SECTION A (25 mks)

  1. State one theory that explains the origin of people
  • The evolution theory
  • The creation theory
  • Mythical or traditional theory ( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)
  1. Give TWO advantage of using the steam engine in the transport Industry in the

nineteenth century                                                            ( 2 mks)

  • It did not pollinate the air
  • It was cheap
  • It increased the speed of locomotives ( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Give TWO factors that led to the growth of urban centers in Greece
  • The area was secure from external attacks
  • The area had a well organized administrative system
  • There was population increase due to existence of religious and educational institutions
  • There was development of trade and commerce
  • Existence of well organized military systems

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Identify one form of picture writing during the early civilizations
  • Cuneiform
  • Hieroglyphics (Any 1 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Give ONE importance of the Odwira festivals in the ancient kingdom of the Ashanti.
  • Promoted unity of the people
  • It brought the kings together to pledge loyalty to the Asantehene/ or Emperor
  • It provided opportunity for the kings to settle disputes
  • It provided an opportunity for the Kings to honour the dead

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Identify the main commodity in the Trans Atlantic trade ( 1 mk)

(i) slaves                                                                     ( 1 x 1) = 1 mk)


  1. State TWO economic effects of the industrial revolution in North America
  • Machines replaced human labour in factories
  • There increased demand for raw materials in North America
  • The search for markets for manufactured goods increased

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Name TWO missionary societies which worked West Africa in the nineteenth century.
  • Base missionary society (B.M.S)
  • Church missionary Society (C.M.S)
  • Presbyterians
  • Bremen missionary Society (B.M.S)
  • Methodists

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. State one way in which European nationalism contributed to the colonization of


  • Countries competed to acquire many colonies to prove that they were powerful
  • France wanted to restore her past glory after defeat in Franco- Prussian War
  • New nations such as Italy and Germany wanted to be equated with the rest of Europe.


  1. Identify TWO chartered companies which were used to administer European colonial possessions in Africa

(i) The Royal Niger Company

(ii) The British South Africa Company

(iii) The Germany East Africa Company

(iv) The imperial British East Africa Company        (Any 2 x 1 = 2mks)


  1. Give one reason why the Shona supported the British during the Ndebele resistance of 1893.

(i) To stop raids from the Ndebele

(ii) They did not want to be ruled by Ndebele           (1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Name one political party fought for independence in Ghana

(i)        The united Gold coast convention (UGCC)

(ii)       The convention Peoples Party (CPP)

(iii)      The national League of the Gold Coast (NLGC)

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Give TWO reasons why there were civil wares in the democratic Republic of

Congo (DRC) soon after independence

  • Lack of qualified personnel to administer the country
  • The economy of the county was in the hands of the foreigners
  • Ethnic differences between Katanga and Kasai provinces
  • Army mutinies due to the control by foreign officers

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. State two advantages of being a member of the commonwealth organization

(i)        Enables one to get aid either capital or technical

(ii)       Enables one to develop trade links

(iii)      Benefits from innovative economic ideas

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Name the type of constitution used in great Britain

(i)        Unwritten constitution                       ( 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Give ONE disadvantage of a federal system of government

(i)        There is a great  temptation for succession by parts of the country

(ii)       It can lead to unequal development   ( Any 1 x 1 = 1mk)


SECTION B (45 mks)


  1. (a) What were the stages in the development of tools by early people?

(i)        The earliest tools were made from stones

(ii)       People hunted animals and used bones and ivory to make tools

(iii)      Later people used sharpened sticks as tools

  • As people improved in technology they developed iron tools

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b)       Explain SIX ways through which the development of iron technology affected African communities in the pre- colonial  period

(i)        Better farming tools were made which were used to clear large areas of forests

(ii)       Strong weapons were made and were used to conquer weaker communities

(iii)      Iron  technology enabled communities to establish strong defence items

(iv)      Centres where iron working took place developed into towns e.g. Meroe

  • A class of highly respected professionals ( Blacksmiths with the knowledge of iron technology emerged)
  • Items made of iron were exchanged in trade
  • The possession of iron tools enables many communities to migrate and settle in different areas such as the Bantus
  • Ornaments were made from iron for decoration

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) Give THREE classes of people in Hinduism

(i)        At the highest level are the priest/ Brahmins

(ii)       The second level consists of merchants and farmers/ Vaishyas

(iii)        Then there are servants and workers/ Sudras

(iv)      At the lowest level are outcasts/ Pariah

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)

(b)       Explain   SIX effects of the spread of Islam in Africa up to the end of the

19th Century

  • Some of the Africans who were converted to Islam completely left their traditional beliefs and practices
  • Islamic Law was adopted in the administration of states where Islam spread/ Sharia
  • Islamic education based on the Koran was introduced
  • The use of Arabic language by Moslems led to the development of languages such as Kiswahili and Hausa
  • The building of mosques and residential houses introduced Arabic architectural designs in Africa.
  • Arabic style of dressing, music and diet were copied by Africans who had been converted to Islam
  • Moslem traders introduced new crops such as cloves/ dates
  • Islam created cohesiveness among the believers
  • There was intermarriages between Arabs and Africans leading to emergence of new communities such as the Waswahili
  • In areas where Islam was spread through Jihads there was great loss of life
  • The spread of Islam encouraged the development of slavery and slave trade
  • The spread of Islam encouraged establishment of Islamic empires
  • Over dependence on donations and foreign and has made people to be reluctant to grow food crops
  • Poor implementation of food policies has led to inadequate food production
  • Poor/ inadequate food storage facilities leads to wastage.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) What were the effects of using electricity in industries inn Europe in the

nineteenth century

  • It lowered the cost of production since it was a cheaper source of energy
  • Work was carried out for long hours as there was light
  • It enabled goods to be produced quickly and large quantities
  • Work became lighter as machines operated efficiently
  • Transportation was made easy and faster
  • There was a clean working environment in factories
  • It led to the location of industries away from sources of energy


(b)       Explain FIVE effects of scientific inventions on agricultural development

in Europe during the nineteenth century

  • Invention of machines such as tractors promoted large scale farming
  • Use of artificial fertilizers to improve soils led to high yields of crops
  • Use of pesticides in farming led to improved quality/ exotic products
  • Cross breeding of crops and animals led to improved quality/ exotic products
  • Improved infrastructure such as roads and railways led to effective marketing of farm products
  • Refrigeration/ canning led to effective preservation of farm products
  • Controlling temperatures in the storage rooms led to preservation of farm products for long

( 10 mks)

  1. (a) Give THREE problems which Europeans colonialists faced as they

established their rule in Africa in the second half of the nineteenth century

  • They were attacked by tropical diseases
  • Difficult terrain hindered their movement
  • They faced hostility from some African communities
  • The region lacked developed means of transport and communication
  • They faced shortages of food and medicine
  • There was lack of a common language between the Europeans and Africans

(Any 3 x1 = 3 mks)


(b)       What were the result of the collaboration between Lewanika of the Lozi

and the British in the nineteenth century

  • Lewanika received payment of £ 2000 yearly
  • He lost his authority as the administration was taken over by the British South Africa Company
  • The British South Africa Company took over the control of the minerals
  • The Lozi land was alienated and given to British settlers
  • The Lozi were forced to pay taxes in order to maintain the administration
  • The Lozi were forced to work as labourers on settler’s farms
  • The Lozi were employed in the civil service
  • The British South Africa Company developed infrastructure in Barotseland
  • The British established their rule peacefully in Northern Rhodesia
  • Lewanika was honoured with the title paramount chief until his death
  • The British used Barotseland as a base to conquer the neighbouring communities.

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


SECTION C (30 Marks)

Answer any TWO questions from this section in the answer booklet provided


  1. (a) State THREE  privileges which were enjoyed by assimilated Africans in

the four communes of Senegal

  • They were allowed to vote during elections
  • They were allowed to vie for posts in the French Parliament
  • They were exempted from forced labour
  • They were allowed to work and live in France
  • They received French education
  • They had freedom of movement within the French empire
  • They were exempted from paying taxes
  • They were allowed to become French citizens

(Any 3 x1 = 3 mks)

(b)       Why did French system of assimilation fail in areas outside the


  • The Africans were not willing to become Christians
  • The Africans were not able to get the French type of education
  • The system faced opposition from the Muslim
  • The French parliamentarians did not want to compete with Africans for Cabinets posts
  • The African traditional rulers feared they would lose their positions
  • French traders feared competition so they opposed the system
  • It was expensive to implement the system because of the vastness of the French empire
  • The varied African cultures made it difficult for them to be absorbed into the French culture. ( Any  6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) What were the causes of bombing of Nagasaki and Heroshima in Japan

(i)        Many people lost their lives

(ii)       Property of great value was destroyed

(iii)      The radio active elements caused many diseases

(iv)      Many people were maimed

(v)       There was economic decline

(vi)      Many People suffered psychologically

  • Japan surrendered unconditionally

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b)       Explain SIX factors which contributed to the rise of Japan as an industrial

power after the second World War

  • The government made education compulsory and encouraged research leading to innovative ideas
  • People were encouraged to study abroad leading to technological advancement
  • There was financial support for industrialization
  • The availability of raw materials for industrialization from in and outside Japan
  • The culture of hard work encouraged local and foreign investment
  • The Government policies encouraged local and foreign investment
  • The cheap and skillfully made products attracted market locally and abroad
  • The topography was unsuitable for agriculture. This made Japan to develop other sectors thus diversifying the economy
  • The development of hydro- electric power provided energy for industrialization
  • The Prevailing peace promoted development
  • The improvement in transport accelerated the process of industrialization

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) What are the functions of the  Security Council of the United Nations

(i)        It investigates disputes which are reported

(ii)       It advises member states to settle disputes peacefully

(iii)      It uses diplomacy and economic sanctions to bring World peace

(iv)      It appeals for peace keeping  force from member states

(v)       It admits/ suspends/ expels members from the United Nations


( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)



(b)       Explain SIX problems which the United Nations is facing in its efforts to

maintain World Peace.

  • The increase in terrorist activities has created tension/ hatred among member countries thus threatening World Peace
  • Frequent border/ ethnic disputes make the work of the United Nations difficult
  • The organization faces shortage of funds because many member countries fail to remit their annual subscriptions




SECTION A (25 marks)


  1. Give one reason why Homo Habilis was referred to as “able” man

(i)  Because of the ability to make tools              (Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Identify one area in Africa where agriculture began

Along the NileValley in Egypt                ( Any 1 x 1= mk)


  1. Identify one type of trade
    • Local trade
    • Regional trade
    • International trade


  1. Identity two improvements which were made on macadamized roads in the Nineteenth century.
    • Tar was put on the top surface to make them smooth
    • Roads were widened to create highways
    • Roads were straightened
    • The roads wee strengthened by adding more layers of gravel/ stones made durable

( Any 2 x1 = 2 mks)


  1. State two advantages of use of electricity in industries during the industrial revolution
    • The supply could be regulated/ could be switched on and off
    • It could be used in different ways. E.g. lighting, heating, trucing
    • It could be used far from the source/ industries could be established anywhere
    • There was a clean working environment/ Non pollutant
    • The cost of production of goods was made cheaper

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. State the main contribution of the discovery of chloroform in the field of medicine

It reduced pain during operation


  1. Identify two factors that led to the growth of Athens as an urban centre.
    • It was surrounded by mountains and sea making it secure/ Security
    • It was a centre of learning and art which attracted people. Educational cent.
    • It was a religious/ culture centre
    • It was a trading centre/ commercial centre
    • There were valleys with fertile soils for food production./ Availability of food
    • It was an administrative centre.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Name two official who assisted the ruler of the Shona to administer the kingdom
    • The head cook
    • Head gate keeper/ chancellor
    • The court steward/ chamberlain/ chancellor
    • The Queen Mother
    • The head drummer
    • The head of the Army
    • The Treasurers
    • The Senior son in law
    • The Nine principal wives of the King
    • The King sister

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. What is the difference between the scramble and partition of Africa in the nineteenth century?

The scramble was the struggle by competition/ rush by Europeans for colonies in African whereas partition was sharing/ dividing up of Africa into European spheres influence.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Name one colony of Britain in West Africa
    • Nigeria
    • Ghana/ Gold Coast
    • The Gambia
    • Sierra Leone

(Any 1 x 1 =  1 mks)

  1. Give one reason why the Africans in Tanganyika were against the use of Akidas by the German Colonial administrators.
    • Akidas were foreigners
    • Akidas took Africans chance in Administering their country
    • Akidas were brutal/ harsh to the Africans/ Whipping Africans E.g. flogging

(Any 1 x 1 = 1mk)

  1. Identify two peaceful methods which the nationalists used in South Africa in the struggle for independence
    • Demonstrations
    • Sending petition to the British government
    • Seeking support organization of Africa Unity and United Nations
    • Forming political parties
    • Condemning apartheid in churches
    • Hunger strikes
    • Use of mass media/ newspapers/ pamphlets
    • Trade unions/ boycotts/ seating or go slow

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)



  1. Give one reason why the united States of America (U.S.A) did not join the first world war until 1971
    • She did not want to get involved in European affairs. Manvue doctrine
    • She feared the war would be fought in America because of  German population
    • American interest had not been interfered with/ had commercial relation on both sides

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Give the main reason for the failure of the league of Nations

The rearmament of Germany

(Any 1x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. State two achievement of Pan- Africancism between 1945 and 1963
    • It promoted the spirit of togetherness among Africans all over the world
    • It gave moral support to African nationalists during the struggle for independence
    • It provided a forum for Africans to discuss common matters
    • It led to the establishment of the organization of the Africa Unity (O.A.U)

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. State two political challenges that faced Tanzania during the rule of president Mwalimu Nyerere
    • 1964 Army mutiny over delayed African promotions
    • Protests by universities of Dar-es- Salaam students in 1966 over National Youth Service
    • President Idi Amin attacked Tanzania
    • The country hosted large number of refugees from war torn neighbouring countries
    • The failure of the Ujamaa Policy
    • The assassination of Abeidi Karuma

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Who is the heard of government in India?

The prime minister

(Any 1x 1 = 1mk)




  1. (a) What were the physical changes which occurred in early human beings as they evolved from ape- like creature to modern people?
    • The skull was enlarged
    • The jaws and teeth became smaller
    • The arms and hands become shorter
    • The creatures assumed an upright posture
    • The feet and toes reduced in size
    • The creatures had less hair on the body
    • They became taller
    • They had slander body
    • The brain became bigger

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)


(b)       Describe the way of life of early Human Beings during the Old Stone Age


  • They made simple stone tools for domestic use/ oldulvan tools
  • They lived in small groups in order to assist each other
  • They obtained their food through hunting and gathering
  • They used simple hunting methods such as chasing wild animals and laying traps
  • They ate raw food because fire had not been discovered
  • They had no specific dwelling places
  • They sheltered from predators by climbing trees and hiding in caves
  • They wore no clothing but their hairy bodies kept them warm
  • They lived near rivers and lakes
  • They communicated by use of gestures and whistling

(Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks)


  1. (a) Give three factors which should be considered when sending a message
    • The urgency of the message/ speed
    • The complexity of the message/ simplicity/ clarity
    • The distance between the sender and receiver of the message
    • The availability of communication facilities/ methods/ mean

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b)       Explain the effects  of telecommunications on modern society

(i)        The message are conveyed over long distances/ shorten distances

(ii)       It has led to spread of ideas to different parts of the world/ the world has

become a global village/ sharing of ideas

(iii)      Television, videos, computers and cinemas transmit entertainment

through pictures

(iv)      Telecommunication systems are medium of transmitting education

programmes all over the world

(v)       Weather forecasting navigation and space exploration have been made easy by use of satellites.

(vi)      Information can be relayed through radio, television or cell phone remote places easily

  • It has promoted trade through advertisement on radio, television and computers
  • Security has improved through camera/ close circuit TV


  • Modern weapons have telecommunication services which are efficient
  • Various job opportunities employment has been created
  • Communication devises have made tax collection/ revenue collection easier for the government e.g. electronic tax registered
  • Management/ storage of information has been made easier through the use of computer/ internet
  • It has immorality through pornography
  • It has encouraged idleness as viewers get addicted to programmers on T.V etc.
  • It has promoted business transaction e.g buying and selling in internet
  • The government earns revenue through taxation on telecommunication services

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)

  1. (a) Give three reasons why Lobengula was defeated by the British in 1893?

(i)        The British had superior weapons compared to the Ndebele

(ii)       The British army was better organized than the Ndebele

(iii)      Lobengula and his soldiers were weakened by small pox

(iv)      The British had better trained army

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b)       What were the results of the British Ndebele war of 1893?

(i)        The Ndebele lost their independence/ company rule was established over

Matebele land

(ii)       There was massive loss of life

(iii)      The Ndebele lost of property through destruction

(iv)      Bulawayo the capital of the NdebeleKingdom was destroyed

(v)       The Ndebele lost  land to British settlers the Ndebele  were moved to


(vi)      The economic activities of the Ndebele such as agriculture, trade and mining were disrupted

(vii)     Their was widespread fear and insecurity among the Ndebele

  • The war provoked anti- British feelings which Party contributed to the Chimurenga wars of 1896 and 1987
  • The Ndebele military power was weakened
  • The Shona were made policemen over the Ndebele
  • The Ndebele were subjected to taxation
  • The Ndebele cattle were confiseatead
  • The Ndebele were subjected to forced labour


  1. a) What five reasons encouraged the nationalists in Mozambique to use

armed struggle to attain independence.

(i)        Portugal refused to listen to the grievances of the Africans.

(ii)       The nationalists were trained in fighting skills.

  • The liberation committee of the Organization of African Unity/Tanzania and other (O.A.U) supported the nationalists with finance and weapons.
  • The nationalists were supported and encouraged by communist countries.
  • The success of MauMau freedom fighters in Kenya inspired them.
  • The country was forested and conducive for guerilla warfare.
  • The United Nations(UN) denounced colonialism thus boosting the morale of the nationalist. Any 5×1=5mks


  1. Describe the problems which undermined the activities of nationalists in Mozambique.
  • They lacked basic need such as food, cloth and medicine.
  • Ideological differences led to the formation of rival guerrilla movements such as MANU, COREMO and FRELIMO.
  • The nationalist were demolished due to the assassination of their leader Eduardo Mondlane.
  • The Portuguese government ruthlessly suppressed the nationalist movement.
  • The South African apartheid government assisted the Portuguese to fight the nationalists.
  • Portuguese government ruthlessly suppressed the nationalist movement.
  • Portugal outlawed political movements.
  • The Christian church in Mozambique condemned the nationalist movement.

Any 5×2 =10mks)



22        (a)       Give three ways through which trade contributed to the rise of Asante

Kingdom during the eighteenth century.

  • Participation trade enabled the kingdom.
  • Acquired weapons which were used to expand the kingdom.
  • Wealth from trade boosted the kings prestige/frame.
  • The need for goods for export encouraged the kings to conquer more territories.
  • The king used wealth from trade to reward loyal provincial rulers

Any 3×1= 3mks


(i)        The Kingdom was composed of many communities who spoke the Akan language.

(ii)       The Asante were organized in clans

  • Marriage between members of the same clan was prohibited
  • Inheritance of property was matrilineal.
  • The community was bound together by the Golden stool
  • There was an annual cultural festival (odwira) held at kumasi to honour the ancestors.
  • The society was divided into social classes/stratification
  • The kings were regarded as semi-divine/religious traders
  • The Asante were polytheists/worshipped many gods and goddesses
  • The ancestors mediated between god and the people
  • The Asante had a supreme God called Nyame Any 6×2=12mks.


23 a)    Give three categories of the Prime ministries in Britain

(i)        Members elected by universal suffrage

(ii)       Members nominated by the monarch

  • Hereditary peers/ Royal family members
  • Senior statement/ knighted peers/ life peers
  • Senior leaders of the church of England

( Any 3 x 1= 3 mks)

  • What are the duties of the Prime Minister in Britain?
  • Appoints/ dismiss ministers with the consent of the monarch
  • Recommends to the monarch the appointment of high ranking officers in the government/ award of civil  honours
  • Chairs cabinet meetings
  • Settlers dispute between various governments  ministers/ departments
  • Heads the government/ Chief Executive
  • Overseas the implementation of cabinet decisions
  • Leads the house of Commons
  • The prime minister with the support                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    of parliament can change. Amend and re appeal  laws
  • Represents the country in international forums/ conferences
  • Determines when elections are held
  • He/ she is the leader of the party that nominated him/ her

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) Give three organs of the Economic community  of West African States


  • There is the authority of heads of States  and  Heads of governments
  • The tribunal
  • Executive secretariat
  • Specialized commissions
  • Council of minister

( Any 3 x 1 =  3 mks)


  • What are the achievements of Economic Community of W. Africa States (ECOWAS) since  its formation
  • It has standardized education in the region  by use of common examination syllabus
  • It has fostered peace through its military wing



  • It has promoted cultural exchange among the member states
  • It has improved regional Transport/ Communication system/ links
  • Improved agriculture through sharing of technological know- how
  • It has facilitated free movement of people in the region
  • There is na increase in job opportunities in the region
  • It has promoted spirit of togetherness
  • It has promoted mutual co-operation
  • It has promoted interregional trade  within regions.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)




–           Archaeology / palaeontology.

–           Oral tradition, Linguistics.

–           Anthropology

–           Genetics / Botany / Zoology / Biology

–           Written records,

–           Geology.

–           Electronic sources.


  1. i) Hunting ii) Gathering   iii) Farming       iv) Fishing


  1. Availability of water from the River Nile

-The River Nile also brought rich fertile silt from the highlands.


  1. i) Wind ii) Water         iii) Wood        iv) Sun            v) Animals / man


  1. i) It is slow
  2. ii) One can give the wrong message or forget the message.

iii)       One can die on the way

  1. iv) A person carrying verbal message can be tortured to reveal it.


  1. i) It is the quickest in terms of speed.


  1. Barter


  1. i) The rise of AxumKingdom which developed East of Merowe

denied Merowe access to the red sea causing decline in trade.

  1. ii) The king of Axum subdued and destroyed Merowe in 350 A.D

iii)       Desertification due to deforestation led to decline of food supply

for her people.

  1. iv) Deforestation caused the decline of food supply for her people.


  1. It was the symbol of unity within the Asante Empire.


  1. i) Britain ii) Germany


  1. i) Lewanika collaborated with the British in order to protect his

Kingdom against the Germans and Portuguese / European enemies.

  1. ii) Lewanika  desired Western education and civilization and wanted

the British to introduce it in his country / wanted his son to be educated.

iii)       Lewanika wanted the British to protect him against his internal enemies e.g. in 1884 Lewanika faced an internal rebellion / safeguard his position.

  1. iv) Lewanika who had already sought British protection against the Boers.
  2. v) Lewanika saw the futility of resisting a strong power like Britain,

so he chose to collaborate.

  1. vi) Lewanika wanted the British to protect his kingdom from attacks

by other African communities such as the Ndebele and Shona /

African enemies.

vii)      Lewanika  was influenced by the European missionaries who had

visited earlier to collaborate.

viii)     In order to preserve the economy structure of his people.

  1. ix) Desire for the promotion of trade between Britain and his people.


  1. i) All colonies were subjected to the same law.
  2. ii) Racial discrimination was minimal in the colonies.

iii)       It undermined African culture.

  1. iv) French goods and modern ways spread in West Africa.
  2. v) Educated African spearheaded nationalism in Africa.
  3. vi) Africans were represented by deputies in the National Assembly.


  1. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife in Sarjevo.


  1. i) Loss of independence
  2. ii) Exploitation of African resources e.g. land and minerals.

iii)       Western education


  1. i) Register treaties
  2. ii) Publishing reports

iii)       Interpret speeches and translate documents into the UN’S

official languages.

  1. iv) Implement policies
  2. v) Bring to the attention of the Security Council any problem that

threatens international peace.

  1. vi) Administer peace keeping operating and mediate international dispute.


  1. i) Member states have received technical know – how through the

provision of experts and advisers in various field e.g. agriculture.

  1. ii) The developing member states of the organization have acquired skilled man power through the provision of scholarships and training programmes by the developed member states of the organization.

iii)       Members states have conducted trade among themselves with relative ease.

  1. iv) There has been cultural interaction among member states e.g. games& exchange programmes.
  2. v) The developed member state have provided financial aid to the developing member states.
  3. vi) The organization has provided a forum for member states to air their views with one voice on international issues.

vii)      The organization had provided a mechanism of maintaining peace among member states, e.g. the common wealth eace keeping force which was sent to Zimbabwe.

viii)     It has promoted friendship and understanding among members states through conference.

  1. ix) It had enhanced democratization process in developing countries by sending observers to monitor elections.




  1. i) Direct or pure democracy – This is where the people in a state are

allowed to freely participate in an important decision making forums that pertain matters of the state.

  1. ii) Indirect or representative Democracy – This is where citizens exercise their right in decision making through their chosen representatives.




18        i)         It has led to deaths of hundreds of people due to famine.

  1. ii) Increased suffering as many people due to famine.

iii)       It has led to social problems like raids and theft.

  1. iv) It had caused migration of people affected by food shortage.
  2. v) It affects agricultural based industries.




  1. i) Land reclamation through irrigation or draining swamps.
  2. ii) Extensive research on better quality animal and crop breeds and on

how to control pests and diseases.

iii)       Establishment of agricultural training institutes to train

agricultural officers.

  1. iv) Soil conservation and restoration as well a forestation and re- a forestation.
  2. v) Encouraging people to eat different types of food especially indigenous


  1. vi) Control the rate of population growth through family planning.

vii)      Use of democracy and diplomacy to solve political problems.

viii)     The governments are trying to subsidize by providing farmers with

seeds and tools.


  1. i) Local trade      ii) Regional trade       iii)       International trade.
  2. b) i) It involved traders from North Africa and people of North Africa

and people of West Africa.

  1. ii) The people involved were Arabs and Berbers from the North, Tauregs from the desert and the people of West Africa.

iii)       Arabs in the North organized the caravans. Preparations were made in advance to have enough goods, food especially indigenous foods.

Iv)       Departure dates were set after the end of the rainy season when the storms were minimal.

  1. v) The Berbers and Tauregs acted as guides and provided security in the desert.
  2. vi) The traders moved in caravans of up 1000 camels for security in the desert.

vii)      In the south the traders stayed for up to three months selling goods.

viii)     If they had not finished selling the goods by the end of the tree months they hired local agents to continue selling goods and buying others on their behalf.

  1. ix) The local agents also maintained good relations with local rulers by giving them gifts and paying tribute.
  2. x) In return the local rulers offered security to the traders. They also regulated the precaution and supply of gold.
  3. xi) From the North they brought salt, copper, needles, spices, beds, grass ware horses, clothes , daggers, firearms e.t.c.

xii)      There were several trade routes that were used by the traders e.g. the Western route, central and eastern route.


  1. i) Discovery of Gold in Witwatersrand.
  2. ii) There was clean water supply from river Vaal which was used for domestic as well as industrial use.

iii)       It is situated on a plain (veld) which make building constructions and communication easy.

  1. iv) Existence of minerals e.g. diatomite’s.
  2. v) The areas surrounding the town have fertile soils therefore agriculturally productive.
  3. b)
  4. i) Poor working conditions for African living around Johannesburg.
  5. ii) Most people live in Shanties mainly because of unemployment. This led to development of slums.

iii)       Poor living conditions in the slums e.g. poor sanitation.

  1. iv) Criminal activities have increase due to unemployment.
  2. v) Pollution from industries and garbage.
  3. vi) HIV / AIDS is a major health problem.

vii)      Wide gap between the affluent who are the minority and the poor majority who area Africans.

viii)     Inadequate social facilities e.g. education and health facilities.


  1. i) It helped in the development of transport e.g. steam ship and trains.

This helped in the transportation of people in Africa.

  1. ii) With the development of railway Europeans were able to move into the interior of Africa and exploit minerals.

iii)       There was demand for coal to produce more steam.

  1. iv) It was possible to move troops to conquer the people of Africa using

steam trains and vehicles.

  1. v) There was demand for raw materials as the steam engine was

manufacturing goods at a faster rate.


  1. i) Formation of states:- Colonization helped in the formation of

states. During the struggle for independence different communities came together to fight for independence. These later became independent states with many different tribes.

  1. ii) It speeded economic growth in Europe through trade.

iii)       Africans were introduced to international commerce.

  1. iv) Development of infrastructure e.g. roads and railways by the Europeans

in Africa.

  1. v) Development of urban centres in areas where Europeans settled.
  2. vi) Fame and prestige: – Europeans powers who gained more colonies

in Africa gained fame and prestige.


  1. a)i) German to surrender some of other territories in European e.g. Alsace

and Lorraine were returned to France.

  1. ii) German to surrender all her colonies.

iii)       German to pay £6.6 million to the allies as reparation money.

  1. iv) The city of Danzing to be a free city under the league.
  2. v) German was restricted to an army of 100,000 men and it’s equipments

were limited.


  1. b)
  2. i) The allied powers had more states supporting them.
  3. ii) Allies had more financial and industrial resources.

iii)       Allied powers controlled the North sea and Atlantic Ocean and

blockaded the central powers.

  1. iv) The invasion of neutral Belgium by Germany made the world

to turn against the central powers.

  1. v) The entry of USA into the war helped to defeat the central powers.
  2. vi) The central powers were located in the central part of Europe and

Were surrounded by enemies from every side.

vii)      Multines in German army weakened the Germany resistance.

viii)     The failure of the schlieffen plan

  1. ix) Good political leadership among the allied powers.


  1. a)i) He made himself head of state and government thus centralized

power in his hands.

  1. ii) He banned all political parties . In 1967 he formed the

people’s revolutionary movement and made it the only legal party.

iii)       He reformed the constitution and stripped parliament off its powers.

  1. iv) Mobutu abolished the federal system of government and local assemblies.\
  2. v) He declared himself president for life in 1970.


  1. i) Political upheavals have hindered exploitation of Congo’s resources.
  2. ii) Belgium had led other western nationals in dominating the exploitation

of   Congolese mineral wealth. Profits are repatriated to Europe

and Congolese have not benefited from mining activities on their land.

iii)       Excessive reliance on foreign aid have created large debts which are

hard to pay.

  1. iv) There is trade imbalance between Congo and her partners.
  2. v) Corruption and mismanagement of country’s key sectors.
  3. vi) Poverty and lack of capital had hindered the exploitation of resources.

vii)      Lack of a clear policy of economic recovery after the colonial exploitation.

viii)     Inflation due to printing of currency.

  1. ix) Unemployment: – lack of job opportunities
  2. x) Poor transport means.



  1. a)
  2. i) Be at least 35 years old.
  3. ii) Be an American citizen by birth.

iii)       Must have been a resident of the country 14 years.


  1. i) It acts as a check on the executive arm of the government by

examining administrative work.

  1. ii) It approves taxation measures and make sure that the government expenditure is properly used and accounted for.

iii)       Making laws

  1. iv) Amend laws.
  2. v) Senate approves treaties with foreign countries
  3. vi) It can appoint a commission of inquiry to investigate any problem.

vii)      Senior civil servants are appointed by the president with the approval

of the senate.

viii)     Congress closely monitors the conduct of the president, vice president and other senior public officials.

  1. ix) Congress is a representative body elected by people and it reflects

the aspiration an interest of the American people.



  • 2008 History and Government Paper 2 (311/2)



    • May contain biases/exaggerations.
    • Information may be misinterpreted/misunderstood by readers.
    • There may be factual errors/omissions/contradictions by the authors.
    • These sources are limited to literate members of the society.
    • They are expensive to obtain/procure. (Any 2 x 1=2 marks)


  • There were more wild animals in the grasslands/availability of food.
  • The climate in the grasslands was warmer.
  • The grasslands provided much needed water. (Any 1×1=1 mark)


  • (Any 1×1=1mark)


  • Making utensils.
  • Making ornaments.
  • To make weapons.
  • As a medium of exchange/trade item.
  • It was mixed with other metals to make alloys.
  • It is used for making tools.
  • It is used as a trade item.
  • It is used to make statues. (Any 2×1 = 2 marks)


  • Canning process.
  • Pasteurization process.
  • Refrigeration process. (Any 1×1 = 1 mark)


  • It’s effectiveness depends on weather.
  • The message could be missed if no one is on the look out.
  • It can only be used to cover short distances.
  • Range of messages passed was limited. (Any 2 x 1=2 marks)


  • It’s cumbersome to transport bulky goods.
  • There is a problem of storing the goods.
  • It’s difficult to determine the exact values of some goods.
  • There is frequent lack of double coincidence of wants.
  • Some goods may not be divided into smaller quantities. (Any 2 x 1=2 marks)


  1. It is the concentration of people in certain places which grow large to be called                         towns/cities.                                                                                                   (1 mark)


  • To maintain law and order.
  • To collect taxes.
  • They recruited men for military service.
  • They settled disputes/tried cases in court.
  • They were members of the Lukiiko. (Any 2×1=2 marks)


  1. To divide up Africa among European nations in a peaceful manner. (1 x 1=1 mark)


  • The Moffat treaty.
  • Rudd concession.                                                 (Any 1 x 1=1 mark)


  1. Britain.                                                                         (1 x 1=1mark)


  • (Any 1 x 1=1 mark)


  • It ended economic domination of the world by European countries.
  • There was massive destruction of properties.
  • It enacted unemployment.
  • It slowed down economic development of most countries/led to economic depression.
  • It led to developments in engineering. (Any 2 x 1=2 marks)


  • To unite all black people to win majority rule in South Africa.
  • To encourage a united anti-racial activities/oppose apartheid.
  • To remove all forms of injustices.
  • To win a vote/franchise for all the people of South Africa. (Any 2 x 1=2 marks)


  1. Coordinates the activities of the other organs of the United Nations. (1mark)


  • Idiological differences among the three member states.
  • Personality differences between presidents Idd Amin ofUganda and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania.


  • The perception of Uganda and Tanzania that Kenya benefited more.
  • National pride/interests of the member states.
  • Failure to remit funds to the community by member states.
  • The closure of boundaries by the member states.                               (Any 2 x 1=2 marks)


  1. (a)
  • People could travel faster than before.
  • They could cover long distances.
  • The chariots made travel comfortable.
  • Heavy loads could be carried over long distances.
    • Traveling became more secure. (Any 3×1= 3 marks)



  • It is expensive to procure/maintain an aircraft.
  • Construction of airstrips requires a lot of resources and expertise.
  • The aircrafts can only land and take off in specific/designated areas thus inconveniencing the users.
  • Aircrafts cannot carry bulky/heavy goods as compared to other means of transport.
  • Air transport can only be used by the well to do members of the society thus making it inaccessible to many.
  • Its operations are affected by unfavourable weather conditions.
  • Aircrafts emit gases which contribute to the pollution of the atmosphere.
  • Travelling by air has facilitated international terrorism/drug trafficking.
  • The use of aircrafts in military warfare has resulted to destruction of property.
  • Accidents by the air crafts are fatal/chances of survival are minimal.
  • Requires a lot of expertise. (Any 6×2=12 marks)
  1. (a)
  • The slaves were exchanged for European manufactured goods.
  • Prisoners of war who had been captured during local wars were sold to the slave dealers.
  • Slave traders kidnapped lonely travelers.
  • Some people were enticed and eventually sold into slavery.
    • Debtors were sold to slave traders.             (Any 3 x 1=3 marks)


    • The industrial revolution in Britain led to the replacement of human labour with machines which were more efficient.
    • The leading economists were against slave labour and argued that free labourwas more productive than slave labour.
    • Philanthropists/Christian missionaries strongly campaigned against slave trade thus leading to its decline.
    • America attained political independence and abolished slavery and slave trade leaving this Britain with no colonies where she would take slaves to work.
    • The development of legitimate trade which subsequently replaced slave trade.
    • Britain abolished slave trade and influenced other European nations to stop the practice by signing anti-slave trade treaties.
    • The French revolution of 1789 impacted negatively on slave trade as the ideasof liberty and equality of all people were spread. (Any 6×2=12 marks)


  1. (a)
  • African resented the forced labour introduced by the Germans.
  • Africans disliked the harsh rule by Akidas and Jumbes who were hired by the Germans.
  • The Germans mistreated African Rulers.
  • Africans were against the introduction of tax by the Germans.
  • The German officials sexually abused the African women.
    • The Africans were inspired by the prophecy of Kinje Kitile Ngwale.
  • The Africans wanted to repossess their land from the Germans.
  • The Ngoni fought to seek revenge over the Boma massacre of 1897.
  • Africans wanted to regain their lost independence.
  • Germans despised/looked down upon the African way of life. (Any 5×1=5 marks)


    • Africans had inferior weapons which could not match the German modern weapons.
    • German solders were well trained as opposed to the African soldiers who used traditional methods of fighting.
    • The disunity/hatred that existed among African communities made it possible for the Germans to defeat them with ease.
    • The Germans used the scorched earth method which led to famine and hence weakened the Africans.
    • The magic waste failed to protect the Africans from German bullets.
    • Capture/imprisonment/execution of African leaders demoralised the fighters.
    • German administrators received reinforcement which strengthened their fight against the Africans.
    • The large/powerful communities who had been defeated by the Germans before did not join the war.
    • Africans were not well coordinated/organised in their fight against the Germans.

(Any 5×2=10 marks)


  1. (a)
  • It promoted health services/established International Health Organisation.
  • It championed for the welfare of the workers/established the International Labour Organisation.
  • It provided relief to refugees/war casualties/areas hit by famine.
  • It settled disputes between different European Countries.
  • It supervised mandated territories.
  • It organized disarmament conferences in Europe.
  • It helped to reduce trade in dangerous drugs.
  • It helped in economic reconstruction of European countries. (Any 5 x 1=5 marks)


    • Some European nations opposed the peace Treaty of Versailles becauseit favoured the allied nations that had fought against German.
    • The United States of America did not support the league because it did notwant to get involved in European affairs/The Monroe Doctrine.
    • The membership of the organization was not all that inclusive. Some countries were left out while others were not given a chance to join.
    • The league violated the objective of maintaining world peace by supporting some nations’ claims against others.
    • Most members were concerned with their sovereignty as opposed to the interests of the League of Nations.
    • Some members of the League adopted the policy of appeasement towards certain regimes in order to avoid confrontation thus weakening it.
    • Shortage of funds made it difficult for the League to implement its programmes.
    • The League lacked its own army to implement its decisions where peace was threatened. It depended on the goodwill of the members who at times were not reliable.
    • The search for colonies diverted the members’ attention from the activities of the League of Nations.
    • The rise of dictatorship regimes in Europe weakened the League as these dictators refused to accept its resolutions.
    • The economic depression of 1929 weakened most of the world economies, hence they were not able to support the League financially. (Any 5×2=10 marks)



  1. (a)
  • To avoid resistance from the people of Northern Nigeria.
  • The British had inadequate personnel for the vast territory.
  • There was an established system of administration.
  • There was communication barrier between the British and the local communities.
  • It was difficult to reach all parts of the territory due to inadequate transport and communication systems.
  • To reduce the cost of administration
  • The method had successfully been used in some of their colonies.

(Any 5 x 1=5 marks)



  • Traditional rulers became unpopular among their people due to their new roles of collecting taxes/forceful recruitment of fellow Africans as labourers for European/as soldiers to fight in the world wars.
  • The African Chiefs became wealthier than the rest of the people because they were paid for their services.
  • It helped to preserve African cultures in Northern Nigeria because the British did not want to interfere with the African way of life.
  • It led to the abolition of slavery and slave trade in Northern Nigeria
  • The British abolished the Fulani systems of taxation and replaced it with a single tax levied on each village.
  • Retention of muslim law/sharia in the North made the area lag behind.The British modified the previous systems of administration thus making the traditional African rulers lose their independence.                   (Any 5×2=10 marks)


  1. (a)
  • To promote unity among African states.
  • To end all forms of colonialism in Africa.
  • To promote human rights in African countries in line with the United Nations’ Charter.
  • To promote social, economic and political cooperation in Africa in order to uplift the peoples standards of living.
  • To uphold the policy of non-alignment in international affairs.
  • To uphold the policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of member states.
  • To recognize/respect the territorial/sovereignty of member states.
  • To promote peaceful settlement of disputes among member states.

(Any 5×1=5 marks)


    • The structure of the African Union is more elaborate than that of the organisation of African Unity/The African Union has more organs than the organization of African Unity.
    • African Union unlike the Organisation of African Unity has the mandate to intervene in the internal affairs of member states who violate human rights.
    • African Union is viewed as an organisation of African peoples while Organisation of African Unity was an organisation of African executives.
    • African Union has an ambitious economic development agenda for Africa where as Orgnisation of African Unity was mainly concerned with political issues of the continent.
    • African Union has an accountability mechanism/the African Peer Review Mechanism while the Organisation of African Unity lacked it.
    • The Organisation of African Unity was formed by independent African countries to fight colonialism where as African Union focuses on the challenges facing African countries today.
    • The African Union has established the court of Justice to handle cases involving victims of human rights violation within the member states while Organisation of African Unity lacked this agency.
    • The African Union unlike the Organisation of African Unity has established a close working relationship with countries of the world through Information Communication Technology to enhance globalization.
    • The African Union has proposed the creation of a standing African army whereas the Organization of African Unity did not think of it. (Any 5×2=10 marks)



  1. (a)
  • One should be a citizen of India.
  • The person should be aged 35 years and above.
  • The person should qualify for election as a member of the house of the people.
  • One should not be a government employee/not hold any office of profit within the government.
  • One must be nominated by a political party. (Any 3 x 1=3 marks)



  • The president is the head of state with executive powers to carry out his duties.
  • The president seeks advice from parliament when appointing the prime ministers.
  • He/she is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
  • He is a member of the legislative.
  • He ascends to/vetoes bills before they become law.
  • He establishes special councils to arbitrate on inter-state disputes.
  • He dissolves parliament to call for general elections.
  • He is empowered by the constitution to declare a state of emergency/rule the state by decree when the security of the state is threatened.
  • He nominates the 12 members to the “Council of states”/upper house.
  • He appoints state governors and supreme court judges.
  • He calls the leader of the winning party after general elections to form the government.
  • He is the leader of the political part that nominates him for the elections.
  • He pardons offenders. (Any 6×2=12 marks)








  1. Name two types of written materials used by historians  as a source of history and government
    • Books/ charts/ maps/ scrolls/ painting/ clay labels/ stone  table
    • Newspapers/ magazines
    • Diaries/ biographies
    • Journals/ periodicals
    • Official/ government records


  1. State two ways in which the early man obtain food
    • Hunting
    • Gathering
    • Growing crops/ farming
    • Livestock keeping/ rearing animals
    • Fishing


  1. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution

Simple life forms gradually develop into higher forms of life over millions of years                                                                     ( 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Identify the greatest contribution  of Michael Faraday in the field of science

He invented electricity                                         (1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Give the main use of steam powder during industrial revolution in Europe.

Driving engines/ machines in industries             ( 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. State two disadvantages of using wood as a source of energy
    • wood is affected by rain
    • It products smoke/ choking/ pollutes the air/ soot
    • Leads to deforestation / scarcity of wood
    • It is cumbersome to use (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Give two means of water transport used during the  ancient time
    • Sailing boats/ our driven  boats
    • Rafts/ logs
    • Canoes
    • Sailing ships



  1. State two advantages of the use of money of barter as a medium of exchange
    • Money is lighter to transport than goods
    • Money is easily divisible into smaller units than  the actual goods
    • Money is convertible into electronic devices  for payment unlike  goods
    • In barter trade,  one cannot determine  the  actual value of the  goods  transacted
    • Money can be stored in a longer period

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Give two reasons  why the early  urban centers in ancient Egypt developed in the NileValley
    • Water from the river was used for transportation
    • Water from the river was used for domestic use/ industrial  use
    • Nile valley contained fertile soil for farming/ availability of food
    • Nile valley had cool temperature which encourages settlement
    • Vegetation along the river provided building materials

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. State two economic activities of the Shona during the pre- colonial period
    • They grew crops/ agriculture
    • They kept livestock
    • They traded with Arabs and Swahili traders/ took part in long distance trade/ trade
    • They hunted elephants for ivory
    • They were iron worked/ blacksmiths
    • They made clothes from wild cotton/ bark fibres
    • They mined gold
    • They were fishermen
    • They gathered/ gathering


  1. Define the term “ sphere “ of influence as used by the European powers in Berlin conference of 1884 and 1885
  2. Identify one political reform introduction by President Fredrik de Klerk that led to the achievement of black majority rule in South Africa.
    • He released all the political prisoners
    • Appealed apartheid Laws, E.g. pass laws
    • Allowed Africans to join political parties/ participate in electrons

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Give one way  in which the policy  of “ nationalism allowed down economic development in Tanzania  during the reign of Julius Nyerere
    • Many Tanzanians developed a negative attitude to work/ relied on government support
    • Most foreign investors withdraw from the country
    • Some industries collapsed
  2. Name the organ of the United organization thatpromotes justice in the world.

The international Court of Justice

(1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Identify one superpower that was involved in the cold water
    • United States of America ( USA)
    • Union of SovietSocialistRepublic ( USSR)

(Any 1 x 1  = 1mk)



  1. Name two English speaking member countries of the Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS)
    • Liberia
    • Gambia
    • Ghana
    • Nigeria
    • Sierra Leone

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)


  1. Identify one house of the Congress in the united   States of America
    • The House of representatives
    • The Senate

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. (a) Give three stages in the evolution of man before Homo Erectus
    • Aegytopithecus/ Egyptian ape
    • Dryopithecus/ Africans/ Proconsul/ woodland ape
    • Kenyapithecus/ Ramapithecus/ woodland ape/ Kenya ape/ Asian ape
    • Australopithecus/ Southern ape/ man ape/ Zinyanthropus/ Nut erect man
    • Homohabilis/ Handy man/ practical man

Note any order of responses earns marks                        (any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b) Describe six ways in which the discovery of fire by Early Man improved

his way of life

  • The fire was used to roast/ cook thus he stopped eating raw food
  • Fire was used to provide warmth at night when it was cold
  • Fire was used to provide light in the dwelling/ sites/ caves
  • Fire improved hunting as man could use it to push animals to confined areas thus kill them easily.
  • Fire was used to frighten animals from man’s dwelling places thus improved security
  • Tool making was improved through the use of fire to harden sharpen tips of tools
  • Communication between people living at different places was made possible by the of fire and smoke signals
  • Early man preserved food by drying it over the fire
  • Fire enabled man to harden pottery which was used for storage / cooking/ trade

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) Identify three ways in which water was used in industries during the 18th century
    • To turn waterwheels/ grinding stones in four miles
    • To wash/ clean the machines/ maintain cleanliness
    • To cool the machines
    • To turn spinning machines in textile industries
    • To produce steam power to drive  machines

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b) Explain six social effects of the industrial revolution in Europe during the 18th century

(i)    Many people migrated to towns to look for jobs leading to overcrowding

(ii)   Increased population in towns led to shortage of houses thereby resulting

to the development of slums

(iii) There was poor sanitation which made people to suffer from various diseases

(iv) The factories emitted pollutants into the air, water and land thus affecting in people health

(v)   Those who did not secure employment in the industrial town engaged in crime and other social evils.

(vi) Industrial revolution led to social stratification where the poor were

Discriminated by the rich

(vii)             Women and children were exploited because they worked for long hours for little pay.

(viii) Trade union developed in order to fight for the rights of industrial

workers to settle industrial disputes.

(ix) Due to long working schedules, some industrial workers neglected their homes leading to family breakups

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) Identify the three methods used by the French to acquire colonies in

                        West Africa

  • Signed treaties with the African rulers/ used diplomacy
  • Played off one community against the other/ divide and rule/ treachery
  • Used force to conquer the African / Military expedition

(Any 3 x 1= 3 mks)


(b)       Explain six factors that led to the defeat of Samori Toure by the


(i)        The constant movements of his army and people denied them time to concentrate on gainful activities. This resulted to inadequate food supplies

(ii)       The scorched earth policy that he used when fighting made his people to be impoverished and thus turned against him.

(iii)      Some African communities in the area supported the French against Samori Toure. E.g. Liebba of Sekosso & Ahmiadu Sekou of Tuklor

(iv)      The Diplomatic tactics of playing off the British against the French worked against him as the British refused to give him support when attached by the French

(v)       The determination by the French to establish an overseas empire made them to use their superior weapons on Samori Toure

(vi)      The non- Mandinka and non Muslim communities in his empire supported the French against him because he had conquered/ mistreated them.

(vii)     The British refused to support Samori Toure against the French due to their policy of non – interference.

(viii)    The French besieged Samori Capital/ blocking his retreat thereby forcing him to surrender

(ix)      The establishment of the second empire from the East denied him access to the coast thus affecting supply of arms

(x)       The loss of Baire gold mine cleared him the finances to sustain his forces.

(6 x 2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) Give the reasons why it look long for Mozambique to achieve independence from Portugal
    • Portugal was reluctant to part with the economic wealth of Mozambique
    • Portugal was ruled by kings who had no regard for human rights
    • Portugal regarded Mozambique as one of its provinces and not  a colony
    • Portugal had succeed in suppressing revolts by Africans before nationalism took root in Mozambique
    • Lack of unity among  African until 1960’s
    • Illiteracy among Africans  in Mozambique

Any 3 x 1= 3 mks)


(b)       Explain six factors that favoured the success of FRELIMO nationalists during their struggle for independence in Mozambique

  • Use of Guerilla tactics to attack the Portuguese from different parts of country strained colonial resources.
  • The local population was recruited in the army which  out numbered the Portuguese  forces
  • Mozambique was highly forested  thus provided good  cover for  the  guerrilla  fighters  from  Portuguese war planes
  • FRELIMO fighters were working on familiar ground/ Terrain
  • The Frelimo nationalists  cultivated their own  food thus being  self sufficient in food supplies
  • The nationalist were aided financially, materially and morally by communist  countries which enabled them  to continue with the struggle
  • Support by the organization of African Unity (OAU) inspired  the nationalists to keep on  the struggle
  • The practice of Frelimo of setting up administrative structures in Liberated areas encouraged the Africans in Mozambique to support the struggle
  • The recognition of the role of women helped  the nationalist to mobilize the communities to support the struggle.
  • Elimination of ethic difference appealed to all the Mozambicans to join   in the common cause/ they were united.
  • The Frelimo leaders were  well organized./ co- ordinated the struggle effectively
  • Frelimo fighters received constant flour of information about the movement of the Portuguese troops.



  1. (a) List three Europeans Countries that formed the Tripple alliance before the outbreak of the First World War.
    • Germany
    • Austria – Hungary
    • Italy
    • Romania


(b) Describe six functions of the General Assembly of the United Nations (U.N)

(i)              The general Assembly liaises with the Security Council in making recommendations on maintenance of peace and security

(ii)             Discusses issues relating to international peace and security.

(iii)            It elects jointly with the Security Council, the judges of the international court of Justice/ appoints the secretary/ general

(iv)            It receives/ acts on report from Security Council and other U.N organs

(v)             It approves U.N budget/ apportions the amounts of construction to be paid by each member state.

(vi)            It elects non- permanent member of the security/ Economic/ Social fields

(vii)           It promotes the development / codification of the international law

  • It facilitates the realization of human fundamental freedoms
  • It promotes higher/ better standards of living among nations.

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)




  1. (a) State five characteristics of the commonwealth member  states
    • Members of the commonwealth use English as the official language of communication
    • Members appreciate each others cultural values
    • Member countries co- operate in the field of Education
  • They recognize the queen/ king of England as the head  of commonwealth
    • Member countries have similar government/ institutions/ parliamentary system/ judiciary/ civil service/ military practices
    • They participate  in commonwealth games
    • They have economics ties/ the rich nations assist the poor ones with economic/ technical aid

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)

(b)     Explain five challenges facing commonwealth

(i)        The commonwealth is dominated by the developed nations. This

Undermines policies/ decisions made by the less developed members

(ii)       Lacks adequate funds to finance its operations since most of the members

are from the less developed countries.

(iii)      Political instability/ civil wars in many member countries in Africa and Asia has affected the performance of the association in promoting peace/ good governance.

(iv)      Members of the commonwealth have a divided loyalty/ lack commitment due to their involvement in their organizations

(v)       Members of the commonwealth withdraw their membership at will and hence affect smooth operation of the club

(vi)      Ideological differences between the member countries/ capitalism/ communism make it difficult for the members to speak with one voice on matter of international concern.

(vii)     Personality difference between heads of states/ government have negatively affected the association.

(viii)    The association lacks an executive authority to enforce its decisions/ has no standing army

(ix)      The need to correct colonial injustices has created misunderstanding among the members thus making it difficult for it  to effectively  implement its plans

(x)       Racial discrimination reflected by lack of free movement/ restricted visa rules adopted by some counties has undermined social cohesion

(xi)      Some member countries put their national interest before those of the association thus making it difficult for the association to achieve its objectives

(Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks)


  1. (a) State three ways in which a person can become a member of parliament in Britain
    • Election of the member to the house of commons
    • Nomination of the person by the Monarch
    • Through inheritance of the house of lords
    • By virtue of office
    • By appointments due to outstanding performance


(b)       Describe six duties of the Monarch In Britain

(i)        The Monarch approves/ assents bills before they become laws

(ii)       The monarch approves all appointments to important state of offices

(iii)      The monarch is involved in enacting treaties between government and

other countries in relation to foreign policy

(iv)      The monarch summons/ prorogues/ dissolve parliament in consultation

with the prime minister.

(v)       The monarchy gives consent to all cabinet appointments

(vi)      The Monarchy has powers to pardon people who have been accused of

committing various  offences.

(vii)     The Monarch appoints bishops/ archbishops of the church of England

(viii)    The Monarch advises/ Counsels the head of government

(ix)      The monarch confers honours to persons who have rendered

distinguished/ outstanding.

(x)       The monarchy is the commander – in chief of the Armed Forces

NB:  The prime minister appoints while the monarch approves the appointments.














K.C.S.E  2010



SECTION A (25 marks)


  1. State the scientific theory that explains the origin of human beings.

– The Evolution theory/Darwin                                                                            1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. State two uses of stone tools by early people during the Old Stone Age period.
  2. i) For skinning animals after hunting.
  3. ii) For digging uproots

iii) For cutting meat

  1. iv) For sharpening one/wood
  2. v) For scraping animals skins/softening
  3. vi) For killing animals during hunting

vii) For protecting/defence                                                                      any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Identify the method used to plant cereal crops when early agriculture began.

– The broadcasting method                                                                      1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Name two metals that were used as currency in pre-colonial Africa.
  2. i) Iron
  3. ii) Gold

iii) Copper

  1. iv) Silver
  2. v) Bronze


  1. State one advantage of using the pipeline over vehicles in transporting oil.
  2. i) The pipeline delivers oil faster than vehicles.
  3. ii) It is safer to transport oil by pipeline than vehicles

iii)       The pipeline ensures regular/continuous supply of oil to required areas/depots.

  1. iv) It is easier to maintain the pipeline than vehicles. 1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Give the two main items of the Trans-Saharan trade.
  2. i) Gold
  3. ii) Salt


  1. Give tow social functions of the ancient city of Athens in Greece.
  2. i) It was a cultural centre/music/art/theatre
  3. ii) It was an educational centre

iii)       It was a sports centre

  1. iv) It was a religious centre Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks



  1. Name any chartered company that was used to administer Tanganyika during the process of colonisation.

– The German East Africa Company                                                                   1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Which was the main factor that unified the communities of the Shona Kingdom during the pre-colonial period?

– The Mwari religious cult/Mlimo/religion                                                         1 x 1= 1 mark


  1. State two functions of the Lukiko in Buganda Kingdom during the 19th Century.
  2. i) It advised the Kabaka.
  3. ii) It represented the wishes of the people.

iii) It assisted in settling disputes/acted as final court of appeal.

  1. iv) It directed the collection of taxes/how the wealth of the kingdom would be spent.
  2. v) It was the law formulating body in the Kingdom.
  3. vi) It assisted/no general/administration Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Give one economic reason which made European Countries to scramble for colonies in Africa.
  2. i) To obtain raw materials for the industries.
  3. ii) To search for markets for the manufactured goods.

iii)       To acquire areas to invest their surplus capital                           Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. State one way in which the Ndebele benefited after the British-Ndebele War of 1893 to 1896.
  2. i) The Ndebele Indunas were made headmen.
  3. ii) The Shona police were removes from Matebeleland. Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. Identify two economic results of the First World War.
  2. i) European governments spent huge sums of money.
  3. ii) There was massive destruction of property.

iii)       It led to economic depression/employment/starvation/unemployment.Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Give two principal organs of the United Nations.
  2. i) The General Assembly
  3. ii) The Security Council

iii)       The Economic and Social Council

  1. iv) The Secretariat
  2. v) The Trusteeship Council
  3. vi) The international Court of Justice Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. Identify two ways in which Mwalimu Julius Nyerere promoted the development of Education in Tanzania after independence.
  2. i) He established the universities of Dar-es-Salaam and Sokoine
  3. ii) He made Kiswahili the medium of instruction in schools.

iii)       He made education to be free and compulsory from primary school to university.

  1. iv) He popularized the philosophy of “Education for self reliance”
  2. v) He introduced Adult education.         Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks


  1. 16. State one condition that a country should fulfill in order to become a member of the Non-aligned Movement.
  2. i) A country should be independent.
  3. ii) A country should not be a member of either NATO or WARSAW pact military.


  1. Identify one parliamentary duty of the Monarch in Britain.
  2. i) Summons parliament after a general election.
  3. ii) Prologues parliament

iii) Dissolves parliament

  1. iv) Assents bills of parliament
  2. v) Nominates members to the House of Lords.                                     Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark


SECTION B = (45 marks)

  1. a) State five reasons why early people domesticated crops and animals during the Neolithic period.
  2. i) Due to increased Human population more food was required.
  3. ii) There was competition for food between human beings and animals.

iii) Over hunting developed stocks of animal on which human beings relied on for food.

  1. iv) Hunting and gathering had become tiresome/insecure.
  2. v) Calamities such as bush fire/floods destroyed vegetation/drove away animals.
  3. vi) Some crops and animals had economic value.

vii) Animals were domesticated to provide security.

viii) There was a change in climate which caused aridity/weather sometimes hindered gathering and hunting.                                                                                         Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks


  1. b) Explain five causes of food shortages to Africa today.
  2. i) Many parts of Africa experience little or no rain at all over several years leading to crop failure and hence food shortages/natural hazards.
  3. ii) The rapid population growth rate has overtaken food production rate resulting into food shortages.

iii)       Inadequate/food storage facilities had contributed to food wastages as farmers cannot store store food for a long period.

  1. iv) Poor state of roads in many African countries hinders transportation of food from the areas of surplus to those of deficit.
  2. v) Low prices of food stuff has discouraged many farmers who may have invested so much capital leading to food shortages.
  3. vi) Many farmers in Africa lack enough capital to buy required farm inputs.

vii) Due to crop diseases and pest, a lot of food is destroyed either on the farms or in stores resulting to food shortages.

viii) The emphasis on cash crop farming at the expense of food crops has contributed to low food production leading to food shortages.

  1. ix) Environmental degradation through deforestation/overgrazing of animals had led to soil erosion leading to wasteland, hence low food production/desertification.
  2. x) Civil wars in many African countries have displaced people from their farms and therefore diverted their attention from farming resulting in food shortages.
  3. xi) Poor food policies have discouraged farmers as they are not given enough incentives incase of crop failure/poor economic planning.

xii) The young-able bodied persons migrate to urban centres thus leaving farming to the aged who are not able to contribute much towards food production.

xiii) HIV and AIDS pandemic has impacted negatively on the labour force in food production.

xiv) Poor land tenure system/land fragmentation has reduced the acreage that would have been used for production scarcity.

  1. xv) Over reliance/dependence on famine relief food/other forms of aid has made people not to look for permanent solutions to food shortages.

xvi) Lack of modern farming methods her led to low food production. Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks


  1. a) Give three problems faced by factory workers in Europe during the industrial revolution.
  2. i) They were paid low wages/salaries
  3. ii) They worked for long hours

iii) They were exposed to accidents

  1. iv) Accidents victims were laid off without compensation.
  2. v) Inadequate housing made them live in slums.
  3. vi) They suffered from diseases due to poor sanitation/pollution.        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


  1. b) Explain six factors that have promoted industrialization in South Africa.
  2. i) The availability of many sources of energy to provide the required power of industrialization.
  3. ii) The existence of varied mineral resources to sustain the process of industrialization.

iii) The presence of well developed transport network/infrastructure to facilitate the movement of raw materials and finished industrial goods to the market.

  1. iv) The availability of both internal and external markets for their manufactured goods.
  2. v) The availability of both skilled and unskilled manpower required for industrialization.
  3. vi) The availability of capital generated from South Africa trade in other goods has enabled her to set up industries.

vii) The government’s sound industrial policies which encouraged both local and foreign investors to boost industrialization.

viii) The high quality of goods has led to increased demand for South Africans manufactured goods.

  1. ix) The political instability in the country since the end of apartehid era has created a conducive environment

for industrial development.                                                                Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


  1. a) Give three methods used by European powers to establish colonial rule in Africa.
  2. i) Military conquest/expenditions
  3. ii) They signed treaties/agreements with African rulers/diplomacy/collaboration

iii)       Deception/treachery/luring Africans with European goods.

  1. iv) Chartered trading companies
  2. v) Playing off communities against each other in order to weaken.


  1. b) Explain results of the collaboration between the Buganda Agreements of 1900.
  2. i) It led to the loss of independence.
  3. ii) Introduction of Christianity and European influence in buganda.

iii) Islamic influence declined.

  1. iv) Buganda got protection from the British against their traditional economic e.g Bunyoro.
  2. v) Kabakas power were reduced in the peace of the growing educated member of the Lukiko.
  3. vi) Kabaka gained recognition and was referred to as his luglilness.

vii) Buganda an administration position in the colonial administration and was used to conquer other communities.

viii) Buganda advanced more economically than other communities as it acquired European manufactured goods e.g cloth, guns.

  1. ix) Buganda benefited from Western Education and medicine. Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


  1. a) State three ways used by nationalists in ghana to fight for independence.
  2. i) They formed political parties.
  3. ii) They used boycotts/demonstrations/strikes/go-slows.

iii)       They organized political rallies to mobilise mass support.

  1. iv) They used newspapers to articulate their views.
  2. v) They used the legislative council
  3. vi) They composed songs/poems to attack colonialism.

vii) They used trade unions.

viii) They used international forum.                                                        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


  1. b) Explain six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in Ghana.
  2. i) Inadequate African representation in the Legislative council based discontent among the Ghanaians.
  3. ii) Loss of powers by the traditional African chiefs created discontent against the colonial government.

iii) The need to guard against possible land alienation by the British united the Africans.

  1. iv) Introduction of taxation by the colonial government was resented by Ghanaians.
  2. v) The meagre earnings by Africans from the sale of cocoa to Europeans created discontent among them.
  3. vi) The order by the colonial government that farmers uproot their crops due to prevalence of the “swollen shoot” disease upset them.

vii) Then involvement of the ex-servicemen in the Second World War inspired them to fight for their independence.

viii) The attainment of independence by India/Pakistan in 1947 encouraged the Ghanaians to demand for their right to govern themselves.

  1. ix) The existence of young educated Ghanaians who had understood the ideals of democracy/freedom who inspired the masses towards a worthy cause.
  2. x) High rate of unemployment among the Africans created resentment/discontent.
  3. xi) The United Nations Charter’s declaration of the importance of political independence for all people inspired the Ghanaians and other leaders.

xii) The charismatic leadership provided by Kwame Nkrumah united the people in their struggle against colonial domination.

xiii) The selective granting of trading licenses to Europeans traders while denying the same to the Africans created discontent.       Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


      SECTION C (30 Marks)

  1. a) Give three conditions which one had to fulfil in order to become a French Citizen in Senegal.
  2. i) Literate/able to read and write in French.
  3. ii) Able to speak in French

iii)  Be a Christian

  1. iv) One must have worked in the French Civil service/be loyal in the French government/military service.
  2. v) Practice monogamy                                                                            Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


  1. b) Explain six differences between the use of British indirect rule and the French assimilation policy.
  2. i) The British used traditional rulers as chiefs while the French appointed assimilated whereas chiefs to become chiefs.
  3. ii) African traditional rulers under British rule retained most of their powers whereas chiefs under French rule had limited powers.

iii) British colonies were administered as separate territories while French colonies were administered as provinces of France.

  1. iv) Most French administrators were represented in the French Chamber of Deputies in France while in British colonies Laws wee made by the Colonial Legislative Assemblies.
  2. v) Africans in French colonies were military officers while the British administrators were both as provinces and non-professionals.
  3. vi) Laws used to govern French colonies were made in the chamber of Deputies in France while British colonies Laws were made by the Colonial Legislative Assemblies.

vii) Assimilated Africans in French colonies became full French citizens while in the British colonies, educated Africans remained colonial subjects.

viii) British indirect rule preserved African cultures while assimilation undermined African culture.                                                                                                                                  Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


  1. a) State the role played by United States of America in ending the Second World War.
  2. i) The U.S.A provided modern military equipment to the allied forces.
  3. ii) She gave financial support to the allied forces.

iii)       She provided military personnel to the allied powers.

  1. iv) S.A blockaded the Panama Canal against the central powers.
  2. v) She dropped atomic bombs at Horishoma and Nagasaki which forced Japan to surrender.


  1. b) Explain six causes of the Cold War after 1945.
  2. i) The disagreements between the Soviet Union and the United States of America over reduction of arms led to arms race.
  3. ii) The occupation of Eastern Europe by Soviet Union caused fear among U.S.A and its allies in Western Europe/Iron curtain policy by the USSR.

iii) The ideological differences pursued by the U.S.A and U.S.S.R created mistrust/suspicion among them leading to hostility.

  1. iv) The domination of United Nations by United States of America and her allies was checked by U.S.S.R through the use of her veto power thus increasing the tension.
  2. v) The involvement of both United States of America and U.S.S.R in European conflicts in the late 1940s created tension among them.
  3. vi) America’s Marshal plan to revive European economies after the war made U.S.S.R to counteract by arming a similar one/comical thus enhancing tension.

vii) Formation of military alliances/N.A.T.O by United States of America and her allies led to U.S.S.R and her allies to form a similar alliance/Warsaw pact thus intensifying the rivalry.

viii) Construction of the Berlin wall by U.S.S.R in Germany to block Western after the Second World War.                                                                                         Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks




  1. a) Identify three duties performed by the Secretary General of the new East African Community established in 2001.
  2. i) Is the head of secretariat.
  3. ii) Authorizes expenditure on behalf of the members.

iii)       Is the secretary to the summit/take minutes

  1. iv) Keep records of the proceedings.
  2. v) Implements decisions adopted by East African Community Summit.
  3. vi) Prepares agenda for the meeting any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


  1. b) Explain six benefits of the new East African Community established in 2001 to its members.
  2. i) There is wider market for different types of goods produced by each member states.
  3. ii) The citizens of member states buy goods at fair prices due to low tariffs levied on goods.

iii) Opening of border closed establishing a common visa/East African passport has boosted free movement of people within the region.

  1. iv) The community provides a forum for heads of states to discuss issues harmoniously thus promoting mutual understanding/co-operation/friendship.
  2. v) There are employment opportunities for people of member countries in the established common services.
  3. vi) Establishment of the common market create room for enhanced economic development of member countries/spurs greater industrial growth.

vii) The member countries are working together towards establishing East African Federation in order to apply common laws.

viii) There is improvement in transport and communication network to facilitate the movement of people and goods.                                                                          Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
































SECTION A (25marks)


1 Give two archaeological sources of information on History and Government.   (2marks)

  1. Tools/utensils/ornaments/onions used by man
  2. Weapons used by man
  • Settlements/ruins of the past/rock paintings
  1. Remains of human/animals
  2. Plant remains.
  3. Garments/ornaments
  • Coins used by man

Any 2×1 =2 marks


2Give two reasons that made early human beings to live in groups during the Stone Age

Period.                                                                                                            (2 marks)

  1. For companionship
  2. For security
  • To share resources
  1. To help one another Any 2×1 =2 marks


3          Identify two ways through which early agriculture spread in Africa.          (2 marks)

  1. Through migration
  2. Through trade
  • Through intermarriages
  1. Through wars


4          State two limitations of using animal transport.                                           (2 marks)

  1. Animal are affected by poor health/injuries/attacked by wild animals
  2. Rugged terrain/extreme weather conditions hampers the movement of animals
  • Animal transport has limited carrying capacity
  1. Animal transport is time consuming/slow
  2. Animal transport is cumbersome. Some animals are stubborn
  3. Animal transport is limited to day-time and not right time.


5          Why was silent trade practiced by Trans-Saharan traders? (Open)              (1 mark)

  • Due to language barrier/ lack of common language.



6Identify the main factor that led to the growth of an ancient town of Meroe.      (1 mark)

  • Existence of iron ore.



7What was the main function of the Council of elders among Africa societies during the

Pre-colonial period?                                                                                       (1 mark)

  • They mediated/settled disputes/made peace in the community.


8          State two social factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa by European

Powers.                                                                                                           (2 marks)

  1. The need to abolish slave trade
  2. The desire to spread Christianity/to protect missionaries
  • The desire to spread western civilian/education/western civilization
  1. The need to settle surplus population (any 2×1 = 2 marks)


9          Name one African country that was not colonized by the European powers. (1 mark)

  1. Ethiopia
  2. Liberia (any 1×1 =1 marks)


10        state two roles played by the African Chiefs in the British Colonial administration in

Nigeria.                                                                                                           (2 marks)

  1. They represented the colonial government at the local level
  2. They recruited labour for public works
  • They collected taxes for the colonial government
  1. They communicated colonial government policies to the people
  2. They tried/heard cases in the local courts (any 2×1 = 2 marks)


11        Name the chartered company that administered Zimbabwe during the process of

Colonization.                                                                                                  (1 mark)

  • The British South Africa Company (BSAC) (1 mark)


12        Give the main reason for the formation of the League of Nations in 1919. (1 mark)

  • To promote/sustain World peace/security. To prevent the occurrence of another war.(1 mark)


13        Give two economic reasons for the growth of African nationalism in Ghana. (2 marks)

  1. The order by the colonial government that Africans uproot cocoa trees affected by diseases
  2. The colonial government denied Africans trading licenses
  • African farmers earned low incomes from the sale of cocoa to European firms
  1. High unemployment rate for the Africans.
  2. Sharp increase in prices of goods. (any  2×1 = 2 marks)


14Outline two factors that enable Tanzania to maintain national unity since independence.

  1. Adherence to the policy of socialism (ujamaa)
  2. Application of the constitution
  • Use of Kiswahili as a national language
  1. Leadership that was willing to embrace changes. Good leadership.(any 2×1= 2 marks)


15        What is ‘veto power’ as used by the United Nation?                                    (1 mark)

  • A decision cannot be adopted if any of the permanent members of the Security Council votes against it. (1 mark)


16        Name one Major political party in the united state of America.      (1 mark)

  1. Republic party
  2. Democratic party (any 1×1 =1 mark)


17        Name one type of election held for the House of Common in Britain.        (1mark)

  1. General election
  2. By-election (any 1×1 = 1 mark)


SECTION B (45 marks)


Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provide.


18        (a)       Give three physical characteristics of the Home erectus.                (3 marks)


  1. Had upright posture/bipedal
  2. Had protruding jaws
  • Was about 5 feet tall/1.5 m
  1. Had slopping forehead
  2. Had deep set eyes/deep eye sockets
  3. Had hairy body (any 3×1 = 3 marks)


(b)       Explain six cultural practices of Homo Sapiens during the New Stone Age



  1. Made microlithic tools which were small and more efficient that the earlier tools
  2. Lived in rock shelters/cave/hats to protect themselves from harsh weather/wild animals
  • Decorated shelters with animal paintings/hunting scenes
  1. Began to domesticate animals/plants in order to ensure regular food supply
  2. Developed speech which made communication easier
  3. Developed government by setting up rules/laws
  • Developed religion as evidence by the practice of burying the dead with their possessions
  • They practiced simple Art and Craft work/pottery/basketry/weaving
  1. They started a settle way of life where they established villages
  2. They were a variety of garments/ clothing
  3. They decorated their bodies with red ochre/wore orama (any 6×2 =12 marks)

19        (a)       state three disadvantages of coal as a source of energy.      (3 marks)


  1. Coal is bulky to transport
  2. Coal causes pollution
  • Mining of coal can lead to injuries/death
  1. It is a non-renewable source of energy
  2. Coal was expensive to mine and transport (any 3×1 = 3 marks)


(b)       Explain six effects of the scientific inventions on industry.             (12 marks)


  1. Machines have been improved which produce goods on a large scale
  2. Alternative sources of energy have been developed for use in industries
  • Invention of steam engine has improved transportation of raw materials to the industries/finished goods to the market
  1. The development of the printing press has enabled people to read and acquire knowledge/information about industrialization
  2. There has been loss of lives through industrial accidents
  3. Data processing/ storage has been improved by use of computers
  • Robots have been developed which have reduced over reliance on human labour/reduced labour costs.
  • Development of telecommunication has led to buying/selling of goods on the internet/e-commerce
  1. Research has enabled industries to recycle waste products in manufacturing usable goods

(Any 6×2 = 12 marks)


20        (a)       State three factors that contributed to the development of the Trans-Atlantic

Trade.                                                                                      (3 marks)


  1. Availability of trade items
  2. Demand for slaves in the New World
  • Availability of sailing ships
  1. The discovery of the compass
  2. Availability of fire arms
  3. Existence of trade routes/links (3×1 = 3 marks)


(b)       Explain six negative effects of Trans-Atlantic trade on African Communities.

(12 marks)


  1. There was increased instability/conflicts among communities as traders raided for slaves
  2. Many Africans lost their live during the slave raids
  • Traditional industries declined as Africans acquired a taste of European goods
  1. There was increased suffering among families as their loved ones were separated/sold to slavery
  2. Some kingdom declined due to continuous attacks from their neighbours in search of trading items
  3. There was destruction of property as communities raided each other for trade items
  • It contributed to the decline of the Trans-Sahara trade as many people found it more profitable
  • There was a decline in agricultural production as the able bodies people were taken away into slavery.
  1. There was serious depopulation in west and parts of Central Africa due to slave trade.
  2. Africans lost confidence in their who sold them to slave dealers
  3. The trade exposed W.A to new diseases
  • There was fear and insecurity due to frequent raids on African settlements
  • Weakened African communities could not resist colonial

(any 6×2 = 12 marks)


21        (a)       State three factors that enables European powers to colonise Africa in the late

19th Century.


  1. Disunity among African Communities
  2. Superior weapons used by European armies
  • Weak African communities due to wars/natural calamities
  1. Some communities collaborated with the Europeans
  2. African ignorance about Europeans intentions (any 3×1 = 3 marks)



(b)       Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on African communities.


  1. Africans lost independence as European established colonies
  2. African economies weakened by the European exploitation of the resources
  • The Africans system of government were replaced by European system
  1. Africans adopted European language which became official languages in the colonies
  2. Modern African state were created by the boundaries drawn during the partition
  3. Some African communities were split by the boundaries which were drawn during the partition
  • Africans lost land as Europeans established permanent settlements
  • Africans lost their lives/property as they resisted occupation
  1. African culture were undermined through the introduction of Western education/spread of Christianity/health
  2. Closer ties were forged between Africans and Europeans which created overdependence on Europe.
  3. Intensification of warfare among African community
  • Infrastructure was developed in ling major mini and Agricultural areas
  • Introduction of new policies e.g. forced labor



22        (a)       Give three functions of the Kabaka of Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial



  1. He was the Commander in-Chief of the armed forces
  2. Kabaka appointed/dismissed Saza chiefs/senior government official
  • He was head of traditional religion
  1. He was the head of judiciary/final court of appeal
  2. He awarded honours to officers who offered distinguished service/land as award

(any 3×1 =3 marks)


(b)       Describe the political organization of the Shona During the pre-colonial period.

  1. The shone were ruled by an emperor/King who had absolute authority over the subjects
  2. The emperor’s position was hereditary so as to reduce succession dispute
  • The emperor was assisted in the administration by the queen mother, the queen sister, army commander, head drummer, head door keeper or head cook
  1. There was an advisory council whose work was to advise the emperor
  2. The empire was divided into provinces which were headed by Provincial/lesser kings
  3. The provinces were divided into Chiefdoms ruled by chief
  • Under the chief were headmen who were in charge of the villages
  • The empire had a standing army whose main duty was to defend/expand the empire
  1. The king/Emperor was symbol of unity as he was semi-divine
  2. There existed priests who acted as spies for the emperor/king (any 6×2 = 12 marks)


23        (a)       Identify five ways through which the United Nations (U.N) promotes good

Governance in the world.                                                       (5 marks)


  1. Send observers to monitor national elections in various states
  2. Provides financial/logistical assistance to countries during national elections
  • Helped countries to attain independence/establish democratic government
  1. Sends peace keeping forces to war torn countries
  2. Ensures representation of member states in the general Assembly
  3. Arbitrates disputes between countries/warring groups.
  • Monitors/condemns violation of human rights (any 5×1 = 5 marks)


(b)       Explain five achievements of the Non-aligned movement (NAM) since its

Formation.                                                                              (10 marks)


  1. Provided a platform where member countries would speak with one voice in international for a
  2. He encouraged member countries to articulate their national interests before those of the super power
  • Enables the member countries to exert their voting power/influence in world affairs
  1. Hastened the attainment of independence to those countries that were still under colonial rule
  2. Has promoted peace/security by encouraging member countries to observe neutrality in super power conflicts
  3. Has played a key role in disarmament by condemning the arms race.
  • Has promoted the creation of a new international economic order by encouraging member countries to trade with any of the two super power blocs/financial assistance from each power bloc
  • Has given funds to the needy countries through a fund, created to address demanding circumstances. (any 5×2 = 10 marks)


24        (a)       State three objectives for the formation of Common Market for Eastern and

Southern Africa (COMESA)                                                  (3 marks)


  1. To cooperate in creating a conducive environment for foreign/cross border/domestic investment
  2. To cooperate in the promotion of peace/security/stability among member states
  • To strengthen relations between COMESA members and the rest of the world/adopt a common position in international for a
  1. To cooperate in realizing the objectives of the African economics community
  2. To promote a more balanced/harmonious development of its production/marketing structures
  3. To promote joint development in all economic fields in order to raise the living standards of the people. (any 3×1 = 3 marks)


(b)       Explain six challenges facing the Common Market for Eastern and Southern

Africa. (COMESA)                                                                            (12 marks)


  1. Poor transport network has hampered movement of goods/services between member states
  2. The member countries produce similar goods thus limiting the market
  • Some member countries belong to other regional economic blocks/hence not fully committed to COMESA
  1. Civil wars in some members states hamper smooth flow of goods due to insecurity hence lowering the volume of trade
  2. Border disputes among some members states make it difficult for them to cooperate
  3. Some members states prefer trading with their former colonial masters thus posing stiff competition to products from COMESA region
  • Failure of some member states to harmonize tariffs has undermined free flow of goods/services
  • Withdrawal of some members’ states has undermined the planning/financial of COMESA operations.
  1. Member states pursue their national interests thereby working against the objectives of COMESA
  2. Personality differences btw leaders e.g. museveni and Al-Bashir
  3. Quarrels over trading rights under COMESA Egypt and Kenya.
  • Natural calamities e.g. draughts, floods leading to massive food shortages and famine.















  1. Identify one type of artifact that is likely to be found in an archeological site                                                                                                                         (1mark)
  • Tools
  • Weapons
  • Pottery
  • Garments
  • Coins (any 1×1=1mark)
  1. Name one source of information on the Creation Theory of man.
  • The Bible
  • The Koran


  1. State two ways in which the Sumerians in Mesopotamia reclaimed land for agriculture
  • They built banks/dykes along rivers to stop flooding.
  • They dug ditches to drain water from swamps.
  • They used canals to irrigate the land.
  • They used the shadoof to draw water to irrigate the land.Any 2
  1. Give the main form of transport that was used in the Trans-Saharan trade,

(i)       Animal transport/Carmel/ horse                       1 x 1=1 mark

  1. Name two groups of people that were involved in the Trans-Atlantic trade.
  • The Europeans
  • The Africans
  • The Americans.                         1 x 1 = 1 mark



  1. State two negative effects of the development of motor vehicle transport:

– It causes traffic jams especially in urban areas;

– It contributes to environmental pollution;

– It damages roads;

– It causes accidents leading to loss of lives/injuries

Any 2×1=2 marks

  1. Give two inventions that revolutionalized the textile industry in Britain during the 18th Century.                                                                          (2 marks)

(i)        The flying shuttle by John Kay

(ii)       The spinning jenny – James

(iii)      The water frame; – Richard Arkwright

(iv)      The spinning mule – Samuel Criton

(v)        The power loom; – Edmund cartright

(vi)      The cotton gin – Eli witney

(vii)     Sylindrical calico printing machine by Thomas bell     Any 2×1=2 marks


  1. Identify the main factor that contributed to the growth of Athens in Ancient Greece,

(i)      Trade/ commercial activities.


  1. State two European activities in Africa before 1850


  • They were involved in trade.
  • They were spreading Christianity.
  • They were involved in exploration.
  • They were involved in spreading Western

Any 2 x1 = 2 marks

  1. State one way in which African collaboration with the Europeans hastened colonization in Africa.


  • It encouraged Europeans to settle on African land/loss of African land.
  • It created disunity among Africans.
  • It assisted the Europeans in conquering other communities.
  • It assisted/enabled Europeans to establish their control/entrench themselves.

Any 1×1 = 1 mark

  1. Give the main reason why the European powers held Berlin conference of 1884 to                                                                 (1 mark)

– To discuss how to partition/share/divide Africa among themselves.

1×1 = 1 mark

  1. State one way in which the rise of dictators in Europe contributed to the outbreak of the Second World War.                                                                       (1 mark)


  • They overthrew democratic government
  • They rearmed themselves.
  • They engaged. In acts of aggression/attacked other countries.

Any 1 x 1= 1 mark

  1. Give two economic benefits enjoyed by the members of the commonwealth.(2 marks)
  • Favourable trading opportunities to members.
  • Financial assistance given to the poor nations.
  • Technical/research assistance to member countries.
  • Support for youth programmes/projects for development.

Any 2×1=2 marks

  1. Give the main reason why the Pan African movement was formed at the beginning of the 20th(1 mark)

-To unite peoples of African descent.                                                1×1=1 mark

  1. Name one financial institution established by the African Union.(1 mark)
  • The African Monetary Fund
  • The African Central Bank
  • The African Investment Bank

Any 1×1 = 1 mark

  1. Identify two factors which have undermined the exploitation of mineral resources in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence.(2 marks)
  • Civil war in the country;
  • Shortage of labour due to displacement of people;
  • Smuggling of minerals;
  • Political interference by neighbouring states;
  • Poor transport network.

Any 2×1=2 marks


17State two ways in which poor transport has slowed down economic      development in Tanzania since independence.                        (2marks)

(i)      It has made transportation of goods/services difficult

  1. ii) It has hindered exploitation of some resources;

iii)     It has slowed down the movement of labour;

  1. iv) It has increased the cost of transport.



                                                    SECTION B (45 marks)

18 (a)      State three disadvantages of hunting as an economic activity of the early man.

(3 marks)


  1. i) It is difficult to locate/spot the animals
  2. ii) Animals are a threat/dangerous to humans;

iii)     It requires many people;

  1. iv) Hunting is time consuming;
  2. v) It is tiresome/cumbersome;
  3. vi) Animals run faster than man.

Any 3×1=3 marks


(b)     Explain six benefits of settling in villages during the late stone age period.                                                                                                                               (12 marks)

  1. i) There was security as people could protect themselves against enemies.

ii)Living as a large group enabled people to work together hence accomplishing tasks with ease.

iii)Settling in villages assured man of permanent dwelling thereby reducing movement.

iv)Man began growing crops thereby ensuring regular food supply.

v)Man domesticated animals which provided animal products thereby reducing his    hunting            activities.

vi)Living in villages promoted interactions thereby increasing social cohesion/sharing of ideas

vii)People were able to exchange goods/services hence getting what they did not have.

viii)It enabled them to build better shelter thereby protecting themselves from harsh           weather conditions.

Any 6×2= 12 marks


  1. (a) Give three uses of wind as a source of energy in ancient times. (3 marks)


  • To winnow grains;
  • To drive/turn wind mills;
  • To propel boats/sailing ships;
  • To drive water pumps;
  • To dry grains Any 3×1=3 marks


(b)     Explain six effects of iron working technology on African communities before the

19th Century.                                                                                      (12 marks)

  1. i) The use of iron tools made cultivation of the land easier/faster as they were                more efficient.
  2. ii) Iron tools were used to clear forests thereby enabling people to migrate/settle in new

iii)     Iron weapons were used to fight other communities thereby increasing                            warfare/ conflicts.

  1. iv) It led to the rise of professional smiths who were accorded high status in the community
  2. v) The demand for iron tools enhanced trade between communities.
  3. vi) Communities were able to protect themselves better usingiron we were


  • Powerful states emerged as iron weapons were used to conquer/annex weaker communities/territories
  • Iron implements were used as a medium of exchange thereby facilitating trade
  1. x) The use of iron tools/implements led to increased food production. Since                more land was brought under cultivation
  • Has led to development of towns eg Meroe.
  1. (a) State live economic activities of the Asante during the 19th Century.
  • They grew crops for food/trade;
  • They carried out trade among themselves/other groups.
  • They were involved in mining;
  • They practiced Art and crafts/basketry/weaving
  • They practised iron working/black smithing;
  • They did hunting/gathering;
  • They practiced pottery making. Any 6 x 2= 12 marks


(b)          Describe the social organization of the Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period.                                                                                                 (10 marks)


  • They were organized into clans which had their own traditions/customs. .
  • They worshipped many gods with Katonda as their supreme God /polytheism
  • The people highly regarded the Kabaka whom they considered to be semi-divine.
  • The people believed in life after death since they worshipped the spirits of the dead.
  • The umbilical cord/jaw bones of Kabaka were preserved for future remembrance.
  • The people performed sacrifices during the time of misfortune/fortunes.

vii)               They had symbols of royalty in form of royal drums/spears/crowns which were kept at the Kabaka’s

viii)        They had religious shrines which were scattered all over the Kingdom.

  1. ix) They were polygamous /married many wives in order to strengthen social relations.


  1. a) Outline five grievances by Africans against apartheid in South Africa.
  2. i) Africans were not allowed to vote for black representatives in government.
  3. ii) They were prohibited from living in urban areas/sharing facilities with whites.

iii)          The pass laws restricted African movement.

  1. iv) They were confined into Bantustans/reserves.
  2. v) The labour laws denied them equal employment opportunities.
  3. vi) Low quality education prepared them for only low cadre jobs.

vii)         The Land Acts gave whites exclusive rights over land.

Any 5×1=5 marks


  1. b) Explain five challenges faced by African nationalist in their struggle for a majority rule      in South Africa
  2. i) some nationalist were arrested/detained which crippled their activities thereby slowing down the struggle

(ii)         The political parties were banned by the government making it difficult for the          nationalists to coordinate their activities.

(iii)        The nationalists were not united, creatingtension among themselvesthus hampering         their struggle less effective.

(iv)         The government enacted pass laws which restricted movement thus hampering their             interactions.

(v)         They lacked adequate funds to finance the struggle thus slowing down their operations.

(vi)         They lacked press freedom making it difficult for them to spread their ideas.

(vii)       They lacked advanced weapons thereby making them less effective in their armed    struggle.

(viii)   They had different approaches in their struggle (moderated/radical wings) thus    creating a loophole which      was exploited by the government.

(ix)         Some nationalists were killed which led to low morale hence slowing down the


  1. a) Name three communes that were established by the French in Senegal during the colonial period.

(i)         St Louis

(ii)       Goree’

(iii)       Rufisque

(iv)       Dakar

Any 3×1=3 marks


  1. b) Describe the structure of the British colonial administration in Northern Africa.                                                                                                                          (12 marks)

(i)         The colonial secretary was based in London

(ii)         Under the colonial secretary was the governor who was in-charge of the

administration of the colony.

(iii)        The colony was divided into provinces headed by a Resident/Provincial

Cornrnissioner who co-ordinated administration in the provinces.


(iv)         The provinces were further subdivided into districts headed by District officers who      were answerable to the Provincial Commissioner/Resident.

(v)          Districts were sub-divided into locations/Emirates headed by the Chiefs/Emirs

(vi)         There were headmen who were in-charge of the villages and assisted the Emirs in             matters of administration.

(vii)       Both the Resident/Provincial Commissioner and the District Officers were British.

(viii)      Each province had a protectorate Court of Appeal which was presided over by the     Resident.                                                                                 Any 6×2= 12 marks

  1. (a) Name three permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.                                                                                                                    (3 marks)

(i) France

(ii) China

iii) Russia

(iv) Britain/United Kingdom

(v) United States of America

Any 3×1=3 marks


(b)      Explain six ways in which the United Nations provides humanitarian assistance.

(12 marks)

(i)          It assists refugees / displaced persons with clothes in order to preserve human dignity.

(ii)         It assists in resettling displaced persons by negotiating for their resettlement in safe    areas.

(iii)        It provides relief food in drought stricken areas in order to avert loss of lives.

(iv)      It provides medical supplies to the victims of war/other calamities so as to restore    human health.

(v)         It provides shelter to the deserving cases by building houses/giving materials for   construction.

(vi)         It provides education to vulnerable groups in order to promote literacy.

(vii)       It assists in evacuating people affected by flood to safer grounds to avert suffering.

(viii)      It protects refugees by ensuring their respect/observance of basic human rights.

Any 6×2 =12 marks

  1. (a) Identify three categories of members of the Executive in the United States of America.                                                                                 (3 marks)

(i)           The President.

(ii)         The Vice-President.

(iii)        The Cabinet.

(iv)         The Civil Service.                                                      Any 3×1=3 marks


  1. b) Describe six functions of the Federal Government of the United States of America

(i)      It handles foreign policy matters which affects her relationship with other      governments or world.

(ii)     It vindicates/arbitrates disputes involving different states of the union with the view       of         reaching an amicable solution.




(iii)        It conducts/regulates trade/commerce between Federal states/foreign nations.


(iv)         It is in charge of the national defense of federal states against external aggression.

(v)          It establishes federal courts which administers justice in the states of the union.

(vi)         It levies/collects taxes in various federal states.

(vii)       It can declare war with foreign government with approval by the congress.

(viii)      It makes/issues currency/regulates its value.

(ix)         It pays foreign debt owed to other nations .

(x)          It enacts legislation which governs the federation.

                                                                                                   Any 6×2=12 marks
































Paper 2 (311/2) 2013



Answer ALL the questions in this section


  1. Give the relationship between “History” and “Government”. (1 mark)

History is the study of man’s past activities while Government is the study of how people are


1 x 1 =1 mark

  1. Name two types of dwellings used by the early man during the Early Stone Age period.

(2 marks)

(i) Rock shelters;

(ii) Tree trunks;

(iii) On trees;

(iv) Caves/stone caves.

(v) In forest                                                                                Any 2 x 1 =2 marks


  1. Give two inventions that led to the Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (2 marks)

(i) The seed drill by Jethro Tull;

(ii) The horse-drawn hoe by Jethro Tull;

(iii) Selective breeding of livestock by Robert Bakewell;

(iv) Introduction of fertilizer by Sir John Lawes;

(v) Mechanical thresher by Andrew Melkel;

(vi) Mechanical reaper by Patrick Bell.                                                Any 2 x 1 =2 marks

  1. For marking purposes, the candidate will get right at the mention of the invention

without the inventor.


  1. State one theory of origin about the knowledge of iron working in Africa. (1 mark)

(i) It spread to North Africa from the Middle East/diffusion/one area theory;

(ii) It developed independently in different parts of Africa/independent theory.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

  1. Identify the earliest method of trade used during the Trans-Saharan Trade. (1 mark)

Barter trade.                                                                                            1 x 1 =1 mark


  1. State two ways in which Africans participated in the Trans-Atlantic Trade. (2 marks)

(i) They acted as middlemen between Europeans merchants and interior communities;

(ii) They acquired /raided slaves;

(iii) Rulers sold their own subjects/they were sold as slaves;

(iv) They marched slaves to the coast;

(v) They transported trade items to the coast.                                       Any 2 x 1  =2 marks


  1. Identify two modern means of print media. (2 marks)

(i) Newspapers;    (vi) Brochures;

(ii) Magazines;    (vii) Braille

(iii) Journals;    (viii) Posters

(iv) Periodicals;    (ix) Pamphlets

(v) Books;

Any 2 x 1  =2 marks


  1. State the main factor that led to the growth of ancient town of Kilwa. (1 mark)

–  Its control of Sofala gold trade/ trade in gold.                                   1 x 1  =  1 mark

  1. Give one reason why the Golden Stool was important in the Asante Empire: (1 mark)

(i) It was a symbol/source of unity among the states.

(ii) It was considered sacred.                                                                1 x 1  = 1 mark


  1. Apart from an empire, name one other type of government that existed in Africa during the

pre-colonial period.                                                                                              (1 mark)

(i) The Kingdoms/monarchy;

(ii) The Chiefdoms/chieftain;

(iii) The Council of elders.

1 x 1  = 1 mark


  1. State two ways in which Chief Lewanika of the Lozi collaborated with the British in the

late 19th Century.                                                                                                (2 marks)

(i) He allowed Christian missionaries to settle/operate in his territory;

(ii) He allowed the British to exploit minerals in his land;

(iii) He accepted the British protection over his territory;

(iv) He allowed a British resident to perform administrative duties in the area.

Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks


  1. Name one African Community that took part in the Maji Maji uprising between 1905

and 1907.                                                                                                  (1 mark)

(i) Ngindo;    (vi) Luguru;

(ii) Matumbi;    (vii) Zaramo;

(iii) Pogoro;    (viii) Bena;

(iv) Ngoni;     (ix) Ndendeule.

(v) Mpunga;    (x) Wamera

1 x 1  = 1 mark


  1. Outline two roles played by the ex-war soldiers in the growth of African Nationalism

after 1945.                                                                                                             (2 marks)

(i) They applied military skills/tactics acquired to fight colonialism;

(ii) They trained African Nationalists in military fighting skills;

(iii) They joined/formed Nationalist movement;

(iv) They organised/mobilised African Nationalists;

(v) They made/serviced the weapons used by the Nationalists.

Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks


  1. Highlight one way in which economic rivalries between the European powers contributed

to the outbreak of the First World War.                                                              (1 mark)

(i) Competition for overseas market caused tension/friction;

(ii) Competition for sources of raw materials/colonies fuelled tension;

(iii) Tariff wars among them created tension / suspicion.

(iv) Competition for surplus capital.                                                   1 x 1  = 1 mark


  1. Give the main incident which made Japan to surrender unconditionally to the allied powers

in1945.                                                                                                                 (1 mark)

–  The dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

  1. State two factors which promote economic relations between nations. (2 marks)

(i) Loans given to other nations;

(ii) Offering grants/aid to other nations;

(iii) Trading activities between nations;

(iv) Investments in foreign nations;

(v) Debt relief to other nations.                                               Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks


  1. State two ways in which non-aligned members safeguard their national security. (2 marks)

(i) By keeping off from conflicts of non-member countries;

(ii) By maintaining their sovereignty/independence;

(iii) By maintaining their economic independence;

(iv) By not identifying with either Communism or Capitalism;

(v) By taking independent decisions/actions in international fora;

(vi) By maintaining their cultural identity.

(vii) By not joining military alliances.    Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks


SECTION B (45 MArKS) – Answer three questions


18.(a) Give five reasons why hunting of wild animals was mainly a group activity during the

Stone  Age period.                                                                                           (5 marks)

(i) Wild animals are dangerous/could kill people;

(ii) They could surround the animals;

(iii) Spotting/locating the animal was easier;

(iv) Less time was taken to catch the animals;

(v) To give moral encouragement/team spirit;

(vi) They could catch more animals.                                    Any 5 x 1  = 5 marks


(b) Describe five ways in which the development of the upright posture improved the early

man’s way of life.                                                                                             (10 marks)

(i) The early man was able to move/walk/run faster with long strides;

(ii) Man could use the hands to carry out farming activities;

(iii) Man could use the hands to grasp items conveniently;

(iv) Man could spot/sight the animals/wild fruits which he used to hunt/gather from far


(v) Man could see the impending danger from a distance and take appropriate measures;

(vi) Man used hands to make tools/ weapons which were used for different purposes.

(vii) Man used the hands to defend himself/attack the enemies.

(viii) Man used the hands to perform/carry out domestic chores/young ones.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks


19.(a) What were the uses of coal during the Industrial Revolution in Europe. (5 marks)

(i) To drive steam engines;

(ii) To provide lighting;

(iii) To heat water;

(iv) To drive locomotives;

(v) To manufacture dyes/pharmaceutical products/raw materials in industries;

(vi) To produce coke.                                                                        Any 5 x 1  = 5 marks


(b) Explain five effects of scientific inventions on medicine.                               (10 marks)

Positive effects

(i) Through medical researches/experiments terminal diseases which used to kill/disfigure

people have been reduced/eradicated;

(ii) Advancement in medical science has helped to reduce suffering/ to relieve people

from pain;

(iii) It has made surgical operations safer thereby reducing the number of people who die

during and after operations;

(iv) The invention of vaccines has helped to prevent/control the spread of diseases leading

to increased life expectancy;

(v) The technology of developing test tube babies has helped childless couples to have


(vi) The inventions have made it possible for transplants of body parts such as heart, liver

and kidneys, thereby sustaining human life;

(vii) Advanced/sophisticated medical equipment which perform computer assisted surgery

have been developed.

(viii) It has led to job creation for medics/other workers who perform various duties in

health institutions;

(ix) It has led to the discovery /manufacture of drugs for treating/curing different diseases.


Negative effects

(x) It has led to loss of lives through abortion.

(xi) It has weakened the immune system due to overdependence of drugs/drug abuse.

(xii) Drugs are sometimes expensive and beyond reach of many people.

(xiii) Careless disposal of used medical products cause harm to human beings.

(xiv) Use of contraceptives has led to sexual immorality in the society.

Any 5 x 2  = 10  marks

20.(a) Outline five European activities in Africa during the 19th century.   (5 marks)

(i) Were involved in trade;

(ii) Were spreading Christianity;

(iii) Were involved in exploration;

(iv) Were establishing settlements;

(v) Were signing imperial treaties/establishing colonial rule;

(vi) Were mining;

(vii) Were involved in farming.

(viii) Were involved in stamping out slave trade.

(ix) Were involved in spreading Western education.

(x) Were involved in establishing health facilities.

Any 5 x 1  = 5 marks

(b) Explain five effects of the Mandinka resistance against the French invasion in the late

19th century.          (10 marks)

(i) Many lives were lost due to the protracted war between the two groups;

(ii) There was destruction of property as the Mandinka applied scorched earth policy

during the war;

(iii) The Mandinka were defeated and hence subjected to French colonial rule/

loss of indepence;

(iv) The traditional institutions of the Mandinka were disrupted/weakened rendering them

ineffective in discharging their duties/functions/loss of leadership;

(v) The Mandinka experienced famine as most of the people were engaged in the war at

the expense of farming activities;

(vi) Many people were displaced by the war, thereby becoming refugees in the

neighbouring states;

(vii) The war created suffering /misery among the people leading to a state of despair;

(viii) Samore Toure was captured and deported to Gabon;

(ix) Disruption of economic activities eg. gold mining and trade;

(x) It laid down ground for African nationalism.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks


21.(a) Identify five contributions made by Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana in promoting

Pan-Africanism.                                                                                              (5 marks)

(i) He attended Pan-African Conference in Manchester in 1945.

(ii) He organized/hosted Pan-African Conference in Accra in 1958.

(iii) He inspired African leaders to unite;

(iv) He encouraged the formation of nationalist movements;

(v) He co-ordinated plans to decolonize West African states/African states.

(vi) He supported black civil rights movement in the U.S.A;

(vii) He condemned European domination in Africa.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

(b) Describe five factors undermining the activities of the African Union (AU) since its

formation  in 2001.                                                                                             (10 marks)

(i) Political instability/civil wars in many countries makes it difficult to execute some

of its programmes;

(ii) Border disputes between member countries creates disunity in the continent;

(iii) Lack of democracy in some countries has contributed to its inability to end human

rights abuses/violations;

(iv) Interference of African affairs by the developed countries undermines the union’s

effort  to implement its policies;

(v) Due to neo-colonialism, the members are more attached to their former colonial

masters at the expense of the union;

(vi) Ideological differences between some African states creates divisions within the

union thus making it difficult to reach at an agreement;

(vii) Lack of a standing army renders it ineffective in implementing decisions which call

for  military intervention;

(viii) National interests are given priority at the expense of the union’s interests;

(ix) Inadequate funds makes it difficult for the union to fulfil all its obligations;

(x) Divided loyalty;

(xi) Personality differences among African leaders.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks


SECTION C (30 MArKS) – Any two questions

22.(a) State three similarities between the French and the British structure of administration

In Africa.                                                                                                         (3 marks)

(i) Both had a governor as the chief executive of the colony;

(ii) They had provinces as administrative units;

(iii) Both had districts as administrative units;

(iv) Both had locations as administrative units;

(v) They had sub-locations.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

(b) Explain six problems experienced by the French administration in Senegal.

(12 marks)

(i) Communication/language barrier made it difficult for the administrators to be effective;

(ii) Poor transport network hampered their mobility thereby making it difficult to reach

certain areas.

(iii) Resistance by African traditional leaders created obstacles – fear for loss of their


(iv) The policy of assimilation required patience/was time consuming since some Africans

were reluctant to forsake their way of life;

(v) They faced hostility from Muslims who were opposed to French values which

embraced Christianity;

(vi) The appointed chiefs were undermined by their fellow Africans as they were viewed

as colonial agents;

(vii) They lacked adequate funds to sustain their operations.

(viii) Resistance by the French traders/businessmen – fear for competition from African


(ix) Resistance by the French parliamentarians – fear for competition of being

outnumbered in the Chamber of Deputies.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks


23.(a) State three ways in which the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

promoted the education of Africans after independence.                             (3 marks)

(i) Education facilities were expanded/construction of schools;

(ii) More Africans were encouraged to join school;

(iii) The curriculum was revised to conform to the needs of the people/ provided

quality education;

(iv) The government established universities/tertiary institutions.

Any 3 x 1 = (3 marks)

(b) Explain the political challenges faced by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

during the reign of Mobutu Sese Seko.        (12 marks)

(i) The banning of opposition political parties created a one party state which stifled

democracy in the country;

(ii) The dictatorial regime was introduced by replacing federal system with the central

government under his control;

(iii) Appointments based on loyalty/kinship in administration created disunity in the


(iv) The stripping off parliament of its powers through constitutional amendments led to

the establishment of a totalitarian regime;

(v) The opposition to the government created uncertainty/tension in the country leading to

the arrests/harassment of opposition leaders;

(vi) The riots/demonstrations due to the civilians’ dissatisfaction with the regime caused

political tension/stability in the country;

(vii) Civil wars divided the country along tribal line hence compromising national unity;

(viii) Rebellion against the regime backed by external forces led to the overthrowing of

the government.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks

24.(a) Identify three circumstances that may make a vice-president assume presidency in India.

(3 marks)

(i) When the sitting president dies;

(ii) If the president becomes incapacitated;

(iii) When the president resigns;

(iv) When the president is removed/impeached.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

(b) Explain six functions of the president of India.                                       (12 marks)

(i) He/she dissolves/calls elections of the lower house of parliament/Lok Sabha/House of

the people;

(ii) The president assents/vetoes bills that have been passed by parliament;

(iii) The president is the commander in-chief of the armed forces;

(iv) The president appoints state governors/attorney general / supreme court judges;

(v) The president declares a state of emergency when national security is threatened;

(vi) The president appoints the prime minister on advice of parliament/He calls the leader

of the winning party to form government;

(vii) He/she is a symbol of national unity.

(viii) He establish special councils to arbitrate on inter state disputes.

(ix) He nominates 12 members to the Council of state/Upper House/Rajja Sabha.

(x) He is the leader of political party that nominates him for elections.

(xi) He pardons offenders.

(xii) He makes regulations for certain union territories.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks










  1. List two methods used by elders to pass information to the young generation

on history and Government in the traditional African Communities

  • Through proverbs
  • Through legends
  • Through stories/folk tales/narratives
  • Riddles
  • Myths
  • Dances (any 2×1=2mks)


  1. State two disadvantages of using caves as shelters by the early human beings

during the stone age period

  • They could collapse over them
  • Wild creatures could bite them
  • Human enemies could easily attack them
  • Caves were exposed to cold/wind/floods (any 2×1=2mks)


  1. State two negative effects of the land enclosure system in Britain during 18th Century
  • It displaced the poor people/landlessness
  • It forced the poor people to migrate to urban centres
  • It increased pauperism in Europe
  • Created immigration to other parts of the world  (any 2×1=2mks)


  1. Give the main reason why the cannel was preferred as the means of transport

during the trans-Saharan Trade.

  • It could withstand harsh desert conditions (1×1=1mark)


  1. Outline one role that twas played by the middlemen during the Trans-Atlantic Trade
  • They transported goods to and from the interior/porters
  • They obtained goods in the interior
  • They exchanged/traded with European traders at the coast                         (1×1=1mark)


  1. Give two benefits of the development of the railway transport in Europe during

the 19th century.


  • Goods/people could be transported with ease
  • It enabled trade to expand.
  • It led to the development of urban centres/towns
  • It promoted industrialization
  • It created employment opportunities.
  • It was a source of government revenue
  • It led to the exploitation of natural resources       (any 2×1=2mks)



  1. State two advantages of using fire and smoke signals to pass message in traditional socities


  • Message could only be understood by the communities using them.
  • They conveyed messages faster
  • It was a cheaper method of sending messages
  • Message could reach many people/visibility (any 2×1=2mks)


  1. State two ways in which the growth of the city of Cairo was influenced by the River Nile


  • It was used for transport
  • It provided water for domestic / industrial use
  • The Nile valley was fertile/Agriculture/irrigation               (any 2×1=2mks)


  1. Identify one symbol of unity in shona kingdom during the pre-colonial period


  • Mwene Mutapa/king /Emperor
  • The Royal fire                                                                                   (1×1=1mark)


  1. State one way in which the acquisition of fire arms enabled the king of Buganda to expand during the pre-colonial period


  • They were used to conquer/suppress neighbouring kingdoms/enemies
  • To protect the kingdom                                                                     (1×1=1mark)


  1. Name the leader of the Lozi who collaborated with the british in the late 19th Century


  • Lewanika                                                                                         (1×1=1mark)


  1. Identify two European activities in Africa during the 19th Century
  • Trading /legitimate trade
  • Spreading Christianity
  • Exploring
  • Establishing settlements
  • Establishing colonial rule/colonization
  • Establishing western education
  • Mining
  • Establishing western health facilities                                    (any 2×1=2mks)

13.Outline two similar methods used to recruit African labour in the British and French

Colonies in Africa.

  • Imposition of taxes on Africans;
  • They used chiefs to recruit labour;
  • They introduced forced labour. (any 2×1=2mks)



14.State one economic problem that was experienced by the British colonialists in


  • They lacked adequate funds;
  • Poor transport/communication undermined their work;
  • They lacked adequate skilled labour. ( any 1×1=1mark)

15.Name the political party that led Ghana to independence from Britain in 1957. (1mark)

  • The convention People’s Party(C.P.P)                                 (any 1×1=1mark)


16.Name the country that was blamed for the outbreak of the first world war.

-Germany                                                                                         (any 1×1=1mark)

17.Give the main reason why the United States of America adopted the marshall plan after the

second world war.                                                                                                        (1 mark)


-In order to influence many countries adopt capitalists ideology./Economic recovery

In Europe.                                                                                                   ( 1×1=1mark)


  1. (a) state three characteristics of microlithic tools used during the late stone age period
  • they were small in size
  • they were more efficient
  • They were crafted/fitted with handles/composit/halted
  • They were used to perform multiple tasks
  • They were sharp                                                             (any 3×1=3mks)


(b) Explain six challenges faced by early humans in hunting and gathering activities

  • attacks/injuries by animals discouraged them as it posted threats to their lives
  • scarcity of animals/fruits in some cases denied them regular supply of food
  • Unfavourable weather conditions made it difficult to carry out activities
  • Locating animals/fruits was difficult as it would involve large areas
  • It was time consuming as it involved chasing the animals for long distances.
  • Many people were required for the success of the activities
  • It was tedious as animals ran faster than human beings/wild fruits/roots could be found in far off areas.
  • Poisonous fruits/roots cold begathered leading to loss of life
  • Stiff competition with wild animals among human beings for food

(explained x2=12mks)


  1. (a) give three uses of electricity in Europe during the 19th century
  • driving machines in factories
  • providing light
  • heating/cooking
  • Powering locomotives/trains
  • Powering communication gadgets

(any 3×1=3mks)

(b) Explain six factors which promoted industrial revolution in india

  • the existence of mineral resources which were used as raw materials to establish industries
  • the existence of cottage industries /industrial base laid the foundation for industrial development as people had acquired relevant skills
  • the availability of funds/loans provided by foreign government enabled the country to setup industries
  • provision of technical / scientific education emphasized by the government produced skilled labour required in the
  • good transport communication system made transportation of goods / services easier/cheaper thereby encouraging investment.


  • The provision of credit facilities /loans to local investors facilitated expansion of industries(internal loans)
  • The development plans adopted by the government emphasized industrialization thereby giving impetus to the sector
  • The availability of various resources of energy required enabled the establishment of more industries
  • Political stability in the country gave people confidence to invest in industries
  • Availability of market for industrial goods provided by large population encouraged more people to venture in industrialization
  • Availability of external market trade
  • Its large population that provided unskilled labour required in the industries.

(explained x2=12mks)

  1. (a) outline three reasons why the policy of assimilation was easily applied in the four communes

of Senegal

  • the people had earlier interacted with the Europeans
  • they had inter- with the Europeans
  • most of the people were Christians
  • people were exposed to the outside world due to the proximity to the coast
  • people were detribalized/of mixed origin

(any 3×1=3mks)

(b) explain six effects of the  British direct rule

  • Africans lost large tracts of land to the white settlers thereby straining relations between the two groups
  • introduction of forced labour as the white settlers required cheap labour in their farms
  • formation of African Nationalist movements to address their grievances against white denominations
  • loss of power by traditional powers as the British appointed their own administrators who ruled the people directly
  • imposition of taxes on Africans inorder to force them to provide labour to the whites so as to raise money
  • Africans were exposed to deplorable working conditions which exposed them to risks
  • Introduction of pass laws which restricted the movement of Africans
  • Africans were confined into reserves thereby creating room for European settlements
  • Exploitation of mineral resources /agricultural resources for the benefit of the colonial government at the expense of African development
  • Loss of independence by Africans as they were subjected to British colonial rile
  • Racial segregation
  • Western edction/Christianity
  • Development oof transport & communication network
  • Undermined African culture

(any 6 explained x2=12mks)


  1. (a) state three political causes of instability in the Democratic Republic of Congo between



  • Tribalism/ethnic differences created conflicts among communities
  • Domination of public service by Belgians/foreigners
  • Kasal/Katanga secession from the rest of the country
  • The assassination of Patrice Lumumba
  • Army mutiny
  • Rise of dictatorship

(any 3×1=3mks)


(b) describe six social developments that have taken place in Tanzania since  independence

  • the establishment of more schools/colleges/universities has enabled many people to access education
  • the introduction of free universal primary education has reduced illiteracy levels among the people
  • education system geared toward promoting socialism ideals has created an egalitarian/selfless society thus promoting equity
  • improvement of health through the expansion/establishment of more health facilities/hospitals dispensaries thereby promoting quality of life
  • social cohesion /unity of diverse elements has been promoted by the socialist ideology(Ujamaa) thereby creating a more stable society
  • Kiswahili has been made the national language and given more emphasis in the education system thereby breaking communication barriers / promoting interaction among the people
  • Theatre and sports has been promoted through the establishment of sporting facilities
  • Promotion of African cultural values leading to preservation of African heritage.
  • Freedom to worship to citizens
  • Role of women in the society is highly appreciated

(any 6 explained x2=12mks)


  1. (a) identify five main organs of the United Nations


  • The General Assembly
  • The Security Council
  • The Secretariat
  • The International Court of Justice
  • The Economic and Social Council
  • The Trusteeship Council

(b) explain five ways through which  United  Nations promotes peace in the  world

  • it sends peace-keeping missions to conflict areas inorder to enforce ceasefire/prevent further confrontation
  • it uses envoys to mediate disputes between warring groups so as to find amicable solutions to problems
  • it hears cases through the international court of justice between states/individuals with a view of administering justice
  • it imposes sanctions against states that defy its resolutions in order to force them to comply
  • it uses peace messengers to sensitive people on its importance of peace /encourage peaceful co-existence
  • it encourages disarmament by signing arms control treaties/agreements with a view of reducing tension/suspicion between states
  • it promotes human rights/freedoms by enforcing international laws which protect people against abuse
  • it promotes humanitarian assistance to the needy by giving them protection/basic needs
  • it promotes democracy and good governance in countries by providing electoral assistance/sending observers to monitor elections in order to ensure fairness/credibility
  • it condemns all forms of terrorism/putting in place method of combating it through international agreements

(any 5 point well explained x2=10mks)

  1. (a) state five functions of the commission of African union
  • It implement the decision of the union
  • It co-ordinates African union activities/meetings
  • It receives application for membership
  • It performs administrative functions of the A.U
  • It makes/initiates proposals to other organs


(b) explain five achievements of the Pan-African movements

  • it promoted African nationalism by encouraging Africans to unite against colonial injustices
  • it restored African dignity/confidence  by demanding respect for African values
  • it led to formation of O.A.U.
  • it condemned/mobilized people to protest against European colonization domination of Africans eg muslims in 1935 in Ethiopia
  • it made Africans aware of their status in society thereby encouraging them to struggle for their rights
  • it created a sense of unity among people of African descent by enlightening on their common origin/similar prejudices from the Europeans
  • it appealed/put pressure on international community toact against apartheid regime in south Africa
  • it encouraged the formation of nationalist movements which liberated Africans from colonial rule.

(any 5 point well explained x2=10mks)


  1. (a) state five responsibilities of the state governments it the united states of America
  • To maintain law and order
  • To generate revenue
  • To provide education facilities
  • To administer justice
  • To provide health facilities
  • To provide recreational facilities
  • To make/pass laws

(any 5 x2=10mks)

(b) Explain five functions of the cabinet in India

  • it formulates policy matters that are followed by the state/federal governments in the provision of services
  • it recommends all the major appointments made by the president in various sectors of the government
  • it settles departmental disputes inorder to ensure harmonious working relations between them
  • it co-ordinates activities/programs functions of the departments in their respective ministries
  • it advises the president /prime minister on various matters of the state/federal government
  • it defends government policies/decisions both within outside the parliament, thereby popularizing those policies
  • it approves all proposal for the legislative enactment of the government policies
  • it oversees the execution/implementation of government policies so as to ensure service delivery to the people

(any 5 point well explained x2=10mks)


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