shaped valley form natural route ways and are suitable for settlement and

agriculture.

– Some fiords form deep, well, sheltered natural harbour and good fishing grounds.

– Glaciated mountains discourage human settlement, hence growth of forests and

lumbering  practiced.

1. a) Mechanical weathering is the physical break up of rock material without any

alterations in its chemical composition while chemical weathering involves changes

in the chemical composition  of minerals making up the rock. It’s the actual decay or

decomposition of rocks.

1. b) ) –

– Topography

– Nature of the rocks.

– Plants and animals.

– Time factor.

1. a)- A spring is appoint or a place where underground water flows out naturally onto the

land.   While a well is a dug in the ground, often with the purpose  of getting water

b)- Zone  of  non-saturation– lies nearest to the surface. Water  passes through this zone as it

makes it’s way downwards.

– Zone  of intermittent saturation – contains water only in wet seasons or after heavy rain.

– Zone  of permanent saturation – contains water both wet and dry seasons.

. c)   – The aquifer must be sandwiched between impermeable rocks so that it can retain water.

– Aquifer must outcrop in a region which is a source  of water e.g Rain y area/beneath a lake.

– Aquifer must be dip from a region of water intake and the rock layers must form a broad

syncline/basin.

– Mouth of well must be lower than the intake area. This allows water to be forced to the

surface by pressure with no need of pumping it.

. d)    – Acts as sources of rivers.

– Acts as source of water- wells, springs, boreholes, oases which provide water used in homes

and industries.

– Used for irrigating agricultural land e.g Sahara desert, where dates grow near oases, Taveta-

cotton and bananas are grown using water from springs.

– Settlement – in dry areas, people tend to settle near the springs due to the availability of fresh

water.

– Provision of hot water- water from hot springs may be tapped and pumped into houses

through pipes to heat up houses during cold seasons e.g Iceland.

– Tourist attraction – Hot springs e.g Olkaria, Lake Bogoria etc, valuable mineral salt are

deposited and people exploit them for economic gain.

e i) Is any rugged landscape whose surface rocks are limestone or dolomite and which ahs

been  acted on by carbonation and solution by rain and river water to produce features

typical of limestone surfaces.

e ii) – Rocks should be hard and well jointed.

– Hot and humid climate.

– The surface rock and rock beneath should be thick limestone/dolomite/chalk.

– The water –table in the limestone rocks should be deep below the surface.

. e iii) – Tourist attraction

– Discourage settlement

– Limestone blocks are used for building houses.

– Provide a row material for cement manufacturing

1. a i) a. Elbow of capture
2. Wind cap
3. Misfit/small valley.
4. ii) – Change in the base level.

– Drop in sea level.

– Regional of local uplift.

– Un equal regional subsidence of the land.

– Increase in the river discharge.

1. a i)- Denudation refers to all external land forming process such as weathering, glaciations action of water, wind and wave action which modifies the original landscape. While  mass   wasting is  the down slope movement of weathered materials under influence of gravity
2. ii) – High temperature accompanied by moisture found in the area accelerate chemical

reaction  thus speeding decaying of rocks.

– High rainfall and combines with carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid which make some

minerals in rock soluble.

– Secretion of animals in such areas also contribute in dissolving of certain types of rocks.

. b)      – The steeper the slope, the faster the movement.

– In bare surfaces, Mass movement is faster than in an area with vegetation cover.

– The heavier the material, the faster the movement.

– Human activities eg Mining, quarrying, road construction accelerate mass movement.

– Earth movements eg vulcanicity, folding, faulting accelerate the movement of the materials.

. c)       – It’s a slow type of mass wasting that occurs on gently sloping land.

– Occurs in areas with alternative winter and summer.

– During summer, melt water results to saturate soil, gravel and weather rock to move

downslope as a mass over the still frozen ground on mountain region.

– Melting of snow lubricates the movement.

 fore ground

1. di) – Leads to loss of life and destruction of property.

– Destruction of transport and communication lines.

– Accelerate soil erosion on steep slopes.

– Leaves permanent scars on the landscape/derelict.

– It may change the rivers course thus affecting the people and aquatic animals down stream.

– Discourage settlement in areas prone to landslide.

d ii) Rockfall

d iii)- M- cliff

– N-Rock debris (talus)

d iv)          – Rainfall

1. a)- Wind is strong/moving at high velocity.

– Absence of intervening obstacles/absence of vegetation cover/flat land.

– Presence of large quantities of loose unconsolidated materials eg sand, gravels.

b)- Attrition – Materials carried by the wind hit against rocks each and in the process are      reduced in  size.

– Abrasion – Materials/load carried by wind is used to scratch and grind rocks and ground surface.

– Deflation – materials/load carried by wind is lifted and rolled on the ground hence erodes the    surface.

. c)- Dry unconsolidated materials are removed from the surfaced by wind.

– Coarse materials /heavier are swept away by wind and erodes a pre-existing fault/crack by

deflation process.

– Heavier material move along the surface in swirling slops.

– Continued eddying of winds leads to erosion and creation of a hollow called deflation hollow.

 Eddying wind

. d)- They lie parallel toe ach other.

– Rise up to 100 m and about 100 km

– Lie parallel to the direction of prevailing wind.

– Have a sharp knife like crest.

– Separated by flat corridors.

– Occur in groups.

– Where wind blows from the same direction for long, dunes become gentle on the wind-ward  side  and steep on leeward side.

1. a)- Melting of ice caps and sheets due to global warming and climate change.

– Uplift of the coastal land due to tectonic forces

1. b) – Warm Ocean waters (20-29)0

– Clear and clean water, free from silt/sediments.

– Salty water.

– Well oxygenated water.

– Constant washing by waves, tides and currents.

– Plentiful supply of microscopic life for food/planktons.

1. a)- Suspension

– Surface creep

– Saltation

. b)      – Availability of sand

– The strength and direction of wind.

– The nature of surface.

– Presence of intervening obstacles on path of wind movement.

– Presence of vegetation

– Presence of ground water reaching the surface.

1. a) – Rainwater

– Rivers/streams

– Underground water

– Melting ice

1. b)- Size of the depression

– Total annual rainfall of the catchments area and drainage  basin.

– The number of other sources from which the lake acquired its water

– Different ways in which the lake water is lost.

– Rate of sedimentation in the lake.

1. a i) – A river is a mass of water flowing in a valley
2. ii) A river confluence is the point at which a tributary joins the main river while a river

tributary  is a smaller river which flows into a bigger one

b i)   – Water is forced into the cracks on the river banks/ water hits the banks

– Air in the cracks is compressed

– Compressed air creates pressure which widens the cracks

– As the water retreats pressure in the cracks is suddenly released

– The compression and widening of the cracks repeatedly shatters the rocks

– The retreating water carries away the loose particles

– The force of the moving water and the eddying effect sweep away loose materials in the river channel

b ii)            –  River water carries sand, gravel and boulders

– The load is used as a tool for scouring

– The load is hurled by the river water against the banks/ dragged along the river bed

– The load chips off the rocks on the bank and the floor (the size of the load determines the

rate of erosion)

– The load being dragged smoothens the river bed

– Eddy currents rotate rock particles in hollows and widens them into pot holes

1. a) – River capture may occur by head ward extension of the long profile

– This happens when rivers are sharing a water shed

– The actively eroding river gradually cuts back its slope head until it encroaches upon the   divide or water shed of the other river

– Eventually the powerful river reaches the source of the weaker river and diverts its water into    its channel

– River capture may also occur where there are two adjacent rivers

– One of the rivers has more erosive power than the other

– The more powerful river erodes both vertically and laterally faster than the weaker one, it   flows at a lower level than the other river

– The more powerful river erodes away the ridge that separates the two by head ward erosion

– Eventually it encroaches into the valley of the weaker river diverting its waters into its valley

1. b) – They have a gently sloping gradient/ flat surface

– They have thick alluvial deposits/ silt/ fertile soils

– They have leaves on either side of the river banks, raised river beds

– Some flood plains have braided channels

– Some have deferred tributaries

– Flood plains have river bluffs at their edges

– They have meanders/ bends

– Some have deltas/ distributaries

– Some have ox-bow lakes

1. a) i) Inselbergs, mesas, buttes, gorges, wadis, alluvial fans, bajadas, pediments,

pediplans, playas, Salinas

1. ii) – An increase in temperatures accompanied by excessive evaporation

– Prolonged period of drought or very low rainfall

– Existence of cold ocean currents off shore which flow across the path of on

shore rain  bearing winds

– Presence of high mountains which block rain- bearing winds and cause a rain

– Remoteness of land in the interior of a continent, far away from the direct

influence of the sea

– Location of an area in a region of anticyclones where winds are descending and

diverging

– Human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing and over drawing of

underground  water reserves

iii)            – Sandy desert

– Stony desert

– Rocky desert

b i) – Strength and speed of the wind: A strong wind can transport more and heavier load

than a  weak  one. The strength of the wind is determined by its speed. The higher the

speed the stronger the  wind

– Obstacles: Presence of obstacles on the path of the wind block the movement of the wind and    reduce its speed through friction. The winds capacity to transport is reduced by friction with    the obstacles

– Nature of the load: Light particles such as those of dust can be transported in suspension over  long distances, while the heavier ones are transported over short distances and along the  ground. Heavier peddles and stones are rolled on the ground if the wind is strong enough

1. ii) – A pre- existing depression or localized fault is exposed to wind erosion

– Wind eddies remove the unconsolidated materials by

– Weathering aids in breaking down the exposed rock

– Wind abrasion excavates the depression by eroding the rock along the weak lines

– The depression is deepened and widened as deflation continues to remove the loose materials

– Erosion continues until the water table is reached

– Water oozes out of the rock and collects in the depression to form an oasis

1. a) -swash is surge of sea were towards the beach while backwash is water that flow

back to the sea  from the beach

1. b) -fall in sea level

-rise of land near the sea

-actual reduction of water

1. a) Diversion of head waters of a river into a system of an adjacent more powerful river
2. b) X – Elbow of capture

Y- Pivate/ powerful river

Z – misfit stream

1. a) – Accordant drainage system occurs with agreement with the rock structure, nature

and slope of  land while discordant occurs in disagreement with rock structure and nature

1. b) –  River must have large load

– Velocity of river must be low to allow deposition in the river mouth

– River load must be deposited faster than it can be removed by currents and tides

– There should be no obstacle on the river course like or swamp to filter materials

1. a i) An area of land with scanty rainfall and scarce vegetation
2. ii) –  Sandy
• Stony

. b i)             – wind abrasion

– Wind deflation

b ii)     –     Rock of alternating hard and soft attacked by winds

• Cracks form on the hard surface
• Wind abrasion erodes joints deepening them
• Wind deflation blows away material
• Furrows form as soft rocks are further eroded
• Hard and more resistant rocks form ridges known as furrows

c i)        –    Mesas

• Buttes
• Gorges
• Salinas
• Playa
• Pediment
• Inselbergs

c ii)           –  Features of tourist attraction

• Oasis are sources of water for domestic use
• Desert land forms are ideal for military training
• Loess form fertile alluvium soils in wetter lands
• Seasonal streams can be used to supply water to surroundings
• Sand dunes and rocky landscape pose problems to transport
• Loess in China and Europe have dug- in caves which are inhabited in winter to provide

Warmth

1. a i) – Abrasion√        – Attrition√

a ii) – the faster  the wind  blows, the  greater  the amount of material it can carry√

– fine  dust is  easily picked up  and blown away even  by light wind, sand and  pebbles

are   usually  along the surface√

– presence of obstacles  such as rock bushes on  the path of  the  wind will slow down

the wind   making  it drop√

– Deflation√

.

b i) Alternate hard and soft rocks out crop laid horizontally√ abrasion is predominant at the

base level √soft rocks are eroded  to produce furors√  shaped  features is formed called

rock pedestal

. b ii) In desert areas  wind deflation  may create hollows√ .the hollows may be deepened by  wind       abrasion  √process  to reach  the water table.√ Water oozes  out  to form oasis√

c i)  – weathering  by solution lakes in limestone areas √

• deposition by water/ice√
• erosion by wind/ice√
• meteorite falling√
• human activities/damming√
• mass movement√

c ii)  – lakes are reservoirs acts as  sources  of rivers√√

• support biodiversity/support flora and faur√√
• lakes enable self  purification of water/air√√
• modify local /weather and climate√√
• regulation of river from overflowing flooding√√
1. d) – Forms when stalactite continues to grow down wards
• Stalagmite grows upwards towards the stalactite
• Eventually the two features meet forming a continuous column called limestone pillar

d i)      – Limestone blocks are used for building houses/ or `

• Limestone is a raw material in cment manufacture which is used in building and construction
• Limestone landscape is usually rugged thus discouraging settlement
• Tourist attraction – underground and surface features are conspicuous hence attract tourists

1. SOILS
2. a) – Soil profile is the vertical arrangement of various soils  in layer  showing  the

sequence of horizons from  the surface  to the parent  materials

– Soil catena is the sequence of different soils on a slope from the top of the

hill to the valley Bottom

.

1. b) – platy/plate  soil structure
• crumb soil structure
• prismatic soil structure
• blocky/block soil structure
• granular soil structure
• columnar soil structure

c i)                  – Controlling overgrazing

– Avoiding bush fires

– Controlling tree cutting

– Practicing appropriate methods of cultivation e.g. planting cover crops, irrigation,

mulching, terracing, contour farming

c ii)                – Leaves & branches reduce the force of rain drops which would otherwise loosen

and remove soil particles

• Rate of infiltration of rain water into the soil is increased by vegetation cover thus reducing surface run off
• Tree roots which penetrate the soil help to carry surface moisture into the ground. This allows the moisture to gradually percolate deeply
• Tree roots bind the soil particles together and therefore the soil can not be easily carried away
• Trees break the force of the wind at the ground and reduces the transportation of soil by wind

1. a i) Soil is the top layer of loose or unconsolidated rock material overlying crustal rocks

and   on which the plants grow

Or  – Is an accumulation of rock particles minerals, organic matter, water and air found on

the surface of the earth

a ii) ) Soil catena : This is the arrangement of soil on a mountain slope from the top of the

valley bottom while soil profile is the vertical arrangement of various soils in layer

from surface to bed rock

.b i)  – – Climate

-Seasonal variation of rainfall can cause accumulated concentration of salt in the soil

• Rainfall provides water which make it possible for rocks to disintegrate to form soil
• Rainfall also affect the rate at which some soil forming processes can occur (leaching)
• High temperatures increase the rate of weathering by accelerating the raise of bacterial activities which generates some of the organic matter in the soil
• Wind, ice, water erode, transport and deposit soil particles in other areas leading to the formation of new soils

– Living organisms

– Living organisms add organic matter to the soil

• Areas with thick vegetation lead to the formation of fertile humus laden soils which is quite useful in aeration
• Bacteria help to decompose organic matter
• Bacteria fixes nitrogen into root nodules of plants thus enriching the soil
• Human activities can change the nature of the soil through grazing cultivation, use of fertilizers e.t.c.

b ii) – Type of parent

• Amount of organic matter
• Chemical composition i.e. minerals
• Drainage of the soil or amount of water in the soil

1. a) Relief

Slope influences the type of soil in that on steep slopes the soils that develop are thin, on gentle slopes the soils are deep and fertile. This is because the rates of erosion and weathering are quite rapid on steep slopes than gentle slopes

Drainage

– The amount of moisture in the soil is determined by the slope. Steep slopes have

well drained   but thin soils

• Hill top has well drained and mature soils
• Valley bottoms develop soils that are poorly drained

Mass wasting and surface run off

This leads to development of fertile soils at the valley bottom because the top soil

removed and deposited there

Leaching

This is the movement or washing of soil minerals from one layer to another which will also affect the type of soil developing

b i) the vertical arrangement  of  soil in layers from the top  the bedrock

b ii)

b iii) elluviation                         calcification

illuviation                          gleization

leaching                             ferrilisation

lateralization

humification

b iv)-  Excess irrigation

– Over stocking

1. a i) Soil is a thin layer of natural material on the earth’s surface that supports plant

and  animal life

1. ii)   – Inorganic matter
• Organic matter
• Soil water
• Soil air
• Soil organisms

. b i)  – Parent rock

• Topography
• Climate
• Time

b ii)  –     Dense vegetation vital for fertile soils

• Micro-organisms like fungi fix nitrogen to the soil
• Micro- organisms aerate the soil hence improve porosity
• Activities of man i.e. grazing, use of fertilizers, construction

c i)           –  Soil air – gases that are available within spaces that separate soil grains

–   Soil texture- size of individual soil grains

c ii)       –    High amount of rainfall promote chemical weathering of acid parent rock materials

• Long cold withers and short mild summers in temperate climates reduce bacterial activity
• Weathering of parent rock materials releases iron, aluminum, silica and organic acids
• Strong acid conditions enhance leaching of bases especially calcium along with iron and aluminum
• Silica that is less soluble is left back with the top layers and staining the soil beneath
• ash- grey

c iii)   – Develop mostly through calufication

• Have dark surface horizons
• Rich in calcium
• Have deep top layers of about I meter thick

5          .a)

b i) – Soil catena is the sequence of different soils on a slope

b ii)

a iii) – The soils are light in colour

• They are saline
• They are sandy/ strong
• They are loose in texture
• They are thin
• They have low moisture content
1. b) – The type of parent rock

– The amount of organic matter/ humus

– The chemical composition/ the degree of iron oxide/ minerals

– The amount of water in the soil/ drainage of soil

1. c) – During the wet season, mineral salts in the top layer of the soil dissolve rain water

– The dissolved minerals percolate seep downwards from the top soil to the sub soil

– The dissolved minerals are deposited further downwards to the lower layer

– Insoluble minerals such as iron and aluminum are left on the up layers to form a crust

of late rite soils

d i)      – Burning destroys micro- organisms which are essential for formation of humus which

binds the oil particles together

– Burning destroys vegetable matter that protects the soil against erosion

– Burning destroys the nitrogen fixing bacteria making the soil less fertile

– Burning loosens the soil making it susceptible to erosion/ leaching which drains away   soluble mineral nutrients

d ii)    –  This increases the aridity of the soil/ changes the PH of the soil

– The acidity destroys the micro- organisms in the soil/ bacteria/ fungi which could

have helped in the formation of humus

d iii)    – Monoculture leas to exhaustion of certain minerals from the soil making it infertile

– Monoculture leads to loosening of soils particulars there by encouraging soil erosion

1. (a) i) – Tundra soils
• Podzols
• Chernozens
• Proure soils
• Chestrut soils
• Red Desert soils

a  ii)  – In warm to hot humid regions silica and other bases dissolve in water are

leached/percolate   when it rains seep downwards from the top soil

• This leaves iron and aluminium oxides which are insoluble on upper soil horizons.
• This forms soils on upper soils on the upper soil horizons rich in iron and alluminiumoxides called lateritic soils

a iii) – They are young/of recent origin

– They are immature

– They are insufficiently affected by soil forming processes

– Characteristics depend on their origin

b i) – High rainfall can lead to water logging and formation of acidic soils

– Heavy rainfall also results into surface run off that may lead to sol erosion run-off that may  lead to soil erosion

– Too much rain can alter the soil structure by causing crumb soil to form blocky or columnar  structure

– Heavy rainfall can led to leaching of nutrients from top soil to lower soil horizons depriving   the top soil of some nutrients

– Low rainfall leads to loose soils easily blown away by the wind

– Excessive drought leads to accumulation of salts in the top soil leading to salination

b    ii) – Soil is baked to make building and construction materials like bricks, tiles/whitewash

– Soils are used in making pottery/ceramics/sculptures and used by people

– Some soils contain minerals like apatite which is mined and used to make phosphatic

fertilizers

– Some soils are medicinal

– Some soils are food to animals and people

7          a i) soil catena is the  horizontal arrangement of soil  on a  mountain slope while a soil

profile  is the  vertical arrangement of soil particles in layers  or horizons

.           a ii)  -leaching

-eluviations

-uluviation

-organic accumulation

-cheluviation

-precipitation

-organic sorting

b i) – seasonal rainfall in temperature and rainfall  facilitating the rate of   weathering

-the rate at which organic matter decompose rise in to increase  in temperature  and rainfall   while dry areas are devoid of vegetation covers

b ii) –  micro-organism cause both plants  and  animals to decay into humus .humus are

added o the upper layers  of the  soil

-living organisms act on decaying organic matter through humification to form humus.

This     humus consolidate forming  rich soils.

b iii)-  soils formed on steep  slopes  generally fails  to develop or mature  because most  of the

rain    water runs of  along the surface ,this accelerate erosion which comes  away  the top layers of    soil

-on rolling and gentle slopes maximum soil development is likely to occur. This is because the rate of soil  erosion is   matched  by the rate of soil  formation due to good drainage

c i) soil degeneration  is  the  decline in the usefulness  of soil  resulting from either  soil

mismanagement or environment causes

c ii)    -plant roots  which penetrate the soil help  to carry surface moisture into  the soil

-vegetation helps to bind soil particles together

-plant  cover breaks the  force of wind   and therefore reduces the  transportation  of soil particles

-decayed  vegetation  matter provide humus which binds  the  soil  particles together

-the  leaf cove  helps to  reduce  the force  of rain drops which would loosen  and remove soil

particles

-the rate of infiltration of rain water into the soil is increased by vegetation cover thus reducing

surface run offs

c iii) -crop rotation

-contour ploughing

-strip cropping

-inter cropping

-bush fallowing

-mixed cropping

1. a i) -this is the sequence or arrangement of different soils down a slope
2. a ii) -the relief/slope/steepness of the land

-the drainage of the area

-the transportation of the soil debris

-the teaching process

1. b) -the production topsoil is lost foe ever and his lowers the agricultural production of the land

-the soil left behind after erosion is thin and  cannot hold plants firmly in the ground.

-continued loss of soil  through erosion destroys vegetation cover  turning the area into

semi- arid/desert.

-soil erosion causes  water reservoirs to be filled up by silt adding extra cost of dredging.

-sediments which are carried into rivers/lakes/oceans may contain industrial effluents

which   kill aquatic life.

-gullies as a result of erosion expose water onto the surface leads to lowering of the

water   table

1. c) -develop best in areas which are cool and sufficiently wet

-soluble soil constituents are moved downwards

-it leads to severe absence of bases throughout the soil profile resulting to low  PH and

an   accumulation of hydrogen clays

-there is an accumulation of acid organic matter in horizon a leading to intense teaching

of  bases  and clays

-iron and humus are deposited in horizon B

1. a) – Living organisms.

– Organic matter.

– Soil minerals.

– Soil matter.

– Soil air.

b i) – Climate influence type & rate of weathering.

– High rainfall influence leaching process runoffs resulting from high rainfall increases

rate of erosion.

– It influence rate of decomposition

b ii) – Influence soil profile.

– Parent material influence soil structure.

– It influences soil colour.

– It influences mineral composition.

–  It influences soil texture.

c i) – Over cultivation exhausts the soil fertility.

– Monoculture exhausts soil minerals.

– Clearance of land for agriculture interrupts nutrient cycling.

– Application of fertilizer changes the P.H.

– Construct of roads, mining, quarrying destroy soil structure.

-Application of fertilizers change soil PH

c ii) A-TOP SOIL

B- SUB-SOIL

C- PARTLY WEATHERED ROCK

D -PARENT ROCK

1. a) – A lake is an accumulation of water in a wide hollow or depression

.           b)    –    By erosion

• By earth movements/ volcanic activity
• By deposition
• By human activity
• By falling meteorites
• By mass movements e.g. land slides
• Weathering by solution
1. a i) Soil is the upper most surface layer of unconsolidated material which lies on the

surface  of the earth and in which plants grow/ soil is an accumulation of rock particles

or  minerals,   organic matter, water and air found on the surface of the earth

. b i)  – Seasonal variation of rainfall can cause accumulation/ concentration of salts in soil

– Rainfall provide water which make it possible for rocks to decay/ disintegrate to form soil

– Rainfall can affect the rate at which some soil forming processes can occur (leaching)

– High temperatures increase the rate of weathering/ accelerate the rate of bacterial activities

which generates some of the organic matter in the soil

– Water, ice and winds erode, transport and deposit soil particles in other areas leading to the  formation of new soils (for example loess)

b ii) – Valley bottoms/ gentle slope encourage the formation of deep and fertile soils due to

deposition/ accumulation of minerals

– Steep slopes encourage erosion of the top layer of soil thus slowing down formation of soil/    have thin soils

– Flat plains/ flood plains are saturated with water therefore slows down soil forming processes

– Slopes influence arrangement/ sequence of soil/ soil catena

– Some slopes are more exposed to the sun/ rain which influence weathering of parent rocks/   soil formation (aspect)

c i)     – Humus helps to improve soil porosity by aerating the soil

– It improves the moisture – retention capacity of the soil

– Humus provides essential minerals to the soil

– It improves the soil texture

c ii)-  They are thin and shallow

– They are sandy or stony

– They lack humus or have low organic matter content

– They are generally saline

– They are coarse- textured and quite porous

– They are alkaline because of high content

– They have low moisture content

. d i)   – This occurs on gentle slopes which are bare

– When heavy rain falls, water spreads over a large area

– As water moves, it removes the top layer of soil evenly over the area

. d ii) – It occurs on steep slopes

– Rain water cuts deep grooves/ channels/ rills on the slopes

– The channels are widened and deepened to form gullies, through which soils are carried away

. d iii) – Soils are sources of valuable minerals

– Soils are used raw materials for pottery/ ceramics/ tiles/ bricks

– Soils are used for agriculture

– Some soils are mixed with herbs and sold for medicinal purposes e.g. clay/ sold directly for

food

1. a) – It is a careful management/protection of soil against erosion and exhaustion

. b) – Ploughing along the contour

– Controls grazing

– Stripping cropping

1. AGRICULTURE

1 .        a i) Land reclamation is a process by which unproductive land is converted to productive

land and  used for crop or animal farming. Rehabilitation is the restoration of land that has been  destroyed through human activities to its farmer usefulness/productivity

1.  ii)   – Bush fallowing
• Mulching
• Planting trees
• Filling the pits/gulleys
• Planting cover crops

b i)   – To occupy detainee labour from Mwea detainee Camp

• To utilize the black cotton soils in growing rice
• To increase agricultural production
• To settle and create employment for former detainees
1. ii) – Diseases e.g. Bilharzia and malaria caused by water snails and mosquitoes, weaken

and even  kill the farmers hence affecting productivity

• Stagnant water is the breeding grounds for water snails and mosquitoes
• Fluctuation of world prices due to competition affects agricultural production
• Poor payments for farmers produce that kill their morale
• Monoculture practice has led to soil exhaustion resulting to use of fertilizer that increases cost of production
• Mismanagement of irrigation bodies leading to losses of farmers killing their morale

1. a)   – Construction of productive dykes/walls to enclose area to be reclaimed
• Construction of ring canals to carry water from the reclaimed area into the sea
• Installation of pumping stations to pump water from the enclosed area
• Water is pumped out of the area enclosed by the dyke
• Reeds are sown to get excess water and prevent growth of weeds
• Drainage ditches were cut in the land and drainage pipes laid
• More pumping stations were put up in order to drain excess water
• Soil treated with chemical to lower salinity
• Drained land was flushed with fresh water to remove salts from the soil
• Pumping out of the water and crops planted or grown
1. b) – Improves distribution of fresh  water for domestic use
• Control of floods to the south west
• Controlled seas invasion inland
• Improved accessibility through development of roads and railways
• Improved tourism in the area

1. a i) – Trans Nzoia
• Nakuru
• Uasin Gishu
1. ii) – Land is ploughed manually/mechanically
• Sowing of seeds are done at the onset of rains
• Two seeds are sown in holes of 2-5cm in rows of 1m apart
• Application of fertilizers or manure is done during planting
• Weeding and thinning is done to remove weak seedlings
• Top dressing /nitrogenous fertilizers is applied after weeding when the crop is 30-45cm high
• The crop is ready for harvesting in 4-8months depending on variety of seeds and altitude
• Harvesting is done manually
1. b) – Maize is  a staple food
• Maize stalk serve as cattle feed
• Maize is a raw material for industries
• Stalks, leaves and cobs are important source of organic manure
• Maize cobs and stalks are used as fuel in varied areas
• Provide employment /income
• Saving foreign exchange

1. – Unfavourable weather conditions/ prolonged drought lead to destruction of crops hence

low yields/income

• Pests and diseases e.g. stalk rot, corn ear worm, silk worm, birds e.t.c. which attack crop reducing yields
• Poor/low prices
• High cost of farm inputs reduce farmers profits
• Poor marketing strategy leading to low prices
• Monoculture leading to soil exhaustion
• Poor storage facilities
1. a) – Friesian
• Jersey
• Guernsey
• Alderney
• Ayrshire
• Sahiwal
1. b) – Low temperatures ideal for exotic breeds
• Fertile soils, which support quality pasture
• Reliable and constant water supply for the animals
• A high population, which provides ready market for dairy produce
• Has humid conditions suitable for the growth of pastures

1. a) – French beans
• Cabbages/kales
• Celery
• Spinach
• Pawpaw
• Mangoes
• Passion fruits
• Carnations
• Roses
• orchids
1. b) – Netherlands has a higher urban population than Kenya.
• There is high demand for both local and foreign horticultural products in Netherlands than Kenya
• Farmers in Netherlands have more access to the capital needed for horticultural farming than in Kenya.
• There is more advanced and appropriate technology in Netherlands which has enhanced horticultural farming than in Kenya.
• Netherlands unlike Kenya has a highly skilled labour for production and handling of agricultural products.
• There is more advanced horticultural farming related to research in the Netherlands than in Kenya.
• Netherlands unlike Kenya has well organized marketing procedures/co-operatives/auction markets which are conducive for horticultural farming

1. a) – Vegetables/tomatoes/onions/carrots

– Fruits/oranges/ pineapples/ plums/ mangoes/ flowers/roses

1. b) – Horticultural crops are highly perishable this necessitating faster means of transport

– Same are light in weight which makes it easy /suitable for air export

– There is high demand for produce thus this need to supply urgently

– High market prices are able to pay compensate for the foreign charges

1. a)(i) It’s a traditional way of keeping large number of animals by nomad communities

who move from  place to place in search for pasture and water.

1. ii) –  Frequent livestock raid by neighboring communities or amongst themselves
• Animals are grazed communally

–      They use natural pasture for grazing in the livestock

• It is practiced in area with low and unreliable rainfall
• Their movement is determined by availability of water and pasture
• Different types of animals are kept
• Animals are kept for pride

1. a i) – Jersey

– Guernsey

– Aishire

1. ii) – Ghee

– Cheese

– Butter

b i) – Cool climate/ moderate temperatures which are suitable for survival of exotic breeds

– High rainfall that favours growth of pasture and fodder

– Deep volcanic soils which favour pasture and fodder growth

b ii)  – Attack by diseases such as East Coast Fever and pests e.g. ticks may cause

death of the  animal hence total loss to the farmer

• Poor roads delay delivery of milk to collecting centers hence losses due to milk getting spoilt
• High cost of farm inputs discourages dairy farmers
• Mismanagement of the framers co-operatives discourages farmers due to delayed/ low or non- payment
• Drought reduces fodder and water for the livestock causing death or low production
• hence losses to the farmer

. c i)

 Kenya Netherlands 1. Done on small scale Done on large scale 2. Done in Kenya highlands mainly Done in the whole country 3. Zero grazing and out door grazing on pasture Only zero grazing on fodder

c ii)     – New K.C.C

– Brook side

1. a) – Jersey
• Ayrshire
• Guernsey
• Cross breed
1. b) – Disease such as rindpest may lead to death of animal
• Inadequate pasture during the dry season..
• Failure to collect milk due to glut in production.
• Delayed payments which discourage the
• Poor roads which are inaccessible during rainy season.

1. a) – Gently sloping land
• Deep, well drained volcanic soils
• Moderate rainfall/ 500mm – 1270mm p.a
• Warm conditions/ temperatures of 15C – 20C
• Warm/ dry/ sunny spell for ripening and harvesting
1. b) – Prolonged drought which lower yields
• Attack by pests (such as dusty brown beetle, quela birds, aphids, cereal weevils and diseases e.g. stem rust, brown leaf rust, glumme blotch
• Exploitation by middle men
• High costs of transport due to poor roads
• Shortage of storage facilities

1. a i) – Rift Valley
• Central
1. ii) –    Manitoba
• Alberta
1. b) –   500-12700mm RF/moderate rainfall.
• Dry sunny spell for ripening/harvesting
• At least 3 months to temp 150C – 200c for maturation or growing of wheat.
• Volcanic soils to sustain production.
• Gentle /fairly level/undulating land enables mechanization to take place.
• Deep /fertile/well drained soils for production of wheat.
1. c) –      Farmers in Canada are more mechanized  while those  of Kenya are less mechanized.

• Canada has more capital than Kenya which experiences financial problems.
• Farmers in Canada are more skilled/have a long history of wheat production than in Kenya which is still developing.
• There is advanced research in Canada providing yielding seeds/better farm inputs/control of pets & diseases/overcome limitation of whether than in Kenya where research is poorly done.
• Farmers in Canada has more extensive tracts  of land which are suitable for wheat growing than those in Kenya which are small  in acreage
1. d) – Canada exports wheat hence earns foreign exchange. Which is invested in other

sectors of the    economy.

• Wheat farming is a source of employment any Canadians who earn income raising their living standards.
• Industrialization as many industries that deal in wheat products have been established. Leading to economic diversification.
• The wheat farmers earn income through the sale of wheat raising their standards of

living. Canada is self sufficient in food as wheat is the main cereal food consumed

1. a) –     Narok
• Uasin Gishu
• Nakuru
• Parts of Baringo
• Trans mara
• Nyandarua
• Trans Nzoia
• Keiyo
• Laikipia
1. b)     – Gentle slope to allow mechanization
• Altitude between 1500-2900m to reduce cases of diseases outbreak
• Moderate rainfall between 500mm to 1,270mm to supply moisture for growth
• Warm temperature between 150oC to 20oC to allow production
• Warm dry sunny spell which enhances ripening of wheat and harvesting

c i)   –      Wheat is ground into tiny particles. This is done in flour mills

• Tiny particles are sifted out as four
• The yellow flour is bleached
• Bleaching gives white colour to wheat flour

c ii)  – Wheat is sold on local markets

–   Procedures sell wheat or millers e.g. Unga limited

d i)   –    Inadequate capital limiting expansion of farms and level of mechanization

• Pests like dirty brown beetle, aphids, quelea birds damage wheat causing low yield
• Diseases like stem rust, leaf rust, glume blotch lead to low crop yields
• Heavy storm/rainfall cause flattening of wheat causing rotting of wheat
• Price fluctuation lowering productivity /profit
• Inadequate storage facilities causing wastage

(ii)            Canada has more extensive tracks of land suitable for wheat growing while in Kenya farms  are   relatively small.

• Canada has a higher level of mechanization while in Kenya the level is relatively low/machines are slowed
• Farmers in Canada are more experienced due to longer history of wheat production while in Kenya the level of advancement of techniques is low.
• Advanced scientific research in Canada enables the production of higher yielding seeds than in Kenya where the level of research is low.
• Wheat farmers in Canada specialize in wheat production while in Kenya they practice mixed farming                      (any 2×1=2mks)

1. a) –  High temperature between 20oC to 27oC.
• Dry sunny conditions
• High rainfall ranging 1200-1500mm
• Deep fertile soils
• Well drained soils
• Gentle sloping areas to allow mechanization

. b)     –      Land use conflict/competition from cash crops

• High cost of inputs which was limited mechanization
• Impassible /muddy roads during rainy season
• High rise of cattle diseases like East Coast fever
• abrupt and extensive drought lowers production
• Mismanagement of co-operatives resulting in delayed payments killing the moral of farmers

1. a i) -Nigeria

– Coted’ivoire

-Cameroon

1. ii) – heavy rainfall-1270mm-1500mm per year

-high temperature-between 21ºc and 26ºc throughout  the year

-high relative humidity –over 75%throughout  the year

-deep fertile and  well drained  soils

-Protection from  sunshine  and wind  by banana plants  and other  shady trees

-low altitude below 700m above  sea level

b)-The pods are harvested using long sharp knives, collected and pulled at a central place

-The pods are then split open with a sharp knife and beans are scooped out by band

-The beans are put in heaps on mats, covered with banana leaves and are allowed to

ferment for 5  to  be days  during which the juicy pulps drain away

-The fermented beans are washed and cleaned spread on tables covered with   mat to

dry  in the  hot sun

-The beans are turned frequently as they dry and slowly they turn brown

-The  dry beans are put in sacks   ad sent to the  buying centers. There the dry beans

1. c) – Pest  like capsid bug mealy bug destroy the  crop

– The swollen shoot disease attacked the tree shoots and the black pod disease affects

the pods reducing the yields

– The strong harmattan winds break the branches and cause premature ripening of the pods

– Fluctuation of prices in the world market discourage the farmers

– Poor transportation facilities make it difficult for the former to  deliver the  crop in  time

– Labour  is sometimes  in short supply, leading to delay in  harvesting

1. (a) i) horticulture is the cultivation  of vegetables, fruits   and flowers  for commercial purpose

ii)-  there  is higher  local demand  for  horticultural  crops  in the Netherlands  than Kenya

– The  Netherlands  has  along  history  of  horticultural  crop  production and hence  has

established  foreign  markets than Kenya

– Netherlands formers are well  organized making  it easy to access loans whereas few

Kenyans  access  loans

– Netherlands has advanced  technology while Kenya has low –level  advancement  of

technology

– Netherlands has well development transport  network  while in Kenya   the transport

network   is  poor

– Netherlands has highly skilled labour  for production and handling of horticulture whereas — – Kenya has a  shortage of skilled  labour in this field

– In  Netherlands there  is advanced research  in the industry while  in Kenya research is

– Netherlands is  centrally situated  in Europe which gives  the country an advantages  of

Europe  market

iii) –  the pants  do not suffer the  effects  of excessive rainfall, hailstone  and strong  winds

– The plants will not be affected by drought because they are constantly  watered

– The spread of pests and diseases is easily controlled

– it is easier  to  control the  amount  of moisture that the flower require

– uniform and  constant climatic conditions  for  the  plants are created

– the flower are  grown throughout  the year

1. – Temperature ranges from 15degrees c to 20 degrees c(moderate temperature)

– Warm dry sunny spell for ripening

– Rainfall between 305mm and 1015mm

– Volcanic, well drained soils

– Gently sloping/fairly level land

1. a) -­ High rainfall which is well distributed throughout the year ensure abundant supply of

water  for  the animals and pasture.

– Fertile volcanic soil ensure high quality nutritious cover of grass.

– Cool condition/temperature averaging 180c which is ideal for the survival of exotic

breeds/slow breeding of pests & disease.

b i) Dairy farming in Kenya is mainly pasture dependant while in Denmark it is mostly dependant   on  fodder

1. ii) In Kenya, most dairy products are consumed locally while dairy products in Denmark are

mostly exported to foreign markets

1. a) – Aberdeen Angus.

– Charolais

– Shorthorn

– Santa gertridis

– Hereford

– Red Angus

– Galloway

1. b)    -Extensive rolling grassland which allows the cattle to graze freely.

– Fertile soils of the Andes Mountain which give rise to healthy natural grass for feeding

the  animals.

–  Moderate temperatures of about 240c during summer and 100c during winter which

ensures continuous growth of grass for feeding the animals.

– Moderate rainfall of about 1000mm which ensures growth of nutritious natural grass

pasture/pampas.

– Adequate water for the animals.

1. a i) ) X- Alberta

Z-  Manitoba

1. ii) – Warm summers with average temperatures of about 1.50c

– Sunny late summers for rip3ening of wheat.

– Extensive undulating and uninhabited low lands.

– Rich dark – brown chernozen soils rich in potassium and phosphates/less acid soils.

1. b) – Central province.

– Rift valley province.

– Eastern province.

1. a) Horticulture is the growing of fruits, flowers and vegetables for export market while

market gardening is the growing of fruits and vegetables for local market (nearest

urban   centre)

1. b) – Hot and wet climate for growth of tropical crops and cool and wet conditions for

temperature crops

– Fertile soils of volcanic origin

– High demand for the products both locally and internationally

– Investment by large companies providing the capital needed for horticulture

production

– Availability of technical and financial assistance from friendly countries

– Well organized marketing system

1. a)- It refers to the extensive grazing on natural pasture involving constant or seasonal

migration  of people and their livestock

1. b) – Pastoralists move from place to place in search of water and pasture

– Land is grazed communally, though animals may be owned by individuals

– A large number of animals is kept resulting in overgrazing and serious incidents of soil    erosion

– There is controlled cross- breeding of animal within each herd

– The animals are generally of poor quality due to diseases and low quality feeds

– Animals are considered as a source of pride and not income

– Cattle are kept as a sign of wealth, paying pride price and slaughter during cultural festival

– Different animals are kept i.e. cattle, sheep. Donkey e.t.c.

1. a) – Improved veterinary services

– Increase milk prices

– Good performance of co-operatives

– Government effort through the ministry of livestock development

1. b) – Breeds kept are similar

– Use of co-operatives

– Artificial insemination is used

– Open and zero grazing is done

1. c) – Creation of employment

– Earns Kenya foreign exchange

– Self- sufficiency in milk production

1. a i) Total tones           = 100800

1 5cm rep 100,800 tonnes.

Flowers : 42800X 15 = 6.324 cm = 6.3 cm

100,800

Oranges: 20600X15 = 3.363cm = 3.4cm

100,800

Tomatoes: 20300X 15 = 3.02 cm = 3.0 cm

100,800

Carrots: 15400 X 15 = 2.29 = 2.3 cm

100800

DIVIDED RECTANGLE SHOWING HORTICULTURAL CROPS IN TONES PRODUCED IN KENYA IN THE YEAR 2000

 FLOWERS ORANGES TOMATOES CARROTS

1. a) ii)       42500 – 15400 = 2 7,100 tonnes

iii) 15400X 100

100800

=15.828 %/15.3%

b i)   – They are easy to draw.

– They are easy to read/interpret

– They give clear visual impression of individual components.

– They allow easy companion.

– They can be used to represent a wide range of data.

1. ii) – Moderate rainfall of 800 – 1200 mm

– Suitable for horticultural farming.

– Cool and wet temperate crops.

– Hot and wet climate favours the growth of tropical crops.

c  – Pests and diseases such as tomato blight attack the tomatoes and  lowers the yields

leading to  low income for the farmers.

– Most roads are impassable during the rainy season leads to delayed delivery of the

horticultural crops to the collecting centre lowering the quality subsequently the profit to

the   farmers.

– High costs of farm inputs reduces the farmer profit margins.

– Prolonged drought/hail storms in some areas destroys the crops leading to heavy

losses.

– Stiff competition from Netherlands and Israel which reduces the international  market.

– Inadequate refrigeration facilities leads to deterioration of the quality of horticultural

products and subsequently the profit to the farmers is lowered.

1. a) – Freshian        – Aryshire

– Jersey           – Guernsey

1. b) – Creation of employment

– Establishment of other related industries

– Milk is a source of protein hence healthy population

– A source of income to farmers

– Government collects taxes from sales of dairy products

– Cow dung is used manure hence increased productivity

– Dairy products are exported hence earning foreign exchange

1. a) – Tea

– Coffee

– Horticultural products

. b) – Kenya exports mainly agricultural commodities that fetch less revenue

– Price fluctuations in the world marked which make it difficult to plan ahead

– Competition from cheaper commodities that are imported into the country

– Inadequate transport and communication facilities

– Smuggling of goods (cheaper) from neighboring countries

– Poverty among the people which reduces their purchasing power

1. (a) – Food supply

– Industrial raw materials

– Draught animals/ beasts of burden

– Storage of wealth

– Medium of exchange

1. b) – Sinking boreholes/ harvesting rain water
• Cross breeding
• Discourage overstocking
• Extension services
• Credit availability
• Cattle dips
• Diversification e.g. bee keeping

–     Sensitization on quality/ selling e.t.c.

1. a) – Operation costs
• Market expenses
• Price fluctuations
• Government policy

b i)   –     Is a beverage

• Is an industrial raw material for making cocoa butter, chocolates, confectionaries cosmetics, soap and drugs.
• Cocoa husks are used as fertilizer.
• Cocoa shell is used as mulch.
• Cocoa husks may used as fuel.
1. ii) –  Pests such as the capsid destroy the cocoa tree.
• Diseases such as swollen shoot and black pod destroy the crop.
• Fluctuation of cocoa prices.
• Short labour supply.
• Flooded feeder roads delay collection of the crop.
• Bush fires destroy the crop.
• Strong winds e.g the harmattan cause a drying effect.
• Low cocoa prices

1. a) Horticulture is the growing of fruits, vegetables and flowers for the export market

while market  gardening is the intensive cultivation of fruits and vegetable mainly for

urban markets

1. b) -Roses
• Orchids
• Carnations
• Low production of milk from indigenous breeds
• Low managerial ability of the farmers
• Poor pasture leading to low quality breeds
• Competition from imported milk and milk product by unscrupulous businessmen
• Diseases and pests
• Delayed payment to the milk producers
• Poor transport network
• Prolonged drought

1. a) – Loss in livestock and crops production.

– Low agricultural production.

– Low agricultural economic growth.

– Reduced production agricultural land

1. b) – Honey from bees is a major source of food as well as medicine.

– It is a major source of income in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya.

– It provide alternative and effective use of marginal areas where crops may do well.

– Bee wax is used in making candle.

– Bees are not expensive to maintain

– Land ownership/Inheritance.

– Religion.

– Gender roles

– Foreign influence

1. b) – Gentle sloping terrain.

– Extensive pieces of land with low production.

– Adequate capital to set up large farms.

– Availability of skilled labour.

1. a) – High temperature throughout the year (21 – 270)

– Plenty of sunshine during ripening period.

– Heavy rainfall well distributed through out the year.

1. b) – Cooking fat.

– Soap/both for washing and toilet soap.

– Cosmetics.

1. a) – Pollution is the contamination of the environment with substances which are

harmful or  poisonous to human, plants and animal life.

1. b) – Land /Soil/Ground pollution.
• Water pollution
• Noise pollution.
1. c) – Temperature ranging between 150c – 300c

– Mean annual rainfall which should be between 400 – 1750 mm.

– Soil should be deep, well drained but with good water – retaining capacity.

– Altitude of between 1500 – 2200m.

– Windbreaks essential for protection of tea bushes against damaging wind.

1. d)      – Pests and diseases.

– Tea bushes are commonly attacked by different pests and disease.

–  Such pests  include black tea thrips, red spider mites, red crecise mite and weevils.

– Diseases include root rot.

1. a) – Aberdeen Angus

– Hereford .

– Short horn

– Sahiwal

1. b) – Establishing priority orders by creating awareness among leaders.

– Identifying methods of approach that include retorted inclusives and dept. of

Agriculture.

– Educating farmers on strategies to improve their systems of livestock farming.

– Investigating the prevailing market situations and make appropriate recommendations.

– Creating Ranching schemes in arid and semi arid (ASACS) areas to improve livestock

farming.

– Identifying possible financial institutions to farmers such as AFC and banks and advise

farmers accordingly.

– Providing dipping facilities to improve the health of animals.

– Building dams to improve water in Reserves for the animals.

– Encouraging farmers to adopt modern methods of breeding beef cattle to improve on

quantity.

– Introducing pedigree British cattle in some suitable districts or cross breeding with

indigenous  breeds to improve on the quality of the animals

– High temp. in most parts which makes it difficult to raise cattle of good quality.

– Pastral tribes come for quantity rather than quality, land/herds of poor animals steadily

ruin    pasture land.

– Hard ancient rock that underlie Kenya produce poor soils prone to erosion. Natural

grass is poor and not good for quality animals.

– Climate conditions of Kenya encourage spread of nagana

d i)    – Well distributed rainfall throughout the year from growth of good pasture.

• Subtropical temp. with summer temp. raising above 240c lower winter temp. of about 100 c favours growth of grass.
• Gently sloppy Lorain provide good natural grazing landscape with good pasture.
• Fertile soils washed from foot/hills of Audes losses that are fertile and encourage growth of pastures.

d ii)  – Provide employment in various section e.g. stockmen ranches.

• Improved feeder road to enable farmers transport cattle to the urban centres.
• Earns foreign exchange used in other section of economy (Your exports).
• By-products like hides used as raw materials to industries thus encouraging industrial

growth.

1. LAND RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION
2. a) – Perkerra

– ahero

– KAno

– Bunyala

– Bura

– Hola

1. bi) – The black cotton clay soils found in the area suitable for irrigation because they

retain water

– The gentle-sloping land enables water to reach the farm by gravity

– Presence of rivers Thiba and Nyamidi provides regular and abundant water for irrigation

– The un-reliable and inadequate rainfall received in the area makes it necessary for irrigation

– More land is available for future expansion

– Availability of labour from high population

1. ii) – Stagnant ware encourages its breeding of snails and mosquitoes increasing

incidences of   Bilharzia and malaria

– Quelea birds which feed on rice grain lowers drop yield

– Siltation in canals reduces capacity to hold enough water for irrigation

– Fluctuating water volumes reduces water for irrigation

– Poor marketing strategies

– Delayed payment to farmers lowers their morale

– Shortage of capital to finance farming activities such as ploughing

1. c) – The scheme produces the bulky of Kenya’s rice saving foreign exchange

– The scheme provides employment and income to thousands of people

– Roads have been constructed in the area to transport rice form fields to markets

– Social amenities like schools and hospitals have been provided improving standards of living

– Floods that used to occur during rainy season have been controlled

– The scheme has provided land to landless people enabling them to grow food crops

1. a) – Irrigation of dry lands.

– Clearing jungles.

– Tsetse fly control.

– Afforestation

1. b) – Flooding in the Yala and Nzoia plains has been controlled.

– Hectares of land has been reclaimed for agricultural and settlement purposes.

– The project has brought water borne diseases under control.

1. a) i) Land reclamation is bringing back the useless land into more useful while land

rehabilitation is  bringing the land that has been misused by man into being useful

1. ii) – Basin irrigation

– Trickle irrigation

– Canal irrigation

– Shadoof Archimedean screw, sakia water wheel

iii) – Irrigation ensures a steady and reliable supply even in arid area while rainfall may

fail in a  given year

– River water used for irrigation may may bring in silt which makes soil fertile and

leads   to more yields unlike pure rain water

– Enables cultivation throughout the year maximizing use of land while rainfall could be

seasonal

–  Water drawn for irrigation may also be used for other purposes in the farm

b i) – To settle the landless people

– The presence of rivers Thiba and Nyamindi

– Availability of the black cotton soils – good for rice

– To employee detainees during the days of emergency

– Unreliable nature of rainfall in the area

1. ii) – Availability of reliable water supplies from river Thiba

-Presence of fertile black cotton soils with high water retaining ability

– Gently sloping land making it easy to mechanize and cheaply irrigate by gravity flow

– Presence of high temperatures favouring rice groing

– The unreliable nature of the rainfall made it necessary to irrigate

– The soils were impervious thereby reducing the need to build concrete hence lowering

costs

iii) – Disease – malaria & bilharzias

– A lot of time is spent to tend crops

– Presence of numerous weeds

– Mismanagement of the scheme

– Delayed payment to the farmers

– Few extension officers

– Pests i.e. quela birds

– Siltation in the canals

– Expensive human labour

c i) A polder is an area of low – lying reclaimed land enclosed by dykes, which protect

the  land against high water level that has to be maintained outside the area

1. ii) – Construction of ring canals to drain water out

– Construction of ditches within each polder which leads water to a pumping station

– Drying of land through planting of trees/ plants

– Desalination of the soil through chemical, flushing and planting hardy plants

– Dividing of land into economic units

– Laying down of good infrastructure

– Settling of people in villages

– Spreading of soils to improve fertility

iii)- Control of floods of the area to the South West

– Improved control and distribution of the regions fresh water

– Damming has cut off salination and pollution of inlnd waters. This has led to the

reduction of     salinity of soil hence high yields

– Islands that were isolated are now within easy reach of developed areas

– The area is a good site for industry and a tourist resort

. d)   – Artificial insemination  A.I is more widely used in Denmark than Kenya

– There is an experience of high quality yields throughout the year

– In Kenya, there is a practice of mixed farming while there is specialized farming in Denmark

– Dairy product in Kenya are consumed locally whereas they are for export in Denmark

– In Denmark it is highly mechanized while in Kenya it is low mechanized

– In Denmark, it is evenly distributed all over the country than in Kenya where it is

concentrated in highlands

– Denmark dairy farming rely on fodder while Kenya depends mainly on grass pasture

– Denmark has got an advanced technology in preservation of dairy products in Kenya

– Denmark has got a well managed co-operative societies than Kenya

1. Heavy expenditure by the government in giving them pensions, money that could have

been  used to improve other sectors of the economy

• Through economically unproductive, they require care and feeding which is expensive
• Through unproductive economically, they require people to take care of them, hence wasting man power that could be used on productive ventures
1. a i) – Maize
• Beans
• Tomatoes
• Vegetables
1. ii) – Availability of gently slopping land that allowed irrigation water to move by natural

force of Gravity

• Availability of permanent source of water from R. Thiba and Nyamindi which provided water for irrigation throughout the year
• Existence of black cotton soils (clay) which hold water on the surface longer for use in irrigation fields
• Sparse population in the region which reduced the cost of resettlement

– Stagnant irrigation water in the fields serve as breeding grounds for water bone   diseases       nectars e.g. bilhazia workers and mosquitoes

• Leaching of the soils due to over irrigation
• Mono culture which reduces productivity of the soil
• Interference with the life’s of the people and animals who depend on the waters of these lines down stream

. c) –  The scheme has created employment which has improved the living standards

of the people

• It has saved foreign exchange through production of rice that could be otherwise imported/ which is invested in other sectors of the economy
• It has facilitated urbanization e.g. Mwea town which has expanded trade opportunities
• Has increased productivity by turning less productive land. Hence adding food for consumption and sale to get income

d i)      – Perkerra irrigation scheme

• Yala swamp reclamation/ Bunyala
• Ahero irrigation scheme
• Bura
• Nola
• West Kano
1. ii) – Is a source of carbohydrates
• Rice foliage is used as fodder
• It is a source of income through sale of rice
1. a) Land reclamation is the process by which wasteland is converted into farmland for

growing crops  and  keeping animals.

– Land rehabilitation is a  process of restoring land to  its former productivity.

. b)        –  Irrigation

• Drainage of swamps.
• Tsetse fly control and clearing of jungles
• Afforestation
1. c)    –  Land reclamation by drawing rivers & marshlands

– Upgrading sandy and barren areas through. Use of fertile soil or application of fertilizer

1. d) – To control the seasonal flood of river
• To utilize excess water of  river pekerra that used  to go to waste.
• Presence of flat and gently sloping terrain which enables flow water by gravity.
• Fertile loamy soil.
• Dry condition of the area.
1. (a) –   Improvement of standard of living.
• Settlement of the landless.
• Saving on foreign exchange.
• Rehabilitation and development of the areas.
• Con troll of environmental hazards.
• Creation of employment.
• Growth of urban centres.
• Availability .
1. b) – Creating of a large fresh water lake in the middle of the country lake ijssel
• The reclamation polders have attract towns that love improved infrastructure & social amenities.
• Has shortened the coastline distance by about 32km.
• The protection of high titles by dykes.
• Lake ijssel have help in reducing the salt content of the neighbouring regions.
• The total flooding on the coastilen are ahs been completely reduced.
• Reclaimed land is fertile and suitable for liable cultivation producing crops such as wheat.
• The slayer sea has improved the drainage .
• Reclaimed areas are used for settlement recreation and industry
1. (a) – Rice

– Onions

– Green grams

– Pepper

b i)    – Presence of rivers Thiba and Nyamidi which provide water for irrigation

• Gently sloping land enabled water to reach the farms by force f gravity
• Extensive land for future expansion of the scheme
• Fertile soils in the area which were suitable for crop production
• Sparse population which made it easy and cheap to resettle people
• Low supply of rainfall received necessitated irrigation
1. ii) – To eradicate tsetse flies and hence provide conducive healthy living conditions

for man and   animals

– To enhance the keeping of quality livestock in the area

– To provide land for farming

– To provide land for human settlement

iii)  – Building gabions to check the speed of water

– Agro-forestry

– Re-afforestation

– Gazettement of forested areas to discourage human settlement and human activities

1. a i) Is land in the Netherlands that has been reclained from the sea and enclosed by dykes.
2. ii) – Rye – Tomatoes – Flowers

– Barley                -Oat                             – Fodder crops

– Suagr beet           – Potatoes                    – Wheat

1. b) – Protective dykes/sea walls are constructed enclosing the part of the sea to be reclaimed.

– Rings canals are constructed.

– Pumbing stations are installed to pumb out sea water from the area enclosed by the dyke.

– Water is pumbed out of the area enclosed by the dyke

– Drainage ditches and more pumbing stations are made on the land being reclaimed.

– Drainage pipes are laid below the soil.

– The area is divided into rectangular portions using. inner dykes and ring canal.

– The drained land is flushed with fresh water to remove salt from the soil.

– Soils are treated with chemicals to remove salinity

– Pumbing water from the polders is a continuous process to prevent water from

accumulating  in the reclaimed land.

1. a )        Ahero                            Perkerra                   Hola/ bura

West kano                   Mitunguu

Dana                            katila                           Kibwezi

Taveta                         Gezira                         Bunyala

. b)    – The area was sparsely populated thus making it easy and cheap to resettle the people

– The presence of river Thiba and Nyamindi which would provide water for irrigation

– The black cotton soil in the area which was suitable for irrigation because they retain water

– The fertile soil was suitable for crop production

– The gentle land would allow water to reach the farm through gravity

– The unreliable/ inadequate rainfall received in the area made it necessary for irrigation     to be   practiced

c )     – People who live in the area were originally nomads but now lead a settled life

– Farmers earn income after selling rice and other crops which enables them to improve their    standard of living

– Tenants have access to credit facilities which they use to improve crop production

– The establishment of the scheme has created employment opportunities for the people in the    area

– Roads linking the scheme to the market centers have been improved

1. d) – Stagnant water encourages breeding of snails and mosquitoes which spread bilharzias

and   malaria respectively

– Silting of canals/ weeds in the canals reduce the flow of water into fields. The farmers spend   extra time and money dredging the canals

– Delayed/ low payment discourage farmers

– Diseases and pests e.g. giulea birds attack the crop which lead to low yield of rice

– Expensive farm inputs such as fertilizer reduce the framers profit margin

– Roads are rendered impassable during rainy seasons hence delaying delivery of rice and other crops to the market

1. a i) -Land reclamation is the process through which unproductive land is made useful

for agriculture or settlement where as land rehabilitation is the process of restoring

land to its  former productive state.

1. ii) – Afforestation.

– Reafforestation.

– Bush fallowing.

– Use of grass strip and cover crops.

– Mulching.

-Constructing bunds (making ridges of soil across a slope)

– Manuring.

– Constructing of cut-off drains (digging open trenches across slopes.)

– Controlling grazing (division of land into paddocks, allowing different sections found to

regain pasture.

– Construction of drainage trenches (digging trenches to drain off excess water)

b i) – Is land in Netherlands that has been reclaimed from the sea and enclosed hot dykes.

1. ii) – Rye – Oat                – Wheat                       – Barley           – Potatoes

–  Sugarcane         – Flowers         – Tomatoes                  – Fodder crops

(c)  – Protective dykes /sea walls are constructed enclosing the part of the sea to be reclaimed.

– Ring canals are constructed on the interior sides of the dykes.

– Pumping stations are installed to pump out sea water from the area enclosed by the dykes.

– Reeds are planted to help dry out the soil and prevent weeds from growing.

– Drainage ditches and more pumping stations are made on the land being  reclaimed.

– Drainage pipes are laid below the soil.

– The area is divided into portions using inner dykes and  ring   canals.

– The soils are treated with chemicals to lower salinity.

– The drained land is flushed with fresh water.

– Pumping out water from the polder is a continuous process to prevent water from

accumulating  in the reclaimed land.

d i) – The presence of River Perkerra which is a tributary of Suguta river in Kerio Valley

provide water for irrigation.

– Gently sloping land which permits the flow of water by gravity hence reducing costs of

pumping water to the fields.

– Presences of clay soils rich in mineral nutrients enables variety of crops to be grown.

– Presence of extensive land which makes large scale cultivation of crops possible.

– The area is semi-arid hence the need for irrigation farming.

ii)-  Farmers earn incomes which improve their standards of living.

– Irrigation schemes have created settlement for landless people.

– Many people have been employed in the farms and other sectors within the irrigation schemes

such as transport and processing factories.

– It has facilitated reclamation of unproductive land, thus increasing land for farming. This

has led to increase in food production.

– Some crops grown through irrigation are exported, thus earning foreign exchange. The

rice grown in irrigation schemes meets most of the domestic requirements thus saving

foreign   exchange that would have been used to import it.

– It has facilitated development of infrastructure in the irrigated areas. Roads have been

built to  help in the transportation of inputs and commodities.

– Social amenities such as schools and hospitals have been  constructed thus improving

the   level of literacy and health of  the people in the irrigation schemes.

– Industries that use raw materials produced on the irrigation schemes have been developed.

– Rice mills have been established on the rice irrigation schemes.

– Some market centres in the irrigation schemes have grown in size due to increased

trading  activities e.g. Wanguru in Mwea irrigation and Margat near Perkerra irrigation scheme.

1. (a) i) Land reclamation is the practice by which less useful land is converted into more

useful land  While Land rehabilitation is the process of recovery/restoration of land

which has been misused  and destroyed through human activities

1. ii) – Bush clearing

– Sterilization of the male fly

– Use of traps

– Spraying /use of insecticide

-Creation of buffer zones

– Killing or transfer of hosts

1. b) (i) – Yala

– Bunyala

– Kalusi (maragua-Euelyptus)

1. ii) – The need to control seasonal floods from river Perkerra

– The presence of river Perkerra as a source of water for  irrigation

– Availability of fertile loaming soils

– The area is gently sloping

– The dry condition of the area necessitated the  use of irrigation

– The need to occupy the large population of ex-detained in  a productive way

1. c) – The stagnant water in the plot and lands encourages the breeding of snails and

mosquitoes which spread Bilharzias and  malaria. this weakens the farmer causing

low labour input hence  low production

– Mismanagement of the irrigation  projects leading to the collapse of several schemes

– Pest and diseases are attack the crops leading to low production(mention of pest here is

important i.e. quelea bird)

– Poor payment for farm produce which discourages the farmers

– Poor extension services to provide for the badly needed technical advice to farmers

– Shortage of water during dry season reduced the land under  cultivation and hence

reduced    earnings

– Frequent silting of canals which  is expensive to dredge reduces  the  amount of water

required  for irrigation

– Inadequate labour which is largely required in  the schemes hence burdening the farmer to

hire   for planting, weeding and harvesting which reduce the profits obtained.

. d) – Floods caused by the tiles has been completely checked by construction  of dams and dykes

– The dams  and dykes have  completely  cut off movement  of salty sea water inland

– There is  plenty of fresh water for domestic and industrial use

– The distance from Missigen to Rotter  dam was shortened by 50KM opening up the area

for industrialization

– More recreational opportunities were created by the newly formed lakes becoming a tourist

attraction

1. a) –  Irrigation

– Control of pests  and diseases

– Afforestration/reforestration

– Control of floods

– Control  of soil erosion /construction of gabions

1. b) – Protective dykes/sea wells are  constructed  enclosing the  part of  the sea to be reclaimed

– Ring canals are  constructed

– Pumping  stations are  installed to pump out sea water from  the area  enclosed

– Reeds are  sown to both   absorb excess salts

– Soil is  treated with chemical to lower salinity

– The  drained  land is flashed with  fresh  water to remove salt  from soil

1. a) –  Swamps

– Dry lands

– Eroded lands

– Pest and disease infested

1. b) – Regular and reliable

– Silt increases fertility

– All year farming

– Reduces year farming

– Reduces salitility of soil

– Dams control floods/ are used for fishing

1. FISHING

1. a i) P – Norway Q- Japan
2. ii) – The areas have cool waters which have abundant planktons-main food for fish

– The areas have shallow continental shelves which allow light to penetrate for planktons

to grow

– Convergence of warm and cool current results in upwelling of ocean waters bringing mineral for fish and plankton form sea bed to the surface

– Cool waters encourages thriving of numerous fish species

– Most of the coasts are indented providing secure bedding grounds for fish

– The sheltered bays provide suitable sites for building fishing ports

– The large population in these areas provides ready market

– The rugged landscape limits agriculture thus people turn to alternative economic activity

– Cool climate provides natural preservation for fish

1. a) i) R – Trawling

– The basket channel shaped to allow easy entry for fish

– At the mouth, there is a non-return valve which restricts the outward. The basket is

held in the position with ropes/stones/ sticks downstream

– The basket is left in that attracted position for sometime then removed for landing of fish

(ii) Trawling

– A bag – shaped net is attached to the ship trawler

– The nets mouth is kept open by other boards

– The upper art if kept a float by corks floats

– Weights are used to keep the lower parts of the net at the sea bed

– The trawler drags along the net

– After sufficient fish is caught the net is hauled to the trawler

1. c) – Fishing is restricted to specific reasons to allow for breeding and maturing of fish

– Standardizing size of nets to ensure fingerlings are not cangut

– Licenses are issued to prospective fishermen to control their number and to ensure there eis no over-fishing

– Fish farming is being encouraged to ensure sufficient supply of fish.

– There is restriction of the disposal of untreated waste into the sea

– Artificial fertilization is carried out in special hatcheries to sustain the supply of fish/restocking of over fished waters

1. a) i) It is the rearing of fish in ponds
2. ii) – The government through the fisheries department has set up fish ponds and

hatcheries as  demonstration farms

• Establishment of research institutions to investigate aspects of fish farming(breeding) diseases
• Expansion of markets through intensified campaigns aimed at encouraging more people to eat fish
• Extension officers have been sent to the field to advise on fish farming techniques
• The government has encouraged the establishment of co-operatives which give credit facilities to fish farmers
• Establishment of national food policy which encourages diversification of food aid as source of protein leading to setting up of fish farms
1. b)   – Inadequate storage and preservation facilities which cause heavy losses on the

• Occurrence of strong sea waves causing accidental drowning/destruction of fish vessels
• Poor fishing equipment which confine the fishermen to a few metres of continental shelf leading to low catch
• Sparse population in the north coast and alternative economic activities in the south coast that lead to small market for fish
• High prices of fish which discourage many people from eating it regularly
• Local fishermen face stiff competition from foreign fishermen mainly from Korea and Japan who have adequate and advanced facilities for deep sea fishing
• Warm Mozambique currents and deep continental shelf which discourage the flourishing of fish
• Regular coastline /few sheltered bays hence few sites for fish landing and breeding grounds

c i)  – North-West Atlantic

• North-East Atlantic
• North – East pacific
• North –West Pacific
1. ii) – Presence of extensive and shallow continental shelf which allow light to penetrate to the sea  bed encouraging the growth of planktons used as fish food
• Upwelling of ocean waters caused by convergence of warm Kuroshio and cold Oyashio currents bring minerals for planktons from the sea bed hence attracting fish
• Japan has indented coastline/several bays which provide secure breeding grounds for fish
• Sheltered bays provide suitable site for building ports/landing sites e.g. Hakkadate
• Rugged landscape/mountains with infertile soil in some areas which does not favour agriculture hence make people resort to fishing
• The area has cool waters which encourage thriving of fish
1. a) – A vein is a small crack containing minerals deposited in crystalline form while

a code is a  large crack containing minerals in crystalline form Ö

1. b) – Waste of agricultural land Ö
• Waste of industrial land Ö
• Ugliness where the land has lost its beauty Ö
• Health and accident hazards Ö

1. a i) ) – Trawling.                         – Line fishing         – Use  of barriers

– Use of herbs             – skinning                           – Harpooning

– Use of baskets       – Use of gills nets                 – Use of hand lanes

1. ii) – Cod                   – halibut                      – haddock

– flounder              – hake                          – herring

– mackerel

(b)  i)     – Sheltered inlets  and estuaries form ideal sites for fishing villages and ports.

– They also offer ideal site for fish breeding because of calm water and availability of the  planktons.

(ii) – When warm currents meet cold currents the temperature of water is regulated.

– This condition is ideal for the survival of fish.

– Convergence of these currents improve circulation of oxygen and dispersal of nutrients for the fish

(c)       (i) Provision of the necessary infrastructure such as transport routes to enable

exploitation of fishing grounds located in remote areas.

• This will reduce over exploitation on a few accessible fishing grounds like L. Victoria.
• Fishing Farming
• The development of fish farms complements the fish being caught from natural waters
• Restocking of over fished grounds.
• Over fished waters are restocked using finger lings from hatcheries or obtaining them from the overpopulated fishing grounds.
• International agreements on territorial waters.
1. Countries have full sovereignty over territorial water extending for 19 km from the coast.

A further 19 km zone in which the coastal state can take action against those  who

break  the  law.

1. i) – Smoking.                        – Sun drying.

– Salting                   – Use of refrigerator.

(ii) – The fishermen are required to have a licence from the government

This prohibits illegal fishing, over fishing and indiscriminate fishing.

Most of the fishermen use traditional methods of fishing which greatly reduces their catch.

They lack adequate funds to enable them purchase modern fishing gear and refrigeration equipment.

–Introduction of new species.

• The introduction of new fish species in the lake has affected the breeding of indigenous fish.
• For example Nile Perch was introduced in the lake in 1960s, it now accounts for more than 80% of the fish harvests, after having caused the disappearance of more than 200 endemic fish species and yet it’s not a popular species.

– Presence of weeds.

• Fishing in lake Victoria is greatly hampered by the grown of water hyacinth along the shores of the lake.
• The weed chokes the fishing boats, hence the infested areas are avoided by fishermen, yet they contain a lot of fish.

-Accidents

• Accidents affecting fishermen are common on L. Victoria.
• Have canoes and boats capsize in the lake due to the strong winds and storms prevailing in the areas.
• The fishermen loose their fishing gear and equipment, as some of them drone.

– Regional Conflicts.

• There has been boundary conflict between Kenya and Uganda over Migingo Island on L. Victoria.
• This has caused the fishermen to have fear since most of them are molested or attacked by Uganda Security groups.
1. – The continental shelf is narrow

– Poor transport connection to the fisheries

– Local fishermen do not have adequate capital

– The coastline is fairly straight

– the water is too warm for fish breeding/lack of upwelling of water

– There is low demand  for fish

– Fishermen lack modern equipment preservation facilities/storage facilities

– Competition from developed countries

1. a i) –  Seine nets

– Trawler nets

– Gill nets

– Drift nets

1. ii) – West N. America

– N.E Asia

1. b) – Over fishing – reduced stocks
• Pollution – killing fishing
• Poor transport network – delay reaching market/ go bad
• Poor market/ fish imports – reduced earnings
• Inadequate capital – poor equipment/ preservation/ marketing
• Fish diseases – death of fish
• Weeds – difficulty to fish
• Boundary conflicts – fighting/ destruction of equipment
1. c) – Source of income/ employment – reduce unemployment/ improve living

standards

• Tourist attraction/ sports/ marine park – forex for developing
• Rich in nutrients – health
• Development of industry
• Health/ feed on mosquito- reduce malaria
• Feeder roads – improve transport
• Forex – country development
1. d) – Sagana

– Kabaru

– Kibos

– Homa bay

– Aruba

–  Haller park/ nature trail

1. a i) -Pelagic

-Dermersal

ii)- Presence of numerous foods that form inlets which provide good breeding grounds for fish

– The ruggedness of the immediate land discourage agriculture and livestock farming thus   making fishing a good alternative

– The prevailing warm Atlantic drift makes the area ice – free throughout the year thus fishing    is carried out

– The grounds have large continental shelf which are abundant in plankton

– The dense population in western Europe provides a ready market for fish

– The low temperature conditions in high latitudes encourages flourishing of fish

– The highly developed technology in the region has contributed to the development of fishing

iii) –  Formulation of law against indiscriminate fishing

– Restocking the over fished areas

– Licensing fishermen and use of standardized nets  of permitted mesh sizes

– Prohibiting disposal of effluents into fisheries

– Introduction of new species in the existing fisheries

– Research of fish species their habit and migratory trends

– Personal should be trained on how to manage fisheries

10        a)    – Drifting method.

– Seining method.

– Lining method.

1. b) – It is washed by cold ocean current which influence temperature of water favouring

the  survival of fish.

– It has plenty of planktons than the Eastern coasts.

– It has sheltered inlets/harbours which favour the thriving of fish and construction of fish

harbours.

1. a) – Seining

– Trawling.

– Line fishing.

1. b) – Privacy/sea robbery making fishermen  to lose fishing equipment and their catch.

– Water weeds such as hyacinth impede movement of vessels.

– Storms sometimes cause accidents in the lake.

– Territorial disputes with other countries such as Uganda.

1. a) – fishing is restricted  to specific seasons to  allow  breeding licenses  are  issued  to

prospective   fishermen to control their number                                                                                             the size  of nets introduced  in fishing are standardized to ensure  young  fish  are not caught

– fish  farming  is encouraged to ensure  adequate supply

– there is  restriction/control on   water pollution

1. b) – large  market  both  local  and  foreign

– modern fishing  equipment is  being used  in fishing

– it has a  large continental shelves/indirected coastal land

– low   temperature  which  discourages agriculture  hence  venturing into the sea as

source of  income

1. a)      – Seining

– Long lining

1. b) – The Coastline is fairly straight/regular/has few indentation

– The Continental shelf is narrow

– The water is too warm for the breeding of fish

– Local fishermen face competition from developed fishing countries e.g. Japan

– There is low demand for fish in the local market

– Poor transport connections to fisheries resources

1. a) Pelagic fish are the fish that mainly live near the surface or at the shallow depths or

lakes and seas, while demersal fish are those which live at or close to the bottom of

water bodies

1. b) – Over fishing – Some fish species in the fresh water lakes have been over- harvested to the extent that natural replacement has been limited
• Pollution – Some industries release their wastes directly into rivers, lakes and oceans. The wastes are hazardous and make the water bodies inhabitable for fish
• Inadequate capital – Most fishermen use traditional methods which reduces their catch
• Inadequate transport – Due to the poor maintained roads the fishermen don’t reach the market on time
• Introduction of new species – This introduction has affected the breeding of the indigenous fish
• Presence of weeds – Weeds like hyacinth traps the fishing boats hence the areas are avoided

1. WILDLIFE AND TOURISM
2. i)  P – Sibiloi

Q –  Serengeti

R  – Murchison falls

 . a) National park Game reserve Its fenced off Managed by the central government There’s  no fence ground it Managed by  the local authority of the area they are located
1. b) – Establishment of game parks

– Outlawing illegal hunting  and trade in game trophies

– Setting  up of wildlife protection agencies

– Public education campaigns

– Protecting the endangered species

– Animal translocation programmes

– Encouraging the  formation of wildlife  clubs and societies in institutions

1. a) Game reserves are areas where wildlife  is protected  but  some limited human activity

may be allowed while  game  park are gazetted regions  where settlements   hunting  and

cutting of   plants  is no allowed  whatsoever

1. b) – poaching  by  illegal hunters has reduce the population  of animals

– pollution caused  by industrial  and  domestic refuse has greatly affected marine life

– soil erosion due to improper  farming  methods has led to  degradation of  wildlife  habitat

1. a) Balance  of payment is the difference between visible exports and imports and also

invisible   exports and inputs in the value of trade taking place between two countries.

1. b) – They are perishable.
• Some are bulky making transportation difficult.
• Are of low value
• They are exhaustible/supply may fluctuate negatively depending on season.
• Inadequate capital/ for expansion since a large capital outlay is needed.
1. a) – Remoteness caused by poor means of transport
• Insecurity in the areas
• Human wildlife conflict where man kills wildlife
• Hostile climate e.g. drought which leads to death of wildlife
• Settlement in the people in places meant for game parks and reserves

. b)    –  Negative attitudes towards local tourism limits the number of people who engage in tourism

• Familiarity with the tourist attractions among the local people makes them fail to appreciate their beauty and value
• Insecurity from poachers in national parks and game reserves scare people away from visiting them
• The high cost of accommodation in the game lodges discourages local tourism
• The roads leading to tourist sites are poorly maintained, discouraging people from visiting

such sites

1. a) – Poaching which has led to decline in the number of some animal species.
• Encroachment into conserved land by human settlement.
• Drought in the National Parks and game Reserves which sometimes cause death of wild animals
• Overgrazing in the National parks and game reserves cause soil erosion.
• Over-exploitation of water resources e.g. fish, seaweeds which pose danger of extinction
• Migratory behaviour of wild animals which makes it difficult to eradicate /control occurrence of pest and diseases.
1. b) – Political neutrality which removes any travel restrictions to the country
• Fluency in many languages that enable easy communication accessible
• Hospitality of the Swiss that encourage tourists.
• Trained personnel who provide excellent services.
• Effective systems which make it easy for transaction to be made

1. ENERGY
2. a) – Saudi Arabia Ö
• IraqÖ
• IronÖ
• KuwaitÖ
• United Arab Emirates/ Abu Dhabi/ Bahrain/ Bahrain IslandÖ
• Qatar Ö
1. b) – Earning foreign exchangeÖ
• Improvement of hospitals and schoolsÖ
• Development of manufacturing industries e.g. petrol chemicalsÖ
• Creates employmentÖ
• Development of towns and citiesÖ
• Incomes/ profits have made the countries have high per capita incomeÖ
• Revenues and royalties earned from oil have enabled those countries to invest abroad thus increasing their wealth Ö
1. a) – A multi purpose project is a project that serves more than one purpose e.g. HEP,

irrigation, fishing Ö

1. b) – Seven forks projectÖ
• Kariba projectÖ
• Aswam high dam projectÖ
• Akosombo dam projectÖ
• Cobra Basa projectÖ
1. a i) The sun, wind, water, wood, waves and tides, geothermal steam, biomas and animal
2. ii) – It is always available as long as it is blowing
• It is cheap source as we do not pay for it
• It is clean source which does not pollute environment
• It can be produced on small scale for local consumers
• The land occupied by windmills can also be simultaneously used for cultivation of crops
1. b) i) Geothermal power is lelectricity which is generated form the earth’s internal heat

that reaches  the surface though geysers and hot springs

1. ii) – It is relatively cheap to produce

– Generation of electricity if continuous because steam is continuously being produced

naturally

– The sot of operating of geothermal plant is relatively low

– Geothermal steam is renewable source

– It is a clean source of energy which does not pollute he environment

– it helps reduce over-dependence on exhaustible sources such as fossil fuels

.c) – Government bureaucracy and political interference

– Lack of skilled labour

1. d) – People are being encouraged to use energy-saving devices such as the energy-saving

Stoves

– the government is encouraging the use of alternative sources of energy such as wind, the sun   and biomass.

– there is development of wood fuel programe through a forestation ad reforestation involving     planting of quick-growing trees.

– The government uses consumer prices to discourage unnecessary uses of oil as fuel

– People are being encouraged to switch off electrify gadgets when they are not being used

– People are also encouraged to have proper maintenance of motor vehicles to reduce the    amount of fuel consumed

1. a i) – Refers to the chain of negative reactions emanative from a cute shortage of

essential energy

1. ii) – Over reliance on one source of energy (oil)
• High increase in oil prices by oil producing countries
• Hoarding of oil to create artificial shortage leading to skyrocketing of prices
• Depletion of fossil fuels
• War which hinder mining and supply of oil to the world market

b i) – Coal

– Uranium

– Petroleum

1. ii) – Turkwel power project

– Sondu Miriri project

iii)    – Steep gradient that allowed fast flow of water (water falls) to turn tubing to produce

Electricity

• Permanent source of water from RTana which provided plenty and regular supply of water to turn turbines and provide electricity throughout the year
• Sparse population in the region which reduced the cost of resettlement
• Impermeable soils in the region which reduce water loss from the reservoir through see page
• Presence of hard basement rock which provided firm foundation for construction of

dams

1. a) –  Inexhaustible
• Versatile- many uses
• Reduces dependence on oil
• Cheap/ free access everywhere
• Minimum maintenance cost
• Environment friendly
• Can be stored

. b)                   P- Masinga

Q – Kamburu

R – R. Kindaruma

. c)    – Industrial growth – creation of employment/ goods

– Transport – employment/ enables trade

– Agriculture e.g. tractors e.t.c. – food production

– Water supply – industrial use

– Health e.g. X- rays – healthy work force

. d i)           – Reduced industrial production – shortages/ lose of employment

– Increased prices/ fares – limits purchase/ travel

– Domestic problems e.g. darkness/ cooking e.t.c. reduced standards of living

. ii) – Put off gadgets not in use

– Keep gadgets in good working condition

– Use of public transport

– Increase capacity of public vehicles

– Better roads – avoid traffic jams e.t.c.

– Use fewer lighting bulbs

– Minimise outdoor advertising i.e. bill boards

– Energy saving jikos/ stoves

– Use low capacity cars

6 .        a) – Renewable sources of energy are those sources that are continually being replaced

or  regenerated.

–  They are considered inexhaustible

b i)  – Presence of steep gradient of where there is a waterfall through out the year to

make the  operations economical

• Hard basement rock to provide a firm foundation for the construction of a dam and accommodate weight of the reservoir
• Presence of a deep valley-where there is a deep valley or river gorge, it provides space for the reservoir therefore saves on the costs of constructing a dam.
• Presence of non-porous rocks to prevent seepage of water from the reservoir
1. ii) – Adequate capital to develop more plants in Olkaria and other potential areas
• Low level of technology in exploitation of geothermal
• Economical imbalance between the cost of setting up a station and the subsequent power outlay hence need for more stations.
• Potential areas are scattered and located in remote sparsely populated areas which are not potential markets for electricity produced
• High transmission costs of the potential markets

c i) – It leads to an increase in prices of imports and other locally manufactured goods.

• Third world countries spend huge sums of money on importation of crude oil
• Affects balance of trade since earnings from exports will be lower than imports.
• Results into inflation since the government passes the costs to consumers
• Oil crisis lowers GDP of third world countries since there will be more expenditure than investments
• It causes recession making an economy unable to create more jobs
• Causes a rise in living standards of people
• Increase production costs in other industries

c .ii)  –   Reducing the consumption rate of energy by encouraging people to put off

electricity when   not in use

• Rationing of power by the distributing company
• Encouraging the use of public vehicles, proper maintenance of vehicles to cut down on the amount of petroleum used/consumed
• Encouraging the use of alternative sources of energy like biogas and solar energy that can be renewed hence saving on non-renewable energy sources.
• Ensuring the development of energy saving devices e.g. jikos which use wood/charcoal
• Development of industrial machines which can use coal that is cheaper as an alternative form of energy
• Reduction of taxes on gas and solar panels to cut down on the use of wood fuel
1. (a) – Leads to increase in prices of imports which  result in material shortage lowering of

the gross  domestic products (GDP) and creates a recession hence economy cannot

be able to create   more jobs

– Leads to inflation   i.e. the rise of  prices of various  commodities leading to reduced

consumption of goods and services hence drop in profits

– Increase in price of other forms of energy due to higher transport and production cost

– Decline in  agricultural production due to decrease in  and under maize and wheat and

reduced tourist activities due to the hike in oil prices that result in higher transport costs.

air fares rise  steeping making it expensive for tourists  to travel

– Depletion of foreign exchange reserves due to the increase in the oil import bill, the

country  spends a lot of its revenue on purchase of unrefined oil

– Environmental degradation  due to search for alternative  sources of energy hence

demand for harcoal and wood fuel causing deforestation and soil erosion

1. b) – To conserve energy means the efficient utilization of energy to avoid wastage

– Encouraging he use of solar for heating and lighting

– Encouraging Kenyans to put off electricity gadgets when they are not being used

– Proper maintenance of motor vehicles

– Encouraging the use of public transport instead of personal cars

– Encourage the use of energy saving jikos /stores to reduce wood fuel used

1. a) Is usually portrayed as a question of price and supply uncertainties and the rapid

depletion  of fossil fuels

1. b) – Destruction of forest as alternatives source of energy

– Promote erosion due to deforestation

– Destabilize ecological balance

– Facilitate desertification due to deforestation

1. a) – Oils.

– Natural gas.

– Coal.

1. b) – Kenya would save foreign exchange it used to spend on oil inputs and channel the

funds to  projects.

– More industries would be established because industrial fuel would be

cheaper/increase in investments. .

– More job opportunities would be created in the oil sector and other related industries

thereby  improving standards of living of Kenyans. .

– Transport costs would reduce leading to cheaper commodities in the market. .

– Kenya would earn more foreign exchange through oil exports and these earnings used

to develop other sectors of the economy. .

– Infrastructure of social amenities improved leading to better standards of living.

1. c) – The government is encouraging the use of alternative sources of energy such as ,

Geothermal  biomass, wind & sun.

– The government is developing modified programmes through afforestation,

reafforestation &   planting of fast-growing trees.

– Controlling importation of vehicles with high engine capacity.

– People are encouraged to use energy saving jikos.

– A lot of emphasize is being put on protecting the existing forest by resettling people

]who have   settled on forest land.

– Encouraging the use of public transport by improving it so as to reduce the number of

1. i) – Conducting reconnaissance

– Preparing relevant tools & equipment.

– Preparing working schedule.

– Forming groups.

– Content analysis/doing more research.

1. ii) – Direct observation.

– Interviewing.

– Photographing/filming.

iii) – Lighting.

– Heating.

– Powering machines.

1. a i) – Coal

– Natural gas

– Uranium

– Petroleum  products/oil

1. ii) – a  large  and constant volume of water harvested  from large  river with large volume of

water through out  the year

– a deep narrow valley/gorge to minimize the construction  cost.

– Sparse population  in order to minimize relocation/resettlement cost

– A fall  water /water fall-water falling  from a high  point  to supply  force required  to

rotate   the  tribunes

– A hard basement to reduce the amount of water that will seep into the ground and

provide     storing foundation  for the dam

– Adequate capital for   dam construction, transmission of power and compensation

displaced  people

b i) Energy  crisis is  the price  and supply uncertainties that are  usually accompanied

by the rapid  depletion  of fossil fuels

1. ii) –  overdependence on  oil  and its  products

– depletion  of wood  fuel

– exhaustion and deepening  of coal mines

– artificial shortages cause  when some  countries decide to conserve their  resources

– wastage and misuse of energy

– wars/disagreements within oil producing  countries

iii)  – every crisis has led to petroleum price adjustment causing a general inflation

and  the prices  of various commodities.

– Some industries in the  economy are affected   to a points where  they lay  off  some of

their  staff

– The price increase usually  leads  reduced  consumption of goods and services leading

to a drop in profits

1. a) – Petroleum

– Gas

1. b) –  Fishing
• Irrigation
• Industrial/ domestic use
• Water ways
• Tourism
• Regulate river flow
• Water storage
1. c) – There could have been bumper harvest of maize locally.
• There might have been sufficient food for all.
• The country may not have experienced famine to necessitate emergency importation.

d i)   –   Rift Valley

• Western
• Central

d ii)  –   Maize stalk  is used as cattle feeds.

• Cobs /stalk is used as fuel.
• Grain is used as human food.
• Industrial material – oil.

1. a) E – Owen falls Dam in Uganda

F – Akosombo Dam in Ghana

G – Kariba dam in Zambia/ Zimbabwe

1. b) Renewable sources of energy are those that have the capacity to be regenerated/ reused

e.g.  sun, wind, water while non-renewable sources of energy are those that can be

exhausted if  not well managed such as coal, petroleum and natural gas

1. c) – Availability of large volume of water from the River Nile
• Presence of a natural water fall, the Owen falls; to turn the turbines
• Presence of a hard basement rock to support the weight of the reservoir
• Availability of a ready market for the power from the surrounding high population
1. d) – High seasonal fluctuations in the flows of the river regime especially in times of drought
• Inadequate capital since H.E.P require high capital outlay which many African countries lack and they rely heavily on foreign aid
• Poor maintenance of machinery at power production stations caused by inadequate capital to buy spare parts for the machines
• Siltation of reservoirs caused by poor farming methods upstream and lack of machinery to remove the silt from the reservoirs
• Small markets for HEP hinder production due to high poverty level of the population found in the counties
• The bigrivers such as Niger, Nile, Volta, Zambezi and Orange have their waters reduced by
• evaporation because they pass across dry regions
1. INDUSTRY
2. – Created variation in prices of petroleum products
• Led to mushrooming of many petroleum products dealers
• Encouraged importation of refined petroleum products
• Caused frequent price adjustments by oil dealers
• Created widespread / availability of petroleum products

1. a) Industrial inertia is the tendency of an industry to maintain its location and activities

after   factors of its initial location have ceased

1. b) – Presence of an already established transport system

– Availability of skilled labour

– Utilization of out-puts of other plants as raw material

1. c) – it would  encourage setting  up of  industries in the  areas thus stimulation

decentralization  of induction

– it  would  reduce the cutting  down  of trees and  electricity  would be available  for

domestic    use.

– It would attract/improve social amenities in rural area reducing the need for people to

move    to urban areas

– Most people would invest in the rural area which would led to higher standards of living

– It would encourage development of horticultural farming  to  have ideal  storage f

perishable    products

1. a) -it is the inability of an industry to move from an area  through original  location factors

here  changed/exhausted/are  no longer existing

1. b) – it has resulted in pollution leading to environmental deterioration

– it has led to rural-urban migration depriving the  source  area able bodies  people

– it  has led to un even economic development

– other economic activities e.g. agriculture  production have  been  underrated in  favour of

industrial  activities

– due  to technological   advancement  some people have been  rendered jobless

1. a) An industry is an enterprise or a commercial profit making undertaking while a factory

refers to the structures or buildings which may house an industry

1. b) – Transport

– Communication

– Banking

– Insurance

1. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
2. a i) – Demand

– Availability of infrastructure

– Topography/ terrain

– Capital availability

– Political factor

– Historical factors

– Climate

1. ii) – Difficult terrain – This makes it difficult to develop transport and communication

i.e the great  rift valley, the rugged scarps inselberg and numerous rocks out crops

– Harsh environments – e.g. Sahara desert and many isolated others

– The harsh desert climate associated with low population. Suvch makes it

uneconomical to   construct the transport and communication facilities

– Non – navigable rivers

This is due to

1. Fluctuating water levels
2. Presence of rock outcrops
3. Rugged terrain i.e. many rivers have rapids waterfalls

(b)   i) A – L. Michigan

B – L. Huron

C – L. Erie

1. ii) – To provide cheap water transport for bulky commodities like coal and iron ore to

industrial   centres around the great lakes

• To shorten the route to external markets especially for wheat from Canadian prairies and manufactured goods from the Great lakes
• To expand manufacturing industries along the entire route, provide employment and develop towns
• Increase agricultural production and tourism
• Open up this part of America for international trade
• To easy strain on American railways
• To increase HEP production along parts of the Seaway e.g. at Niagra waterfall and at dams constructed along the route

iii) – The long sault and Lachine rapids between Ontario and Montreal hindered

navigation. aterfalls e.g. Niagra was preserved for HEPand tourist attraction. This

was solved by           construction of alternative route i.e. Welland canala                                      – Shallow ports e.g. Montreal that could not handle large ships – they were dredged and

deepened

– Problems of trans- shipment along the seaway causing delay. Seaway has been

widened to accommodate large ships and these can now sail through the water

way without stopping

1. c) – Reduces deterioration of Nairobi – Mombassa highway due to reduction of tankers

-Has reduced cases of accidents especially on Nairobi – Mombasa highway

– Very fast and convenient means of transporting such highly risky products since the products  are firmly sealed in the pipe

– Less labour used after installations i.e. cuts down on labour costs

– It cuts down on occurrences of fuel spillage and pollution causes by derailment or

– Different kinds of petroleum products for various industrial and domestic uses can be

conveyed one pipeline

– Ensures constant supply of petroleum

1. d) – It has promoted international cooperation created by no distance

– has led to expansion of trade for aircraft goods especially those with perishable goods

to international market without delay

-Has provided many people with employment opportunities e.g. pilots, engineers e.t.c.

– has resulted in loss of life especially when passenger plane crashes people die in large

numbers

– It has resulted into environmental pollution through discharge of wastes and fuel into

the space

– Has led increased terrorism through plane jacking

1. a i) Transport is the movement of goods and people from one place to another
2. ii) Road, pipe land, railway

b i) N – 500 canal

Q – New York state Barge canal.

Lakes marked    O – Lake Michigan                             P – Lake Erie

Port marked        M – Duluth.

1. ii) – Accessibility to raw materials which has led to extensive industrial development in

the area.

• Cheap means of transport in import and exports has encouraged interval and international trade.
• Provision of H.E.P from the dams f or both domestic and individual use.
• Growth of port and towns like Duluth etc. have become points for various economic activities.
• The sea way is a tourist attraction which generate income in the region.
• Employment opportunities have been created in the transport industry thus raising the living standard of the local people.
• The lakes and the dams are a source of water for both domestic and industrial use.
• The two countries earn some revenue from toll charfes levied on ships that use the route
1. c) – Communication enhances trade
• Many people are employed in the communication sector.
• It promotes international and domestic tour ism.
• Governments disseminate information through the media.
• Communication promotes international understanding which lead to increased trade thus boosting economic development.
1. – African governments do not have adequate capital for modern transport

equipment/system.

• Stiff competition from well established air lines in the developed countries.
• High insurance cost of planes discourages investment in air transport.
• Mismanagement of African national air lines incur huge losses.
• Some regions in Africa are not served by direct flights and thus increases the cost of travelling to passengers.
• Small/low volume of passengers and cargo makes it expensive for some airlines to operate.
• Insecurity in some parts of Africa is also discouraging the use of air transport.
1. a) Communication is the exchange of information, ideas a, messages or opinions among

people.

1. b) –    Liberalization of airwaves/licensing of more private radio stations/TV stations.
• Introduction of the fiber optic cable to enhance communication via internet /e-mail fax (telefax)
• Licensing many companies to provide cell phone services.
• Liberalization of the press.
• Expansion of telephone facilities.
• Liberalization of postal services.
• High competition from faster and more efficient electronic mail.
• High cost of installation.
• Vandalism of telephone equipment.
• Mismanagement
• Poor reception /overlapping of telephone line.
1. c) – High competition from faster and more efficient electronic mail.
• High cost of installation.
• Vandalism of telephone equipment.
• Mismanagement
• Poor reception /overlapping of telephone line.
1. a) – Trade would grow and develop in Kenya

– There will be more diplomatic ties with rest of East African states.

– More Kenyans will get employment in other East African countries

– Kenya would earn more revenue paid y the users form East African states

1. b) –  Inadequate road signs make the drivers to cause accidents

– pot-holed roads surface cause vehicles to breakdown

– Traffic jams, especially in urban centres cause delays

– Narrow roads/bridges makes the drivers to strain and cause accidents

– Railway

1. a ii) – Fluctuations/ interruptions e.g. freezing

– Obstacles – usually unseen

–   Limited network

– Incase of accident loses are certain and enormous

– Relatively slow

– Expensive – ports/ habours/ facilities

– May be in uneconomical areas

–   Contribute to water pollution

1. b) – Influence of choice of location of economic activities – moving of raw materials/ finished

Products

– Expands markets size – possible to move goods and transfer information

– Employment creation – reduce unemployment/ improve living standards

– Information/ movement hence tourism hence forex

– Revenue through tax – development

– Dissemination of information brings about change

. c)       – Creation of trans Africa high ways to increase connectivity

– Creation of international railways to increase connectivity

– Regional economic integration to increase trade hence the need for networks

– Establishment of natural networks and transport/ communication companies to increase

local transport/ communication

d     i) – It is an artificial water way

1. ii) – Suez

– Panama

1. a i)

1. ii) – Easy to construct/draw

– Easy to compare

– Give clear  visual impression

– Depict data more  accurately

1. b) (6000-4800) = 1200x100

4800               4800

=25%

1. c) – African countries have railways of different gauges which make it difficult for them to join

– The counties were colonized by different European powers who constructed railways to

transport raw  materials from  the interior  to  the  ports within their own  colonies

– Political difference /different political ideology /political stability among Africans

countries hinder efforts to construct railway line to link them

– African counties produce similar goods hence there is limited trade between them and

this  oes not warrant  them  to  construct  rail way lines

– Railways are expensive to construct/inadequate capital and hence expensive to construct

– Parts of Africa are unproductive so it would be uneconomical to construct railway lines

– Variation in train has hindered the development of various lines

1. d) – narrow  roads where heavy traffic limit ease of movement  and overtaking

– the  pot-holes sections of the roads  may cause  tyre burst/vehicle breakdown /may

make  drivers who are avoiding  potholes crass vehicles

– The narrow bridges may cause vehicles to crash

– Sub-standard surface may cause vehicles to skid/overturn

– 3 – muddy roads during rainy seasons may cause vehicles to collide

1. . a i) –   News papers and magazines
• Telephone/mobile phones
• Internet
• Carrier service
1. ii) –  Provide a reliable continuous flow of the commodity being transported
• It is relatively cheap/inexpensive to operate
• It is a safe mode of transporting oil, gas and water
• Are free from accidents/accidents are minimal
• It does not pollute the environment unless there’s a leakage
1. bi) –     Airports are very expensive to build
• Buying and maintaining the aircraft is a very expensive venture
• In case of accidents there are usually few survivors and the losses are very high
• It is very expensive to travel by air
• The transport of bulky goods on planes tedious is and expensive
• The government requires a lot of lend to put up airports
• The cost of insuring plane is very high
• Running airlines requires skills and personnel
1. ii) – Creation of employment opportunities as they are industries. This leads to raising the

standard  of living of the people.

• Promotes international and domestic tourism hence earns foreign exchange to the counties concerned
• Expansion of new trade areas ad markets hence boosts industrial, commercial and agricultural activities hence development
• Leads to increased mobility of labour thus reducing cases of labour shortages in industries and other sectors
• It has promoted international understanding as people are able to interact and learn about each other
• It generates income for the government and the people of the country. The income earned boosts the economic development of the country
• Growth and development of different settlements is influenced by the availability of transport networks. As town develop other facilities expand  hence economic development

c i) – To regulate the difference water levels along the sea way through dredging

• To smoothen the river channels by removing the existing rock out crops, rapids and small
• To regulate the flow of st. Lawrence River through the construction of dams and locks
• To promote trade and industrialization in the two countries
• To remove the silt that was brought about by depositing between lakes Erre and Huron
1. ii) – Soo canals
• Welland canal
• Trent canal
• New York state barge canal
1. a i) (i) Lake marked P – L. Erie
2. ii) River marked Q – Deroit river.

iii) Canal marked R – Soo Canal

1. iv) Part marked S – Dulult.
2. b) – Provides easy means of transport for both imports and exports, thus encouraging

– It has led to growth of parts and towns along its course.

– Due to accessibility top raw materials, there has been industrial development in the area.

– The dams along the route provide hydro-electric power for industrial and domestic use.

– The sea way is a tourist attraction which generates income in the region.

– The sea way has created employment opportunities in the transport and industrial

sector   raising the standards of living of the people in the area.

–  Tariffs charged earns the country incomes.

1. c) – Most rivers in Africa pass through different climatic regions with alternating wet and dry

seasons. This makes the volume of water fluctuate from season to season making it

difficult   to use the rivers.

– Many rivers in Africa have rapids and water falls which hinder the movements of vessels.

– Some rivers in Africa have floating vegetation that makes if difficult for vessels to move

through them.

– Many rivers in Africa are either short, too shallow or too swift making navigation on

them   difficult.

– Rivers are affected by siltation at their mouths and along their courses. This reduces its

depth  required for the vessels to move.

– African countries have insufficient capital to use in the development of water ways,

– African countries have inadequate technology. This hinders the process of developing

river   transport.

– Some rivers in Africa flow across different countries. This calls for negotiation between

countries concerned. This hinders the development of river transport.

– Most of the rivers pass through unproductive areas making it uneconomical to develop

d i) – Liberalization of airwaves/licensing of more private radio stations (T.V. stations).

– Introduction of E- mail /internet/ Fax. e.t.c

– Introduction of mobile phones/cell phones/pagers.

– Expansion of telecommunication facilities to new areas.

– Liberalization of postal services.

1. ii) -Development of other faster and more efficient means of communication e.g. electronic

mail  has  led to reduces use of telephones.

– High costs of installation and maintenance of telephone lines limit the number of the

subscribers.

– Vandalism of the telephone equipment renders most of the telephone services

unavailable to  would be users.

– Mismanagement in the organization that provides telephone services has made it

difficult to   expand the services to many areas of the country.

– Poor reception/overlapping of the telephone lines limit the use of  the facility/description

by   natural hazards.

– Lack of modernization of telephone in some areas causes delay and discourages the

use of  telephones.

1. (a) Is the parking of goods in large standardized box – like structure which once filled

in a factory /exporter can be transported

1. b) – Saves space in ships as their dimension is more or less uniform.

– It speeds up the process of handling goods hence saves time.

– It is relatively cheap as it requires little labour.\reduce loss of goods as they are sealed

at the  exporter premises and delivered to the importer without the seal being broken.

– Reduces loss of goods through breakages and spoilage.

– Checking of goods is fairly easy.

10 .    ( a) (i)  – Facilitates faster business transactions due to fast means of transport hence

• Through M- Pesa and M- Kesho it has facilitated money transfer for business hence increasing trade transactions and investment
• It has created employment which improves the living standards of the people
• The company pays taxes which are used to improve other sectors of the economy
1. ii) – Facilitates theft cases/ aids stealing
• It is expensive to acquire the device and to maintain it
• Health associated risks e.g. hearing impairment and cancer
• Can easily be lost
• Lack of network coverage in some areas
• Noise pollution over ringing
1. b) – Most rivers are seasonal
• Many major rivers are unnavigable due to presence of water weeds, cataracts and water falls
• Meanders on some rivers make the distance longer than land routes
• Many rivers flow through empty or inhospitable lands with little economic value
• Siltation especially near the river mouth makes the channels shallow

c )   – Construction of super high ways where by each country is responsible for

construction of the stretch within her national boundaries to improve linkage

of countries

management   of transport network among member states ensures good transport

network in Africa

• Negotiations among leaders of various African nations to provide security to avoid high way robbery
3. b) –  Low earnings due export of agricultural products and raw materials which have low value   Heavy expenditure due to importation of manufactured goods which are expensive
• Unpredictable production since agriculture she relies on for export depends on climate which is unreliable
1. a) – Bilateral

– Multilateral

1. b) – Similar products

– Limited manufactured goods

– Prohibitive tariffs to protect local industries

1. ( a) –  Scarcity of goods
• High costs of getting trading permits/licences
• High cases of poverty among the people
• Insecurity
• Smuggling of essential goods
1. b) – They have helped crate cooperation among member states

– Member states have a longer market for their goods

– The expanded market ha promoted industrial development

– Goods have been made cheaper for people in the region through reduction of tariffs

– Employment opportunities have been created through industrial development

– Member states are able to invest in joint development projects like railway construction.

–  Trade in the regions has boosted agricultural development

– The common market has made people of the member state enjoy a variety of commodities

– There is reduced reliance on goods and services from other parts of the world

1. a) – To eliminate taxes on goods produced within the member countries.

– To enable the member states to increase use of their raw materials.

– To enable people in the region to interact and exchange ideas freely.

– To reduce unnecessary competition among member states.

– To promote transport & communication between the countries.

– To create a common market for the goods produced in the member countries.

– To establish a common bank COMESA bank to aid transaction.

1. b) – Improving infrastructures.

– Joining trading blocs such as COMESA, EAC.

– Creating Export Processing Zones. (EPZ) to promote the volume of exports.

1. a i) Visible exports are tangible goods sent o other countries for sale while invisible

export  are  transactions between countries which lead to monetary returns

1. ii) -Tourism

-Financial services

-Transport services

-Loans/ grants/ Aids

b i)                 – COMESA

–  Southern African Development Community (SADC)

1. ii) Berlin              Niger               Nigeria            Ghana

Burkina faso   Mauritania      Liberia

Mali                Guinea Senegal           Togo                Cape town

Cote de voire  Gambia           Guinea Bisau                          Cameroon

iii)- Encouraged the development of industries

-Phased out all customs and tariffs on goods originating within West Africa

-Improvement of tele- communication

-Exchange of technology

-Campaigned for the sale of petroleum from Nigeria to member states at reduced prices

1. a) Balance of payment is the difference between visible exports and imports and also i

nvisible    exports and inputs in the value of trade taking place between two countries.                         b)   – They are perishable.

• Some are bulky making transportation difficult.
• Are of low value
• They are exhaustible/supply may fluctuate negatively depending on season.
• Inadequate capital/ for expansion since a large capital outlay is needed.

1. a) Visible exports are tangible goods sent to other countries for sale while invisible

exports are transactions between countries which lead to monetary returns like

interest and   dividends   on the foreign investments                                                             b)    – Hinder growth of home infant industries due to stiff competition/ slows

industrialization

• Creates a state of dependency on developed countries/ slows exploitation of national resources
• Hinder diversification of the economy
• The country experiences unfavorable balance of trade/ retards economic development
• Whenever there is poor relationship with the trading partner the country experiences shortage of the import goods
• The country spends her foreign exchange reserve on imports/ faces devaluation of her local
• currency

1. POPULATION
2. a)

1. b) – Has a high life expectancy.
• Has a large working population.
• Has a low dependency ration.
• Has a low fertility rate.
• Has low death rate
1. c) – Inadequate manpower making labour expensive.
• Rural depopulation due to increased urbanization/leading to labour shortage.
• High old age dependency ratio due to high life expectancy.
• Under utilization of social amenities due to low birth rates.

d i) – mortality rate is the number of deaths in a population of 100 people per year.

d ii)  – Improving medical facilities and immunizing children to control disease.

• Educating parent on child care during pre natal period.
• Educating parents to have planned families.
• Encouraging parents the benefits of breast feeding and balanced diet.

1. a) –  Population census

– Sample surveys

1. b) – Improved nutrition and medical care which lowered mortality and increased

fertility hence  leading births and longevity

• Increase in early marriages which increased reproductive life span hence increase

in birth rate

• Low level of family planning due to low awareness leading to large families hence rapid population growth
• Many people were still entrenched in cultural beliefs which favour having large families for security investment hence rapid population growth
1. c) – High literacy level and awareness on need to have small families
• Most of the women go to school and spent more time in schools or colleges thus has reduced indulgence into sex or early marriages by most women
• High abortion rate which damages the reproductive system
• Misuse of family planning gadgets and drugs which damage the reproductive system
1. d) – Early vaccination against polio, measles e.t.c.
• Provision of free mosquito nets to expectant mothers
• Free health care to all infants in government hospitals
• Training of traditional aids to birth delivery on modern methods of birth delivery
• Expansion of health facilities to all rural areas to increase access to health care
• Employing nutritionists to educate mothers on better nutritional practices to evade child mortality

1. a) – Population distribution is the way people are spread out on the land whereas

population  density is the number of people unit area of land.

1. b) –     A high rate of unemployment.
• High crime rate as people seek ways of supporting themselves.
• High demand for social amentities.
• The dependency ratio decreases.
• High demand for food sometimes leading to food shortages.
• Strain on natural resources and scarcity of land.

1. a i) Life expectancy is the average age to which the people of a country expect to

live/the average age at which people die

1. ii) –  The composition by sex
• The size of population
• Proportion of dependency ratio
• Different age groups
• The proportional males to females

b i)  – Population growth rate is high in Kenya and low in Sweden

• Kenya’s population has a large number of young people below 20years of age while Sweden has a high medium age population
• Death rate is high in Kenya and low in Sweden
• The fertility rate is high in Kenya and low in Sweden
1. ii) – Natural hazards e.g. floods force people to migrate to other areas for safety
• Pastoralists migrate from one rural areas to another in search of water and food for their livestock
• Land disputes make people move and settle elsewhere
• Pressure on land makes people to move and buy land elsewhere for settlement
• Insecurity in some areas forces people to move
• Settlement schemes attract people to settle in them
1. c) – Causes high dependency for social basic needs
• Leads to high rates or unemployment
• Leads to land fragmentation and this decreases agricultural production
• Leads to high rates of crime

1. a) It is the fertility achieved after the abstinence that is continued, when the initial

fertility  was  broken.

b i)   –  Natural calamities

– Low nutritional standards/famine /lack of food

– Conflicts

– Other epidemics/diseases.

1. ii) – The sickness leads to absenteeism from work/reduced productivity.

– Money spent in treating the sick could be used for other economic activities.

– Deaths resulting from the disease lead to loss of economically productive

population.

– Care-takers at family level use moral time caring for the sick/orphans instead of

engaging in economic activities/high dependency ratio.

c )      – Production of similar goods

– Failure to remit annual subscriptions by members

– Different levels of industrialization

– Poverty among the population in the regions

– Poor transport and communication linkages

– Desire to [protect local industries by member countries

– Lack of common currency

1. a i) Is the number of unresourceful people between zero to fourteen years and above

sixty  five years per every 1000 resourceful people

1. ii) – High birth rate

– Low death rate

– Scarcity of employment opportunities

(b)   i) -Presence of large towns e.g. Kisumu

-High rainfall

-Fertile land

-High fertility rate

1. ii) – High employment rate

– Pressure on social amenities e.g. schools

– Rural- urban migration hence overcrowdings

– Too many dependants

– Pressure on land

– Food shortages

. c)- Acceptance of family planning methods

-Decrease in infant mortality

-Advanced living standards that ensure only a small family can be catered for

1. a) Is the enumeration of the people in a given area and the compilation of demographic,

social and economic information of the population being enumerated at a given time

1. b) – To determine the composition of the population

– To know the trends and levels of mortality and fertility

– To plan for provision of basic facilities

– To aid in creating new administrative units

– To estimate the dependency ratio

– To know the literacy level

– To know labour supply and predict any unemployment problems

1. a) – Emigration is the movement of people out of their country and settling in another

while Immigration is the movement of people from another country into a country.

1. b) – Higher dependency ration leading to low investment.

– Causes land fragmentation leading to food shortage.

– Shortage of water in urban centres.

– Leads to excessive tree felling for energy requirements and to pave way for settlement

and   agriculture.

– Congestion of social facilities such as schools and hospitals.

1. a) Population explosion is the abnormal increase in people in a region, thereby

overstretching  the available resources

1. b) – To determine the composition of the population
• To know the trends and levels of mortality and fertility
• To plan for provision of basic facilities
• To aid in making decisions regarding regarding the creation of new administrative
• To estimate dependency ratio
• To know the literacy level
• To know labour supply and predict any unemployment problems

. c)  – Introduction of the national family planning programme through creation of national and

development (NCPD)

• Introduction of adult education programme to check illiteracy and teach on importance of family planning
• Creation of public awareness through mass media i.e. radios, TVs
• Encouraging men and women to opt for voluntary sterilization and discouraging early marriages through legal action and education
• Organizing family life seminars and public baraza’s

1. SETTLEMENT
2. a) A – Central Business District

B – Transitional zone.

C –  Zone of industry  and working class.

1. b) – Has full buildings/sky scrappers.
• Population density very high at low  at night.
• Has high land value.
• Mainly have officers and shops.
• Is the jocal point of a town

1. a) – nucleated

– dispersed/ scattered

1. b) 1- Central Business District

2- Industrial Zone

3- Low class residential zone

1. MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

1           i)   Land pollution Is the contamination of the land through improper disposal of waste

1. ii) – Spraying of crops with chemicals contaminates the land by affecting soil

composition

– Careless dumping of domestic waste and industrial waste contaminates land

– Burning of vegetation during land

– Preparation leads to death of micro- organisms making the land unsuitable for plants to   survive

– Poor disposal of non- biodegradable material like plastic and polythene papers contaminates   the land

– Accumulation of domestic and industrial wastes on the road side blocks the drainage   system

– Mounds of wastes are a breeding ground for flies, mosquitoes and rodents which can

cause outbreak of diseases

– Injuries can result from broken bottles, rusted metals and iron

1. a) ii) – Its best economic use of land because Agriculture does not do well in those areas.

– Population is low and this reduces conflicts between man and animals.

– It requires extensive land that is only available in those areas.

– It reduces the conflict of resettling people.

1. b) – Polluted water cause death of aquatic animals.

– High concentration of organic and inorganic nutrients in water causes electrification

in   lakes.

– Water pollution causes diseases to animals

c i) – When a river contains excess waters which it cannot hold within its channel.

– When the level of the sea or lake rises due to increased rainfall.

– Exceptional heavy rainfall like El nino  results in excess water on land.

– When a dam built across a valley breaks, the water in the reservoir floods lower land

down stream.

– When massive earthquake occurs on the seabed – causes tsunami which causes

flooding in  coastal areas.

c ii) – Construction of dykes, dams and levees. These can be constructed across rivers to

control the  speed of water/amount of water flowing downstream.

– Reforestation on slopes and river banks reduces surface run off and erosion / increases

the  rate of water infiltration in the ground.

– Improving and diverting river channels.

– Shallow rivers can be dredged to increase their depth. /Rivers with meanders ca be

straightened to enable water flow swiftly./ Tributaries can be drenched to reduce the

volume  of water getting into the main river.

1. d) – To sustain human life.

– To protect endangered species.

– For sustainable utilization of resources.

– For aesthetic value.

– For future generations/posterity.

– To curb global warming.

1. a) – Hooting and roaring off engines by motor vehicles

– Reverting of machines in rolling mills and welding

– Banging of metal containers by Jua kali artisans

– High pitched music played in vehicles, dance and disco halls, homes and religious

gathering

– Aircrafts as they take off or land in airports

– Blasts from mines and celebrations e.g. Dawali

1. b) – Rise in blood pressure and tension of muscles/physical stress

– Affects the nervous system causing neurosis and irritation

– Damage of eardrums causing deafness

1. a) – Desertification

– Lightning

– Windstorms

– Pest and  diseases

– Pollution

1. (a) – Earth quakes

b i)  – Nyando

– Nzoia

– Yala

– Kuja/Gucha

1. ii) – the stagnant  water  becomes breeding  ground  for vectors that cause water related

diseases.

– Floods  cause  loss of property/lives

– Floods cause soil water logging which  lower crop production

– Floods wash away crops leading  to food shortages/famine

– Floods wash away bridges/roads/telephone lines/air field disrupting transport  and

communication

– People are dispatched  by  floods are made homeless

c)- the garbage  man result to foul smell/air pollution which  is  hazardous to human health

– when it rains  the dumped waste garbage  is washed to  rivers  causing  water pollution

– garbage can be a breeding  ground for rodents /flies/cockroaches which can cause

diseases   outbreak e.g. plague

– garbage  heaps are eye sore as they made the environment ugly

d i) –  burning waste materials

– digging pits  throwing rubbish

– minimizing  use of harmful  chemicals/use of organic  manure

– creating  public  awareness on the  dangers of land pollution  and how to control it

– recycling  of waste   materials

– government logislation against dumping

– setting up proper  garbage collections programmes

1. ii) – strong winds destroy trees

– wind  blow off  roofs  of houses

– winds cause strong see storms and lead to boats capsizing/communication  lines  are

destroyed/destruction of transport  lines

– winds cause soil erosion

1. a i) S – Mt. Kenya Nationa Park

T- Amboseli Naitonal Park

U – Tsavo National Park

1. ii) Malindi Marine park
2. bi) – Pie-historic sites e.g. Gedi ruins
• Sandy beaches
• Caves, cliffs/coral reefs (coastal landforms)
• Warm, sunny weather
• People’s culture
1. ii) – Ensures maximum use of less productive land e.g. arid and semi-arid regions
• Source of foreign exchange through payment of fees at entry points/gates to parks/reserves
• Creation of employment opportunities as guides in parks, lodges e.t.c.
• Protection and conservation of endangered species e.g. rhinos, elephants e.t.c. for future generation/prosperity
• Enhances research/promotes education in plants and animal species
• For aesthetic purpose/recreation
• Has stimulated the need to build roads and airstrips connecting parks with urban areas/opening up remote areas.
• Promoted diversification of the economy from over-relying on agriculture to tourism

iii)  – Illegal hunting/poaching of wildlife/game leads to extinction of some animal species

• Overstocking of wild animals leading to destruction of the natural environment/overgrazing
• Frequent drought leading to loss of animals through starvation and death
• Human wildlife conflict leading to destruction of crops and death of people, through high costs of compensation
• Inadequate capital limits governemnt conservation effort especially to construct game parks
• Pollution of the environment leading to loss of wildlife
• Fire outbreaks which destroy vegetations/animals
• Pests and diseases e.g feline immune deficiency virus that threatens lion population

1. (a) – To get in contact with the park management and seek permission for the visit

-To identify and engage the services of a tour guide

– To identify the methods to be used in data collection

–  To formulate the relevant objectives and hypotheses

-To assemble the appropriate equipment for the study

– To help in estimating the cost of the study

– To prepare an appropriate work schedule

– To determine the appropriate routes to be followed

– To identify possible problems that may be experienced and ways of avoiding them

(b) – Offering incentives like reduced tariff rates by hotels during the low season for local people

– Lowering the entrance fees for local people into national parks and game reserves

– Encouraging employers to offer incentive holidays to their employees

– Promote domestic tourism through the media

– Encourage young people to tour their country by establishing wildlife clubs in schools

1. a) –   Desertification.
• Lightning
• Wind storm
• Pests and diseases
• Pollution
1. b) – Deforestation
• Poor agricultural activities e.g overgrazing, monoculture, overcroping etc
• Increase in population.
• Bush fire
• Global warming
1. c) –    To ensure proper utilization of resources without damage.
• To sustain human life since it wholly dependent on the resources for survivial.
• To preserve the asthetic value such as landscape and vegetation of her environment.
• To protect the endangered species of plants and animals.
1. a) – Management of environment refer to the effective planning and control of the

processes that   could harm the environment while.

– Conservation of environment refers to the protection and presentation of natural

resources from destruction wastage or loss.

1. b) – For sustenance of human life.
• To protect endangered species.
• For aesthetic value.
• To interlize natural resources
• For future generations.
• To preserve cultural heritage.
1. c)   – Gases from factories corrode roofs of houses.
• Some poisonous gases lead to earth to form acid rain which is harmful to life.
• Smog and smoke reduce visibility which way lead to road/air accidents.

1. d) (i)  – Control soil erosion
• Regular inspection of factories
• Setting up recycling plants.
• Treatment of sewage.
• Managing garbage collect and disposal well.
• Proper legislation.

(ii )   – Age of the population

• Social – economic status of the population.
• Culture of the people.

1. a)- Pollution is the contamination of the environment with substances which are harmful or – poisonous to human, plants and animal life.
2. b) – Land /Soil/Ground pollution.
• Water pollution
• Noise pollution.

1. a) – Flooding
• Lightening
• Pests/diseases
• Hailstorms
• Dusts storms
• Landslides
• Pollution
• Soil erosion
• fire

FORM ONE WORK

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY

1. What is practical geography? (2mks)
2. Name two branches of geography (2mks)
3. Name any three study areas in human geography (3mks)
4. Define the term environment (2mks)
5. Explain three reasons for importance of studying geography (3mks)
6. Name five human features (3mks)
7. What is habitat (2mks)
8. List six disciplines related to geography (6mks)
9. Differentiate between each of the following:
• Democracy and population geography
• Economics and economic geography                                                            (4mks)
1. Name two Greek words from which term geography originate (2mks)

CHAPTER 2

THE EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

PAST KCSE QUESTIONS ON THE TOPIC

1. (a) State two effects of the rotation  of the earth                                                (2mks)
• Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow

(i)        Which movement of the earth is represented by the diagram?         (1mk)

(ii)       Give two effects of the movement represented by the diagram       (2mks)

1. The diagram below represents the structure of the earth. Use it to answer question

• Name

(i)              The parts marked P and Q                                                      (2mks)

(ii)                         The discontinuity marked R                                                   (1mk)

(b) State three characteristics of the mantle                                                  (3mks)

1. The diagram below shows the composition of the solar system

(a)       Name the planets marked F and G                                                     (2mks)

(b)       State three effects of the rotation of the earth on its axis                 (3mks)

1. a)         What is the solar system?
2. b)         Use the diagram below to answer the questions that follow.

1. i) What type of eclipse is represented by the diagram?
2. ii) Name the features marked L and M
3. (a) (i)        Give the two dates in a year during which the number of hours of

darkness is equal in both the north and south poles.

(ii)       Why do the lengths of days and nights vary from one part of the earth to another?

(b)       The diagram below shows the revolution of the earth around the sun. Use it to answer the questions that follow

(i)         If the earth takes 366 days to make a complete revolution during a leap year, how long will it take to move from position 1 to position 4?

(ii)       What season is experienced in the southern hemisphere when the earth is in Position 1?

1. Define the following,
2. Solar system
3. Galaxy

iii.       Star

1. Asteroids (6mks)
2. Differentiate between the following

(a)       Latitude and longitude

(b)       Dateline and international dateline

(c)       Meteors and Meteorite.                                                                      (6mks)

1. State three differences between solar eclipse and lunar eclipse.                  (2mks)
2. State four factors that support life on planet earth.                                       (4mks)
3. (a)       List four effects of earth rotation.                                                     (4mks)

(b)       At Nairobi on longitude 37°E local time is 1 p.m. What time would it be at Sarissa on longitude 41 °E?                                                                           (4mks)

1. (a)       Define equinox.                                                                                  (2mks)

(b)       State characteristics of summer solstice.                                                         (4mks)

1. The earth is inclined to the ecliptic plane at an angle of….. and the axis is also inclined at an angle ….. to perpendicular line.                                              (4mks)
2. Fill in the table from (a) – (f)                                                                         (10mks)

 Property s/Layer Major constituent Thickness Density Temperature Outer crust (a) iii. 16-24 kms (b) Inner crust ii. Magnesium S (c) 2.8-30 gms/cc Asthensophere i. Iron 2900 kms (d) 5000 C Centrosphere ii. Nickle (e) (f)

1. State three weaknesses of the passing star theory.                                        (6mks)
2. Differentiate between hydrosphere and atmosphere.             (4mks)
3. Planet … 1… is seventh planet from the sun and is greenish in colour. Planet …2… takes shortest time to revolve round the sun about 88 earth day. Planet …3… and …4… are referred to as twin planets. Planet …5… takes about 11.86 earth years to revolve round the sun. All the planets have satellite orbiting round them except planet …6… and …7…             (7mks)
4. Explain reasons for flattening and bulging of earth.             (4mks)
5. State characteristics of winter solstice (4mks)
6. Differentiate between summer solstice and winter solstice.             (4mks)
7. (a)   What is an eclipse?                                                                            (2mks)
8. Apart from planets name other heavenly bodies.
9. What is a longitude? (2mks)
10. State the effects of the elliptical shape of the earth’s orbit. (6mks)
11. If the local time in Nairobi on longitude 37°E time is 10 p.m. What will the time be at Buchanan Liberia on longitude 10°W.? (4mks)

(a)       What is the effect of International Date Line on crossing the line? (4mks)

(b)       What is the angle of inclination of the earth axis from its orbit?                 (2mks)

(c)       Give four proofs that the earth is spherical in shape.                                    (8mks)

CHAPTER 3

WEATHER

1. (a) How does a sea breeze occur?                                                ( 2 mks)

(b)      Use the map of Africa below to answer questions (b) (i)

(i)        Name the ocean currents marked H, J, and K                        (3 mks)

(ii)       State two effects of a warm ocean current on the adjacent

coastlands                                                                   (2 mks)

1. (a) Name two theories of the  origin  of the earth                       (2 mks)

(b)       Name four layers of the earth’s atmosphere                         (4 mks)

1. (a) State two conditions that are necessary for the formation  of fog.

(b)       The diagram below shows some types of clouds. Use it to answer the questions that follow.

(i) Name the clouds marked R

(ii) Give two weather conditions associated with cumulonimbus clouds

1. a) the tables below represent rainfall and temperature of stations X and Y.

Use them to answer questions (a) and (b)

 MONTHS J F M A M J J A S O N D TEMPERATURE IN 0c 30 31 31 31 30 29 29 28 28 29 29 30 RAINFALL IN MM 250 250 325 300 213 25 25 25 100 275 380 200

 MONTHS J F M A M J J A S O N O TEMPERATURE IN 0C 21 20 20 17 15 13 12 13 15 16 18 20 RAINFALL IN MM 12 12 15 50 90 110 87 87 50 35 20 15

1. a) (i) For each of the two stations calculate the mean annual temperature.

X         –

Y         –

(ii)   Calculate the annual rainfall for station Y

(iii)  On the graph paper provided, draw a bar graph to represent rainfall for station x. Use vertical scale of 1cm to represent 50mm

1. b) Describe the climatic characteristics of station Y.
2. a) The table below shows climatic data of a station in Kenya.

Use it to answer question (a)

 Month Jan Feb Mar April May June Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Temp in oC 28.9 29.7 30.3 29.9 29.7 29.2 28.4 28.7 29.6 30.1 29.2 28.7 Rainfall in mm 9.0 8.0 21.0 49.0 25.0 9.0 20.0 10.0 4.0 10.0 17.0 11.0

1. What is the annual range of temperature at the station?
2. Calculate the total rainfall for the station.
3. b) State three factors that influence climate.
4. (a) Name two elements of weather that can be recorded at a school weather

station

(b)       Give three reasons why the recording of data at a school weather station

may be inaccurate

1. (a) Describe a suitable site where you would locate a weather station in your

School                                                                                     (2 mks)

(b)       Give reasons why a Stevenson’s screen is:

(i)        Painted White                                                             (2 mks)

(ii)       Has louvers                                                                 (2 mks)

1. Define relative humidity.                                                                   (2 mks)
2. (a)       Identify four characteristics of convectional rainfall.                       (4mks)

1. (a)       Briefly describe how the six thermometers operate.                                     (5mks)

(b)       Three ways in which clouds are classified.                                       (3mks)

1. (a)       Give three precautions to be taken when citing a weather station.   (3mks)

(b)       State three factors determining the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface.                                                                                    (3mks)

1. Define the following terms:

(i)        Climate

(ii)       Relative humidity

(iii)      Weather forecasting

(iv)      Absolute humidity

(v)       Weather lore                                                                                       (5mks)

1. State the advantages of studying weather through field work. (5mks)
2. (a)       Describe how you would use the following apparatus during a field study.

Rainfall, maximum and minimum thermometers.                            (3mks)

(b)       Identify and explain the formation of the type of rainfall found in the Lake Region or Kenya.                                                                                (8mks)

(c)       Briefly write down two problems associated with the type rainfall above.

(4mks)

1. (a)       What is weather forecasting?                                                             (2mks)

(b)       List four problems of weather forecasting.                                       (4mks)

(c)       State four ways in which weather forecasting is important to the human activities.                                                                                            (4mks)

1. (a)       Explain three ways in which clouds influence weather.                   (3mks)

(b)       Use the data below to answer questions that follow.

 Month of the year J F M A M J J A S O N D Temp in °C 25 26 26 24 23 22 21 21 22 22 22 22 Rainfall in mm 42 40 73 171 90 89 163 160 71 68 64 42

(i)        Calculate mean annual temperature

(ii)       Calculate annual rainfall

(iii)      Calculate annual range of temperature.

(iv)      Calculate the mean annual rainfall

(v)       Which is the wettest month?                                      (10 mks)

1. (a)       Define 3 air mass.                                                                              (2mks)

(b)       Name types of air masses.                                                                 (3mks)

(c)       A mass of air at 15°C can hold 20gm/cm3 of moisture. The same air at the same temperature has 6gm/cm3 of moisture. What is its relative humidity?

(4mks)

1. Name two instruments placed in the Stevenson Screen.                               (2mks)
2. Why does sea breeze flow at night time? (3mks)

CHAPTER 4

STATISTICAL METHODS

1. The table below shows petroleum production in thousand barrels per day for countries in the Middle East in April 2006. Use it to answer question (a)

 Country Production in ‘000” barrels Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Iraq 3800 2550 800 9600 2500 1900

1. a) (i) What is the difference in production between the highest and the

lowest producer                                                                      (1mk)

(ii)       What is the total amount of petroleum produced in April 2006 in

the region?                                                                              (1mk)

1. b) State three conditions that are necessary for the formation of petroleum                                                                                                                                     (3mks)

1. The graph below shows percentage value of some export commodities from Kenya between 1999 and 2003. Use it to answer questions (a) and (b)

(a)       (i)        What was the percentage  value of the tea exported in the year

2000?                                                                                      (2mks)

(ii)       What was the difference in the percentage values of the

horticultural products and coffee exports in 1999?               (2mks)

(iii)      Describe the trend of the value of coffee exports from 1999 to

2003                                                                                        (3mks)

(iv)      Explain three factors which may have led to the increased export earnings from horticultural produce in Kenya between years 1999 and 2003                                                                            (6mks)

(v)       Give three advantages of using simple line graphs to represent

data.                                                                                        (3mks)

(b)       State four reasons why Kenya’s agricultural export earnings are generally low                                                                                                      (4mks)

(c)       State five reasons why the common market for Eastern and southern Africa                                                                                                             (5mks)

1. (a) Define the following terms

–           Statistics

–           Statistical data

–           Statistical methods                                                                 (6mks)

(b)       State two types of statistical data.                                                     (2mks)

(c)       Write down two types of questionnaires.                                          (2mks)

1. (a) What factors must be considered in selecting methods of data collection.

(3mks)

(b)       Differentiate between discrete data and continuous data giving relevant examples.                                                                                            (4mks)

1. (a)       What is sampling                                                                               (1mk)

(b)       State 3 types of sampling.                                                                  (3mks)

1. (a) Name two main methods used in analyzing statistical data.                        (2mks)

(b)       What is the significance of statistics in geography?                                     (5mks)

1. (i)        Name two types of graphs that you have learnt about.                     (2mks)

(ii)       What are the advantages of using graphs named above in representing statistical data? Give advantages.                                                      (4mks)

1. (i)        What is a questionnaire?

(ii)       State four advantages of using questionnaires in collection of’ statistical data.                                                                                                    (4mks)

(iii)      Explain oral interview method.                                                         (2mks)

1. Explain the following methods of data recording.

–           Tabulation

–           Photographing

–           Tape recording

–           Tallying

1. What is data? (2mks)
2. Marks 72, 60, 65, 70, 65, 80, 65, 70, 80, 84, 63, 75, 63, 71, 74

Use the data above to find out mean and mode.                                            (4mks)

1. With the help of data above explain how median is obtained.                     (3mks)

CHAPTER 5

FIELD WORK

PAST KCSE QUESTIONS ON THE TOPIC

1. State two ways in which information collected during the field study would be useful to the local community.    2mks
2. Your class is required to carry out a field study of a river. What would be the advantage of dividing the class into groups according to the stages of the long profile 3 of a river?
3. What would be the disadvantages of   c using secondary data in this kind of a field study?
4. You intend to carry out field study on population in the local open air market,

(i)        State three reasons why it would be necessary for you to visit the market

before actual field study.

(ii)       Give two methods you would use to collect information on pollution. ,

(iii)      State three follow up activities necessary for the study. -51

1. You are supposed to carry out a field study on the uses of vegetation in the area around your school.

(a)       State three reasons why it would be necessary to visit the area before the day of the study.

(b)       Give four uses of vegetation you are likely to identify during the study.

(3mks)

(c)       Why is it necessary to sample part of the forest for the study?

1. List three types of fieldwork.                                                                         (3mks)
2. Explain the importance of field work.                                                           (5mks)
3. Outline the procedure for carrying out field study.                                       (5mks)
4. List some topics in physical geography on which you can carry out a field study.

(4mks)

1. State five ways in which you would prepare for field study to a weather.   (5mks)
2. What is the importance of carrying samples from the field to the school? (4mks)
3. Formulate five suitable objectives for field study on a visit to a forest.      (5mks)
4.  Discuss types of hypothesis.                                                                         (2mks)
5. List five methods of data presentation. (5mks)
6. Explain five problems one would encounter on field study in a forest? (5mks)
7. Why is reconnaissance important?

CHAPTER 6

MAP WORK

1. Study the map of Taita Hills (1:50,000) sheet 189/4 provided and answer the following questions

(a)       (i)        What is the bearing of the  peak of Mwatunga hill in grid square

3214 from the water tank in grid square 2619?                     (2mks)

(ii)       What is the length in kilometers of the section of the Mwatate – Voi railway line in the south – eastern part of the map? (2mks)

(b)       Draw a rectangle measuring 16cm by 12 cm to represents the area

enclosed by the Eastings 24 and 40 and Northings 20 and 30          ( 1 mk)

On the rectangle, mark and name the following features:

• Mgange hills ( 1 mk)
• A rock out crop ( 1 mk)
• All weather road, bound surface ( 1 mk)
• River Ruhia ( 1 mk)
• Ronge forest ( 1 mk)

(c)       Using evidence from the map, explain three factors that have favoured the establishment of the Teita sisal Estates in the Southern part of the area covered by the map    ( 6 mks)

1. Study the map of Nyahururu, 1: 50,000 (sheet 105/4) provided and answer the following questions

(a)       (i)        Give the six figure grid of the  junction where the road to

Ndaragwa (D 388) meets with the road to Nyeri & Nanyuki (B5)                                                                                                               (2mks)

(ii)       Calculate the bearing of point X from point Y                      (2mks)

(iii)      Name three physical features found along the line XY        (3mks)

(b)       (i)        Draw a square 12 cm  by 12 cm to represent the area enclosed  by

the Easting 10  and northing 10 to the  North- eastern  part of the

map                                                                                         (1mk)

(ii)       On the square, mark and label

• The main river             (1mk)
• All weather loose surface road                                             (1mk)
• A forest (1mk)

(c)       Citing evidence from the map, explain two

• Physical factors that may have influenced the location of Nyahururu town                                                                (4mks)
• Factors that favour saw milling in the area  covered by the map                                                                                                    (4mks)

1. Study the map of Taita Hills (150: 50,000 sheet 189\4) to answer the following

questions.

1. a) What is the approximate height of the hill at the grid square 3926. (2mks)
2. b) Measure the length of all weather 6 to roads (bound surface) from Wundanyi to southern edge of the area covered by the map.     (2mks)
3. c) Citing evidence from the map describe the relief of the area shown.            (5mks)
4. d) State differences between a map and a plan.             (2mks)
5. e) Explain two importance of scale in maps.                                         (2mks)
6. Study the map of Kisumu East (1:50,000) and answer the following questions.

(a)       (i)        What is the bearing of the trigonometrical station at grid reference

081980 from the rock antelop at grid reference 071992.      (2mks)

(ii)       Measure the length of the all weather road (bound surface) 1321, from, the junction at grid reference 974911 to the edge of the map, grid reference 947967.                                                           (2mks)

(b)       (i)        Describe the relief of the area covered by the map.

(ii)       Explain how relief has influenced the settlement in the area

covered by the map.                                                               (8mks)

(c)       Citing evidence give three economic activities carried out in the area

covered by the map.

(d)       Students from the school at Masago (grid square 0681) carried out field

study of the course of river Ombeyi.

• State three findings they are likely to have come up with. (3mks)
• Give three advantages of studying rivers through field work

CHAPTER 7

ROCKS AND MINERALS

1. (a) Describe the following characteristics of minerals

(i)        Colour                                                                                     (2mks)

(ii)       Cleavage                                                                                 (2mks)

(iii)      Hardness                                                                                 (2mks)

(b)      (i)        Give two types of igneous rocks                                            (2mks)

(ii)       Explain three conditions necessary fro the growth of coral polyps                                                                                                                                      (6mks)

(c)       State four uses of rocks                                                                      (4mks)

(d)       You are planning to carry out a field study on the rocks within your school environment

(i)        Give two secondary sources of information you  would use to prepare for the field study                                                       (2mks)

(ii)       State why you would need the following items during the field study:

• A fork jembe (1mk)
• A polythene bag (1mk)

(iii)      Suppose during the field study you collected marble, sandstone and granite, classify each of these samples according to its mode of formation                                                                                (3mks)

1. (a) State two characteristics of  sedimentary rocks                                (2mks)

(b)       Give two examples of chemically formed sedimentary rocks          (2mks)

1. a) Name the type of rocks which results from the metamorphism of:

(i)        Granite

(ii)       Clay                                                                                        (2mks)

1. b) Give two reasons why sedimentary rocks are widespread in the coastal plain of Kenya. (2mks)
2. (a) (i)        What is a rock?                                                                       (2mks)

(ii)       Describe three ways through which sedimentary rocks are formed

• Mechanically formed
• Organically formed
• Chemically formed (6mks)

(b)       Describe two process through which sedimentary rocks changer into metamorphic rocks

(c)       Give an example of each of the following types of igneous rocks

• Plutonic rocks (1mks)
• Hypabyssal rocks (1mks)
• Volcanic rocks (1mks)

(d)       Suppose you were to carry out a field study of rocks within the vicinity of your school

(i)        Name three secondary sources of information you would use to prepare for the field study                                                      (3mks)

(ii)       State four activities you would carry during the filed study (3mks)

(iii)      State three problems you are likely to experience during the field study                                                                                       (3mks)

1. (a) Differentiate between plutonic rocks and volcanic rocks

(b)       Describe how lava plateau is formed

(c)       (i)        Name three volcanic features found in the rift valley of Kenya

(ii)       Explain four negative effects of vulcanicity in Kenya

(d)       You intend to carry out a field study of a volcanic landscape

(i)        State four reasons why it is necessary to conduct a reconnaissance

of the area of study.

(ii)       During your field work, you intend to study volcanic rocks, state

why you would need the following items

1. (a)       State two main conditions that influence the characteristics of igneous

rocks.                                                                                                  (2mks)

(b)       Write down three characteristics of sedimentary rocks.                   (3mks)

(c)       Name two examples of organic sedimentary rocks and where found in Kenya.                                                                                                 (2mks)

(d)       Name four examples of metamorphic rocks and state the original rock from which each was formed.                                                         (4mks)

(e)       Describe the importance of rocks to human activities.                     (5mks)

1.       (a)       State with examples three classes of mechanically formed sedimentary

rocks.                                                                                                  (6mks)

(b)       Differentiate between regional metamorphism and contact metamorphism.

(4mks)

1. (a) List two examples of extrusive igneous rocks.                                 (2mks)

(b)       Differentiate between extrusive and intrusive rocks giving an example in

each case.                                                                                            (2mks)

1. What is a rock?                                                                                               (2mks)
2. What is a mineral?                                                                                         (2mks)
3. Describe changes that occur in sedimentary rocks when they are subjected to high heat and pressure.                                                                                           (4mks)
4. Describe calcareous rocks.                                                                             (2mks)
5. Describe carbonaceous rocks.                                                                     (2mks)
6. Give examples of chemically formed sedimentary rocks. (2mks)
7. How are coral rock formed?                                                                          (3mks)
8. How do rocks become metamorphic?                                                                        (3mks)

CHAPTER 8

MINING

1. The table below shows petroleum production in thousand barrels per day for countries in the Middle East in April 2006. Use it to answer question (a)

 Country Production in ‘000” barrels Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Iraq 3800 2550 800 9600 2500 1900

1. a) (i) What is the difference in production between the highest and the

lowest producer                                                                      (1mk)

(ii)       What is the total amount of petroleum produced in April 2006 in

the region?                                                                              (1mk)

1. b) State three conditions that are necessary for the formation of petroleum                                                                                                                                     (3mks)
2. Use the map of East Africa below to answer questions (s).

1. a) (i)        Name the railway terminuses marked P, Q  R                       (3mks)

(ii)       In each case give the main commodity transported by the railway

lines marked s and T.                                                             (2mks)

1. b) (i) State four reasons why road network is more widespread than railways in East Africa.                                                          (4mks)

(ii)       One of the problems facing road transport is the high frequency of accidents.  Explain four conditions of roads in Kenya that may lead to accidents.                                                                                (8mks)

1. c) i) Name three physical regions through which River Tana passes

(3mks)

1. ii) Explain thee effects of land pollution can be controlled
2. d) State four ways through which land pollution can be controlled      (4mks)
3. The diagram below show the occurrence of petroleum in the earth’s crust.

Use it to answer questions (a)

1. a) Name the substances in the areas labeled L. M and N          (3mks)
2. b) Give two by-products obtained when crude oil is refined    (2mks)
3. Use the map of Africa to answer question (a) (i)

1. i) Name the minerals mined in the areas marked S, T and V.
2. ii) State two formation in which mineral ores occur.
3. b) Explain four problems, which Zambia experiences in the exportation

of copper.

1. c)         Explain three ways in which coal contributes to the economy of

Zimbabwe.

1. d) Describe three negative effects of open cast mining on the environment.
2. a) Explain how deep shaft mining is done                                             (2mks)
3. b) Disadvantages of using the above method                                        (2mks)
4. Explain four effects of land dereliction on the environment.                       (4mks)
5.      Describe how panning mining is carried out.                                                            (3mks)
6. Identify four problems facing gold mining in South Africa.                                    (4mks)
7. (a)       In what ways has Kenya benefited from the mining of soda ash in Lake

(b)       What are the negative effects of mining on the environment?         (4mks)

1. (a)       Explain what is meant by placer mining.                                          (2mks)

(b)       Name three mining methods.

1. Describe the occurrence and exploitation of Trona in Kenya till it is ready for

marketing.

1. Name seven significances of minerals in Kenya.                                          (7mks)
2. Explain diamond and gold in South Africa under following headings:

–           Occurrence

–           Extraction

–           Benefits to the economy

–           Problems                                                                                 (10mks)14.              Name five uses of soda ash.                                                                           (5mks)

FORM TWO WORK

CHAPTER 1

INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES – EARTH MOVEMENTS.

1. (a) Name the two types of earth movements that  occur within the earth’s

crust                                                                                                    (2mks)

(b)       Describe the origin of the continents according to the Theory of continental Drift                                                                            (3mks)

1. Explain what you understand by each of the following:

(i)        Earth movements.

(ii)       Internal land forming processes.

(iii)      External land forming processes.                                                      (6mks)

1. Explain four evidences put forward to proof continental drift theory. (8mks)
2. Explain plate tectonic theory.             (4mks)

CHAPTER 2

INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESS – FOLDING

1. (a) In your answer booklet, draw a diagram to show a simple fold and on it

mark and name,

(i)        An anticline.                                                                           1 mk

(ii)       A limb.                                                                                    1 mk

(iii)      A syncline                                                                               1 mk

(b)       Name two fold mountains in Africa.                                                 2 mks

1. (a)       Name one fold mountain in;

(i)        Asia

(ii)       North America

(iii)      South America

(b)       (i)        Apart from Fold Mountains, name three other features resulting

from folding.

(ii)       With the aid of a labelled diagram, describe the formation of an overthrust fold.

(c)       Explain four effects of Fold Mountains on human activities.

(d)       (i)        How would students in your school prepare themselves for study

(ii)       State two advantages of studying landforms through field work.

1. Define orogenesis.                                                                                          2 mks
2. What is folding?                                                                                             2 mks
3. Explain the meaning of compressional boundaries.                                      2 mks
4. Differentiate between limb and axis in relation to folding.                          4 mks
5. Differentiate between foreland and back land.                                              4 mks
6. Fill in the table provided details on age, period and features formed in each named orogenies.
 Orogeny Years (age) Period Mountains/features built Charnian 1 Pre-cambrian period 2 Caledonian Old 440 million years ago -Akwapim Hills of Ghana – Scottish highlands Hercynian 3 Upper Carbon ferrous period – Cape ranges -Appalachian mountains – Ural mountains Alpine Youngest 70 million years ago 4

6 mks

1. Explain formation of Fold Mountains by contraction theory.

CHAPTER 3

INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES – FAULTING

1. a) A part from the Rift Valley name two other relief features that were

formed as result of faulting.                                                              (2mks)

1. b) With the aid of a well labeled diagram, describe how a Rift Valley is

formed by tensional forces.                                                               (8mks)

1. The diagram below represents features produced by faulting.

Use it to answer questions that follow.

1. Name the features marked P, Q, and R
2. Differentiate between a normal faulty and a reverse fault.
3. State ways in which faulting influences drainage.                                        (3mks)
4. Name two examples of Horst Mountains in East Africa.                              (2mks)
5. Explain two ways in which features resulting from faulting are of economic importance                                                                                                      (4mks)
6. (a) (i)        With aid of diagrams outline formation of rift valley by tension

theory.                                                                                     (5mks)

(b)       Students are planning to carry out field study of an area affected by

faulting.

(i)        State four importance of having a pre-visit of the area.

(ii)       Give three disadvantages of using observation to study such an

area.

1. Name three types of fault.                                                                              (3mks)
2. Explain how compressional forces lead to formation of rift valley.                        (5mks)
3. Give two of escarpments in East Africa. (2mks)
4. Explain ways in which features resulting from faulting are of importance.            (8mks)
5. Describe formation of fault steps with aid of diagrams.                               (6mks)

CHAPTER 4

INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES – VULCANICITY

1. The diagram below shows some intrusive features formed by vulcanicity.

Use it to answer question (a)

1. a) i)         Name features marked X,Y, and Z                                        (3mks)
2. ii) Explain how a sill is formed                                                  (4mks)
3. b) Describe the characteristics of a composite volcano                                    (4mks)
4. c) Explain four ways in which volcanic mountains positively influence human activities.             (8mks)
5. d) Students carried a field study on volcanic rocks
6. i) Give four reasons why it is necessary to collect rock samples during such a field study.                         (4mks)
7. ii) State two problems they are likely to have experienced during the field study             (4mks)
8. (a) Differentiate between plutonic rocks and volcanic rocks

(b)       Describe how lava plateau is formed

(c)       (i)        Name three volcanic features found in the rift valley of Kenya

(ii)       Explain four negative effects of vulcanicity in Kenya

(d)       You intend to carry out a field study of a volcanic landscape

(i)        State four reasons why it is necessary to conduct a reconnaissance

of the area of study.

(ii)       During your field work, you intend to study volcanic rocks, state

why you would need the following items

1. Name three volcanic features found in the Rift Valley of Kenya. (3mks)
2. Explain four negative effects of vulcanicity in Kenya. (8mks)
3. Describe how lava plateau is formed.       (5mks)
4. Differentiate between sill and dyke. (4mks)
5. What is vulcanicity.                                                                                       (2mks)
6. Describe how Crater Lake is formed. (5mks)
7. Describe how Mt. Kenya was formed.

CHAPTER 5

INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES – EARTHQUAKES.

1. (a) Name two scales used to measure the intensity  of an earthquake   (2mks)

(b)       Give three causes of earthquakes                                                       (3mks)

1. The diagram below represents the internal structure of the earth. Use it

• Name the part marked U and V.
• Describe the deposition of:
1. The crust
2. The core
• (i) What are earthquakes

(ii)       Name two types of earthquakes.

(iii)      State the five ways in which the earths’ crust is affected by earthquakes.

• You intend to carry out a field study of an area recently affected by intense earthquake.
1. Give two sources of information that you would use in preparation for the study.
2. Explain two factors that would make it difficult for you to collect accurate data during the field study.
3. (a) State three causes of earthquakes

(b)       Give two effects of earthquakes in built up areas

1. State the major causes of earthquakes (2mks)
2. Explain how intensity of earthquake is measured. (2mks)
3. List major effects of earthquakes where they occur. (4mks)
4. Distinguish between seismograph and seismogram (4mks)
5. Differentiate between intensity and magnitude of earthquake (4mks)
6. Students from your school intend to carry out a field study of an area recently affected by intense earthquake.

(i)        Give two sources of information that you would use in preparation for the

study.

(ii)       Explain two factors that would make it difficult for you to collect accurate data during the field study.

CHAPTER 6

PHOTOGRAPH WORK.

1. The photograph provided shows a tea growing area in Kenya. Use it to answer questions (a) and (b)

1. a) (i) What evidence in the photograph shows that this is a ground

general-view type of photograph?                                         (2mks)

(ii)       Draw a rectangle measuring 15cm by 10cm to represent the area of the photograph.  On it sketch and label the main features shown on the photograph.                                                                       (5mks)

(iii)      Identify two features from the photograph that show that this is a small scale tea farm.                                                              (2mks)

1. b) Describe the stages involved in the cultivation of tea from land preparation to the stage shown on the photograph.
1. (i) Name two districts in the Eastern province where tea is grown.

(2mks)

(ii)       Explain four ways in which the Kenya Tea development agency (KTDA) assists small scale tea farmers in Kenya                 (8mks)

1. What is the type of photograph shown?

1. Name each of the following:

(i)        Crop under cultivation                                                                       (2mks)

(ii)       Type of farming                                                                                 (2mks)

(iii)      Other groups of crops in this type of farming.                                  (2mks)

(iv)      The province in Kenya where this photograph was taken.                (2mks)

1. Name five problems facing this type of farming in Kenya. 5mks
2. Name two major export destinations (countries) for farm produce shown. (2mks)
3. Name three physical features at the background of the photograph.             (3mks)
4. Draw a rectangle of 12cm by 7cm to represent the area covered by the photograph.

CHAPTER 7

CLIMATE.

1. (a) (i)        What is climate?                                                                    (2mks)

(ii)       Explain two effects of climate change on the physical environment

1. The table below represents rainfall and temperature figures for a town in Africa. Use it to answer the questions that follow

 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Temp (0C) 27 28 28 28 27 25 25 24 25 26 27 26 Rainfall (mm) 25 38 99 140 277 439 277 69 142 201 71 25

(a)       Calculate the annual range of temperature for the town                   (2mk)

(b)       Calculate the total annual rainfall for the town.                                (2mks)

(c)       State two characteristics of the climate experienced in the town.    (2mks)

1. Use the map below to answer questions (a) and (b)

(a)       Name:

(i)        The type of climate found in the shaded area marked Q       (1mk)

(ii)       The ocean current marked R and S                                        (2mks)

(b)      Describe the characteristics of the type of climate found in the shaded area marked T                                                                                            (8mks)

(c)      Explain how the following factors influence climate

(i)        Altitude                                                                                   (4mks)

(ii)       Distance from the sea                                                             (4mks)

(d)      (i)        Describe a suitable site where you would locate a weather station

in your  School                                                                       (2mks)

(ii)       Give reasons why a Stevenson’s screen is:

–           Painted White                                                             (2mks)

–           Has louvers                                                                 (2mks)

1. Describe the characteristics of natural vegetation associated with equatorial

climate                                                                                                                        (4mks)

1. Give five characteristics of hot desert climate (5mks)
2. How does the following factors influence climate?

(i)        Wind/air masses.

(ii)       Latitude.

1. Explain characteristics of climatic conditions experienced in the Kenyan highlands. (8mks)
2. Explain four ways in which mountains influence climate.   (8mks)
3. What is greenhouse effect?                                                                  (2mks)
4. How do human activities influence climate change?             (6mks)
5. How does clearance of vegetation cause climate change? (3mks)
6. Define climate. (2mks)
7. What is isothermal layer? (2mks)

CHAPTER 8

VEGETATION

1. The map below shows some vegetation regions of the world.

Use it to answer questions (a) to (c).

1. Name the temperate grasslands marked H, J and K.
2. Describe the characteristics of the natural vegetation found in the shaded area marked N.
3. i) Explain four ways in which the vegetation found in the area

marked M adapts to the environment conditions of the region.

1. You are required to carry out a field study of the vegetation within the local environment:
2. i) A part from identifying the different types of plants, state three

other activities you will carry out during the field study.

1. ii) How will you identify the different types of plants?
2. The diagram below represents zones of natural vegetation on a mountain in

Africa. Use it to answer question (a) (i) and (ii)

1. a) (i) Name the vegetation zones marked W, X and Y.                  (3mks)

(ii)       Describe the characteristics of the savanna vegetation.        (6mks)

(iii)      Name the temperate grasslands found in the following countries:

• Russia (1mk)
• Australia (1mk)
1. b) Explain three causes of the decline of the areas under forest in Kenya.

(6mks)

1. c) You are supposed to carry out a field study on the uses of vegetation in the

• State three reasons why it would be necessary to visit the area

before the day of the study.                                                    (3mks)

• Give four uses of you are likely to identify during the study (4mks)
1. (a) What  is  a natural vegetation?                                                          (2mks)

(b)       State three characteristics of Mediterranean vegetation                   (3mks)

1. Explain three measures that the Kenyan government has taken to reduce the

decline of natural vegetation cover.                                                              (6mks)

1. How do the following factors influence distribution of vegetation in Kenya.

(i)        Variation in rainfall

(ii)       Variation of temperature

(iii)      Variation of altitude/relief.

(iv)      Aspect

(v)       Soil

(vi)      Human activities                                                                    (10mks)

1. State two reasons why mountain tops have no vegetation.                           (2mks)
2. Define vegetation.                                                                                          (2mks)
3. Name areas where coniferous forests are found.                                           (3mks)
4. State characteristics of temperate grassland.                                                            (5mks)
5. Distinguish between secondary vegetation and planted vegetation.                         (4mks)
6. State two ways in which vegetation is significant to human and physical environment.                                                                                                  (5mks)

(a)       Name the type of photograph and type of vegetation.                      (2mks)

(b)       Describe how the vegetation is adapted to climatic conditions of the

region.                                                                                                 (3mks)

CHAPTER 9

FORESTRY

1. a) i)         What is forestry?                                                                    (2mks)
2. ii) Explain three factors that favour the growth of natural forests on the slopes of Kenya. (6mks)

iii)       State five factors that have led to the reduction of the area under forest on the slopes of Mt Kenya.                                          (5mks)

1. b) Explain four measures that the government of Kenya is taking to conserve forests in the country. (8mks)

1. c) Give the differences in the exploitation of softwood forests in Kenya and Canada under the following sub-headings;
2. i) Period of harvesting;                                                              (2mks)
3. ii) Transportation                                                                                    (2mks)
4. Explain factors favouring forestry in Canada
5. List two species of indigenous hardwood forest trees in Kenya.                  (2mks)
6. Name two industries associated with forestry.                                              (2mks)
7. Explain three measures being undertaken to conserve forests in Kenya.     (6mks)
8. Explain four problems that are being experienced in exploitation of hardwood forests in Kenya.                                                                                            (8mks)
9. Explain three reasons why only a small part of Kenya is forested.              (6mks)
10. Outline three consequences of forest depletion in Kenya.                            (3mks)
11. State the factors favouring forestry in Kenya.                                              (8mks)
12. Name four secondary products of forests. (4mks)
13. List eight major indigenous tree species in West Africa. (8mks)
14. (a) Define agro-forestry.                                                                          (1mk)

(b)       Outline four benefits of agro-forestry                                               (4mks)

FORM THREE WORK

CHAPTER 1

EXTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES – WEATHERING.

1. (a) (i)        What is the difference between weathering and mass wasting?

(ii)       Apart from plants, give three other factors that influence the rate of

Weathering                                                                             (3mks)

(iii)      Explain two ways in which plants cause weathering            (4mks)

(b)       (i)        List two types of mass wasting other than soil creep                        (2mks)

(ii)       Explain three factors that cause soil creep.                           (6mks)

(c)       Explain four effects of mass wasting on the environment.               (8mks)

1. Give two processes involved in each of the following types of weathering

(a)       Physical weathering                                                                           (2mks)

(b)       Chemical weathering                                                                         (2mks)

1. (a) What  is mechanical weathering?                                                      (2mks)

(b)       How is an exfoliation dome formed?                                                (5mks)

1. Describe five processes involved in chemical weathering? (3mks)
2. Name physical weathering processes that take place in the arid areas.
3. List factors that determine rate of weathering.
4. Define the term denudation

8.

1. a) Name the above type of weathering.
2. b) Describe the process shown by the photograph

CHAPTER 2

EXTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES – MASS MOVEMENT.

1. a) State two conditions which may influence the occurrence of landslides
2. b) Using the diagram (in question paper), name

(i)        The type of mass movement shown

(ii)       The features marked P and Q                                                 (2mks)

1. Explain five ways in which soil creep occurs. (10mks)
2. Describes the effects of soil creep. (6mks)
3. Define the following:
4. a) Mass wasting.
5. b) Mass movement.                                                                                (2mks)
6. Name and explain three process of slow mass movement. (4mks)
7. Explain the factors that are responsible for rapid mass wasting.
8. List the evidences of soil creep. (4mks)

CHAPTER 3

THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

1. (a)      The diagram below shows the hydrological cycle. Name the stages marked

E, F, and G                                                                                          (3mks)

(b)       Differentiate between watershed and a catchments area                  (2mks)

1. State four factors that determine the amount of surface run-off.
2. What is hydrological cycle?                                                                          (2mks)
3. Explain factors that influence percolation of voter.                                      (8mks)
4. (a)     What is cyrosphere?                                                                           (2mks)

(b)                   Name the significance of hydrological cycle.                                           (4mks)

1. List other forms of precipitation other than rainfall that may also form major inputs into the system.                                                                                  (4mks)
2. What factors can influence surface run off or overland flow.                      (5mks)
3. In what ways can we sustain the process of the hydrological cycle?            (8mks)

CHAPTER 4

ACTION OF RIVERS

1. (a) Name two types of the coastal deltas                                                (2mks)

(b)       State two conditions that lead to deposition of silt at the mouth of a river

(2mks)

1. The diagram below shows river Mandera. Use it to answer question (a)

(a)       (i)        Name  the process that take  place  at each of the points marked P

and Q.                                                                                     (2mks)

(ii)       Name the feature formed at the point marked R                   (1mk)

(iii)      Describe how an Ox- bow lake is formed                              (5mks)

(b)       State five characteristics of a flood plain                                          (5mks)

(c)       Explain three causes of river rejuvenation                                        (6mks)

• Your class is required to carry out a field study of  a  river

(i)        What would be the advantages of dividing the class into groups according to the stages of the long   profile of a river?        (4mks)

(ii)       What would be the disadvantage of using secondary data in this kind of a field study?                                                                      (2mks)

1. (a) State two factors which influence the  occurrence of surface run- off

(b)       The diagram below shows a waterfall. Name the feature marked X, Y and

Z

1. Describe three ways in which rivers transports its load.
2. Describe the following drainage patterns

(i)        Dedritic.

(ii)       Trellis.

(iii)      Centipetal.

1. a)      State two factors that influence the rate of erosion by the river in its

upper course.

1. b) (i)        Define river rejuvenation

Name two features that result from river rejuvenation

1. Explain the following:

(a)       River basin

(b)       Watershed

(c)       Catchment area

(d)       River regime                                                                                       (8mks)

1. With examples from Africa, explain the differences between the following river features:

(a)       Inland delta and alluvial fan.

(b)       Estuarine delta and an estuary.

(c)       Bluff and river cliff.

(d)       Levees and river bank.

(e)       River valley and river channel.

(f)        Paired terrace and unpaired terrace.

(g)       Drainage pattern and drainage system,

(h)       Misfit river and deferred river,

(i)        Antecedent drainage and superimposed drainage.                (18mks)

1. Describe how a river erodes its channel through the following processes

(i)         Abrasion

(ii)        Hydraulic                                                                                           (4mks)

1. (a)       (i)        In which stage is the river at ‘A’

(ii)       Name 3 features found at the above stage.                            (3mks)

(b)       (i)        In which stage is the river at ‘B’

(ii)       Which are the characteristics of the river at stage B?

(iii)      Describe the characteristics of the river at the above stage C.

(4mks)

(c)       In which stage is the river at C.

1. Explain the significance of rivers to man. (10mks)12.

1. a) Name the type of photograph.                                                                        (1mk)
2. b) Name the features shown by the photograph. I and II.                      (2mks)
3. c) State the conditions necessary for formation of these features.       (3mks)

CHAPTER 5

LAKES.

1. Give three processes that lead to formation of lakes.
2. Describe how Lake Victoria was formed.
3. Explain how Lake Victoria influences the climate of the surrounding areas.
4. What is a lake?
5. State three ways in which lakes are formed.
6. Explain how each of the following lakes were formed :

(a)       Victoria

(b)       Tanganyika

(c)      Chala

(d)       Sare

(e)      Kivu                                                                                        (15mks)

1. State the differences between the lakes on the eastern and western areas of East African Rift Valley.                                                                                       (6mks)
2. With reference to specific lakes in East Africa, explain the significance of lakes in

the region.                                                                                                       (8mks)

CHAPTER 6

OCEANS, SEAS AND THEIR COASTS.

1. Use the diagram below to answer question (a)

(a)       Name the coastal features marked H, J, K, L and M                         (5mks)

(b)       (i)        State four conditions necessary for the formation of a beach            (4mks)

(ii)       Describe three processes involved in marine erosion                       (6mks)

(c)       You are planning to carry out a field study on the depositional features along the coast of Kenya

(i)        State five objectives you would formulate for your study   (5mks)

(ii)       Give five methods you would use to record the information

collected                                                                                 (5mks)

1. (a) Name two types of submerged coasts.                                               (2mks)

(b)       Explain now the following factors determine effectiveness of wave

erosion along the coast.

(i)        Nature of the material transported by waves

(ij)       Nature of the coastal rocks.                                                   (4mks

1. State two causes of submerged coasts. (2mks)
2. Name two features that result from submergence of coasts.             (2mks)
3. Define term coastline                                                                                                 (2mks)
4. What are destructive waves?                                                                         (2mks)
5. Name three resultant features of wave erosion.                                            (3mks)

8          Describe formation of cliff.                                                                                       (5mks)

1. Describe formation of a wave-cut platform.                                                             (5mks)
2. Name three types of coast.                                                                             (3rnks)
3. (a)       Describe formation of coral coast.                                                    (5mks)

(b)       Explain the significance of coral coast to Kenya.

1. Distinguish between shingle beaches and sand beaches.                              (6mks)
2. Name three types of submerged coasts.                                                        (3mks)
3. Name two types of movements of ocean water. (2mks)

(a)       Name features marked A, B, and C.

(b)       Describe the formation of feature marked C.

CHAPTER 7

ACTION OF WIND AND WATER IN ARID AREAS.

1. The diagram below represents a barchan. Use it to answer questions (a)

(a)       Name

(i)        The feature marked X                                                            (1mk)

(ii)       The air current marked Y                                                       (1mk)

(iii)      The slope marked Z                                                                (1mk)

(b)      Give two ways in which wind transports its load                              (2mks)

1. a) (i)        Two process through which wind erodes the surface

(ii)       Three ways through which wind transports its load

1. b) (i) How  an oasis is forced

(ii)       How zeugens are formed

1. c) You are supposed to carry out a field study of a semi-arid area in Kenya.

(i)        Two ways of preparing for the Field study

(ii)       Information that would be collected through observation of the arid area

(iii)      Measures to be recommended for controlling desertification.

1. Explain the process of abrasion.                                                                    (2mks)
2. Name four features of wind erosion.                                                             (4mks)
3. Describe formation of zeugens,                                                                     (4mks)
4. List features of wind deposition.                                                                   (4mks)
5. Describe formation of wadis.                                                                                     (5mks)
6. Differentiate between suspension and saltation.                                           (4mks)
7. Name four types of desert surface                                                                 (4mks)
8. Identify and describe the processes of wind erosion. (6mks)
9. (a)       Explain how wind transports its load.

(b)       State the factors influencing wind transportation.                            (3mks)

1. Explain the formation of the following features:

(b)       Pediments.                                                                                          (6mks)

1. Students carried out field study on desert landforms.

(i)         State two type of information they collected through observation.

(ii)       Which measures would they have recommended to control desertification?

CHAPTER 8

UNDERGROUND WATER

1. The diagram below show some features of a Karst scenery. Use it to answer questions (a)

1. a) Name the features marked P, Q, and R.                                             (5mks)
2. b) Describe carbonation as a process of Chemical weathering             (3mks)

1. State three conditions necessary for the development of Karst scenery, (3mks)
2. Give two reasons why there are few settlements in a Karst landscape.      (4mks)
3. Explain factors influencing formation of springs.                                        (8mks)
4. Distinguish between the following.

(i)        Effluent streams and influent streams.                                              (4mks)

(ii)       Artesian basins and artesan well.                                                       (4mks)

1. Name three surface features of Karst landscape.                                          (3mks)
2. What are stalactites?                                                                                      (2mks)
3. Explain the significance of limestone regions.                                             (8mks)

CHAPTER 9

GLACIATION

1. (a) (i)        What is an ice sheet?                                                              (2mks)

(ii)       Give two reasons why there are no ice sheets in Kenya        (2mks)

(iii)      Explain three factors that influence the movement of the ice from the place where it has accumulated                                             (6mks)

(b)       Describe how an arête is formed                                                       (4mks)

(c)       The diagram below shows types of moraines in a valley glacier

(i)        Name the type of moraines marked S, T and V                     (3mks)

• Explain four positive effects of glaciation in lowland areas. (8mks)
1. a) (i)        What is a glacier?                                                                   (2mks)

(ii)       Distinguish between valley glaciers and ice sheets              (4mks)

1. The diagram below shows a glaciated upland area

(a)       Name the feature marked P, Q, and R                                               (2mks)

(b)       How is a U- shaped valley formed?                                                   (5mks)

1. a) Describe how pyramidal peak is formed.                                          (6mks)
2. b) Explain the significance of upland glaciated features to human activities.

(6mks)

1. c) Students from a school near Kenya were planning to carry out a field study on the glaciated features on the top of the mountain.

(i)        Give the reason why it would be difficult to undertake the field study on the glaciated features on the mountain.                (4mks)

(ii)       Describe how students would use a photograph of Mt. Kenya to identify the glaciated features on the mountains.                 (3mks)

1. Differentiate between snout and snow niche.             (4mks)
2. Name three glaciers on Mt. Kenya. (3mks)
3. Describe the formation of a glacial trough. (3mks)
4. What is ice cap? (2mks)
5. Name three resulting features of glacial erosion on Mt. Kenya (3mks)
6. What is a nivation hollow? (2mks)

CHAPTER 10

SOIL

1. a) (i)        What is soil catena?

(ii)        Draw a labeled diagram to show a well developed soil profile.     (5mks)

(iii)      State three characteristics of the soils found in the arid regions of

Kenya.                                                                                     (3mks)

1. b) Give three factors that determine the colour of soil.

1. c) Describe how laterization occurs.                                                      (6mks)

1. d) Explain how the following farming practices cause soil erosion.

(i)        Burning                                                                                   (2mks)

(ii)       Continuous application of fertilizer on farm lands.              (2mks)

(iii)      Monocultures.                                                                        (2mks)

1. (a)       Name two types of soil according to texture.                                    (2mks)

(b)       State two ways in which humus improves the quality of soil.          (2mks)

1. What is soil?                                                                                                   (2mks)
2. Identify classification of soil according to order.                                         (3mks)
3. Describe formation of soil through decomposition of organic matter.        (3mks)
4. How does salination occur?                                                                           (3mks)
5. What do you understand by zonal order soil?
6. List four soil conservation and management practices.                                (4mks)
7. What do you understand by podzolisarion?                                                  (2mks)

CHAPTER 11

AGRICULTURE.

1. a) State two climatic conditions that favour the growing of oil palm in

Nigeria.                                                                                               (2mks)

1. b) Give two problems experienced in the marketing of palm oil in

Nigeria.                                                                                               (2mks)

1. The photograph provided shows a tea growing area in Kenya. Use it to answer questions (a) and (b)

1. a) (i) What evidence in the photograph shows that this is a ground

genera-view type of photograph?                                          (2mks)

(ii)       Draw a rectangle measuring 15cm by 10cm to represent the area of the photograph.  On it sketch and label the main features shown on the photograph.                                                                       (5mks)

(iii)      Identify two features from the photograph that show that this is a small scale tea farm.                                                              (2mks)

1. b) Describe the stages involved in the cultivation of tea from land preparation to the stage shown on the photograph.

1. c) (i) Name two districts in the Eastern province where tea is grown.

(2mks)

(ii)       Explain four ways in which the Kenya Tea development agency

(KTDA) assists small scale tea farmers in Kenya                 (8mks)

1. (a)      State three physical conditions that are necessary for the growing of cocoa

(3mks)

(b)       Give three economic problems experienced in cocoa farming in Ghana

(3mks)

1. a) Give three physical factors that favour coffee growing in Kenya highlands.
2. b) State two problems facing coffee farming in Kenya
3. a) i)         Name two provinces in Kenya where wheat is grown on large

scale                                                                                        (2mks)

1. ii) Explain four physical conditions that favour wheat growing in Kenya (8mks)
2. b) Compare wheat farming in Canada and / Kenya under the following
3. i) Storage                                                                                    (2mks)
4. ii) Transportation                                                                                    (2mks)

iii)       Marking                                                                                  (2mks)

1. c) i) Explain three climate problems that affect wheat farming in

1. ii) Give three uses of wheat                                                        (2mks)
2. d) Name two districts in Kenya where wheat is grown on commercial scale.

(2mks)

1. e) Name two wheat producing provinces in Canada                             (2mks)
2. f) Explain five factors which enable Canada to produce more wheat than

Kenya.                                                                                                 (5mks)

1. a) State five physical conditions required for the growing of tea in Kenya

(5mks)

1. b) Explain four problems experienced in small scale tea farming in Kenya

(8mks)

1. The map below shows some major tea growing areas in Kenya.

1. a) Name the areas marked W, X and Y.                                                 (3mks)
2. b) Give two reasons why there was an increase in tea production over the

given period.                                                                                       (2mks)

1. c) Describe the stages through which tea is processed from picking to the time it is ready for marketing. (5mks)
2. Name major cocoa growing areas in Ghana. (3mks)
3. List suitable conditions for cultivation of cocoa. (4mks)
4. Name types of commercially cultivated coffee. (3mks)
5. Explain ways in which Brazilian government responds to problems facing coffee industry. (6mks)
6. Name four uses of maize. (4mks)
7. List four problems facing maize farmers. (4mks)
8. Outline stages in industrial processing of cocoa. (5mks)

CHAPTER 12

AGRICULTURE – LIVESTOCK.

1. a) Name two exotic breeds of dairy cattle reared in Kenya.                 (2mks)
2. b) State three physical conditions that favour dairy farming in Denmark

(8mks)

1. a) Explain four ways in which the government of Kenya assist nomadic

pastoralist to improve  the quality of their livestock

1. Explain three factors that favour beef farming in Argentina.
2. State three environmental conditions which favour commercial beef farming in Kenya. (3mks)
3. Name two exotic breeds of cattle reared in commercial ranches in Kenya.

(2mks)

1. Mention three problems facing beef farming in Kenya. (3mks)
2. State five human factors that have favoured beef farming in Argentina.     (5mks)
3. State differences in dairy farming in Kenya and in Denmark.                     (6mks)
4. What effort is Kenyan government making to improve dairy farming?      (5mks)
5. What is nomadic herding?                                                                             (2mks)
6. State five features of nomadic herding.                                                         (5mks)
7. Explain two efforts Kenyan government has made to improve beef farming.                                                                                                                                             (4mks)
8. Explain four physical conditional that favour dairy farming in Kenya.       (8mks)
9. The table below shows data on average milk yield in kg per cow in Denmark.

 Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Yields (Kg) 5243 6693 7398 7610 7792 7946

(a)       (i)        Draw a divided rectangle 15cm long to represent milk yield in

Denmark.

(ii)       State two advantages of using divided rectangles.

(b)       (i)        Explain three factors that have favoured dairy farming in Denmark.

(6mks)

(ii)       State 3 problems facing dairy farmers in Kenya.

(c)       Explain why beef farming is more developed in Argentina than in Kenya.

FORM FOUR WORK

CHAPTER 1

LAND RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION.

1. (a)       Give two methods used to reclaim lend in Kenya.                            (2mks)

(b)       Outline the stages through which land is reclaimed from the sea in the

Netherlands.                                                                                       (5mks)

1. (a)       Difference between land reclamation and rehabilitation.                 (4mks)

(b)       Five ways through which land is being reclaimed.                           (5mks)

(c)       Describe of polderization process in Netherlands.                            (4mks)

(d)       State three benefits that resulted from the reclamation of the Yala Swamp.

(3mks)

1. (a)       State the objectives of Mwea irrigation scheme.                              (4mks)

(b)       State the conditions that favoured establishment of Mwea irrigation

scheme.                                                                                               (4mks)

(c)       Explain problems faced by rice farmers in Mwea irrigation scheme.

(5mks)

(d)       State benefits of Perkerra irrigation scheme.                                                (5mks)

(e)       Explain factors that limits Perkerra irrigation scheme.                    (8mks)

1. Differentiate between horticulture and market gardening.                           4 mks
2. Outline three problems facing horticulture farming in Kenya.                    3 mks
3. Name five irrigation schemes in Kenya.                                                       5 mks
4. State two factors that favour the occurrence of tsetse flies in Olambwe Valley.
5. State measures that were taken by Kenyan government to control Tsetse flies in Olumbwe Valley.                                                                                           5 mks
6. Give three conditions that made Mwea suitable for establishment of irrigation

scheme.                                                                                                           3 mks

1. Explain two effects of tsetse flies on humans and livestock.                                   4 mks
2. (a)       Differentiate between land reclamation and land rehabilitation.                 4 mks

(b)       State the reasons for the establishment of Mwea-Tebere irrigation project.

(c)      Explain five problems facings Mwea -Tebere irragation scheme.   5 mks

1. 12.  State the problems facing Perkerra irrigation sceme.                                  5 mks
2. (a)       Outline the benefits which Kenya derives from irrigation farming. 5 mks

(b)       What are the problems experienced in irrigation farming in Kenya.           5 mks

1. (a)       Apart from irrigation, list other methods of land reclamation in Kenya.

(b)       Briefly describe the methods listed in 12 (a).                                   5 mks

1. State the benefits of Yala-Bunyala project. 5 mks
2. (a) What is a polder.                                                                                5 mks

(b)       Describe the stages involved in 1f reclamation of a polder.                          5 mks

(c)       State five benefits of land reclamation in Netherlands.

1. State the main differences between the methods of land reclamation in Kenya and Netherlands.                                                                                                   6 mks

CHAPTER 2

FISHING

1          (a)       State three measures that have been taken to conserve fisheries in Kenya.

3 mks

(b)       Give four reasons why Norway is a great fishing nation.                 4 mks

(c)       Two traditional/ subsistence methods of fishing.                             2 mks

(d)       Three measures the government of Kenya is undertaking to encourage fish culture.                                                                                                3 mks

1. Use the map of North America to answer question (a).

(a)       Name two methods of fishing used in the shaded areas.                   2 mks

(b)       Name two types of fish caught along the West Coast of Canada.    2 mks

(c)       Explain how the following factors favour fishing in the shaded areas,

(i)        Indented coastline

(ii)       Ocean currents                                                                        4 mks

(d)       Give three methods used to preserve fish.                                         3 mks

(e)       Explain three problems experienced by fishermen while fishing in Lake Victoria.                                                                                              3 mks

1. The map below shows some major fishing grounds in the world. Use it to

(a)       Name the countries marked P and Q.                                                2 mks

(b)       Explain four conditions that favour fishing in the shaded coastal waters.

8 mks

1. (a)       The diagrams below represents some fishing methods.

(i)        Name R and S.                                                                                    2 mks

(ii)       Describe how the above methods are used in fishing.                      4 mks

1. (a)       Differentiate between fishing and fisheries.                                     4 mks

(b)       Identify the physical and human factors influencing fishing.           5mks

1. (a)       Draw an outline map of the world and locate the major fishing grounds.

2 mks

(b)       Account for the location of fishing grounds located in 6(a).            4 mks

1. (a)       Discuss the main types of fishing.                                                     3 mks

(b)       List the traditional methods of fishing.                                             3 mks

(c)       Describe how the following methods of fishing are carried out:

(i)        Drifting

(ii)       Trawling                                                                                 4 mks

1. (a)       (i)        Apart from Lake Victoria, name other fresh water fisheries in

Uganda and Tanzania.                                                            4 mks

(ii)       Explain the factors favouring fishing on Lake Victoria.       6 mks

(b)       Explain why marine fisheries are underdeveloped in East Africa.   5 mks

1. (a)       State the significance of fishing to the economy of Kenya.             5 mks

(b)       (i)        Describe the problems facing fishing in Kenya.                   5 mks

(ii)       Identify the solutions in b(i) above.                                       5 mks

1. Draw a table showing the similarities and differences between fishing in Kenya and Japan. 6 mks
2. (a)     Define:

(i)        Management of fisheries.

(ii)       Conservation of fisheries.                                                      4 mks

(b)       State the measures which can be undertaken to manage and conserve fisheries.                                                                                             4 mks

CHAPTER 3

WILDLIFE.

1. Use the map of East Africa below to answer question (a) (i)

Name the national parks marked P, Q and R.                                                3 mks

1. Give FOUR reasons why wildlife conservation is encouraged in Kenya. 4 mks
2. State three reasons why National Parks have been established in Kenya.    3 mks
3. (a)       Differentiate between game reserves and game parks.                    4 mks

(b)       State four steps taken by Kenyan government to promote wildlife resources.                                                                                                 4 mks

1.    Explain three ways in which human activities are a threat to wildlife.        6 mks
2.  What is wildlife?                                                                                           2 mks
3. State five reasons for the need to conserve wildlife?                                                5 mks
4. State three types of wildlife one may find at I, Nakuru.                               3 mks
5. Explain four problems the government of Kenya faces in efforts to conserve wildlife?                                                                                                         8 mks
6. State human factors that affect existence of wildlife.                                   5 mks
7. State ways in which government of Kenya can strengthen anti poaching unit.
8. (a)       Define:

(i)        Wildlife

(ii)       Tourism                                                                                  4 mks

(b)       Distinguish between Same Reserves, National Parks and Sanctuaries.

(c)       State five significance of wildlife in East Africa.                             5 mks

1. (a)       Discuss the problems facing wildlife in East Africa.                                    5 mks

(b)       Explain the measures taken to manage and conserve wildlife in East   Africa                                                                                                            6 mks

CHAPTER 4

TOURISM.

1. (a)       Explain the differences between the tourist attractions in East Africa and

in Switzerland under the following sub­headings:

(i)        Climate.

(ii)       Culture                                                                                    4 mks

(b)       Explain five benefits that Kenya derives from tourism.                   10 mks

(c)       Explain four measures that Kenya should take in order to attract more tourists.                                                                                               8 mks

1. (a)       Apart from historic sites, name two tourist attractions along the Coastal

strip of Kenya.                                                                                                2 mks

(b)       Give -three reasons why it is necessary to preserve historical sites.            3 mks

1. (a)       Name two game reserves in Kenya.                                                   2 mks

(b)       Define of domestic tourism                                                               2 mks

(c)       How has the recent negative travel advisories affected Kenya’s economy?

4 mks

1. (a)       Explain four measures the Kenyan government has taken to attract more

tourists.                                                                                               8 mks

(b)       Explain three factors that have led to development of tourism in Switzerland.

1. (a)       Differentiate between the following

(i)        Ecotourism

(ii)       Domestic tourism                                                                   4 mks

(b)       Explain similarities between tourism in Kenya and in Switzerland.            8 mks

1. Explain why tourism is ‘invisible export.                                                      2 mks
2. Explain four positive effects of tourism.                                                       8 mks
3. Explain four ways in which tourism in Kenya differ from that Switzerland.          8 mks
4. Why are some parts of Kenya not developed for tourism?                           3 mks
5. What are the problems facing tourism in Kenya?                                         5 mks
6. State five efforts being made to improve tourism industry in Kenya.         5 mks
7. What is domestic tourism?                                                                            2 mks
8. Name tourist attractions found in Rift Valley province of Kenya.               5 mks
9. What factors hinder development of domestic tourism in Kenya?              5 mks
10. Name two historical attractions along Kenyan coast.                                   2 mks
11. (a)       Define:

(i)        Eco-tourism

(ii)       Domestic tourism

(iii)      International tourism                                                              6 mks

(b)       (i)        State five tourist attractions in Kenya.                                  5 mks

(ii)       Explain five factors influencing tourism in Kenya.               10 mks

1. (a)       State six factors influencing tourism in Switzerland.                       6 mks

(b)       Explain five problems facing tourism in Kenya.                              10 mks

1. Compare and contrast tourism in Kenya and Switzerland.                           8 mks
2. The table below shows the number of tourists who visited Kenya.

 Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 No. Of Tourists 1.53 m 1.64 m 1.65 m 1.77 m 1.54 m

(a)       Using a radius of 3cm draw a pie-chart to represent the above data.

(b)       List three advantages of using pie-charts to represent statistical data.

CHAPTER 5

ENERGY.

1. (a)       Apart from providing power, state three other benefits of the dams along

River Tana.                                                                                                     3 mks

(b)       State two problems that affect hydro­electric power production along river Tana.                                                                                                   2 mks

(c)       State two factors that hinder the expansion of geothermal power.   2 mks

1. (a)       Name two non-renewable sources of energy.                                    2 mks

(b)       Explain four physical factors that influence the location of a hydro­electric power station.                                                                                     8 mks

1. (a)       Explain three benefits that would result from rural electrification in

Kenya.                                                                                                 6 mks

(b)       In what three ways did the power shortage resulting from the drought of the years 1999 and 2000 affect this industrial sector in Kenya?            5 mks

1. (a)     Give three reasons that make tropical countries to have the potential to

develop HEP.                                                                                      3 mks

(b)       Give two reasons why tropical countries are not sufficient in HEP production.                                                                                         2 mks

1. Use the diagram to answer questions below.

(a)       Name

(i)        The HEP stations marked S & T                                            2 mks

(ii)       Name the proposed HEP station marked U.                          1 mk

(b)       Name renewable sources of industrial energy other than water       2 mks

1. The diagram below shows the occurrence of petroleum in the earth’s crust. Use it to answer question (a).

(a)       Name the substances labeled I, M and N.                                          3 mks

(b)       Give two by-products obtained when crude oil is refined.               2 mks

(c)       Explain efforts by Kenyan government to reduce cost on importation of petroleum.                                                                                          6 mks

1. Name two main disadvantages of using coal as a source of energy.                        2 mks
2. Suggest four solutions to Kenya’s energy deficit.                                         4 mks
3. What are the causes of energy crises?                                                                       4 mks
4. List uses of nuclear energy.                                                                           4 mks
5. Name uses of wind energy.                                                                            2 mks
6. Name two non- renewable sources of energy.                                               2 mks
7. Why has usage of coal as a source of energy declined?                                4 mks
8. Give four reasons why Kenya has been unable to exploit high geothermal power potential. 4 mks
9. Name the various methods that can be used to conserve energy.                 4 mks
10. Define biomass.                                                                                              2 mks
11. (a)       Define energy.                                                                                                2 mks

(b)       List three renewable; sources of energy.                                           3 mks

(c)       State the disadvantages of coal as a source of energy.                      4 mks

1. (a) What is the name of power projects along river Tana.

(b)       Apart from hydroelectric power production, state the other benefits of the dams along the Tana.                                                                         4 mks

(c)       Identify the problems facing hydroelectric power   production along the Tana.                                                                                                   4 mks

1. (a)       Apart from the Tana, name three other hydroelectric power projects in

Kenya.                                                                                                 3 mks

(b)       State the benefits of the Owen Falls Dam in Uganda.                       4 mks

(c)       State the factors limiting the expansion of geothermal power production in Kenya.                                                                                                 4 mks

1. Apart from hydro-electric power production; state the other benefits of the dams.

4 mks

1. State the significance of energy.                                                                    5 mks
2. (a)       What is energy crisis?                                                                        2 mks

(b)       State the causes of energy crisis.                                                       2 mks

1. Explain the problems Kenya faces due to overdependence on petroleum.   4 mks
2. (a)       Differentiate between management and conservation of energy.     2 mks

(b)       Describe the measures of management and conservation of energy.           10 mks

CHAPTER 6

INDUSTRY

1. (a) State two reasons why some industries are located near the sources of raw.                                                                                                                                                2 mks

(b)       Give three characteristics of the cottage industry in India.              3 mks

1. (a)       State characteristics of jua kali industries in Kenya.                                    5 mks

(b)       State problems facing Jua kali industries in Kenya.                                     5 mks

(c)       Differentiate between manufacturing and j tertiary industries.        4 mks (d)             State three factors that led to the growth of iron and steel industry in the:

Ruhr region of Germany.                                                                   3 mks

1. (a)       Name three agricultural non-food manufacturing industries in Kenya.                                                                                                                                           3 mks

(b)       Explain three causes of the decline in the textile industry in Kenya.           3 mks

(c)       Describe the measures that should be taken to control the following.

(i)        Water pollution

(ii)       Rural urban migration.                                                           2mks

(d)       Explain four factors which have favoured the development of the electronics industry in Japan.                                                                   8 mks

1. (a)       What is industrialization?                                                                  2 mks

(b)       Name a town in Kenya where each one of the following industries is located,

(i)        Oil refinery

(ii)       Paper manufacturing

(iii)      Motor vehicle assembly.                                                        3 mks

(c)       Give five factors why the development of the Jua kali industry is encouraged In Kenya.                                                                    5 mks

(d)       Name two non-food agricultural industries in Thika.                       2 mks

1. State benefits of exploiting soda ash in Kenya.                                            5 mks
2. State two major steps currently -undertaken by the government to promote industrial growth and development.                                                              2 mks
3. What is industrialization?                                                                              2mks
4. State three reasons why the jua kali industry is encouraged in Kenya.        3 mks
5. (a)       What is an industry.                                                                           (2mks)

(b)       State two ways in which each of the factors affect the location and

development of industries.

(i)        Raw materials

(ii)       Transport

(iii)      Markets                                                                                   6 mks

(c)       Explain why power is not considered as a major industrial locational factor in the modern world.                                                              2 mks

1. (a)       Define:

(i)        Primary industry

(ii)       Secondary industry

(iii)      Quaternary industry                                                               6 mks

(b)       (i)        What is meant by Jua Kali industry in Kenya?                     2 mks

(ii)       State five economic benefits of the Jua Kali industry in Kenya.                                                                                                                              5 mks

(c)       Explain the significance of industrialization to Kenya.                    6 mks

1. (a)       State two main industries found in the towns below:

(i)        Thika

(ii)       Athi River

(iii)      Kisumu

(iv)      Nanyuki

(v)       Nakuru                                                                                    10 mks

(b)       Explain the problems associated with industrialization.                  6 mks

1. State five reasons why the Ruhr region in Germany is the leading industrial centre in Europe. 5 mks
2. (a)       (i)        Mention four industrial regions in Japan.                             4 mks

(ii)       List five factors that have aided car manufacture and electronic industries in Japan.                                                                 5 mks

(b)       Explain the reasons which contributed to the growth and development of the cottage industry in India.                                                       8 mks

CHAPTER 7

SETTLEMENT.

1. The diagram below represents the functional zones of urban centre. Use it to answer question (a)

(a)       (i)        Name the zones marked X and Y.                                          2 mks

(ii)       List three functions of the Central Business District.           3 mks

1. (a)       Name two types of human settlements.                                             2 mks

Use the sketch below to answer question (b)

(b)       Settlement patterns marked Q A R.                                                   2 mks

1. (a)       Name two types of rural settlement patterns.                                                2 mks

(b)       Apart from urban-rural migration, name two other types of migration.

2 mks

(c)       State three factors that may lead to urban-rural migration.              3 mks

1. State three factors which led to the development of Mombasa into a major sea port in the region.                                                                                      3 mks
2. (a)       What is urbanization?                                                                        2 mks

(b)       Give two differences in the functions of New York and Nairobi cities.

4 mks

1. Apart from pollution, explain four problems experienced in urban centres.           8 mks
2. Explain similarities and differences between Nairobi and New York cities. 8 mks
3. State two main functions of rural settlements.                                              2 mks
4. Explain four problems that are experienced in Nairobi as one of the major urban centres in Kenya.                                                                                            4 mks
5. List three factors that have led to rapid growth of Mombasa town.                         3 mks
6. State ways through which the Kenyan government is using to solve problems of Nairobi city.                                                                                                   5 mks
7. (a)       Differentiate between the terms settlement and urbanization.         4 mks

(b)       Identify factors influencing settlement.                                            4 mks

(c)       State the factors influencing patterns of settlement.                                     5 mks

1. (a)       By use of relevant examples, explain the distribution of urban centres in

East Africa.                                                                                         5 mks

(b)       Explain 4 human factors which may lead to development of towns.

1. (a)       Explain factors leading to the growth of Kisumu as a Lake Port.    8 mks

(b)       What are the functions of Thika town?                                             5 mks

1. Explain the problems facing New York City. 6 mks
2. (a)       Outline the main differences between the cities of New York and Nairobi.

4 mks

(b)       Compare the port of Mombasa to the port of Rotterdam.                 8 mks

1. Discuss the effects of urbanization. 4 mks

CHAPTER 8

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION.

1. State the causes of the decline in the use of letter writing as a means of communication in Kenya.                                                                              5 mks
2. (a)       Give three advantages of railway over road transport.                     3 mks

(b)       The map below shows the extent of the oil pipeline in Kenya. Use it to answer question (b).

Name the towns marked X and Y which are served by the pipeline.            2 mks

(c)       State two disadvantages of using pipelines as means of transporting oil.

(d)       Use the map drawn below of St. Lawrence sea way to answer the questions that follow.

(i)        Name the towns A and B

(ii)       Name lakes X, Y, Z

(iii)      Name canal marked V 3.

1. Use the sketch map of Lake Victoria below to answer question (a).

(a)       Name the lake ports marked P, Q, and R                                           3 mks

(b)       Outline two advantages of using containers while handling goods at the port of Kisumu.                                                                              2 mks

1. (a)      Give three reasons why road transport is used more than air transport in

East Africa.                                                                                         3 mks

(b)       In what three ways does Kenya benefit from air links with the rest of the world?                                                                                                 3 mks

1. Use the map of East Africa below to answer question (a).

(a)       Name the railway terminuses marked P, Q and R.                            3 mks

(b)       Give the main commodities transported by the railway lines marked S and T.                                                                                                            2 mks

(c)       Name the port marked U and the lake marked V.                             2 mks

(d)       State four reasons why road network is more widespread than railway network in East Africa.                                                                      4 mks

(e)       One of the problems facing road transport is the high frequency of accidents. Explain four conditions of roads in Kenya that may lead to accident.                                                                                             8 rnks

1. Give four benefits of the efforts the government is data in streamlining pubic transport sector.                                                                                              4 mks
2. Outline two major problems affecting the development of trans- African highway in Africa.                                                                                                             2 mks
3. State two major problems hindering river transport in Kenya.                    2 mks
4. Suggest three benefits of the proposed Southern bypasses to be constructed in Kenya.                                                                                                             3 mks
5. (a)       Define containerization.

(b)       Outline three merits of using containerization as a method of transportation.                                                                                               3mks

1. (a)       State three problems facing railway transport in Kenya.                  3 mks

(b)       Identify importance of railway transport in a country.                     4 mks

1. Differentiate between ‘transport’ and communication.                                 4 mks
2. Apart from cell phones, mention other two modern methods of communication.

2 mks

1. State advantages of using cell phones communication.                                3 mks
2. State reasons why St. Lawrence sea way was set up by the government of USA.

4 mks

1. (a)       Define:

(i)        Transport

(ii)       Communication                                                                      4 mks

(b)       Apart from water transport, list the other modes of transport.         2 mks

(c)       Name the two types of waterways used in transportation.                2 mks

1. (a) Give three reasons why river transportation in Africa is poorly developed.

3 mks

(b)       Name the major ocean routes of the world.                                       3 mks

(c)       State the advantages of water transport.                                            6 mks

1. (a)       Account for the poor rail linkages j, between the African countries.           2 mks

(b)       Name three trans-continental rail lines in Africa.                             3 mks

(c)       What are the advantages and disadvantages of transporting goods by rail?

6 mks

1. (a)       Why is railway transport less used in Africa?                                   4 mks

(b)        Name two railway systems in Africa.                                               2 mks

2. (a)       What is containerization?                                                                  2 mks

1. Identify the main types of communication.                                                   4 mks
2. (a)       Name two trans-African highways                                                    2 mks

(b)       What are the benefits of trans-African highways?                            2 mks

(c)       Explain the problems facing the trans-African highways.                4 mks

1.    Discuss the role of transport and communication in economic development of Africa.                                                                                                             4 mks
2. (a)       State the problems facing transport and communication in Africa. 4 mks

(b)       Outline the efforts being made to solve these problems.                  4 mks

1. (a)       (i)        Identify the obstacles that face navigation along the St Lawrence

seaways.                                                                                  3 mks

(ii)       State ways in which navigation on the seaway was improved.                                                                                                                                 4 mks

(b)       Explain the benefits of the St. Lawrence seaway on the economies of the United States of America and Canada.                                              6 mks

CHAPTER 9

1. (a)       State five reasons why the common market for Eastern and Southern

Africa was formed.                                                                             5mks

1. (a)       What is international trade?                                                                           5mks

(b)       Name major imports from Europe to Kenya                                                 2 mks

(c)       List factors that influence the import and export of goods in Kenya.                                                                                                                                              4 mks

(d)       Explain ways through which Kenya will I benefit from the renewed East African co-operation.                                                                                     6 mks

(e)       Explain negative effects of international trade.                                6 mks

1. (a)       Explain four measures which Kenya may take to reduce the unfavourable

(b)       Explain four benefits that Kenya derives from international trade.             8 mks

1. (a)       What is Trade?                                                                                   2 mks

(b)   Identify the two types of internal trade.                                                             2 mks

1. State the factors influencing trade. 4 mks
2. (a) Differentiate between visible and invisible exports.                                     4 mks

(b)       Draw a table showing the major visible export and imports of Kenya.                                                                                                                                            8 mks

1. Explain the significance of trade to Kenya.                                                  5 mks
2. State the future on international trade in Kenya. 3mks
3. (a)       What is a regional trading bloc?                                                        2 mks

(b)       Apart from the European Union, name three other regional trading blocs.

3 mks

(c)       Outline the role played by the European Union in the economy of Europe.

4 mks

1. Explain why the Kenya’s exports are more to the outside world than her neighbors.                                                                                                            6 mks

CHAPTER 10

POPULATION

1. (a) State four reasons why the northern parts of Kenya are sparsely populated.

4 mks

(b)       Give two primary sources of population data                                               2 mks

(c)       What information can be derived from a population pyramid?        4 mks

(d)       Describe three ways in which the population of Kenya differ from those of Sweden.                                                                                              6 mks

(e)       Explain four causes of rural-urban migration in Kenya.                   8 mks

1. Explain three problems which result from the high population growth rate in the East African countries.                                                                                   6 mks

2005:

1. List three factors that have contributed to a decline in infant mortality in Kenya.                                                                                                                                     3 mks
2. Explain two reasons why Thika District has a higher population than Murang’a district.                                                                                                           4 mks
3. (a)       State the reasons for carrying out population census.                       5 mks

(b)       How the following factors lead to population increase in Kenya.

(i)        Early marriages

(ii)       Improved medical facilities

(iii)      Cultural beliefs.                                                                      6 mks

1. The pyramid below represents the population of country X. Use it to answer question (a).

(a)       Describe the characteristics of the population represented by the pyramid.

4 mks

(b)       Explain three problems which may result from a high population growth rate.                                                                                                     6 mks

(c)       Describe THREE measures that have been taken in Kenya to reduce infant mortality.                                                                                            6 mks

(d)       Explain four factors that have led to a high population density in Lake Victoria basin.                                                                                    8 mks

1. a)         Define the term population.                                                               2 mks

(b)       Explain factors influencing population distribution.                                    6 mks

1. (a)       Explain factors influencing population growth.                                8 mks

(b)       Describe the main features of population structure of a developing country.                                                                                                         4 mks

1. Explain the factors leading to high fertility levels in a population. 6 mks
2. Compare and contrast population trends between Kenya and Sweden.        8 mks
3. The table below shows population distribution in Kenya by province in 1999. Use it to answer the questions below.
 Province Population Area in Sq Kms Nairobi 2,143,254 696 Central 3,724,159 13,220 Rift Valley 6,987,036 182,539 Western 3,358,776 8,264 Nyanza 4,392,264 12,547 Coast 2,487,264 82,816 Eastern 4,634,779 153,473 N. Eastern 962,143 128,124

Table 9.3 Population of Kenya by Provinces

(a)       Calculate the population density of each province.                          2 mks

(b)       Give reasons why there is a high population density in Central Province of Kenya.                                                                                                 3 mks

CHAPTER 11

MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT.

1. (a) Why is it necessary to conserve water?                                             3 mks

(b)       How does terracing help in water conservation?                               2 mks

1.  (a)     Apart from desertification, name two other environmental hazards

experienced in Kenya.                                                                        2 mks

1. (a)       Name three physical regions through which river Tana passes.       3 mks

(b)       Name two rivers in Kenya to the West of the Rift Valley which causes large scale flooding.                                                                                    2 mks

(c)       Explain four problems caused by floods.                                          8 mks

1. (a)       Define the term pollution.                                                                  2 mks

(b)       Explain three effects of land pollution on the environment.                        6 mks

(c)       State four ways through which Sand pollution can be controlled.                8 mks

1. (a)       State ways in which drought affects the agricultural sector in Kenya.                                                                                                                                             4 mks

(b)       What is soil conservation?                                                                 2 mks

(c)       State three farming methods that assist in soil conservation.           3 mks

1. State three factors contributing to occurrence of floods                               3 mks
2. State five negative effects of floods.                                                             5 mks
3. State measures currently undertaken by Kenyan government to control natural disasters.                                                                                                         5 mks
4. Explain five economic importance of controlling floods.                            10 mks
5. Name five natural hazards.                                                                            5 mks
6. Name three human induced hazards.                                                                         3 mks
7. Define desertification.                                                                                   2 mks
8. Name causes of desertification.                                                                     4 mks
9. List effects of desertification.                                                                        4 mks
10. Explain five types of environment.                                                               10 mks
11. (a)       Define:

(i)        Environment

(ii)       Management of the environment

(iii)      Conservation of the environment                                          6 mks

(b)     Why is it necessary to manage and conserve the environment?         4 mks

1. (a)       Mention six environmental hazards.                                                 6 mks

(b)     Explain:

(i)        The causes of floods.

(ii)       The effects of floods.                                                            4 mks

1. (a)       (i)        What is lightning?                                                                  2 mks

(ii)       What causes lightning?                                                          2 mks

(b)       (i)        What are the effects of lightning?                                         2 mks

(ii)       How can lightning be controlled?                                          4 mks

1. (a)       (i)        Define pollution.                                                                    2 mks

(ii)       Name the four types of pollution.

(b)       (i)        What is air pollution?                                                            2 mks

(ii)       State five causes of air pollution.                                          5 mks

(iii)      How can pollution be controlled?                                          5 mks

1. (a)       (i)        Name four non -governmental organizations involved in the

management and conservation of environment in Kenya.    4 mks

(b)       Explain how legislation in Kenya is used to manage and conserve the

environment.                                                                                      8 mks

MODEL PAPERS.

PAPER 1 (A)

2 HOURS 45 MINUTES

Answer all questions in this section.

1. (a)       Define Geography.                                                                             2 mks

(b)       Explain the relationship between Geography and Biology.              2 mks

1. (a)       Differentiate between mass wasting and mass movement.               2 mks

(b)       Outline four factors that cause soil creep to occur.                           4 mks

1. (a)       Name two fold mountains formed during Alpine Orogeny .                        2 mks

(b)       State three theories which explain the formation of fold mountains.           3 mks 4              Explain what you understand by each of the following;

(a)       Vertical movement.

1. (a)       Give three  conditions necessary for the formation of Karst scenery.                                                                                                                                              3 mks

(b)       List three zones of saturation below the earth surface.                     3 mks

SECTION B

Answer question 6 and any other two questions

1. Study the map of Taita Hills (1: 50 000) sheet 189\4 provided and answer the following questions.

(a)       What is the grid square of:

(i)        Water reservoir at Mwasere

(ii)       Water tank at Kirutai                                                             4 mks

(b)       What is the magnetic variation as of January 1991?                                     2 mks

(c)       What is the direction of flow of River Goshi?                                  2 kms

(d)       Explain four ways in which relief influences settlements in the area covered by the map.                                                                             (8mks)

(e)       Name three types of natural vegetation in the area covered by the map.

3 mks

(f)        Students of the school at Zare carried out field study around the school,

(i)        List four preparations they made.                                          4mks

(ii)       State two methods they would use to collect data.                2 mks

1. (a)       Define the term Lake,                                                                        2 mks.

(b)       Explain three reasons why some Rift Valley lakes are saline.         6 mks

(c)       (i)        Describe how caldera lake is formed.                                                5 mks

(ii)       Give three examples of caldera lakes in Africa.                   3 mks

(d)       Explain four ways in which lakes modify the climate of the surrounding areas.                                                                                                   8 mks

1. (a)       (i)        Define faulting.                                                                      2 mks

(ii)       Distinguish between reverse and tear faults.                         2 mks

(b)       Explain formation of each of the following;

(i)        Fault scarp

(ii)       Tilt block                                                                                4 mks

(c)       Explain four economic significances of faulting to human activities            8mks (d)         (i)        State three advantages of oral interviews.                             3 mks.

1. (a)       (i)        Differentiate between zero lapse rate and environmental lapse rate.

4 mks

(ii)       Name two types of fronts in air masses.                                2 mks

(iii)      State two effects on climate from urbanization.                   2 mks

(b)       (i)        Name one type of hot climates.                                             1 mk

(ii)       Account for the characteristics of rainfall experienced in Equatorial climate.                                                                                   8 mks

(c)       (i)        State four causes of the recent global climatic change.        4 mks

(ii)                   State six major effects of climate change.                            6 mks

1. (a)       (i)        State three characteristics of arid areas.                                3 mks

(ii)       Give two factors that promote wind deposition in arid areas           2 mks

(b)       (i)         Identify   two processes of wind erosion.                             2 mks

(ii)       Describe how the barchan is formed.                                                4 mks

(c)       Differentiate between a rock pedestal and a mushroom block.        4 mks

(d)       Suppose you are asked to carry out a field study on the action of water in a desert.

(i)                    State two objectives for your study                                       2 mks

(ii)       Name two water depositional features you are likely to observe.

2 mks

(iii)     Explain three significance of arid landforms.                                   6 mks

PAPER 1 (B)

2 HOURS 45 MINUTES

SECTION A

Answer all questions in section A

1. a)         Name the minerals found in the core of the earth.                            2 mks
2. b) State ways we understand interior of the earth.                                2,mks
3. a)         What is the plate tectonic theory.                                                      1 mk
4. b) Explain two evidences that support the continental drift theory.     4mks
5. a)         State three characteristics of the troposphere.                                             3mks
6. b) State factors considered for positioning rain gauge.                                     3mks
7. a) List three natural causes of soil creep.                                              3mks
8. b) State two measures used to check mass wasting.                              2 mks
9. (a)     State two physical conditions for development of karst scenery.     2mks
10. b) Name two sources of under ground water.                                        2 mks

SECTION B

Answer question 6 and any other two questions.

1. Study the map of Nyahururu (10:50000) provided and answer the following questions.
2. a) (i) Measure the length of the dry weather road from Marmanet Saw

Mills, grid reference 054143 to the junction at Karima shopping centre grid reference 033099 in kilometers.                          2 mks

1. ii) Calculate the gradient of the slope between point A grid reference 940021 and point B at grid reference 985021.                      2 mks

(b)       (i)        Name drainage features found in the area covered by the map.

3 mks

(ii)       List features found in the southern part of the map indicating the area receives low rainfall.                                                  3 mks

(c)       Describe the relief of the area covered by the map.                          3 mks

(d)       Three natural factors influencing settlements.                                  3 mks

(i)        Name factors favouring location of Nyahururu town.          6 mks

1. ii) State two social functions of the town.                                  3 mks
2. a)         What is a Lake?                                                                                  2 mks
3. b) Discuss the formation following Lakes.
4. i) Lake Victoria
5. ii) Lake Tanganyika                                                                    8 mks
6. c) Explain how human activities have negative impact on lakes.         8 mks
7. d) i) List three positive effects of lakes to humans.                      3 mks
8. ii) Name four follow up activities in fieldwork.                                    4 mks
9. a) i)         Differentiate between mineral and rock.                               4 mks
10. ii) State characteristics of sedimentary rocks.                           3 mks
11. b) Classify rocks according to form and origin giving two examples in each type.                                                                                                    9 mks
12. c) Explain formation of following examples of rocks.                         6 mks
13. i) Tuff
14. ii) Coral rock
15. d) State use of equipment listed   below in fieldwork.                          3 mks

(i)        Geological hammer

(ii)       Lenses

(iii)      Hydrochloric acid

1. a) i)         Name three hot deserts.                                                          3mks
2. ii) State two characteristics of arid lands.                                  2 mks
3. b) Describe formation of following features.
4. i) Rock pedestals
5. ii) Yardang                                                                               8 mks
6. c) Name three resultant features of action of water in deserts.                         3 mks.
7. d) i)       Name three processes of wind transport.                               3 mks.
8. ii) State advantages of using secondary sources of data.           2 mks

iii)       List four evidences of desertification.                                               4 mks.

1. a) i)         What is a fault                                                                        2 mks.
2. ii) Name the parts of a fault?                                                      4 mks
3. b) i)         Name two resultant features of faulting.                               2 mks
4. ii) Explain formation of Rift valley by theory of anticlinal arching.                                                                                                                            3 mks
5. c) i)       Distinguish between basic lava and acidic lava.                   6mks
6. ii) State four characteristics of composite volcano.                  4 mks

iii)      State four positive influences of volcanicity.                                    4 mks

KCSE MODEL PAPER 2 (A)

2 HOURS 45 MINUTES

SECTION A

Answer all questions in this section

1. (a)      Name two exotic beef cattle reared in Kenya.                                   2 mks

(b)       State three physical conditions favouring beef farming in Argentina 3 mks

1. (a)       Name two products which can be transported using pipelines.        2 mks

(b)       Give three advantages of using pipelines as a means of transport.  3mks

1. a)         What is land reclamation?                                                                 2 mks
2. b) State three physical factors which influenced the establishment of the Perkerra irrigation scheme.                                                                3 mks
3. a)         Name three cities in Kenya.                                                               3 mks.
4. b) State three problems facing the growth of Mombasa               3 mks
5. a)         Name two environmental hazards other than floods                                     2mks
6. b) Give three problems resulting from flooding in Lake Victoria 3mks

SECTION B

Answer question 6 and any other two questions

1. a)         (i)        What is statistics?                                                                  2 mks.
2. ii) Name three ways in which data analysis is done.                 3 mks

iii)       Name two advantages of a wind rose.                                   3 mks

1. b) State four physical conditions necessary for the growing of sugar cane.
2. c) Describe the commercial production of sugar cane from land preparation to harvesting.                                                                                          8 mks
3. d) Explain three problems facing sugar cane farmers in Kenya.          6 mks
4. a)         Name three national parks in Uganda                                                            3 mks
5. b) (i)        Explain two differences between a national park and a game

reserve.                                                                                   4 mks

1. ii) Name three tourist attractions found in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya.                                                                                         3 mks
2. c) i) State three physical conditions that influence distribution of

wildlife in East Africa.                                                           3 mks

1. ii) List four problems experienced by the Kenya Government in its effort to conserve wildlife.                                                    4 mks
2. d) Explain four factors which have made Switzerland a major tourist attraction in Europe.                                                                               8 mks
3. (a) i)         What is agroforestry?                                                             2 mks
4. ii) Give three reasons why agroforestry is being encouraged in Kenya.

3 mks

(b)       i)         Name three types of coniferous trees found in Kenya.         3 mks

1. ii) State five characteristics of coniferous forest. 5 mks

1. i) Tree harvesting.
2. ii) Transportation of logs

iii)       Marketing

(d)       Explain three problems that affect forestry in Canada.                    6 mks

1. a) i)         Name two non-renewable sources of energy other than coal. 2 mks
2. ii) Give three disadvantages of using coal as source of energy.            3 mks b)          i)         Name two Geothermal potential areas in Kenya.                  2 mks
3. ii) Give three reasons why Kenya has not been able to fully exploit

her geothermal potential.                                                       3 mks

1. c) Explain four conditions that favour the location of hydroelectric power station.                                                                                                            4 mks
2. d) i)         What is energy crisis?                                                            2 mks
3. ii) Explain three effects of energy crisis in Kenya. 3 mks
4. a) i)         Differentiate between pelagic and demersal fishing.            2 mks
5. ii) Name any two examples of demersal fish.                            2 mks
6. b) State four reasons why fresh water fishing is more important than marine water fishing in Kenya.                                                                      4 mks
7. c) i)     What is fish farming?                                                                        2 mks
8. ii) State four ways through which fish farming contributes to the economy of t Kenya.                                                              4 mks
9. d) State three problems facing fish farming in Kenya. 3 mks
10. e) Explain four conditions that favour fishing in Japan. 4 mks

KCSE MODEL PAPER 2 (B)

2 HOURS 45 MINUTES

SECTION A:

Answer all questions in this section

1. a)         State three advantages of using solar energy.                                   (3mks)
2. b) State two factors hindering the development of solar energy.        (2mks)
3. a)          State three ways through which Kenya has benefited from international

airports.                                                                                              (3mks)

1. b) Suggest two possible solutions to Africa’s transport and communication problems.                                                                                            (2mks)
2. a)         Distinguish between population distribution and population density.                                                                                                                                             (2mks)
3. b) State three problems created by a decline of population in a developed country.                                                                                               (3mks)
4. a)         State two physical factors which influence the location of settlements.

(2mks)

1. b) Which are the three functional zones of an ideal urban centre?       (3mks)
2. a)         List two types of fish reared in ponds.                                              (2mks)
3. b) State measures that have been undertaken by the government of Kenya to encourage fish farming.                                                              (3mks)

SECTION B

Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

1. Use the photograph below to answer questions (a) i and (ii)

1. a) i)      Identify the type of photograph given above.                        (1mk)
2. ii) Name two major features represented in the area shown on the photograph.                                                                             (2mks)
4. c) Explain four limitations of road transport.                                        (8mks)
5. d) Explain four problems faced by African states in efforts to improve roads.

(8mks)

1. (a) Give five reasons why wildlife conservation is encouraged in Kenya.

(5mks)

1. b) Explain what you understand by the following terms:
2. i) Domestic tourism.
3. ii) Eco-tourism                                            (4mks)

(c)       Explain three factors that have hindered the development of domestic tourism in Kenya.

(d)       Explain four factors that have made Switzerland a major tourism destination in Europe.

1. (a) What do you understand by the following terms:
2. i) Land reclamation.
3. ii) Land rehabilitation.                                                              (4mks)
4. b) i) State any four methods used in land reclamation and rehabilitation

in Kenya.                                                                                (4mks)

1. ii) Apart from Mwea Tebere, name two other large scale irrigation schemes in Kenya.                                                                  (2mks)

iii)       Explain four factors that led to the establishment of Mwea Tebere

irrigation scheme.                                                                  (8mks)

(c)       i)         What is a polder?                                                                   (2mks)

1. ii) Describe how a polder is reclaimed.                                      (5mks)
2. a) i)         Name three areas where forests are found in the Rift Valley of

Kenya.                                                                                     (3mks)

1. b) Explain four factors that favour the growth of softwood forests in Swaziland.                                                                                                 (4mks)
2. c) i)       Explain four problems experienced in commercial exploitation of

the equatorial forest in Africa.                                               (4mks)

1. ii) Give three species of trees found in Gabon.                                      (3mks)
2. d) State three measures being taken to conserve forests in Kenya.      (3mks)
3. (a)       i)         Name two conditions that are necessary for the formation of

petroleum.                                                                              (2mks)

1. ii) Give two reasons why Kenya imports her oil in crude form.            (2mks)

(b)       i)         State two advantages of geothermal power.                          (2mks)

1. ii) State four factors that hinder the expansion of geothermal power production in Kenya.                                                              (4mks)

(c)       Explain four ways by which the government of Kenya should apply to conserve her energy.                                                                          (4mks)

(d)       i)         What is multi-purpose dam?                                                  (2mks)

1. ii) State three reasons why Akosombo dam was established. (3mks) iii)             List three benefits of establishing the Akosombo dam.        (3mks)

PAST KCSE AND PREDICTION QUESTIONS

FORM ONE

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY

1. Collective term for methodologies of fieldwork, maps and map work and photograph interpretation used in study of geography.
2. •         Physical geography
• Human geography
1. • Climate
• Rocks and minerals
• Earth and the solar system
• Soil
1. • External conditions surrounding of an organism.
2. • Provides knowledge that promote conservation of resources
• Admission in careers that generate income e.g. Geologist.
• Learn skills in time management useful in personal activities
1. • Transport lines e.g. roads.
• Settlement structures e.g. houses
• Drainage features e.g. boreholes, water dams
• Industries e.g. coffee mills
• Farms e.g. tea estates
1. Part of physical conditions that provide home in which certain organisms live.
2. •           History
• Biology meteorology
• Demography
• Sociology
• Agriculture
• Economics
• Physics
• Chemistry
• Geology
• Medicine
1. • Demography is the study of human population dealing with numerical

aspects of population while population geography is branch of human geography dealing with population explaining where and why people live.

• Economics deals with availability of resources while economic geography is branch of geography that deals with location and distribution of resources.
1. • Geo, graphein

CHAPTER 2

THE EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM

1. (a)   •           Causes day and night/apparent movement of sun from east to west.
• Causes differences in time at different longitudes.
• Causes deflection of winds\ ocean currents.
• Causes rising and falling of sea tides.
• Causes variation in atmosphere pressure on the earth surface.

(b)       •           Earth revolution

• Causes changes in position of midday sun at different times of the year.
• Causes varying length of the days and nights in northern and southern hemisphere.
• Causes changes in seasons; spring, summer, autumn and winter. • Causes lunar eclipse
1. (a) (i)        P – Atmosphere

(ii)       Q – Barysphere/centrosphere/core

(iii)      R -Mohorovicic discontinuity/moho dicontinuity

(b)       •           Divided into two-upper and lower mantle

• Mantles’ main constituent minerals are ferro-magnesium and silicate.
• Mantle is about 2, 900 km thick.
• Upper mantle has low temperature than lower mantle.
• Mantle has temperatures of about 1000°C.
• Mantle is made up heavier rocks than rocks of earth crust.
• Upper mantle is made up of an elastic solid/semi-molten
• Inner mantle is made up an elastic solid/semi molten basic rocks/ viscous liquid.
1. (a) The planets marked F and G is
• Mars
• Neptune
1. (a)       Solar system refers to the composition of the sun, the planets and other

heavenly bodies related to the sun.

(b)       i)         Solar eclipse

(ii)       L – Moon

1. (a) i)         21st March and 23rd September
2. ii) Due to revolution of the earth.

(b)       i)         274.5 days

1. ii) Summer season
2. (i) Solar system – Organization made up of the sun with the nine planets

orbiting around it and heavenly bodies,

(ii)       Galaxy – Group/cluster of stars in the universe.

(iii)      Star – Hot mass of glowing gases that transmit light to outer bodies.

(iv)      Asteroid – Small planet-like objects orbiting around the sun between the planets of Mars and Jupiter.

1. •         Latitude is the distance north or south of equator measured as an angle

from the earth’s centre while longitude is the distance of the earth’s surface measured east or west of prime meridian and expressed as an angle.

Latitude is imaginary line running from East to West showing how far North or South a place is from Equator.

• Dateline is line 180° at which a day is lost or gained while international dateline is zigzag line along longitude 180° deviating land surfaces and at which day is lost or gained.
• Glowing objects that quickly cross the sky before they burn up and disappear while meteorites are those meteors that pass through the atmosphere brightly but do not burn up.
1. • In solar eclipse moon lie between sun and earth while in lunar eclipse

earth lie between moon and sun.

• In solar eclipse shadow of moon is cast on earth while in lunar eclipse shadow of earth is cast on moon.
• Solar eclipse occurs during the day while lunar eclipse occurs during the night.
• Lunar eclipse is caused by earth’s revolution while solar eclipse is caused by revolution of moon.
1. •           Presence of water that support life.
• Presence of atmosphere with adequate O2 and CO2 levels that support life of animals and plants respectively.
• Enough heat and light due to earth’s favourable distance from the sun.
• Proportional gravitational force that allow objects to be upright on the earth’s surface.
1. (a) •           Causes deflection of the winds
• Causes time difference between Meridians.
• Causes variation in speed of air masses.
• Causes rising and falling of ocean currents.
• Causes variation in atmospheric pressure.

G.M                 East

34°E                41°E

1 p.m.              ?

1°         =         4 minutes

4 x 4   =   16 minutes

Local time = 1.16 p.m.

1. (a)     Periods 21st March and 23rd September when the sun is overhead at

midday along the equator.

(b)       •           Sun is overhead at mid-day along the tropic of cancer/Capricorn.

• The Arctic Circle experiences 24 hrs of daylight.
• Days are longer than nights.
• Temperatures are high in the region experiencing summer solstice.
• 24 hour sunshine within the circles.
1. 66 ½ 0, 23 ½ 0
2. (a) Silica, aluminium

(b)       2.7 gms/cc

(c)       6 -10 kms

(d)       3.0-3.3 gms/cc

(e)       3470 kms

(f)        5,500 cc

1. Chances of another star approaching the sun are minimal.
• High temperature materials drawn from the sun would disperse rather than condense.
• It does not explain where the sun and the star came from.
1. Hydrosphere is part of the earth surface covered by water masses e.g. oceans, seas, rivers and swamps while atmosphere refers to thin layer of gases surrounding the earth and held by earth’s gravitational pull.
2. (a)      1.         Uranus
3. Venus
4. Earth
5. Venus
6. Jupiter
7. Venus
8. Mercury
9. • Earth rotates on its own axis to make a complete turn; and its poles rotate

of this axis and pulled towards each other (centripetal forces)

• Equator covers a long distance and therefore rotates faster, with more speed causing a flinging force (centrifugal force).
1. • Low temperatures
• Longer night times than day times at latitudes beyond equator
• The sun is overhead Tropic of Capricorn on 22nd December and its winter Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere.
• On 21st June the sun is directly overhead the Tropic of Cancer and its winter solstice is in the Southern hemisphere.
• Sun is not visible at cycles and there is darkness for 24 hrs.
1. • Winter solstice occurs on 22nd December and 21st June when the sun is

overhead at mid-day along tropic of Capricorn and Cancer respectively. At the Arctic Circle and Antarctic circles the sun is visible for only a few minutes when it appears above the southern/ Northern horizon.

• Summer solstice occurs on 21st June and 22nd December when the sun is overhead in the tropic of Cancer and Capricorn respectively. The sun rises higher in the sky and is visible for 24 hrs at the arctic and Antarctic cycles.
1. (a) It is a shadow that is formed when rays of the sun are blocked from

reaching the earth or the moon.

(b)       •           Comets

• Asteroids
• Meteorites
•       Satellites
1. • It is an imaginary line running from North to South that shows how far

east and West a place is from the Greenwich prime meridian.

• It refers to angular distance east or west of the Greenwich prime meridian.
1. •           It causes aphelion whereby the earth is sometimes in its farthest position

from the sun.

• It causes periphelion whereby the sun is sometime at its closest position to the sun.
• It influences the occurrence of spring and neap tides.
• It changes cycle of equinoxes and solstices
• It influences occurrence of seasons
1. 1° – 4 minutes

47° x 4 = 188 minutes

188 minutes = 3 hrs 8 minutes

Buchanan is 3 hrs 8 minutes behind Nairobi.

Time is 6.52 a.m.

1. (a) On crossing this longitude while going to the West, a day is gained and

white crossing to the East a day is lost.

(b)       661/2°

(c)       Photographs taken from the outer space or satellites show the curvature of the earth.

• During eclipse of the moon, the earth casts a spherical-shaped shadow on the moon.
• Circumnavigation of the earth along a straight path will bring one back.
• Earths horizon
• Other planets are curved and earth is one of planets.
• Different rising and setting times in different places.
• An approaching ship.

CHAPTER 3

WEATHER

1. (a)       During the day the land heats faster than the sea.
• The air over the land rises
• Cooler air from the sea blows towards the land to replace the rising air
• The cool air from the sea is called sea breeze

(b)       (i)        H- Mozambique, J – Benguera

(ii)       Raising temperature Causes rainfall

2          •           Troposphere

• Stratosphere
• Mesosphere
• Ionosphere
1. (a) •           Air must have abundant moisture.
• A cloudless night to facilitate terrestrial radiation.
• Air should be calm to remain in contact with the ground in order to be cooled.
• There should be gentle air currents to hold water droplets in suspension.
• The air must be cooled below dew point.

(b)       (i)       R – cumulus

1. (a)        (i)       X – 3°C

Y – 9°C

(b)                   (i)        583 mm

(ii)       •           Sea make water is heated intensely by solar radiation.

• Heating is intense in the afternoon
• Warm moisture laden air rises and condenses at higher altitude.
• Condensed water vapour forms cumulonimbus clouds.
• Clouds eventually give rain accompanied by thunderstorm.
1. (a)       (i)        30.3 – 28.4 =1.9°C

(ii)       9.0 + 8.0 + 21.0 + 49.0 + 25.0 + 9.0 + 20.0+10.0 + 4.0+10.0+17.0+11.0   =1930 mm

(b)        •         Altitude – High altitude areas have low temperature and low

pressure. Temperature varies with height because air is heated from below.

• Winds transfer heat from one place to another causing changes in temperature.
• Latitude influences climate such that areas near equator are warmer.
• Aspect influences climate as south facing slopes in the northern hemisphere are warmer than north facing slopes in the same.
• ITCZ- zone of low pressure which migrates North and South equator affects rainfall.
1. (a) •           Sunshine
• Rainfall
• Wind
• Cloud cover
• Air pressure
• Humidity
1. a) •           Open area free of shade by trees and buildings.
• Gentle land free of flooding
• Area with wide view of surroundings.
• Away from concrete surfaces.
1. b) Reasons why Stevenson screen is;
• Painted white – can reflect direct heat from the sun.
• Louvred on sides – To allow free flow of air and regulate temperature.
1. Relative humidity refers to the ratio between water vapour actually present in the air and its capacity to hold water vapour at a given temperature.
2. (a)       •           It’s heavy and torrential/falls in large drops.
• Usually accompanied by lighting and thunderstorms
• Falls mainly in the late afternoon
• It’s highly localized and lasts for a short while (15-20 mins)

(b)       Radiation fog forms when air in contact with the ground is cooled through terrestrial radiation while advection fog forms when   warm moist air is cooled as it passes over cool surface e.g. land/sea.

1. (a)      •           When the temperature rises, the alcohol in the left hand column

expands and pushed the mercury column. The mercury in turn pushes the mercury in the right hand column and steel metal index up.

• The maximum temperature is shown by the end of the index pushed by the mercury.
• When the temperature falls, alcohol in the left hand column contracts and pulls the index along the tube. When the temperature rises, the alcohol expands leaving behind the index. Then the minimum temperature is read.

(b)       •           According to the altitude of their bases.

• Their appearance/structure
• Their formation
1. (a)       –           It should be in an open place with free flow of air.

–           Away from barrier e.g. trees

–           Should be on a fairly level ground.

–           The site should be free from flooding

–           The site should provide a wide view of the surrounding landscape and the sky.

(b)       •           Intensity of the sun’s radiation in space the average distance from

the sun.

• The transparency of the atmosphere
• Position of the earth in its orbit
• The area and nature of the surface on which the rays fall.
1. Climate           It’s the average weather condition of a given place over a period or

time usually (30-35 years)

Relative humidity       Refers to the ratio between water vapour actually present in the air and its maximum capacity to hold water vapour at a given temperature.

Weather forecasting   it’s the prediction of the weather situation for a given place within a given period of time e.g. hour, a day, a week.

Absolute humidity      It is the total amount of water vapour that a given volume of air can   -hold.

Weather lore               Refers to a body of traditional facts and beliefs relating to weather e.g. a halo around the moon, croaking of frogs, a rainbow, migration of birds

1. •           The students are able to relate what they have learnt in class to the real

environment hence making geography real and interesting.

• It breaks the class monotony.
• It enables learners to develop skills or observation measurement, recording and analyzing data.
• It improves the visual memory through observation.
1. (a) •           Rain gauge
• The rain gauge is kept in an open space in the weather station from above. Its raised to avoid splashes from entering into the gauge.
• The water collected is emptied into the measuring cylinder every 24hrs.
• Take readings on the measuring cylinder.
• This cylinder is graduated in mm and the level the water emptied reaches gives us the reading amount of rainfall for the day.
• Record the readings and interpret.
• A maximum and minimum thermometer
• When the temperature rises, alcohol in the left hand column expands and pushes the mercury column and maximum temperature is read.
• When the temperature rises, alcohol in the left hand column contracts and pulls the index along the tube and the minimum temperature is read from the upper end of the index.
• After recording the reading, the thermometer is reset using a magnet.

(b)       (i)        Convectional rainfall

Its formation

• The intense heating from the sun results into warm air rising in form of convectional currents.
• The rising air reaches the high atmosphere and moisture in it condenses. Forms clouds and falls rain.
• It falls in the late afternoon accompanied lighting and thunderstorms.

(c)       Problems

• Lightening and thunderstorms which are destructive to life and property.
• The torrential/large drops which are harmful to the crops and other vegetation.
• The hailstones also are destructive to the crop leaves.
1. (a)       •           Weather forecasting
• Weather forecasting is the prediction of weather conditions

(b)       (i)        Problems of weather forecasting

• Inaccurate data
• Defective instruments
• Personnel with limited skills
• Vagaries of nature such as earthquakes

(ii)       •           Determines times for sea and air travel.

• Determine time when sporting activities take place.
• Determines the fishing activities and habits in the area.
• Help determine suitable clothing for the day.
• Help plan farmers calendar of activities.
• Help plan suitable housing.
1. (a)       How clouds influence weather.
• Clouds determine the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface and the amount leaving the earth’s surface. This determines temperature conditions.
• Day temperatures are moderated by clouds.
• Areas of thick rain clouds have high rainfall.

(b)       (i)        Mean temperature -276/12 = 23°c

(ii)       Annual rainfall 1073 mm

(iii)      Annual range of temperature 5°C

(iv)      Mean rainfall – 1073 mm

(v)       Wettest month – April

1. MUST SHOW WORKING!
2. (a) Large volume of air with uniform temperature and humidity and flow over

considerable distance

(b)       •           Equatorial air mass

• Tropical air masses
• Polar air masses
• Arctic and Antarctic air masses

(c)       15° – 20g/cm2

6g/cm3 =?

RH = A.H x 100% = 6 x 100= 30%

Max                          20

1. (a)     A thermometer/ maximum/ minimum/ six thermometer Hygrometer/wet

and dry bulb thermometer.

1. •           At night, land looses heat faster than sea.
• Air upon land becomes cooler and heavier than that upon the sea.
• The relatively warmer air upon the sea is lighter and therefore it rises while the cooler heavier air at the land flows towards the sea to replace the warm rising air.

CHAPTER 4

STATISTICAL METHODS

1. (a)       (i)        9600-800 = 8,800,000 Barrels

(ii)       21,150,000 Barrels.

(iii)      21,150,000\30 = 705,000 Barrels

1. Graph

(i)        29.3% (29 – 29.5%)    29%

(ii)       4.75%/4.8%/4.9%

(4.75% – 4.9%)

(iii)      Describe the trend of the value of coffee exports from years 1999 to 2003.

• The value was generally declining over the five year period.
• The value was highest in 1999.
• The decline between 1999 and 2000 was minimal/gradual.
• The highest drop was between 2000 and 2001
• There was a minimal drop between 2002 and 2003.
• The decline between 2001 and 2002 was minimal/gradual.
• The value was lowest in 2003.

(iv)      Explain three factors which may have led to the increased export earnings

from horticultural produce in Kenya between years 1999 and 2003.

• Improved technology which leads to advanced crop husbandry/increase the volume of fresh horticultural products.
• Improved ways of packaging have made the produce more competitive/ attractive,
• Improved infrastructure/air/road transport have helped in the quick means of transportation of fresh produce to the market.
• The declining benefits from traditional agricultural exports leading to the expansion of the areas under horticultural crops.
• The government has encouraged the formation of organizations that are assisting horticultural farmers.

(v)       Give three advantages of using simple line graphs to represent data.

• Give clear visual impression.
• Easy to construct.
• Easy to interpret.
• Can be used to represent a wide variety of variables.
• Appropriate for comparison.

(b)       Reasons why Kenya’s agricultural export earning generally are low

•       Kenya sells most of her agricultural products in their raw form and they are priced lowly.
• International prices keep fluctuating from year to year.
• Prices of some commodities are externally determined.
• There is competition from other producing countries/from other similar products.
• Some products are inferior in quality.
• There are fixed quarters for some agricultural products.
• Decline in quantities of some agricultural exports.
1. (a)       Statistics         It refers to the art or science that is concerned with the

interpretation of numeric information.

Statistical data            Refers to the information collected and arranged in a systematic manner.

Statistical methods     Refers to the techniques used in collecting, recording, analyzing and presenting data.

(b)       Primary data and Secondary data

(c)       Closed-ended (rigid) – Open-ended

1. (a)       •           The method should be inexpensive.
• Should be time saving
• Should give accurate data
• Most applicable method

(b)       •           Discreet data refers to the non-continuous data over time given in

whole numbers only e.g.

• Total population in a nation.
• Monthly rainfall totals.
• No. Of livestock per district
• Continuous data can be given in any value including decimals e.g. 1.8km.
1. Sampling refers to the process by which a representative portion of the whole phenomena under study is analyzed and generalized/ generalization is made.

Types of sampling

Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Random sampling

1. (a)       •           Calculation of percentages
• Measuring of Central tendency (mean, median and mode)
• Frequency distribution

(b)       •           Predicting for future trends.

• Showing changes through time
• Establishing Geographical relationships
• For economic planning
• For explaining geographical phenomena.
• Useful for making comparisons.
1. (i)        •           Simple iine graph
• A combined line and bar graph
• Simple bar graph

(ii)       •           The simple bar graph

• Prominent values stick out well
• Bars are appealing to the eye
• Easy to draw, read and interpret the data represented
1. (i)        A set of pre-questions which are related to the topic of study.

(ii)       •           Its a source of first hand information

• The researcher can ask for clarification from the respondent.
• Similar questions are used for all respondents and comparison can easily be made.
• When posted, rigid questionnaires reduce fieldwork expenses.

(iii)      Interview involves collection of information by asking questions directly and recording the answers given. In this method the researcher established contact with the respondent and agree on time for face to face interview with the respondent. Interviews can also be carried out on telephone with the interviewee.

1. Methods of data recording

Tabulation                  This is recording of data by arranging facts of figures in

form of table or list.

Photographing            This is done by use of a camera to record geographical

information.

Tape recording          This can be done when one is collecting data through an oral interview where one uses tape recording device to record conversation.

Tallying                      Used when the data is collected through counting. One counts and puts a vertical strike for every item counted, on the fifth count one puts a diagonal crossing the four strokes.

1. Data refers to facts and figures collected from the field.
2. The mean is

72 + 60 + 65 + 70 + 65 + 80 + 65 + 70 + 80 + 84 + 63 + 75 + 63 + 71 + 74

= 1057             = 70.47

12

1. This is got by arranging the data in an ascending order as follows: 60, 63, 63, 65, 65, 65, 70, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 80, 80, 8.4. The middle number is the median: 70

CHAPTER 5

FIELD WORK

1. •           The information on rainfall can be used by farmers to plan their calendar

of activities.

• The information on humidity can be used in improving storage of produce e.g. Cereals.
• The findings can be used to   plan suitable time for drying farm produce.
1. Advantages of dividing class into groups.
• The class will be able to study the entire course of the river.
• Would enable them to obtain information on each stage of the river.
• Would save on time.
• Would enable studies to be carried out in an orderly way.
• Would encourage participation of all members of class/ entourage individual \ roles.
• Would facilitate more interaction among the group members.
1. Disadvantages of using secondary data.
• Recorded data could be out of date.
• Condition under which data was collected may have changed.
• Obtaining records on the particular river may be difficult.
1. (i)
• To design appropriate research method.
• To prepare the working schedule.
• To be able to identify relevant equipment for data collection.
• To identify suitable areas for study/ to familiarize with people who will provide information
• To seek permission from owners of the land.

(ii)       •           Interviewing

• Taking photographs/video recording
• Measuring the extent of polluted area
• Tape recording.

(iii)      •           Analyzing data

• Writing report
• Giving relevant advice to the stake holders
• Discussing the findings
• Displaying photography, sketches from the study area.
1. (a) •           To get permission from the relevant authority.
• To be able to formulate objectives/hypothesis
• To be able to prepare a working schedule/decide on appropriate methods of data collection.
• To determine the respondents/resource persons.
• To determine methods of data collection required.
• To access the problem likely to be experienced in the area.

(b)       •           Use as fodder.

• Use for providing fruits/roots/vegetables as food.
• Providing wood fuel.
• Controlling soil erosion
• Use of ornaments/beauty, aesthetics.

(c)       •           In order to do a detailed study

• To reduce cost of study
• To save time
• The whole forest is too large to cover within a day.
• It would be less boring to study a small area.
• Some parts may inaccessible
• To reduce bias
1. •           Types of field work
• Field excursions
• Field study
• Field research
1. •           Importance of field work ~
• Breaks classrooms monotony.
• Make study of geography real.
• Helps learner to acquire skills.
• Encourages students to appreciate the environment.
• Enables learners to get first hand information from the field.
• Improves visual memory through observation.
• Enhances what has been learnt in class.
1. •           Procedure of carrying out fieldwork
• Identify type of study
• Statement of objectives
• Formulate hypothesis
• Prepare necessary materials and tools.
• Conduct actual field study.
1. •           Soils
• Rocks
• Vegetation
• Landforms
• Drainage
1. •           Fieldwork preparation
• Seek permission from relevant authorities
• Conduct pre-visit
• Hold class discussions
• Determine methods of data collection and recording.
• Prepare objectives and hypothesis
• Dividing into groups.
• Prepare work schedule.
1. •           Importance of carrying samples
• For laboratory analysis
• There is no adequate time to analyze samples in the field
• Lack of adequate skill to analyze the samples hence need to expert opinion.
• For future reference.
• To expose more students to their findings.
1. Suitable objectives
• To know the type of forest.
• To determine the factors which have favoured growth of forest?
• To know the type of trees found in the forest.
• To find out the problems faced by the forest.
• To find out the economic significance of the forest.
1. Types of hypothesis
• Positive hypothesis    This is stated in positive form.
• Null hypothesis          Stated in negative form.
1. •           Writing reports
• Drawing tables, graphs and charts.
• Drawing maps
• Displaying photographs.
• Displaying photographs.
• Displaying samples.
1. Problems during fieldwork
• Inaccessibility in some areas due to rugged topography.
• Attack by wild animals
• Harsh weather conditions
• Tiredness
•       Accidents
• Language barrier
1. • To help in identifying methods of data collection
• To help in formulating hypotheses/objectives
• To help in assembling equipments
• To help in estimating the cost of the study
• To seek permission for the visit
• To determine appropriate routes
• To identify likely problems ‘-“^
• To identify location of data.

CHAPTER 6

MAPS AND MAP WORK

1. (a)       (i)        14km (1 3.9-14.1 km)

(ii)       134° (133°-135°)

(b)       •           Availability of transport evidenced by railway\road to transport

sisal.

• Large tracts of land with scanty settlements allow expansion of far due to availability of land.
• The area receives low rainfall as evidenced by presence of scrub which discourages growing of other cash crops.
• Gentle sloping land evidenced by spaced contours ideal for mechanization.
•       Supply of labour evidenced by nucleated settlement around Mwatunge.

(c)       (i)

• Escarpments/steep slopes have few or no settlements.
• There are no settlements in the forested areas.
• Most settlements are found near\along roads\motorable tracks.
• South East area is sparsely settled.
• There are many settlements around shops.
• There are few settlements along rivers.
• Sisal estate has no settlements.

(ii)       Citing evidence from the map, give two economic activities carried out in the area covered by the map other than sisal farming.

ACTIVITY                              EVIDENCE

Cattle keeping                        Cattle dips/scrub

Crop growing                          Sisal plantation

1. a)         Ans; 114031
2. b) (i)      Ans;   317° (316°- 318°)

(ii)

(iii)

1. c)           Rivers
• River valleys
• Scarp slope\escarpment\scarp face
• Gentle slope
• Seasonal swamp
• Woodland
1. d) i)         Two types of physical factors that influenced the location of

Nyahururu town.

• Availability of water from the nearby rivers for domestic and industrial uses.
• The high altitude (over 2,300m) which makes the area experience cool climate ideal for settlement.
• Gentle sloping terrain ideal for settlement\road construction shown by contours wide apart.
• Presence of Thomson Falls which are a tourists’ attraction and encourage settlement by construction of tourist houses.
• Availability of building stones from nearby quarry for construction of houses.
1. e) Describe drainage of the area covered by the map.
• The area has many rivers\ high density of rivers.
• The water courses are generally permanent.
• Some rivers end in swamps.
• There is a pond 020130.
• Main rivers includes Iguameti, Nyahururu.
• There are rapids at Thompsons falls.
• There is parallel drainage pattern along the escarpment.
• There are papyrus swamps and seasonal swamps.
• Rivers have denclintic drainage pattern.
1. a)         873m
2. b) Ans- 15 km ±2 KM. (1 5km-1 5.2km)
3. c) -0 30″
4. d) Citing evidence from the map describe the relief of the area shown.
• Land rises from about 600m to about 2,200m above sea level.
• The highest point is Vuria peak at 2208 m \lowest point is about 600m.
• The landscape is generally hilly\numerous hills\mountains\ many ridges eg. Mugange hills ridges\Muraru ridge\ many spurs.
• There is a highland mass in the Mugange Wundanyi area which slopes downwards in all directions. J
•       There is river valley of river Voi which has pronounced meanders.
• Some areas are plain e.g. Lower valley Kisushi.
• South-Eastern part is gently sloping.
• Central, Western and Northern side has steep slopes.

1. e) State differences between a map and a plan.
• The scale of a plan is large while the scale of map may be large or small.
• Plan is drawn to show specific information while map shows general information.
• Plan shows many details of specific feature while map shows few details of many features.
1. f) Explain two importance of scale in maps.

–           Express relationships between objects on map and in real life enabling one to estimate or measure size.

–           Control arrangement of symbols avoiding overcrowding.

–           Controls space as large scale gives more details than the small scale maps.

1. (a)     (i)        139° ± 1° (138 – 140°)

(ii)       7.2 km ± 0.1 (7.1 – 7.3 km)

(b)       (i)        Relief of the area covered by the map.

–           The highest area is Nandi escarpment/187m above sea level.

–           The lowest area is to the south West which is about 1140 m above sea level.

–           The east is a plain\Kanu plain/plateau

–           North western part is hilly with some steep slopes

–           To the North Eastern is the Nandi escarpment

–           The northern part is dissected by rivers

–           The South-west is a basin occupied by a lake.

–           There are numerous river valleys with steep sides in the highlands and are broad in the lowlands.

(ii)       Influence of relief on settlements.

–           The steep slopes/escarpment have been avoided because they are unsuitable for construction of houses/for farming.

–           There are a few settlements on the hilly areas because the slopes are gentler.

–           The plains are densely settled as the land is flat/gently sloping.

–           The basin are avoided as the land is water logged/flooded/swampy.

(c)       Economic activity                  Evidence

– Quarrying                 –           Quarry

– Transportation          –           Roads/railway/main tracks/foot paths

– Processing                –           Sisal factory

– Manufacturing         –           Ginnery/flour mills

(d)       (i)

–           The river has many meanders

–           The river has tributaries/confluences

–           The river disappears into a swamp

–           The river has a wide flood plain

–           The river is at its old age stage (ii) Advantages of studying rivers through field work.

–           It enables students to relate what is learnt in classroom to what is in the field.

–           Students are able to measure and calculate the velocity of a river and its size.

–           Students are able to count the number of tributaries.

–           Students are able to gauge the impact of the river on the area.

–           They are to find out the uses of the river.

–           It allows students to acquire appropriate attitude towards environment.

–           It breaks classroom monotony for students and teachers.

–           It allows students to use their observation skills to make conclusion.

CHAPTER 7

ROCKS AND MINERALS

1. (a)       (i)        Colour             Distinct appearance by colour used to identify

specific minerals eg. Gold is yellow.

(ii)       Cleavage        Tendency of mineral to break in certain direction.

Some minerals break along planes on which atomic bonds are relatively weak.

(iii)      Hardness        Ability to resist scratching. Various minerals have

varying degree of hardness eg. Talc is softest while Diamond is hardest.

(b)       (i)        Hyperbbyssal rocks

–           Volcanic rocks\extrusive igneous rock.

–           Plutonic rocks/intrusive igneous rocks.

(ii)

• The water should be salty
• Water should be clear free from silt.
• Sea water should be warm with temperatures between 20°C to 29°C
• Shallow water with depth not exceeding 60m.
• Polyps must be in submerged condition.
• Water should be well oxygenated.

(c)       •           Some unique rocks e.g. crying stone of Kakamega present

spectacular scenery for tourist attraction which helps earn the country some foreign exchange.

• Rocks are parent material for soil formation exploited in agricultural activities.
• Valuable rocks and minerals such as gemstones and diamond are exploited to generate income.
• Rocks provide building and construction materials e.g. marble, ballast and sand used in construction of houses.
• Rocks are useful as raw materials in construction industry e.g. The coral rocks and coral limestone are used in manufacture of cement.

(d)       •           A folk jembe- excavating rocks for closer examination.

• A polythene bag -for carrying rocks samples for subsequent studies.
1. (a)       •           The rocks are formed from sediments of pre­existing rocks.
• Rock sediments are arranged in layers.
• Processes involved act at ordinary temperatures
• Sediments are non-crystalline
• Some sediments contain fossils
• Sediments are compressed, hardened and consolidated by cementing material to form sedimentary rock.

(b)       Give two examples of chemically formed sedimentary rocks.

Trona, gypsum, flint, rock salt

1. (a)       In each case name the type of rock which results from the metamorphism

of:

(i)        Granite

(ii)       Clay

Granite → Gness

Clay → slate

1. (a)       (i)        Rocks are naturally occurring agglomerations of mineral particles

forming part of the earth crust.

(ii)

(a).      Mechanically formed sedimentary rocks formed from deposition of sediments of other rocks in layers.

(b).      Organically formed – formed from remains of dead plants and animals which are laid down to layers.

(c).      Chemically formed – formed from mineral particles dissolved from tend and deposited in layers into water bodies.

(b)       •           Weight of averlying layers cause change in grain arrangement in

dynamic metamorphism.

• Heat of magma get into contact with sedimentary rocks causing

grains to crystallize or form new minerals.

• During mountain building rocks are compressed and heat generated in thermodynamic metamorphism causing changes in structure and recrystallization of minerals.

(c)       i)         Granite, diorite and peridotite

1. ii) Dolerite, porphyrite and diabase.

iii)       Basalt, obsidian and pumice.

(d)       i)         Secondary sources

–           Text books/pamphlets/journals/ periodicals/ magazines/ news papers/handouts.

–           Photographs/pictures/video tapes/slides/films

–           Maps/geological maps

–           Tape recorded information

1. ii) Activities during the field study

–           Drawing of sketches

–           Observation

–           Collecting rock samples

–           Making notes

–           Taking photographs

–           Studying geological maps –

–           Labelling samples

–           Breaking rocks

–           Digging to access rocks

–           Filling in the table.

–           Filling in questionnaires

–           Tape recording

iii)       Likely problems

–           Inability to identify the rocks

–           Inability to access the rocks

–           Accidents/slipping

–           Difficulties in climbing/descending steep rocks

–           Hindrance by poor weather conditions/rainy/sunny

–           Attack by wild animals.

1. (a)       i)         Plutonic rocks are igneous rocks which form beneath earth surface

when magma cool slowly forming large crystals\course grained/course textured.

1. ii) Volcanic rocks are igneous rocks formed on the earth surface when lava cool rapidly forming small crystals fine grained/textured.
2. (a)       Conditions influencing characteristics of igneous rocks
• Mineral composition
• Mode of formation

(b)       Characteristic of sedimentary rocks

• Arranged in layers/strata
• Non- crystalline
• Have bedding planes
• Contain fossils

(c)       Limestone, chalk, coral reefs, ironstone, diatomite, coal.

(d)       Original rock                          Metamorphic rocks

Limestone                               Marble

Sandstone                               Slate

Coal                                        Graphite

Clay/shale                               Stale/schist

Mudstone                                Slate

Augite                                                 Hornblend

Granite                                                Gneiss

(e)

• Some rocks forms uniqueness features which attracts tourists and helps to earn foreign exchange.

Rocks are parent material for soil exploited for agriculture.

• Valuable rocks and minerals are exploited to generate income.
• Provides building and construction materials e.g. sand.
• Source of raw materials for cement industry.
1. (a)       Mechanically formed sedimentary rocks.

(i)        Arenaceous     –           Sandstone and grit

(ii)       Argillaceous   –           Shale, claystone, siltstone, loess, mudstone

(iii)      Rudaceous      –           Congolomerate, breccia and boulder clay.

(b)       Contact metamorphism is due to heat from magma which leads to changes in appearance and character while regional metamorphism is due to heat and pressure which creates changes in rock structure and minerals.

1. (a)       Basalt obsidian, Pumice, tuff, ryorite, andesite.

(b)       Intrusive igneous rocks are rocks formed when magma cools and solidifies below the earth’s surface while extrusive are formed on the surface of the earth when lava has solidified.

Extrusive rocks           –           Basalt, obsidian

Intrusive                      –           Granite, gubbro, diorite, perdotite, dolerite,

porphyrite, diabase.

1. A rock is an aggregate of mineral particles forming part of the earth’s crust,
2. A mineral occurring inorganic substances with definite chemical composition and physical properties.
3. Heat and pressure – causes re crystallization of minerals. This creates new minerals. It also alters the structure of the minerals particles.
4. Calcareous rocks are formed from shells and skeletons of marine creatures. The shells skeletons accumulate in layers and are compressed to form hard correct mass.
5. Carbonaceous rocks are formed from remains of plants which are buried by overlying materials compacting them into hard mass.
6. Coral rocks results from accumulation of skeletons of coral polyps. The skeletons accumulates in layers to form hard compact mass (coral rocks).
7. • By being subjected to
• Pressure – dynamic metamorphism
• Heat – contact/thermal metamorphism
• Pressure and heat – thermal -dynamic metamorphism.

CHAPTER 8

MINING

1. Conditions that are necessary for the formation of petroleum.
• Presence/deposition of remains of flora and fauna fossils over a long

period of time.

• Presence of non porous rocks underneath the deposits of flora and fauna
• Deposition of other layers of rocks/ non -porous rocks over the remains of

flora and fauna.

• Compression of remain of flora and fauna due to folding of the layer of rocks.
1. (a)     (i)        Minerals mined in area marked

W        –           Fluorspar

X         –           Gold

Y         –           Diamonds

Z          –           Copper

(ii)       •           Alluvial mining

• Underground mining
• Open-cast mining

(iii)      Sea ports through which some minerals mined in East Africa are expected through. -Mombasa, Dar-es-Saalam.

(b)       Factors that influence exploitation of minerals.

• Modes of occurrence
• Economic value of the mineral/quality of the minerals/cost of mining.
• Size of the mineral
• Level of technology
• Availability of capital
• Labour supply
• Availability of transport facilities
• Government policy/political influence
• Availability of market

(c)       Significance of soda-ash mining

• Creation of employment opportunities.
• Development of infrastructure.
• Development of related industries.
• Improvement of social facilities.
• Earns Kenya foreign exchange.

(d)       •           Planted trees

• Creating a park to attract tourists
•       Introducing aqua culture
• Landscaping for settlement /farming
• Refilling
1. (a)    •           Gas
• Oil\petroleum
• Water

(b)       •           Wax

• Bitumen\pitch\asphalt
• Grease lubricants
• Resin\petrol-chemicals
1. Use the map of Africa below to answer the questions below.

(a)       Name the minerals mined in the areas marked S, T and V.

S – Oil/Petroleum

T – Bauxite/Gold

V – Diamond

(b)       State two formations in which mineral ores occur.

• Some minerals occur as evaporates.
• Others occur as veins/lodes.
• Some minerals occur as alluvial deposits.
• Some occur as weathered products.
• Some minerals are found in seam

(c)       Explain four problems which Zambia experiences in the exportation of copper.

• Zambia is landlocked/ has no coastline hence copper has to pass through other countries to reach the seaport.
• The distance from Zambia to the coast is long which makes transportation of copper expensive.
• Political instability in the neighbouring countries makes it insecure to transport copper through them to the coast
• Loss of copper through theft while on transit deprives Zambia of the part of the expected revenue.
• Copper is bulky thus it can only be transported by rail which is slow.

(d)       •           Describe three negative effects of open cast mining on the

environment

• The land is left with gaping quarries which are ugly interfere with the natural beauty of the landscape.
• The heaps of rock waste hinder any other forms of land use/create a landscape that is expensive to rehabilitate/barren landscape.
• The dust produced during the mining pollutes the atmosphere/is a health hazard.
• Open cast mining causes shortage of land as it hinders settlement/leads to displacement/hinders agriculture.
• Large scale blasting of rocks leads to instability of the basement rocks.
• Water collects in the hollows left by open cast mines creating ponds which become habitats for disease causing organisms
• It interferes with the natural vegetation which is cleared before extraction of the mineral begins/takes time to regenerate.
1. (a) •           A vertical shaft is dug to reach the mineral Tunnels are then dug

horizontally.

• The roof of the tunnel must be supported to prevent it from collapsing.
• The mineral is then removed by blasting using explosives.
• Its then brought to the surface using a lift.
• The mineral is then transported to the factory for processing.

(b)       •           It is an expensive method

• Accidents due to collapsing of mines.
1. (a) •           Ugliness of the land.
• The open pits are health hazards once filled with water.
• The land losses productivity.
• Accidents are likely to occur especially children falling into pits.
1. •           It involves digging out sand from river beats and swirling it around with

water in a shallow pan.

• This pan is tilted such that lighter sand is washed over leaving the mineral behind.
1. •           Water shortage for power supply and processing
• Labour shortage
• Increased depth of mines
• Increased cost of mining
• Decreasing availability of ore
1. (a) •           It earns the country foreign exchange
• It generate jobs to Kenyans
• Leads to uplifting of living standards
• Development of settlements e.g. Magadi town.
• Development of transport system

(b)       •           Causes scenery ugliness

• Pollution of dust, noise and overburden
• Dereliction of land
• Loss of land productivity which can lead to desertification.
1. (a)       •           It involves mixing the alluvial deposits with water in a container.

The mixture is rotated until light particles (sand, mud) are washed off

• Leaving minerals particles such as gold behind. This is called panning,

(b)       Three mining methods

• Open-cast mining
• Underground mining
• Alluvial mining
1. •           Occurrence     It forms when rain water seeps down through volcanic

rocks which contain soda ash. The water is heated by underground hot rocks. This forces the water to move upwards into Lake Magadi.

Exploitation    Its extracted using the dredger which floats on the lake. Pumps the mixture of trona and water to the factory on the shores through a pipeline. At the factory impurities are removed. This is heated and turned to soda ash ready for packaging and export.

1. •           Earns foreign exchange
• Generates employment opportunities
• Development of settlements
• Lead to development of industry
• Earning higher income hence better living standards.
• Land dereliction
• Pollution
• Loss of biodiversity
• Enhancing mass wasting
1. Gold is found in quartz or redistributed sediments. Gold is extracted using the deep shaft method. Gold ore is crushed, dissolved and then precipitated to obtain the gold. Gold is used in making of jewellery and ornaments, in chemical industries, in density and for medals. Gold earns export revenue, has led to infrastructure development and provide employment. Rising costs of production, high labour costs and low quality gold are some of problems facing gold mining.

Diamonds are associated with volcanic activities. They occur in igneous rocks in pipes. The ore is blasted crushed and washed. It is then passed through filtering screen and then through a special solution. Diamonds are used in the jewellery industry, for polishing, for drilling, and for cutting instruments. Diamonds; earn foreign exchange, have led to development of towns, have created employment and contributed to development of infrastructure. The problems facing diamond mining to include exhaustion, unstable world market prices, high costs of processing and inadequate labour.

1. •           Uses of soda ash
• Glass manufacture
• Paper making
• In oil refinery
• In textile industry
• In soap manufacture

FORM TWO

CHAPTER 1

EARTHS MOVEMENT

1. (a)       –           Vertical movement/ epierogenic

–           Horizontal movement/ lateral/orogenic

(b)       Describe the origin of continents according to the theory of continental drift.

• Theory first explained by F.B Tylor (91908), J.B Backer (1911) and adopted by German meteorologist Alfred Wegner in 1912.
• Says the present distribution of continents was due to disruption of super continent known as Pangea. Pangea was surrounded by a large super water body – Panthalasa.
• Pangea broke first into two continents i.e. Godwanaland and Laurasia.
• The two continents were separated by a long narrow ocean known as Tythys.
• Godwanaland broke further and drifted into southern contents of present Africa, South America e.t.c. while Laurasia drifted to present Eurasia, North America e.t.c.
1. •           Earth movement are movements which occur within the crustal rocks due

to tectonic-forces.

• Internal land forming processed are those processes operating inside the earth. They are also known as endgenetic.
• External land forming processes operates on the surfaces of the earth. Also known as exogenetic.
1. Evidences of continental drift
• Geometrical fitting of Western coastline of Africa and Eastern Coastline of America.
• Similar plant and animal remains in different continents.
• Similarities in rock structures along coast of West Africa and Eastern South America.
• Evidence of glaciation in Southern continents which are formed from glaciated regions.
• Presence of coal in mild and high latitude regions coal is usually formed in tropical areas with dense vegetation.
• Similarities of fold mountains found in S. Africa and Argentina. Both in age and East -West trend.
1. • Plate tectonic theory suggests the earth is made of rigid blocks (plates)

floating of molten material.

• The plates are mobile.
• They move towards each other away from each other or parallel past each other.

CHAPTER 2

INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES – FOLDING

1                      a)

1. b) Atlas, Dakenberg
2. a) Fold mountains in
• Asia – the Himalayas
• North America – Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians
• South America – The Andes Mountains
1. b) i)         Rolling plains, ridge and valley landscape, intermountain plateau,

inter-mountain basic, escarpments.

1. ii) Formation of over thrust fold.
• Layers of rock of the earth’s crust are subjected to compression

forces.

• Intense compression results in formation of overfold

• With increased pressure the overfold results in the formation of recumbent fold

• When pressure is very great a fracture occurs along the axis in the recumbent fold producing thrust plane.
• The upper part of recumbent fold slides forward over the lower part along the plane resulting to the formation of an over thrust fold.

1. c) Effects of fold mountains to human activities.
• windward side of fold mountains receive heavy precipitation which
• Enhance agricultural activities / forestry.
• Rivers which originate from fold mountains provide water which is used
• For generation of HEP/irrigation/domestic and industrial purposes.
• Some fold mountains have exposed minerals deposits which are exploited.
• Fold mountains are important tourist attractions/snow capped mountains encourage sporting activities.
• Fold mountains may act as barriers to transport and communication.
• Topographic nature of the landscape may encourage/discourage agriculture/settlement.
1. d) i) formulate study objectives/hypothesis.
• Identifying methods of data collection/representation.
• Planning a schedule of activities
• Carrying out reconnaissance survey.
• Seeking permission from relevant authorities.
• Identifying/collecting/sorting out relevant equipments/tools for study.
• Drawing a route map
• Assembling relevant stationery
• Dividing themselves in groups
• Hold class discussions
1. ii) Gives first hand information on different types of land forms.
• Application of knowledge gained to real life situations.
• Development of various skills/ application of skills learnt.
• Help in familiarizing with the environment.
• Reduces monotony and boredom in the classroom.
• Provides in – depth/ broader learning
• Enables one to appreciate landforms
• Enhances visual memory of landforms better than the theory.
1. Orogenesis is the process through which Fold Mountains are build.
2. folding is the process of crustal distortion which causes the rocks to bend upwards

or downwards.

1. Compression boundaries – is one where plates move towards each other holding

or connecting line in a fold which rock layers dip or rise from opposite directions.

1. Limb – layers of rock on either side of the axis while axis is the central line in a

fold which rock layers dip or rise from opposite direction.

1. Foreland – is static block of land that is pushed in formation of geosyncline fold

while backland is block of land where forces originate that cause sediment in the geosyncline to wrinkle.

1. Fill in the table.
 Orogeny Years (age) Period Mountains/features built. Charnian Oldest 600 million years ago Pre- Cambrian period -deccan plateau of India -Laurentin shield of North Americ Caledonian Old 440 million years ago Silurian period -Akwapim Hills of Ghana -Scottish highlands Hercynian Young 350 million  years ago Upper Carbon Ferrous Period -Cape ranges -Appalachaian mountains -Ural mountains Alpine Youngest 70 million years ago Palaocene period -Himalayas-Asia -Rockies – USA -Anses- S. America
1. Contraction theory.

According to the after earth had formed, the surface rocks of the crust cooled

faster than those in the interior.  As the interior continues the cool, the surface

rocks wrinkled to fit on the contracting interior leading to formation of Fold mountains.

CHAPTER 3

INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES – FAULTING

1. a) Fault scarp

Tilt block

Block/horst mountain

b)

• Faulting disrupts lines of transport and communication
• Some features like Rift Valley form barriers which make establishment of transport and communication expensive.
• Faulting cause sinking of land which leads to destruction of property such as buildings and crops.
• Leads to formation of depressions which are filled with water to form lakes
• Unique features are formed which attracts tourists.
• Faulting exposes minerals making exploitation easier.
• Makes rivers to have waterfalls.

2          a)         P- Horst

Q- Rift valley

R- Escarpment

1. b) Normal fault is fault resulting from tension in inclined place with

inclination of fault plane and direction of downthrow on same side while reversed fault is fault that results from compression forces where the one block is pushed upwards in relation to another forming up throw.

1. – Vertical faulting, across a river may cause waterfall/river rejuvenation.

–           Rift faulting in an enclosed area may lead to formation of a depression which can be filled with water for form a lake.

• Some rivers flow along fault lines/fault guided drainage
• Uplifting of landscape which may cause reversal of direction of river flow
• Rivers may disappear to the ground through a fault line.
1. Pare, Usambara, Ruwenzori, Nyandarua and Mau Ranges.
2. – Block/ horst mountains are a source of rivers which provide water for

industrial/ agriculture/domestic use.

–           Rift Valley formation has led to exposure of minerals such as diatomite, soda ash which are mined on rift valley.

–           Mountains formed are barrier to moisture carrying wind leading to orographic rainfall which favours agriculture and settlement.

–           Some Rift valley lakes are important fishing grounds/mining sites/provide water for irrigation

–           Faulted features provide beautiful scenery which promotes tourism.

1. a) Layers of rocks are subjected to tensional forces.

Two normal fault develop

Middle block subsides between two side block

Middle part form depression called rift valley enclosed by escarpment

1. b) i) The importance of pre-visit
• To enable them to draw up study objectives hypothesis.
• To familiarize themselves with themselves with area of study/identify problems.
• To enable them prepare a work schedule plan of activities.
• To enable them identify/sort out relevant tools/ equipments for the study.
• To identify suitable methods of data collection.
• To seek permission from the occupants of the site of study.
• To enable them prepare financial requirements.
1. ii) Disadvantages of direct observation of the area.
• It is expensive
• It is time consuming
• It is tiresome
• It is limited to only direct sources/primary sources of data.
• It only suitable to sighted people
• Some features may be hidden out of view.

7.

• Normal fault
• Reverse fault
• Tear fault
• Anticlinal fault
• Thrust fault

8.

• Compression force tends to push rocks together.
• Lines of weakness develop and lead to formation of parallel reversed faults on the crustal rocks.
• Further compression thrust side blocks over middle block leaving it to form rift valley floor.

9.

• Nyandarua Range
• Lake Manyara
• Nyando escarpment

10.

• Rift valley provides a spectacular scenery that attracts tourists earning foreign
• Mining of soda ash in rift valley generate export earnings
• Rift valley floor has fertile soils suitable for farming
• Rift valley lakes are suitable for fishing grounds.

CHAPTER 4

INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES- VULCANICITY

1. a) i)         X-Laccolith

Y- Batholith

Z- Dyke

ii)

• Magma is forced along horizontal lines of weakness/ bedding

planes of rock strata.

• Instrusion of magma cool and solidify horizontally along bedding planes.

b)

• It has a vertical vent
• It is made up of alternating layers of ash and pyroclasts
• Conical in shape with steep sides
• May have crater on its peak or a plug
• It has sidevents
• Has parasitic cones/conelets

c)

• Volcanic ash and basalt on pouring provide fertile soils exploited for agriculture
• Occurrence of minerals such as fluorspar in Kerio Valley and Diatomite in Shinyanga are exploited to generate foreign exchange.
• Volcanic mountains act as water catchments areas from which major rivers and springs originate. The drainage features provide water for industrial and domestic use.
• Geoghermic areas which owe existence due to volcanic activities are tapped to generate electricity.
• Volcanic mountains form beautiful sceneries that attract tourists.

2          a)

–     Formed when magma reaches the surface of the earth / or from lava through multiple vents/fissures.

• The lava is ultrabasic / extremely fluid of low viscosity.
• Lava flows over large area of distance and spread widely before cooling covering valleys and low lying hills
• Lava cools slowly forming an extensive plateau.
• Plateau may form through a series of eruptions which results in thick layers.

b)

• Some volcanic features create barriers making construction of transport and communication.
• The rugged nature of volcanic landscapes makes settlement and agriculture difficult
• Volcanic mountains create rain shadow effect which result too aridity.
• Recent volcanic lava flows have poorly developed soils which are unsuitable for agriculture.
• Volcanic eruption may produce poisonous gases which pollute the environment posing danger to life.
1. c) Ash and cinder cones
• Fumaroles/solfatara
• Hot spring/geysers/stream jets
• Crater caldera
• Volcanic cones
• Lava plateau

3.

• Hot springs/geysers/steam jets
• Craters/calderas/crater lakes
• Volcanic mountains
• Ash and cinder cones
• Fumaroles/sofatara/Muffette
1. Explain four negative effects of vulcanicity in Kenya
• Some volcanic features create barriers making construction of transport and communication lines difficult.
• Rugged nature of volcanic landscape make settlement and agriculture difficult
• Volcanic eruption may produce poisonous gases which pollute environment thus posing danger to life.
• Volcanic eruption may produce poisonous gases which pollute environment thus posing danger to life.
• Volcanic mountains create rain shadow effect which result in aridity on leeward side.
• Recent volcanic lava flows have poorly developed soils which are unsuitable for agriculture.

5.

• Forms from lava when magma reaches surface of each through fissures.
• Lava is ultra basic or extremely fluid or low viscosity.
• Lava cools slowly forming extensive plateau
• Plateau may further continue to form through series of eruption that follow
• Examples: Kaoutu, Yatta, Laikipia

1. A still is near horizontal /tabular sheet of igneous rock formed from solidified magma between bedding plane while a dyke is a sheet of intrusive rock which cut near vertical/discordantly across bedding plane.
2. Vulcanicity is the process of eruption/escaping of magma/through which gaseous,

liquid/molten and solid materials are intruded in to the earth’s crust or are extruded onto the surface.

8.

• Crater lake
• Outpouring of lava forms a volcanic cone.
• The vent may be sealed when lava solidifies in it.
• This leads to building of pressure below the plug.
• This leads to explosion of cone leaving depression on top.
• Water from rain or underground source accumulates in the depression.
• Examples: L. paradise on Mt. Marsabit, crater lake in Central Island of L. Turkana, L. Sonachi on South west of Lake Naivasha, Lake Simbi Nyamia in Nyanza.
1. Formation of Mt. Kenya
• Due to earth movements, the rocks of the crust were disturbed leading to formation of a vent.
• The underlying molten rock escaped through a central vent to the surface /volcanic eruption occurred
• There were violent eruptions which ejected acidic lava that cooled and solidified.
• These lava piled in layers around the vent.
• The resultant mountain was cone shaped
• Over the years, eruption ceased and the volcano became extinct.
• Erosion set in exposing the plug and produced the jugged peaks of the mountain.

CHAPTER 5

INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES – EARTHQUAKES

1. a)
• The Mercalli scale
• Rossi foren scale

b)

• Collision of tectonic plates
• Energy release in the mantle
• Violent volcanic eruptions
• Nuclear explosions
• Gravititive pressure
• Magma movement within the crust
1. c)

(i)

• Earthquake is sudden movements or tremors of the earth crust.

(ii)

• Primary waves
• Seconday waves
• Rayleigh waves
• Love waves

(iii)

• Rocks of the earth crust are displaced laterally.
• Earthquake causes uplift or subsidence of land.
• Earthquakes can rigger off landslides on the surface of the earth crust
• Earthquakes can lead to faulting of the crustal rocks.
• Earthquakes can lead to volcanic eruptions
1. a)
• Collision of tectonic plates
• Energy release in the mantle
• Violent volcanic eruptions
• Nuclear explosions
• Gravititive pressure
• Magma movement within the crust

b)

• Effects of earthquakes in built up areas
• Loss of life (human, animal and plant)
• Disruption of transport and communication lines.
• Outbreak of fires
• Avalances and landslides may occur covering build up areas
• Tsunamis may drown coastal settlements
• Magma  movement within earth crust
• Isostatic adjustment resulting in breakage of rocks
• Sudden explosions e.g Nuclear testing.
• The strength of an earthquake is measured by its intensity and magnitude. Intensity measures how hard the earthquake hits the ground.
• Intensity is measured using Mercalli scale. Magnitude measures amount of energy given off.  It is measured using Ritcher scale.

6.

• Damage to property
• Loss of human life
• Can cause landslide
• Disruption of infrastructure.

7.

• Seismograph is an instrument which detects and records seismic waves of earthquakes while seismogram is a graph-like record on which earthquake impulses are recorded.
• Intensity measures how hard earthquake hates the ground. It looks at the effects while magnitude measure amount of energy released during an earthquake.
1. i)
• Written materials/books/magazines/newspapers.
• Maps
• Photographs/films/videos/slides (Visual aids)
• Resource persons
• Electronic media-radio, TV (Audio aids)

ii)

• Inaccessibility of the area due to massive destruction/restriction.
• Lack of informers because people may have been evacuated
• The rubble may obscure the evidence of the amount of damage.

CHAPTER 6

PHOTOGRAPHIC WORK

1. The photograph below provided shows a tea growing are in Kenya use it to

1. i) What is the evidence in the photograph that this is a ground general photograph.
• It focuses on all/ many objects.
• It does not focus on particular object.
• The objects become progressively smaller towards the background.
• Photograph captures the general appearance of the area.
1. ii) Draw a rectangle measuring 15cm by 10 cm to represent the area of the photograph on the sketch and label the main features shown on the photograph.

iii) The stages involved in cultivation of tea from land preparation to the stage shown in the photograph.

• The land is cleared of vegetation
• The land is ploughed /tilled.
• Seedlings are planted in nursery and allowed to grow to 20 cm.
• Seedlings are planted in rows which are about 1.5 metres apart.
• The plants are weeded and manure / mulching applied regularly.
• Once the bushes start growing. The tips of branches are oruried regularly to encourage plant to form more branches.
• The crop is harvested every two weeks once it attains maturity.
• After harvesting, the green tea leaves are transported to the factory within 24hrs.
1. iv) Identify two features from the photograph that shows that this is a small scale tea farm.
• The simple houses
• Mode of transport by use of donkeys
• Untrimmed edges of tea bushes
• Dry maize stalks near the houses.
1. Ground general photograph.
• Flowers
• Horticulture/horticultural farming
• Fruits/vegetations
• Rift valley province
• Fruits/Vegetables

• Improper marketing system

5.

• Netherlands/Switzerland
• Germany
• Britain
• France
• Escarpment
• Hills/mountains
• Valleys

CHAPTER 7

CLIMATE

1. a) Climate is the average weather conditions of atmosphere of a place for a

long time usually 30 to 35 years.

1. b)
• Disruption of natural ecosystems due to ecological changes that affect existence of some organisms and resources.
• Abnormal fast growth of plants due to increased carbon dioxide
• Flooding from rising sea due to melting or anteretic
• Increased rainfall to between 7% and 11% annually due to increased rate of evaporation.
• Severe draughts due to reduced rainfall.
1. a) 280C – 240C = 40
2. b) -1803 mm

c)

• The town experiences high temperatures throughout the year.
• The annual range of temperature is small about 40
• The rainfall pattern has double maxima.
• The wettest month is June/the driest months are December and January.
• The total annual rainfall is high 1803mm.
1. a) (i)        Polar climate

(ii)       R – Canary current

S – Gulf stream current

b)

• High temperatures all year about 270C
• Low diurnal range of temperature of approximately 60C
• High rainfall of between 1500mm and 2000mm throughout the year.
• High humidity due to high rainfall and high evaporation
• Major winds are S. east and North East trade winds
• Thick cloud covers throughout the year.
• Rainfall is mainly convectional accompanied by thunderstorms
• Long hours of sunshine.
• Low atmospheric pressure.
1. c)

(i)        How altitude influences climate.

• Temperature decreases with increase in height above sea level. This is because atmospheric air is denser at low altitude than high altitude.
• There is grater heat loss at high altitude due to few obstacles to interfere with outgoing terrestrial radiation hence low temperatures.
• Air pressure is higher in the lowlands due to greater weight of air above.
1. ii) Distance from the sea
• During summer cooler winds from the sea are onshore and modify temperature of
• The coastal land.
• During winter the sea water which is relatively warmer than land brings warming effect to the coastal land therefore modifying temperature.
• Onshore winds carry a lot of moisture from the sea bringing rainfall to coastal lands.

4.

• Characteristics of natural vegetation associated with equatorial climate.
• The natural vegetation is equatorial rain forest vegetation.
• Growth of this vegetation is due to high rainfall well distributed throughout the year.
• Forests consist of tall trees with straight and smooth stems.  The trees reach great height of 40 metres because of competition for sunlight.
• The trees form canopy.
• Forest is characterized by close growth of trees of different species.
• Trees have broad leaves drip-tip in shape.
• Many trees have buttress root system mainly for support.
• Forest is evergreen
• Five characteristics of hot desert climate
• Low annual rainfall less than 250mm/dry climate.
• Clear sky/clear sunny days/high terrestrial radiations.
• High temperature during the day.
• Relatively low temperatures during the night/high diurnal range.
• Strong winds
• Low humidity
• High evaporation
• Unreliable rainfall
1. How following factors influence climate:
2. i) Wind/air masses
• Warm winds bring warming influence in the cool lands leading to warming effects
• Areas under influence of dry winds have little or no rainfall while areas under moist winds are usually wet.
1. ii) Latitude
• Areas near equator are hotter than areas far away from equator. This is due to concentration of sun rays per unit area at the equator.
• Amount of solar radiation and temperatures decreases polwards
1. Climatic conditions experienced in the Kenyan highlands.
• Region receives rainfall throughout the year
• Total rainfall ranges from 1000mm to 1500mm
• The region has double maxima in east and single maximum in west
• Rainfall is higher on the windward slopes than on leeward slopes
• Rainfall is higher on the windward slopes.
• Rainfall is caused mainly by S.E trade winds.
• Average temperature ranges between 170C to 240C.
• Area receives mainly relief rainfall.

8.

• Because of aspect slopes facing the sun are warm than slopes falling the opposite direction.
• The mountains cause anabatic winds which have a cooling effect on hill side during the day.  Valley bottoms katabatic winds brings effect during the night
• Reduction of air pressure with increase in altitude
• Occurrence of relief rainfall on windward side as an influence of relief.
1. Green house effect is a condition where incoming solar radiation passes through

the atmosphere while outgoing terrestrial radiation is blocked by gases and clouds in the atmosphere.  This makes earth to retain much of terrestrial radiation therefore becoming warmer.

1. Climate change due to human activities
• Burning of fossil fuels
• Forest and grassland fires
• Industrial and agricultural development.
1. Clearance of vegetation reduces disposal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

by photosynthesis.  Due to inadequate vegetation that would otherwise utilize CO2 in photosynthesis, there is build up of excess carbon dioxide gases in the atmosphere leading to global warming.

1. Climate- is the average weather conditions of a place or region which have been

observed for long period of time usually 30-35 years.

1. Isothermal layer – is a layer within atmosphere within which temperature remains

constant despite increasing height.

CHAPTER 8

VEGETATION

1. d) (i) Measure distances/estimation of heights of plants
• Collect sample of plants
• Draw sketches/transects
• Record/take notes
• Take photographs of plants/area
• Count plants
• Feeling the leaves
• Conduct interview

(ii)       How to identify different types of plants

• By appearance
• Their colour
• By their leave size/patterns/type
• By their age
• By the nature of their bark
• By texture of their leaves
• By their system of the roots
• The type of fruits.
1. a) (i) W- Rainforest

X- Bamboo

Y-Health and moorland

(ii)

• Savanna vegetation consists of trees and grass
• Wetter areas/near forests the vegetation consists of tall trees similar to those found in forests and woodlands
• Wetter areas have tall thick grass.
• Gradually away from the forest, the trees become fewer and shorter
• Grass is shorter in drier areas
• In drier areas the trees are short and more scattered.
• Some trees are deciduous type
• Most trees are umbrella shaped
• Most common trees are acacia and other thorny trees.
• Where the rainfall is lowest grass is tufted and coarse/trees scrub
• There are scattered baobab trees and other drought resistant trees.
• Along river valleys there is riverine vegetation and thick bush.

Russia- Steppe

Australia-Downs

1. b)
• Fire- Often large areas of forests are destroyed by fires and take long to recover.
• Diseases and pests attack mainly the planted forests causing many trees to die.
• Human activities/settlements/charcoal burning/logging have destroyed many forest areas.
• Over exploitation leads to depletion of certain tree species such as Meru oak, Campor and Elgon teak. These trees take long to manure.
• Government policy of degazetting of some forests made people free to clear many forested areas.
• Prolonged drought leads to degeneration of forest some of which take long to recover.
1. a) Natural vegetation is the plant cover which is growing wildly on its own.
2. b)
• The vegetation is adapted to long, hot dry summers.
• Some plants are evergreen
• Grasses dry up during summer and germinate during winter.
• Woody scrub is common in very dry areas.
• Some plants have small, spiny leaves while others have thick skinned or leathery leaves.
• Some plants have long roots.
• Some plants have thick barks
• Some plants have large and fleshy bulbous roots.
• Some trees are deciduous.
• Campaigns against indiscriminate cutting down of trees/educating people/ reducing overgrazing.
• Establishment of vegetation/forest reserves
• Restriction on cutting down of trees
• Development of energy saving technology to reduce high consumption of wood fuel
• Use of alternative sources of energy
• Encouraging the planting of more trees to reduce reliance on existing ones
• Establish Nyayo tea zones to act as buffer zone.
1. (i) Variation in rainfall

(ii)       Variation of temperature

(iii)      Variation of altitude/relief.

(iv)      Aspect

(v)       Soil

(vi)      Human activities

Variation of rainfall

Areas that receive high rainfall are forested while those receiving low rainfall have grassland vegetation.

Variation of altitude/relief

Vegetation varies with height above sea level (e.g. montane in high altitude) as altitude influence climate and soil.

Aspect

Areas on leeward slopes of Mountains have different vegetation from thick growth of vegetation in the windward side because they receive different amounts of sunshine and rainfall.

Soil

Sandy soil/swamp soil/saline soil influence growth of different types of vegetation.  Vegetation on slopes is determined by soil catena.

Drainage

Vegetation is as luxuriant along water courses/along coastal flats because surface water supply is reliable/waterlogged areas support swamp vegetation.

Human activities

Settlement/mining/ farming interferes with the original vegetation leading to growth of secondary / derived vegetation/desertification.

Wild animals

Destroy vegetation leading to secondary type/desertification.  They aid in seed dispersal.

1. State two reasons why mountain top have no vegetation.
• Temperatures are too low to support plant growth.
• There is no soil to support plant growth/bare rock.
• Water is in frozen state.
1. Vegetation refers to plant life on earth surface.
2. Areas where coniferous forests are found.
• Cool temperate continental climate/Siberian type.
• Cool temperate eastern margin- Laurentian type.
• Scandinavian region
1. Characteristics of temperate grasslands
• Trees are scarce except along water courses.
• In moist areas the grass is tall.
• Where it is drier there is short tough grass
• Grass withers in autumn and dries up in winter but sprouts during spring.
• Presence of scattered trees
• Common trees are acacia
1. Secondary vegetation comprises natural processes colony on a place which is in the process of receiving due to interference by man while planted vegetation comprises of plants grown in a place by people e.g. agro forestry.
2. Two significance of vegetation to physical and human environment.
• Vegetation is of aesthetic value as it adds beauty to landscape.
• Vegetations roots binds soil together protecting soil against erosion
• Plant decay to form humus adding fertility to soil.
1. a) –           Ground close-up

–           Acacia vegetation

1. b) –           Thorny like leaves to reduce rate of water loss.

–           Have long tap root to tap underground water

–           Plant seeds remain dormant awaiting short rains.

CHAPTER 9

FORESTRY

1. a)i) Is science of planting caring and using trees/forests and their associated

resources or the practice of managing and using trees/ forests and their associated resources.

1. ii)
• The area receives high rainfall/1000 mm-2200mm throughout the year which
• encourages continuous growth of trees.
• The area has deep fertile volcanic soil that allow the roots for penetration deep
• into the ground support trees.
• The area is a gazetted reserve prohibiting cultivation and settlement hence
• allowing growth of trees
• The steep slopes discourage settlement thus forests thrive.

iii)

• The government policy of degazetement has allowed illegal cultivation and settlement in forest areas.
• Increased population of elephants that destroy trees
• Prolonged droughts have caused drying up of some trees.
• Plant diseases and pests destroy parts of forests.
• Over exploitation of certain species of trees
1. b)
• Legislations aimed of curbing encouraging public to participate in conservation of forests.
• Legislations aimed of curbing encroachment in forested areas.
• Encouragement in frosted areas
• Encouraging public to participate in conservation of forests.
• Setting up of buffer zones to hinder human encroachment into forested areas (Nyayo Tea Zones)
• Creation of forest reserves
• Encouraging agro-forestry
• Setting up presidential commission with the mandate of rehabilitation destroyed forested areas.
1. c) Give the difference in exploitation of softwoods forests in Kenya and Canada under following sub-headings.
2. i) Period of harvesting
3. ii)

Period of harvesting

• In Kenya harvesting is done throughout the year while in Canada harvesting is in winter and early spring.

Transportation

• In Kenya transportation is mainly by road transport while in Canada transport is mainly by water transport.

• To ensure continuous supply of wood fuel, timber and raw materials for paper

industries.

• To protect soil from being carried away (erosion)
• To protect water catchment areas
• To create room for conservation of wildlife
• To create employment opportunities
• To reduce importation of forest products thus saving foreign exchange
• To promote scenic beauty.

2.

• The low temperatures limit other land use activities making forestry a good

alternative.

• The thin infertile soils due to keep glacial erosion limit agriculture and favours
• forests
• Adequate precipitation throughout the year
• Many rivers with waterfalls provide HEP used in the timber related industries
• River provides cheap transport and water needed in the processing purposes.
• An extensive ready market for forest products in Canada and U.S.A.
• Meru Oak
• Elgon teak
• Cmphor

4.

• Furniture making
• Wood carving industry
• Construction
• Mature trees felled are replaced immediately.
• Tree farming is practiced in many parts with the aim of raising trees for future use.
• Regions which previously were devoid of trees are being planted with trees
• People are now being encouraged to plant trees and food crops in the same farms.
• The reduction of wastage e.g. the use of waste paper to produce newsprint.
• The reduction of wastage e.g. the use of waste paper to produce newsprint
• People are required to seek permits if they have to cut trees.  This reduces the rate of trees felling/unlicensed people do not cut down trees.
• The forest reserves are patrolled by guards to ensure that fires are reported promptly and also to ensure unlicensed people do not cut down trees.
• Forest reserves have been set aside to conserve indigenous species.
• Forestry department of the ministry of natural resources carry out research to produce and distribute seedlings to ensure the extension of forests.
• People are being educated through mass media on the importance of trees
• People are being encouraged to use alternative sources of energy/energy saving jikos.

6.

• There is a wide variety of trees species in a given area.  This makes the exploitation difficult and expensive
• The buttress roots make the felling cumbersome
• The dense underground/thick forests and quick generation of plants hinder accessibility, exploitation difficult
• The heavy rainfall throughout the year results in muddy roads which makes transportation difficult.
• Inadequate capital limits the use of modern techniques in the exploitation of the forests.
• The demand within the region/markets are discouraging exploitation/expensive to transport/difficult to transport.
• River transport is hindered by waterfalls/rapids.  This makes transport expensive.

7.

• Aridity that has reduced area under forests
• High population leading to clearing of forests for settlement
• Over exploiting  of forests resources e.g timber fuel.
• Government policy of resettling people in forested areas.
• Forest fires which have contributed to destruction of forests.
• Pests and diseases which destroys trees.

8.

• Desertification
• Extinction of some tree species
• Decline in employment for those in forestry related areas
• Loss of plants with medicinal value
• Loss of aesthetic value
• Decrease in wild animals
1. Factors favoring forestry in Kenya
• Cool climate especially in the Kenya highlands.
• Fertile soils-Volcanic soils within the Kenya highlands and Rift valley.
• High precipitation ranging between 1000-2000 which favours growth of trees.
• Rugged landscape in some areas which discourages settlements and agriculture leaving growing of trees as the only alternative
• Varied altitude which favours growth of different types of trees due to varied temperatures and rainfall.
• High demand of forest products
• Creation of forests reserves which enables forests to develop without interference from humans
1. Secondary products of forests-Ply woods, Venner, fibre board, paper, wood, carvings wine, tannins
2. Mahogany, ebony, ironwood, rosewood, green heart, goarea, mahure, supele, duhuma, African walnut, camphor, palms.
3. a) Agro-forestry involves cultivation of both crops and trees.

1. b)

–           Provides sources of firewood and charcoal

–           Source of income to farmers after selling tree products like fruits

–           Trees act as wind breakers

–           Trees create micro climate within the farm

–           Some trees are of medicinal value

–           Trees leaves decomposes to form fertile soils

CHAPTER 1

WEATHERING

1          a)(i)     Weathering is disintegration/breaking down and decomposition of rocks in

situ due to exposure on the surface while mass wasting is down slope movement of weathered material under influence of gravity.

(ii)

• Climate changes
• Relief/topography
• Nature of rock

(iii)

• Pressure of expanding roots in cracks cause rocks to disintegrate.
• Plants like algae release organic acids on rock causing its decay.
• Linchens, mosses maintains rock moisture which facilitates chemical weathering.

2          a)

• Exfoliation
• Block disintegration
• Slaking
• Crystal growth

b)

• Hydrolysis
• Oxidation
• Solution
• Carbonation
1. a) Is the physical break up or disintegration of rock material without any

alteration in the chemical composition?

1. b)
• During the day suns’ heat in arid areas cause surface layers of rock to expand.
• At night the low temperatures result in cooling and contraction of outer layers
• This occur repeatedly
• Rocks with poor heat conductivity do not transmit heat to the inner rock.
• Expansion and contraction causes stresses within outer parts of the rock,
• Eventually shell of outer rock layer peal off from main rock mass.
• This leaves behind a rounded-off mass known as exfoliation dome.
1. Five processes;

Hydrolysis

This is the process where chemical reactions takes place between hydrogen ions in water and minerals in a rock.

Hydration

This is the process where some minerals in a rock take up water and expand causing stress in the rock.  This causes the rock to fracture.

Solution

This is the process where some rock materials dissolves in water and are washed away in solution.  This leaves behind a weak rock.

Carbonation

This is the process by which rainwater with carbonic acid dissolves calcium carbonate in rocks.  This leaves behind a weak rock.

Oxidation

This is the process in which oxygen in the air reacts with iron compounds in the rocks.  The ferrous state of iron minerals changes to ferric state which weakens the rock.

Exfoliation

Block disintegration

Crystal growth

Slaking

1. Climate changes

Relief/topography

Nature of rock

Vegetation cover plants

Action of humans and animals

1. Denudation is the wearing away/sculpturing of land surface by processes of weathering/mass wasting/transport and erosion.
2. a) Block disintegration
3. b)

–     A well jointed rock is subjected to intense heating during the day and cooling during the night.

• The rock minerals expand due to heating and contract as a result cooling during the night.
• The rock minerals expand due to heating and contract as a result of cooling
• The joints enlarge due to alternating expansion and construction of the rock mass.
• When this occurs repeatedly the rock mass eventually break into blocks along joints hence the name block disintegration.

CHAPTER 2

MASS WASTING

1. a)
• Amount of precipitation and extent of saturation.
• The gradient of the slope
• Human activities such as mining.
• Occurrence of earthquakes and faulting
1. b) i)        Rock fall
2. ii)       P-cliff face/steep slope/scarp slope

q-Talus/rock debris/boulders

2.

• Due to temperature changes soil particles expand and contract hence shift position down slope.
• Moisture/rain water cause soil to become wet and compact.  On drying the particles loosen and shift position down slope.
• Moisture acts as lubricant to soil particles causing their movement down slope.
• Removal of soil on the downhill side makes the rest of soil to shift down slope.
• Human activities/action of borrowing animals may cause the removal of soil on lower part of slope.  This triggers soil particles on the upper part of the slope to shift down slope.
• Freezing of soil water expands the space between soil particles.  Once water thaws particles fall by gravity shifting position down slope.
• External forces e.g moving a trigger effect which causes downwards movement of soil particles.

3.

• Soil creep pushes posts and fences from their original positions
• Displacement of soil particles down slope leaving steep upper slopes bare
• Burry roads and railways making repair expensive
• Causes slope retreat
• Leads to formation of terrace
• Leads to formation of terrace
• Leads to formation of deep fertile soils down slope which favours agriculture
1. Mass wasting:

This is the down slope movement of weathered materials under the influence of gravity.

Mass movement:

This is the down slope movement of weathered materials after lubrication by water.

1. Soil creep:

Movement of fine soil down a gentle slope.  It is the slowest movement and quite hard to notice.

Talus creep:

Slow movement of angular waste of rock of various sizes down a cliff, hill, scarp and mountain side.

Solifluction: gravitational flow of surface materials saturated with water.

6.

• Very steep slope these accelerate the rate of movement.
• Very high rainfall which makes the materials to be extremely fluid and the ground to be generally unstable.
• Tectonic movement such as earthquakes and faulting.
• Human activities e.g mining or removal of soils at the base of slopes making the upper layers unstable.
1. Evidence of soil creep includes:
• Joint blocks of distinctive rocks types are dislodged from the outcrop
• Edges of strata seem to bend in the down hill direction.
• Fences posts and telephone poles lean downwards and even shift measurably out of line.
• Retaining walls of road cuts lead and break outward under pressure of soil creep from above.
• Accumulation of deep soil at the base of slopes while the upper slopes are left bare.
• Bare and exposed steep upper slopes due to soil displacement
• Slope retreat
• Bent tree trucks.

CHAPTER 3

THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

1. a) E – Surface run-off

F – Evaporation

G – Condensation

1. b) A watershed is a ridge line boundary line separating drainage basins or

river systems while a catchment area wetland which a river draws its water.

2.

• Heavy rainfall /high intensity of rainfall/
• Low rate of evaporation
• Sloping ground/steep slopes
• Presence of vegetation/bare surfaces
• Saturated soil surfaces.
1. Is the endless circulation of water from earth’s surface to the atmosphere as moisture or water vapour and back to the surface of the earth as rain or snow with source of energy being the sun.
2. Type, amount and duration of rainfall e.g light showers in long duration reaching the ground facilitate infiltration as apposed to heavy rain in showt duration

Nature of slope– Level land hold water on ground long enough to infiltrate than on steep slope where run-off is accelerated.

Level of soil saturation-Infiltration is greater in areas with lower water table and lower soil water than in higher water table with high amount of soil water

Soil type- Coarse grained soil allow greater infiltration than fine grained compact soil

5          a)         Refer to all water held in form of ice in storage on the earth surface.

b)

• Provide underground water
• Ecological balance
• Formation of clouds
• Oxygen and carbon dioxide cycles
• Occurrence of leaching which is soil forming process.
1. Dew, mist, fog snow, snow, frost
2. Type, amount and duration of rainfall e.g. light shower reaching the ground gently will facilitate infiltration as opposed to heavy storm which encourage run off.

The duration the rainfall takes also determine the rate at which it infiltrates i.e. longer shower enhance infiltrates while short heavy storm encourages run off.

Nature of the slope: flat land holds water onto the earth surface longer hence encourages infiltration but when the land is sloppy surface, run off is accelerated.

Amount of water already in the soil e.g the lower the water table, the lower the chances of run off; but the higher the water table, and amount of water in the soil, the higher the surface run off.

Vegetation cover: Where vegetation is thick, the rate of run off would be reduced because the rain drop impact will be reduced.  A lot water will be retained through interception hence lower rates of surface run off.

Soil type:  Course-grained open textured sandy soil have higher infiltration rate than fine grained compact soil.  This reduces run off.  Likewise, deep uniformly permeable soil have extensive infiltration hence lessens the chances of overland flow.

Environmental factors e.g where the rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of infiltration, surface runoff is minimized (if other factors are treated constant) but where the rate of evaporation is lower overland flow will be higher.

Human activities: This can control runoff deliberately by construction of reservoirs acting like natural water bodies.

In urban areas, surface sealing by concrete and bitumen accelerates surface runoff.

Agricultural practices can also modify runoff through contour farming and levee construction which will store water and increase both infiltration and evaporation at the expenses of runoff.

8.

• Reducing the rate of deforestation and increasing afforestation and reaforestation programmes so as to facilitate transpiration process
• Activities which can cause global warming such as releasing chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere should be reduced so that water held in the cyrosphere can still be maintained and used as storage in future
• Avoiding excessive harvesting of sand on river beds.

CHAPTER 4

ACTION OF RIVERS

1. a)
• Birds foot delta.
• Estualine delta
• Aruate delta
• Cuspate delta
1. b)
• River must have a large load of sediments
• absence of filters like lakes or swamps in the river’s course
• Rate of river deposition should be faster than rate of erosion by tides and waves.
1. a)        (i)        P- Deposition

Q- Erosion

(ii)       R- Bluff/cliffs

(iii)

• In a stream, water flows in meandering motion.
• The motion sweeps the current to outer bank where lateral erosion/undercutting occurs and deposition occurs in the inner bank.
• This leads to formation and enlargement of a meander
• Subsequent cutting through the neck of the meander by the stream establishes a new channel
• The abandoned cut-off meander channel forms a crescent shaped lake-ox-bow lake
1. b)
• Gentle sloping/flat surface
• Has levees
• Has deltas/distributaries
• Has meanders
• Land is fertile-alluvial deposits
• Has mashes/swamps
• Has braided channels
• Presence of ox-bow lakes
1. a)
• Increased discharge because of increased rainfall increases erosive activity of the river
• A fall of sea level leads to river renewing its head ward erosion. Starting from the new base level.
• Uplift of land causes a stream to increase its erosive power
• Changing rock resistance from hard to soft along the river course reactivates rivers erosive power.
1. b) X- Resistant rock

Y- Plunge pool

Z- Rock boulders/rock pebbles.

• Some particles are carried in suspension because they are light and can be maintained within turbulence of water.
• Some load is dissolved in water and carried in solution.
• Some particles are heavy and are momentarily lifted by turbulence of the water and then dropped onto the river bed by saltation process.
• The heavy particles are rolled along the river bed through process known as traction.
1. i) Dedritic pattern resembles a tree trunk and its branches.  The tributaries

join the main river at acute angles.

Trellis pattern comprises a main river with tributaries joining at right angles.  The minor tributaries also join the main tributaries at right angles.

1. ii) Trellis pattern comprises a main river with tributaries joining at right angles. The minor tributaries joining at right angles, the minor tributaries also join the main tributaries at right angles.

iii)       Central petal pattern comprises rivers which flow into a common inland basin or depression such as a lake or swamp.

1. a)
• Gradient of the river channel which determine river energy.
• The nature of bed rock whereby soft rocks would be more eroded.
• Volume of the water which affects river ability to erode.

b)

(i)        Define river rejuvenation

Refers to the revival of rivers’ erosive energy.

(ii)

• Incised meanders
• River terraces
• Knick points
• Rejuvenation gorges
1. a) River basin: The entire system of the river including tributaries and

Distributaries

1. b) Water shed: A boundary line separating neighbouring river basins. It’s also called river divide.

1. c) Catchment area: the entire area from which the river draws its water.
2. d) river regime: this is the seasonal variation of the amount of water in the

river channel or the variation of the quantity of water (discharge) passing down a stream.

1. a) Inland delta is formed at any part of the river course before it reaches its

mouth e.g Niger delta in Mali and Okavango delta in Botswana, while an alluvial fan is deposit composed of silt, sand, gravel and boulders found at a point where a river enters a plain from high land e.g. Ewaso Narok fan on river Ewaso Narok in Kenya, kilombero alluvial fan in Tanzania and lumu alluvial fan in Uganda.

1. b) Estuarine delta: develops at the mouth of a drowned river e.g Zambezi and

volta river deltas

An estuary is a mouth of the river which drains its water in the ocean in one complete channel e.g. river Zaire in democratic republic of Congo

1. c) A bluff is a blunt, low embankment on the bank of the river as a result of

recession of interlocking spurs due to lateral erosion.

A river cliff is an overhanging undercut river bluff (river bank) due to lateral erosion.

1. d) Levees and river banks

Levees are temporal raised river banks made of sand deposits on the flood plains between which a river flows.  A river bank is an elevated land alongside a river which may either be vertical or sloping towards the river.

1. e) River valley and river channel

A river valley includes both the cross and long profile of a river including

all the associated features from its source to its mouth, while a river channel is the narrow groove or furrow through which a river flows.

1. f) Paired terraces and unpaired terraces. Both are associated with river

rejuvenation (renewed  erosion of river to cut new channels).  Paired terraces have valley levels on the opposite side with equal elevation while in the case of unpaired terraces benches on the opposite sides do not match.

1. g) Drainage pattern and drainage system. A drainage pattern is the layout or pattern made by the river and its tributaries on the landscape whilst a drainage system develops where rivers either flow in accordance or discordance to the existing rock structure and slope.
2. h) A misfit river and deferred river

A misfit river is one whose water has been pirated by another powerful river flowing adjacent and on a lower ground.

A misfit river is also referred to as an under fit or beheaded stream.  A deferred river is a tributary that flow for long distances parallel to the main stream before joining it due to the presence of the levees.

A misfit river and deferred river are shown in the diagram below.

1. i) Antecedent drainage and superimposed drainage.

Antecedent drainage is a drainage system where a river maintains its course while the surrounding land is uplifted.

In superimposed drainage a river valley is developed on the former cover of rock which have been exposed and have a completely different structures

• Abrasion

This is the wearing down of river bed and sides by use of the load carried by the river. The load is hurled by water against the banks and dragged along the bed acting as a scouring tool.

• Hydraulic action

High force moving water removes loose materials e.g. gravel. The water scoops out rock particles.

1. a)
• The river is in youth stage
• The main function of the river at this stage is erosion
• The main features of the river includes:
• Water fall
• Rapids
• Gorges
• Potholes
• Interlocking spurs
1. b) i) The river is in mature stage
2. ii)
• Main function of the river are erosion and deposition though lateral erosion is more dominant than vertical erosion.
• Main features of the river includes.
• Wider valleys with an open v-cross section
• Gentler river gradient, wider valley floor
• River bend begins to appear
• Concave banks standout as river cliff while
• Convex banks becomes slip off slopes
• Interlocking spurs changes to bluff due to gradual removal by lateral erosion
1. c) i) The river is in the old stage
2. ii)
• The main function of the river is deposition
• The main features of a river at this stage include;
• Meanders and ox-bow lakes , natural levees and deferred tributaries, Incises meanders and terraces, Braided channels, Flood plains, Deltas and tributaries, Very gentle gradient, Shallow broad and flat valley.
• River provides water for irrigation this has enhanced food production of the local people in the areas where the river passes.
• River provides route ways e.g. the navigable rivers. This has facilitated easy transport and communication between any area served by the river
• River provides sand which is a building material.  People can put up permanent structures and this has changed their lifestyles
• Rivers are sources of alluvial soil. These deposits of river soils form rich agricultural land e.g. along the Tana river valley.  This has increased food production hence better living standards.
• Rivers form natural boundaries between communities, districts provinces or countries.  Such boundaries have helped in settling disputes related to land at the borders
• During floods, rivers destroy properties and human life.  This has led to migration of people to higher ground and inadequate development of physical infrastructures such as permanent housing, roads e.t.c.
• Rivers are tourist attraction features. The revenue earned through tourism where there are rivers is a source of income to the local inhabitants, and hence the revenue raises therir standard of living
• Rivers provide fishing ground.  Fish which is a rich source of protein is used to supplement other food resources such as meat. This ensures a healthy population devoid of diseases such as kwashiorkor.
• Communication barrier some river form barrier between communities making communication difficult e.g communities making communication difficult e.g. communication between Lamu and Tana river district.  The local therefore have to use alternative longer routes which is expensive and time consuming.
• Water borne diseases:  In rivers where water is almost stationary many water borne diseases are a problem.  These diseases may include river blindness, malaria and bilharzias.  The treatment of this diseases is difficult and very expensive
• Rivers provide site for hydro-electric power generation.  The lifestyle of locals in other benefits which comes along with power generation.  This may include trade, urbanization; better road and communication network this has led to improved living standard.
• Rivers provides port facilities.  The presence of ports also offers employment opportunities to peoples within the region.
• This has enhanced the living standard in the region e.g port of Mombasa.
• Rivers supply water for both domestic and industrial use.  The construction of industries in the area is also a major source of employment to locals hence improvement of standards of living.
1. a) Vertical aerial photograph
2. b)           Arcuate delta
3. Birds foot delta

–           Absence of strong waves/Currents in the sea/lake.

–           Decrease in the velocity/speed of river

–           A shallow shore at the river mouth.

CHAPTER 5

LAKES

• Erosion
• Volcanic
• Tectonic movement
• Deposition
• Earth movements caused crustal warping
• A basin was formed
• Uplift of land masses/back-tilting of plateau around the depression diverted the flow of rivers into the depression by reversed drainage.
• Deposition into the depression resulted into further down warping
• Water from the rivers accumulated in the depression forming a lake.
• Water from the rivers accumulated in the depression forming a lake.
• The lake breezes have a cooling effect on the surrounding areas
• The high rate of evaporation from the lake leads to formation of convectional rainfall in the area.
• Moistures from the lake leads to an increase in the amount of rainfall received in the area
• Evaporation from the lake leads to increase in the relative humidity of the lake region.
• Lakes formed due to earth movements such as faulting and down warping.
• Lakes formed due to vulcanicity such as when water occupies crater
• Lakes formed due to glaciations e.g tarns.
1. a) Formation of lake Victoria:

Lake Victoria was formed as a result of warping and tilting of the earth

crust. During the drainage evolution process, the western part of the depression was uplifted to form a Ruwenzori and middle part down warped Rivers like Yala, Nzoia, Mara, and Kuja were cutoff and started pouring their water into this depression to form lake Victoria.

1. b) Formation of lake Tanganyika: lake Tanganyika was formed as a result of

faulting.  During the formation  of the rift valley some parts of the valley were deeply faulted to form long narrow hollows.  When water accumulated in this hollow, Lake Tanganyika, which is faulted or Rift Valley Lake was formed.

1. c) formation of lake Chala: Lake Chala  was formed when water

accumulated in the crater of a volcano.

1. d) Formation of lake sare is a lagoon that formed at the shore of Ugowe Bay

in Siaya District.  Action of long shore drift deposited materials across the by which cutoff part of Lake Victioria to isolate the water mass to form a lagoon new lake Sare.

1. e) Formation of Lake Kivu; Lake Kivu is a lava dammed lake.  It was formed

during the eruption of virunga volcanoes which blocked the west rift.  One of the tributaries of river Zaire was dammed to form Lake Kivu.

6.

 Eastern Generally fresh ·       Generally alkaline ·       Have no out lets except Naivasha and Baringo ·       Short narrow and deep ·       Generally fresh ·       Have outlets ·       Long and deep

1. Significances of lakes in East Africa
• Sources of fishes e.g lake Victoria turkana
• Hydro electric power production e.g. owenfalls on Lake Victoria
• Irrigation purposes e.g Lake Naivasha
• Transport e.g. Lake Victoria source of water for both domestric and industrial use e.g. Lake Victoria
• Sources of rivers e.g. Lake. Victoria is source of river Nile.
• Tourist attraction e.g Lake Nakuru and Elementaita
• Source of minerals e.g. soda ash at Lake Magadi
• Building materials e.g sand from Lake Victoria
• Modifying climatic condition of the environment e.g Lake Victoria
• Reaction purposes e.g. Lake Turkana
• Habitat for destructive animals e.g. crocodiles and snakes in lake Shakababo
• Destruction of properties and displacement of people e.g Masinga dam due to flooding.

CHAPTER 6

OCEANS, SEAS AND THEIR COASTS

1. a) H-Lagoon

J-Island

K-Tombole

L-Spit

b)(i)

• A gently sloping shore.
• The shore should be shallow
• The breaking waves should have a strong swash and a weak backwash.
• Waves should carry a large load of materials to be deposited.

(ii)       Processes involved in marine erosion.

Hydraulic action

• Breaking saves/swash hits against cliff shattering the rock
• The force of breaking waves compress air into the cracks/joints in the cliff face. This enlarges the cracks and part of the rock break off.

Corrosion/Abrasion

• The rock fragments carried by the waves are used as a tool to erode the cliff as the wave break at the cliff face.
• The material/ load carried by the backwash erodes the sea floor.

Attrition

• The searing down of particles/loads as they continuously hit against each other and against the cliff

Solution/corrosion

• The solvent and chemical action weakens and removes the minerals found in the cliff and sea-floor where there are limestone rocks.
1. c) (i) Objectives to formulate for the study.
• To assess/find out the importance of depositional features.
• To identify different types of depositional features.
• To find out how the features were formed
• To establish how features are distributed along the coast
• To establish how features are distributed along the coast
• To find out the materials that make up each of the depositional features
• To find out how constructive wave break at the shore.
1. ii) Methods to use to record the information collected
• Photographing/video taking/filming
• Tape recording
• Taking notes
• Sketching/drawing
• Filling tables Tallying
1. a) Submerged highland coasts

Submerged lowland coast

1. b) i) Hard rocks carried by waves increase the erosive power of the

waves as they hit against the Coast.

1. ii) A coast made of soft rocks wears away easily when subjected to sea waves.
2. Rise in sea level/eustatic change in base level/positive eustatic change.

Depression of coastlands/submergence of coastlands.

1. Fjords/fyord

Rias/creeks

Islands

Estauaries

1. Coastline is the line reached by the highest storm water and demarcated by a cliff.
2. Destructive waves are waves which have strong backwash and weak swash

leading to enhanced erosion and less deposition.

1. Erosion features include:

– Cliffs                        -Blowholes

– Caves            -Arch

– Geos             -Stacks

– Stump

• Cliffs are formed by action of destructive waves
• These waves start by cutting a small notch or hollow on the rock face called a notch.
• As soil erosion continues a notch is enlarged.
• The upper section collapses due to its own weight forming a cliff.
• A steeply sloping coast is subjected to sea waves
• Due to wave attacks a notch is formed.
• When the upper side of the notch collapses a cliff develops
• Continued undercutting of the cliff makes the cliff to collapse and to retreat inland
• As cliff retreats it leaves behind a rocky floor which slopes gently towards the see (wave-cut platform)
• Emerged coast
• Submerged coast
• Coral coast
1. a)
• Formed from tiny marine organisms called coral polyps
• Coral polyps live in colonies
• They extract from sea water, calcium and use it to build protective shells
• When they die their skeletons pile together and are commented together by calcareous algae to form a ridge like rock parallel to the shore called coral reef.
• Coral reefs include fringing reefs barrier reefs and a toll.
1. b)
• Rias have been used to develop habours
• Most resultant land forms are tourists attractions sites
• Some Rias are habitat for marine life which promotes fishing industry
• Coral rock is a raw material for cement industry
• Most of landforms have promoted education and research.
• Shingle beaches are beaches made up of unsorted particles of shells, mud, stones and sand particles of various sizes. Such kind of beaches allow backwash to infiltrate into the beach.
• Sand beaches-these are beaches made up purely of sand. But since sand is compact they don’t allow easy infiltration of water into the ground.
• Ria coast
• Fiord coasts
• Dalmatian coast
• Horizontal movement
• Vertical movement

15        a)         A- Stack

B- Arch

C- Cave

1. b) Abrasion and wave action attacks the pre-existing lines of weakness at the

The hollow is enlarged to form a tunnel like chamber known as cave.

CHAPTER 7

ACTION OF WIND AND WATER IN ARID AREAS

1. a) (i)        X- horns

(ii)       Y- Eddie currents

(iii)      Z- Steep leeward slope

1. b) Traction

Suspension

Surface Creep

1. a) (i) Processes through which wind erodes the surface.

-Deflation

-Abrasion

-Attrition

1.  ii)      Ways through which wind transports its load

Suspension

–           The fine dust particles are lifted and suspended in the air

–           Eventually they are blown away by wind currents

Saltation

–           Larger fragments/sand particles are lifted from the ground by eddy

actions

–           They are moved in a series of hops/jumps by wind currents

Surface creep/attraction

–           The heavy materials /small stones/pebbles are dragged along the

ground by wind currents

1. b) (i) How oasis is formed

–           A pre-existing depression formed through faulting or otherwise is

exposed to wind erosion

–           Wind eddies remove unconsolidated materials through deflation

–           As deflation continues, the depression is deepened and enlarged.

• The process of deflation is aided by weathering
• With continued deflation, the level of the water table is reached.
• Water oozes out of the ground collects into the depression to form a lake known as oasis.
1. ii) Zeugens
• Zeugens are formed in desert areas where alternating horizontal layers of hard and soft rocks occur
• The top layer of hard rock is jointed/has cracks.
• Weathering opens up the joints
• Wind abrasion erodes the joints deepening them to reach the soft layer of rocks
• Abrasion continues, farrows are formed and gradually widened
• The hard/resistant rock forms ridges separating the fallows
• This process creates a ridge-furrow landscape
1. c) (i) Ways through which students would prepare for field study

–          Reading from the relevant written materials.

–          Assembling relevant tools/equipments/materials for the study.

–          Formulating hypothesis/objectives

–          Planning a schedule of activities

–          Carrying out reconnaissance

–          Studying /drawing a route map

–          Identifying methods of data collected

1. ii) Information that would be collected through observation of the arid

area.

• Sparse vegetation/large patches of bare soil
• Sparse settlements
• Presence of drought resistant crops
• Stunted trees/tufts of grass
• Dust storms/land storms
• Evidence of wind erosion/deposition

iii)       Measure s to be recommended for controlling desertification.

• Planting of trees
• Controlling overgrazing
• Avoiding bush fires
• Controlling tree cutting
• Practicing appropriate methods of cultivation/planting cover crops
• Irrigation/mulching/terracing/strip cropping/contour farming
• Gabion construction
1. Abrasion- Wind picks loose weathered, material and transports them. During

the course of transportation the material scrubs other tock surfaces it comes into contact with.

• Zeugen
• Rock pedestal
• Yardangs
• Deflation hollows
• Mushroom blocks
1. – Occurs in alternating soft and hard layers

–        The hard layer is underlain by soft layers

–        Weathering breaks the hard cap in the well joined rock.

–        Wind abrasion deepens and widens the joints to produce a landscape of

furrows and ridges

–        The ridges are called zeugens

• Barchans
• Seif dunes
• Transverse and wake dunes
• Loess
• Drass
1. – Sheet floods develop on gently sloping surfaces surrounding upland areas

–        On steep sided and undulating landscape flash floods cut out rills which

are then enlarged to form gullies.

• Continues erosion of gullies enlarges them to form a steep sided rocky valley

1. Differentiate between suspension and saltation

Suspension

Fine particles are carried within the turbulence of wind while in

Saltation

Saltation- Medium size particles are tolled along the group and when they

collide they bounce off into the air and cause other particles to be lifted in the air.

1. Name four types of desert surface

– Erg desert

– Reg desert

1. i) Abrasion– materials carried by wind scours/grinds against the desert

surfaces leading to removal rock particles.

1. ii) Deflation– strong winds blows away dry unconsolidated materials.

iii)    Attrition– Heavy materials carried by wind hits against each other leading to reduction of size facilitating their transportation.

1. a) Suspension – fine and light materials are picked by the wind and carried within the air turbulence.

Saltation – medium sized materials are transported through a series of hops and jumps along the surface.

1. b) – Wind speed and force

– Presence/absence of obstacles

– Weather changes

1. Bajadas– Bajada starts with formation of alluvial fans when alluvial cones

coalesce along the edge of a depression

The margin leads to formation of gently surface.

Due to erosion, land mass waste a high area recedes

The retreating mountain leave a gentle sloping rock known as pediment.

1. i)

– Sparse vegetation/large patches of bare soil

– Sparse settlements

– Presence of drought resistant crops

– Stunted trees/tuff grass

– Dust storms/sand storms

– Evidence of wind erosion and deposition features.

1. ii)

– Planting trees

• Controlling tree cutting
• Practicing appropriate farming methods-strip, cropping, mulching, gabion construction.

CHAPTER 8

UNDERGROUND WATER

1. a) P – Clint

Q – Grike

R – Jointed limestone

1. b) Rain water dissolves carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to form weak

carbonic acid.

Acid rainwater falls on jointed limestone rocks.

The reaction forms calcium bicarbonate which is soluble and easily

disintegrated.

1. – The surface rock and the rock beneath should be thick limestone or dolomite

– The rock should be hard and well jointed

– The climate should be warm or hot

– Rainfall should e moderate to high

– The water table in the rocks should be deep below surface.

–                The rock has thin soils which discourage agriculture

–                Inadequate surface water for domestic use

–                Surface is rugged hindering construction of houses and infrastructure

–                Presence of underground caves which may collapse.

–           Influence formation of spring.

–           Occurrence of permeable rock on top of an aquifer: A spring will

develop at the point where the two meet.

–           Existence of a well joined rock; water is absolved through the joints and

eventually spring out where the water table meets the surface.

–           Dyke cutting across a layer of permeable rock:

The water on the upper slope of the dyke is impounded which causes the water table to rise and causes springs where the water table meets the surface.

5          a)         Effluent streams are underground streams in limestone areas which are fed

by a water table above their level while influent streams are underground streams which are fed by the water table lying beneath their bottom.

1. b) Artesian basin is the statum in the earths crust in which one or more

acquifers are sandwiched between impermeable rock strata from a permanent water holding facility while an artesian well is a wll dug in the basins to tap water.

1. -Grikes

-Clints

-Sink holes

-Dolins

-Uvalas

1. Stalactites are finger like underground masses of calcite hanging vertically

from the roof of a limestone cave.

1. – Limestone regions are very good for grazing purpose especially for

sheep because soil is thin and the surface is dry.

–           The Karst landscape is characterized with intermitted streams or

absence of streams leading to scarcity of water supply in these regions.

–           Limestone is extracted for use in industries e.g Building industry,

iron and steel industry.

–           The features such as gorges, caves and burns form good tourists

attraction.

CHAPTER 9

GLACIATION

1. a) Is large continuous mass of ice which covers vast areas of lowland
2. b)

–        Initially ice collects in shallow hollows on the mountain sudes

–        The hollows are enlarged by the plucking action of the ice to form cirques

–        More ice accumulate in the hollows leading to further erosion

–        The cirques recede until a knife edged rock called arête separates them.

1. c) (i)        S- Medial moraine

T-Lateral moraine

V-terminal moraine

(ii)       –           Alluvial fans and outwash plain have fertile soils exploited

for agriculture.

–           Fiords coastline provide good fishing grounds because they

are deep and shelted.

–           Lakes and rivers from channels for development of route ways

–           Rivers provide water for domestic and industrial uses.

–           Some features attract tourists earning foreign exchange

1. a)(i) Is a mass of ice of limited width which moves outwards from a central

area of             ice accumulation.

(ii)    Valley glaciated mountain while ice sheets are large expanses of ice

covering large areas of permafrost land.

1. a) P- Pyramidal peak/horn

Q- Arete

R- Hanging valley

1. b) -A pre-existing U-Shaped valley is filled with ice/glacier.

-The glacier erodes the valley by abrasion or plucking

-The end of spurs are truncated/cut

-Ice melts away leaving behind a U-shaped valley

1. a) Formation of pyramidal peak

–           Ice exerts pressure on the hollows

–           Plucking actions of ice enlarges the hollow allowing more ice to collect

in them.

–           Freeze-thaw action leads to expansion of cracks/hollows making them

large basins.

–           Moving ice plucks off loose rock materials from the basin enlarging them

further.

–           Nivation eats into the back wall of basins making them recede into the

mountains side

–           Steep-sided knife edged ridges are formed separating the basins.

–           Three or more these ridges/arêtes converge at the mountain top forming a

jugged peak known as pyramidal peak/horn.

1. b) Significance of upland glaciated features to human activities.

–           The upland glaciated valleys are suitable for livestock farming

–           Glacial upland areas forms magnificent features that encourage recreation

and tourism.

–           Glaciated mountains encourage the growth of forests hence lumbering is

practiced.

–           Waterfalls formed in glaciated uplands provide suitable sites for hydro-

electric power production.

–           U-shaped valleys form a natural route way

–           Flooded coastline form deep well sheltered natural harbours/good  fishing

grounds.

1. c) i)         Why it is difficult to carry out field  study of glaciated feature.

–           Climbing the mountain is difficult due to rugged terrain.

–           Features are found far from the schools/settlements

–           Poor weather conditions i.e. rainfall and low temperatures

–           Thick forest and dangerous animals which makes it difficult to

access such areas.

–           It is difficult to conduct a previsit

–           Avalanches

1. ii) How students would use the photograph of Kenya to identify

the glaciated features.

–           By dividing it into parts

–           By observing and identifying the features in each part of the photograph

–           By recording the features observed

–           By drawing sketches of the features observed

–           By labeling the features observed.

1. A snout is the lower part of glacier where it begins to melt while a snow niche is a smaller niche mass laying on a steeply sloping hollow, gulley or bench in the high mountains.
2. – Lewis glacier (between Lenana and Nelion)

–           Tyndall Glacier (North of Lenana peak)

1. It is caused by Glacier as it erodes vertically and laterally. The sub-glacial moraines scrub the floor while the lateral moraine scrubs the walls. The trough is thus broad, flat bottomed, and steep sided with a U-shaped cross-section.
2. It is a permanent cover of ice on the land surface extending to a small area of

land

1. Pyramidical peaks e.g Lenana, Batian, Nelion Cirques e.g Teleki tarn, Hobley

Gorges, Aretes

1. It is a shallow pre-glacial depression that has progressively enlarged. A patch

of snow produces alternate freezing and thawing on rocks around the margins

which then cause them to rot and disintegrate.  Melt water helps to remove the

resulting debris thus forming nivation hollow.

CHAPTER 10

SOIL

1. a)(i) This is the arrangement of soil layers along a mountain slope from top to

bottom.

(iii)   –  Soils are thin/shallow

• Have low organic content
• Soils have low moisture content
• Soils are rich in calcium/alkaline

c)

• In savanna areas there is alternating wet and dry season
• During wet season, mineral salts in the horizon A dissolve in the percolating
• The dissolved minerals are precipitated/deposited in the lower layer. This process is called eluviation.
• Insoluble minerals such as iron and aluminium accumulate in A horizon/top layer to form a crust known as laetrile
• During dry season illuviation occurs. Soluble minerals are dissolved in the capillary water and moves upwards to horizon A.
• Evaporation occurs on the horizon A.
• Minerals are precipitated near/on the surface to form crust.
1. a) Loamy

Clay

Silty

Sandy

Gravel

1. b) -Humus help to improve soil porosity

-Humus improves the moisture retention capacity in the soil

-Humus improves soil texture

-Humus provides essential minerals in the soil

1. – Soil accumulation of rock particles, minerals, organic matter, water and air

found on the surface of the earth.

–        Is the superfacial layer of loose/unconsolidated rock material overlying on crustal rocks and on which plants grow.

• Zonal
• Intrazonal
• Azonal

Take place through to stages namely mineralization and humification mineralization is the biological and chemical breakdown of dead plant tissue by soil micro-organisms to produce simple soluble organic substances.  This is the initial stage of decomposition.

Humification is the second stage of decomposition where the dead plant material which had been mineralized are regrouped into large molecules to form humus.

• Leaching process common in arid areas.
• Soils are leached upward through capillarity
• In some areas this leads to formation of thin salty crust or the surface
1. Zonal order soil is a type of soil classification which group together soils which

have undergone long time of soil formation process under good drainage      conditions.

• Planting cover crops
• Ploughing along contours
• Practicing crop rotation
• Controlled grazing
• Agro forestry
• Mulching
• Is a severe leaching process
• Is limited to middle and high latitude areas
• The climatic conditions are too cold that bacteria action is inhabited while moisture is sufficient enough to allow large green plant to grow.
• Humic acid produced from a abundant leaf mould and humus, leach the upper soil strongly of bases, colloids and oxides of iron and aluminum leaving composed largely ash gray as soil horizon of silica.

CHAPTER 11

AGRICULTURE –CROP FARMING

1. a)
• High temperatures throughout the year temperature range of 200C to 300
• High rainfall that is evenly distributed throughout the year 1500mm to 2100mm,
• High relative humidity of 80% to 90%
• Plenty of sunshine during the ripening season.

b)

• Competition from other oil vegetables
• Production of low quality oil
• Reduction of low quality oil
• Reduced production that has lowered the amount of oil exported.
1. b) Describe the stages involved in cultivation of tea from land preparation to

the stage shown in the photograph.

–  The land is cleared of vegetation

–  The land is ploughed/tilled

–  Seedlings are planted in nursery and allowed to grow to 20cm

–  Seedlings are planted in rows which are about 1.5 metres apart.

–  The plant are weeded and manured/ mulching applied regularly.

–  Once the bushes start growing. The tips of branches are pruned regularly to

encourage plant to form more branches.

–  The crop is harvested every two weeks once it attains maturity

–  After harvesting.  The green tea leaves are transported to the factory within

24hrs.

1. c) (i) Name two districts in Eastern province where tea is grown

-Embu

-Meru North

-Meru South

-Meru Cental

(ii)

–  Organizes farmer education days/ provides extension services for the farmers at

a low prices

–  Buying farm input in bulk and sells to farmers at low prices.

–  Providing credit facilities to the farmers to enable them purchase farm inputs

–  Collecting the green leaves and delivers the factory on behalf of farers

–  Establishing factories where the green tea leaves are processed

–  Undertaking the marketing of tea on behalf of the farmer.

–  Improves feeder roads to ease transportation of green leaves

–  Conducts researches on tea crop varieties/diseases/pests in order to produce

high yield tea/ better quality tea.

1. a) -High temperatures/24.300C.

-High rainfall/1,200-1,500mm.

-Well distributed rainfall throughout the year.

-Deep, well drained, fertile soil/volcanic/light clays

-High relative humidity

-Shade from strong sun rays for seedlings/young plants

-Shelter from strong hamattan wind.

-Undulating lowlands/below 750m above sea level.

1. b) -Fluctuation of prices in the world market

-Competition from other land uses.

-High production costs

-Competition from other beverages like coffee, flowers, fruits, vegetables

1. a) -Temperature ranging from 140C – 260C

-High rainfall 1100mm – 2030mm per year.

-Well distributed rainfall throughout the year

-Gently sloping landscape.

-Deep, fertile, well drained soils

1. b)     -The crop is attacked by pests and diseases

-Fluctuation f coffee prices in the world market

-Poor infrastructure

-Mismanagement of coffee co-operatives

-Poor marketing strategies

-Low payments

1. a) (i)        -Central

-Rift Valley

-Eastern

(ii)

–           Moderate rainfall/500mm to 1270mm to enhance the growth of

wheat.

–           Temperatures ranging from 150C to 200 C/warm conditions to

facilitate growth/maturity of wheat.

–           A warm /dry /sunny spell for ripening and harvesting.

–           Fertile volcanic soils to sustain high production

–           Gentle sloping/undulating landscape to allow proper drainage/mechanized cultivation.

1. b) i)         Storage

–           In both Canada and Kenya wheat is stored in grain silos.

–           In Canada wheat on transit is stored in huge grain elevators/special

car boxes while in Kenya it is stored in sacks.

1. ii) Transport

–           In Canada wheat is transported by railways (CPR and CNR), roads and waterways while in Kenya it is transported by roads and railways.

iii)       Market

–           In Canada whet is for both local and export markets while in Kenya wheat is for local market

–           Canada has a larger and reliable local market than Kenya.

–           Kenya wheat sold through NCPD or directly to the millers, Canada sold by government/individuals.

1. c) i)         Climate problems that affect wheat farming in Canada.

–           Low rainfall/Unreliable rainfall which leads to carop failure

–           Low temperature/long and cold winters which limit outdoor

activities/delays cultivation of wheat.

–           Frost which destroys wheat leading to low yield.

–           Hailstones which destroys wheat leading to low yield

–           Strong winds causes soil erosion especially affects ploughing

resulting to loss of fertile soils

ii)

• Uses of wheat
• Used as animal feed
• Used as human food
• Used for brewing/distilling alcohol
• Used for paper and straw boards.

d)

-Nakuru                    -Samburu

-Uasin Gishu            -Trans Mara

-Narok                      -Nyandarua

-Trans nzoia            -Keiyo

-Laikipia                  -Mt.Elgon

1. e) -Alberta

-Manitoba

f)

• Wheat growing in Canada is more mechanized leading to higher production than in Kenya
• More capital is available in Canada enabling farmers to sustain production
• Farmers in Canada are more experienced due to long history of wheat production than in Kenya
• Advanced scientific research in Canada enables the production of higer yielding seeds/better farm inputs/control of pests and diseases/overcome limitations of weather
• Wheat farmers in Canada specialize in wheat production while in Kenya, farmers practice mixed farming
• In Canada, there are more extensive tracts of land suitable for wheat growing than in Kenya.

6          a)

• Cool/warm climate/100C to 180C throughout the year.
• High rainfall/100-2000 mm per year
• Well distributed rainfall throughout the year
• Areas that are frost-free
• Deep, light and well-drained soils
• Gently sloping/undulating land
• Acidic/volcanic soils
• High altitude/1200 mm -2300 mm

b)

• Delayed payments/low payments that lower the morale of the farmers.
• Mismanagement /embezzlement of funds thus farmers are discouraged
• Poor feeder roads in the tea growing areas lead to delays in collection/delivery of the green leaf hence wastage.
• Adverse weather conditions such as long droughts/hail storms lead to destruction of the crop.
• Fluctuation of prices in the world market makes it difficult for the farmers to plan ahead.
• High production costs due to high prices of farm inputs leads to lower yields since most farmers cannot afford to buy them
• Pests/ Fungal diseases destroy/reduce yields
• Inadequate /unreliable transport facilities delay the collection/delivery of green leaf reducing the quality.
1. a) W- Kapenguris

X- Kericho /Kisii

Y- Meru/Embu/Nyeri/Kirinyaga/Mt Kenya region

b)

• Expansion of tea growing areas and the establishment of the Nyayo tea zones.
• Increase in the number of small-scale tea farms in the country
• Improved marketing strategies through KTDA
• Expansion/increase in the number of tea factories.
1. c)
• When the bushes are ready only the two top leaves and a bud/flush are picked
• The green leaves are transported in airy baskets to a collecting centre for weighing.
• The weighed leaves are transported by lorries fitted with bags to the processing factories. The leaves are weighed again at the factory.
• The tea leaves are spread out on long wire trays.
• The leaves are then dried by blasts of warm air from beneath the trays.
• The dry leaves are passed through a set of rollers to chop them/the leaves are crushed.
• The leaves are placed in containers for fermenting reducing tanning acid and changing the above to grey-brown.
• The leaves are passed through a conveyor belt which takes them to a tunnel which is a temperature of 1000 C for roasting after which they turn black.
• The leaves are sifted for grading /laste