Home Teachers' Resources K. C. S. E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 PAST PAPERS &...





  • Olorgesaille
  • Kariandusi
  • FortTernan
  • Koobi For a/TURKANA
  • Hyrax Hill.

Any 2×1 = (2mk)


  1. Identify the main economic activity of the Plain Nilotes during the pre-colonial period.

-pastoralism/livestock keeping


  1. Name one community in Kenya which played a leading role in the long distance trade.
  • Akamba
  • Agiriama (MIJIKENDA)

Any 1×1=(1mk)


  1. Identify one community in Kenya which had a centralized system of government during the pre-colonial period

Abangwa of the Abaluhyia                                         1×1= (1mk)


  1. Give two evidences which show the Chinese traders reached the Kenyan coast before 1500 AD.
  • Remains of Chinese coins
  • Fragments of Chinese pottery/Fossils/Artifacts
  • Information in the periplus of the Eritrean sea.

Any 2×1 = (2mk)

  1. State the main reason for the coming of the Portuguese.
  2. Identify two sources of government revenue in Kenya.
  • Taxes/Custom duties
  • Loans
  • Donations/grants in aid
  • Licences/fees/rates/rents
  • Fines Any 2×1= (2mk)
  1. Name two officers of a municipal council who are appointed by the Public Service Commission. (2mk)
  • The town clerk
  • The Treasurer
  • The Medical Officer of Health
  • The Engineer
  • Municipal Educator Officer Any 2×1=(2mk)
  1. What is the main function of the Civil Service in Kenya? (1mk)
  • To implement/carry out policies of the Government.



  1. Give one reason why parliament is regarded as supreme in Kenya (1mk)
  • Has power to pass a vote of no-confidence on government.
  • Is the highest law-masking body
  • Can alter the amend Constitution.
  • Has power to declare War and a state of emergency
  • General material Revenue and Expenditure

Any 1×1=(1mk)


  1. Give one way in which the constitution of Kenya guarantees the rule of law.
  • Everybody is equal before the law.
  • A suspect is assumed innocent until proven guilty in a court of law.
  • A suspect is given opportunity to defend himself/herself in court of law.

Any 1×1 = (1mk)


  1. State two contributions of parastals to the economic development of Kenya.
  • They provide employment opportunities.


  1. State two problems which the Imperial British East African Company faced in the administration of the Protectorate.
  • Shortage of funds
  • Problem of transportation
  • Poor coordination from the colonial office in London
  • In-experienced administrators
  • Shortage of personnel
  • Lack of knowledge of the area
  • Hostility

Any 2×1 = (2mk)


  1. Name the treaty which mked the colonial spheres of influence in East African in 1886.

Anglo-Germany agreement.

1×1= (1mk)


  1. State two grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association (KCA) against the colonial government in Kenya.
  • Racial discrimination
  • African representation in the Legco
  • The Kipande system
  • They were against taxation
  • Forced labour
  • Demanded the release of Harry Thuku
  • Land problem
  • Cultural Issues

Any 2×1=2mk)

  1. What was the main result of the Devonshire White Paper of 1923?

In case of conflict of interests between immigrant races and Africans those of Africans should be paramount.                                                          1×1=(1mk)


  1. Name two African leaders who were detained in 1952 at the declaration of a State of Emergency.
  • Jomo Kenyatta
  • Bildad Kagia
  • Fred Kubai
  • Paul Ngei
  • Achieng Oneko
  • Kungu Karumba


  • They generate revenue for the government
  • Some provide loans for domestic investment
  • Some provide specific services to the residents e.g.

Any 2×1= (2mk)




  1. (a) Give five reasons which led to the migration of the Cushites from their

original homeland into Kenya during the pre-colonial period?

(i)        They moved in search for pasture and water for their livestock.

(ii)       There was drought and famine in their original homeland.

  • There was outbreak of diseases and epidemics in their original homeland.
  • To escape from constant attacks from their neigbours/or external attacks
  • They moved in search of land for settlements as their population had increased.
  • They moved to know what was beyond the horizon/adventure.



(b) Explain five result of the inter action between the Bantu and the Cushites in the pre-colonial period.

  • Intermarriages which strengthened relationships between communities.
  • Some Bantu adopted Islam from the Cushites.
  • Some Bantu copied some customs of the Cushites such as circumcision and age set systems.
  • The Bantu and Cushites raided other for cattle which led to loss of property and lives/increased welfare.
  • Cushites attacked the Bantu which led to further migration (e.g. Orma/Orma Orma/Galla pushed the Eastern Bantu from Shungwaya)./Displacement
  • The cushites and the Bantu exchanged goods which led to the development of trade.
  • Some Cushites were absorbed/assimilated by the Bantu.

Any 5×2= (10mk)


  1. a) What were the reasons for the construction of Kenya-Uganda railway

during the colonial period?

(i)        To facilitate the movement of the troops to suppress resistances/pacification.

(ii)       To transport the administrators into the interior for effective control of British East Africa.

(iii)      To promote the development of legitimate trade/Abolish slave trade

  • To transport goods from interior to the coast (raw material) and manufactured goods from the coast.
  • The British wanted to exploit the resources in the interior

Any 3×1= (3mk)


Explain six effects of the construction of the Kenya-Uganda railway.

  • It led to the emergence of towns along the railway line e.g. Voi, Nairobi.
  • It enabled people to travel to and from the interior to different destinations easily.
  • It encouraged the construction of feeder roads thus improving transportation in the interior.
  • It led to land alienation and establishment of settler plantations where different cash crops were grown/Displacement
  • It stimulated both internal and external trade./Development of trade.
  • It led to the Indian Coolies settling in Kenya/Introduction of India
  • It led to employment opportunities to many people in Kenya.
  • It provided revenue for the government.
  • It made it possible for the missionaries to spread Christianity into the interior/Led to opening of interior.
  • It enabled the government to administer more effectively /colonists.
  • It led to the alteration of the Kenya –Uganda branch



  1. a) State three methods which were used by the British to establish their rule

in Kenya.                                                                                (3mk)

  • They used military conquest to crash the resistances of African communities./Direct rule
  • They signed treaties of protection with some local leaders/collaboration.
  • They established administrative posts in the interior from where they controlled the protectorate effectively.
  • They tricked African leaders to give away their land.
  • They occupied areas that were previously under the imperial British East African company (IBEACo.) rule
  • They used missionaries to persuade Africans to accept authority.

Any 3×1= (3mk)


(b)         Describe the organization of the Central Government in Kenya during the colonial period.                                                                      (12mk)


(i)        The Central Government was headed by a Governor who represented the British Government.

(ii)       The Governor ensured the implementation of colonial policies.

(iii)      There was a legislative council which made laws for the colony

  • The laws were approved by the Governor
  • The colony was divided into provinces headed by provincial commissioner.
  • The provinces were divided into Districts headed by District Commissioners.
  • Divisions were divided into locations headed by African Chiefs.
  • Locations were divided into sub-locations headed by sub-chiefs.
  • The sub-locations were divided into villages headed by headman.
  • All administrators from the rank of the District Officer to Governor were British.
  • Divisions headed by the District Officers

Any 6×2= (12mk)


21.(a)  Why did the British use direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya?

(3 mk)

  • Most communities did not have centralized administrative systems therefore the British appointed chiefs
  • There were many ethnic groups with diverse social- cultural systems which made it difficult for the British to apply indirect rule
  • Most communities resisted British rule and so they had to be controlled directly.
  • There was an existing system of direct rule used by the imperial British East Africa company on which the British built their administration
  • Had enough administration administrators

Any 3 x 1 = 3 mk)


(b)       Explain six ways through which Ronald Ngala contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya ( 12 mk)

  • He advocated for equal living standards for all races in Kenya
  • He was a founder member of the Mijikenda Union formed in 1947, which

played an important role in the Mijikenda political awareness

  • As a member of the legislative council (Legco) he advocated for increased African representation
  • He organized many political rallies in coast province during which he demanded for the release of people who had been detained under emergency laws
  • As president of Kenya African Democratic Union ( KADU) he advocated for independence
  • As African elected members Organization (AEMO) he mediated between extremes and moderates to create unity.
  • As a leader to the Lancaster House Conference he participated in the drafting of the independence constitution
  • In 1961, Ngala as leader of KADU accepted to form a coaliation government with new Kenya Party so as not to delay the independence process.

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mk)





  1. (a) Identify three types of local authorities in Kenya

(i)        Municipal Councils

(ii)       Town councils

(iii)      Country councils

(iv)      Urban councils

(v)       City councils

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)


(b)       Explain the relationship between the central and local government in


  • The local authorities operate the policy guidelines formulated by the central government.
  • The minister in charge of the government approves all the activities that the local government plan to undertake
  • All the councilors nominated by political parties into the local authorities are approved by the minister of the local government.
  • All the by- laws made by the local authorities are approved by the minister before being implemented.
  • Records of all council meetings and business transactions are submitted to the Minister for verification and approval.
  • Any local authority which does not operate according to the guidelines of the central government can be dissolved by the minister
  • The minister for local government scrutinizes the annual reports of the local authorities to evaluate their performance
  • The minister appoints senior officials who sit in the local authorities meetings to give guidance on government policy.
  • The financial records of all local authorities are audited by the officers of the central government
  • Local authorities submit their loan applications and intended revenue sources to the central government through the minister of local government.
  • The central government gives grants/ financial aid to local authorities for their operations.
  1. (a)
  • The national flag
  • The national Anthem
  • The coat of arms
  • The loyalty pledge
  • The presidency
  • The constitution
  • The National language

Any 3 x 1 = 3 mk)


(b)       Explain six factors which undermine National Unity in Kenya

(i)        Unequal distribution of natural/ National resources causes imbalanced

regional economic development. This causes dissatisfaction and disharmony.

(ii)       Different religious beliefs and practices may lead to discrimination on

religious grounds.

(iii)      The practice of tribalism leads to favouring people of one’s tribe in

employment and allocation of resources. This creates hatred among people.

(iv)      Nepotism leads to use of public resources to favour one’s relatives

resulting to unfair treatment of other people

(v)       Asking for and offering of bribes to obtain and give services violets

peoples right to equal treatment/ corruption

(vi)      Ethnic conflicts/ disputes/ clashes discourage co- operation among the


(vii)     Racism leads to discrimination on the basis of colour/ race. This creates

suspicion and hated among people.

  • Discrimination on the basis of gender denies people the right to participate equally in national development (Any 6 x 2 = 13 mk)


  • What are the functions of the Attorney General in Kenya?
  • Gives legal advice to the government
  • Gives consent for a person to be prosecuted
  • Can institute/ undertake criminal proceedings against any person
  • Can terminate any prosecution proceedings at nay stage
  • Drafts and presents government bills for debate in parliament
  • Participates in parliamentary debates/ ex officio

( Any 3 x 1 = 3 mk)

  • Explain six responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen
  • Obeying the laws of the country to promote peace and harmony
  • Respecting other citizens, their views and property to ensure peaceful co- existence.
  • Taking part activities that promote national development for example contributing towards famine relief fund/ Harambee
  • Participating in meetings organized by government official and other community leaders to ensure effective implementation of policies.
  • Contributing to the income of the government by paying axes
  • Offering positive criticism to the government to promote good governance/ Participating in contribution making process and referendum
  • Exercising one’s voting rights during presidential, parliamentary and civic elections to enhance democracy.
  • Taking part in community policing and volunteering information about criminal activities to the police to enhance security
  • Avoiding corrupt practices and adhering to accountability and transparency norms for sustainable economic development
  • Being loyal and patriotic to the country in order to promote national security and social cohesion ( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mk)






  1. Identify two source of Kenyan Historic
    • Archaeology/ Paleontology
    • Anthropology ( Myth & Legends)
    • Linguistics
    • Oral tradition
    • Written sources
    • Geology
    • Rock paintings/ art
    • Genetics
    • Electronic sources

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk)


  1. Name one community in Kenya that belongs to the River Lake Nilotes

(i) The Luo                                                          ( 1 mk)


  1. State two economic activities of the Abagusii in Kenya during the Pre- colonial period
    • They grew crops
    • They kept livestock
    • They hunted animals and gathered wild fruits
    • They traded with their neighbours
    • They made handicrafts/ Basketry
    • Iron working

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk)


  1. Give one reason which led to the decline of Gedii during the 15th century
    • External attacks
    • Inadequate water supply/ Drought

( Any 1 x 1


  1. Name  the type of constitution used in Kenya
    • Written

( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Identify two peaceful ways of resolving conflicts
    • Negotiation ( Reconciliation)
    • Mediation
    • Arbitration
    • Litigation ( court system)

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk)


  1. What is direct democracy?

It is a government where people themselves make rules/ decisions that  effect

their welfare                                             ( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)



  1. Identify two development rights of children
    • Right to education
    • Right to leisure/ play
    • Right to participate in cultural and artistic activities
    • Right to express themselves
    • Access to information
    • Right to social security/ parental love


  1. Name the document which contains the rights of citizens in Kenya?

The constitution of Kenya/ bill of right                           ( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Identify one method used by the British to administer Kenya Colony between 1920 and 1963
    • Direct
    • Indirect rule ( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. State two ways through which European settlers in Kenya wee able to get labour force during the colonial period
    • Forced recruitment/ conscription/ Denying African rights/ growing crops
    • Though introduction of Kipande system
    • Creation of African reserves
    • Through introduction of taxation by the British government

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk)


  1. Name two political parties which were formed in Kenya between 1960 and 1963
    • Kenya African National Union (KANU)
    • Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU)
    • African People Party ( APP)
    • New Kenya Party ( NKP)

( Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk  (1/2 mrk for abb)


  1. Give one reason why an aspiring candidate for a parliamentary seat in Kenya must be nominated by a political party
    • In order to limit the number of candidates
    • So as to identify party candidates
    • To adhere top constitutional requirements/ rules

( Any 1 x 1 = 1  mk)


  1. Give two reasons why corruption is being discouraged in Kenya
    • To promote economic party
    • To promote peace and stability
    • To promote national unity
    • To provide fair distribution of national resources
    • To gain international confidence
    • To promote patriotism and ethical behaviors



  1. Identify one Philosophy adopted at independence to promote social justice in Kenya
    • African socialism
    • Harambee

( Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. Name two types of local authorities in Kenya
    • City councils
    • Municipal Council
    • Town council
    • Urban council
    • County Council ( Area Council)


  1. Give one example of indirect taxes in Kenya
    • Sale taxes/ exercise duty/ customs duty
    • Value added tax
    • Cess/ fines/ fees
    • Land rates
    • Domestic borrowing




  1. (a) Why did the highland Nilotes migrate from their original homeland during the Pre- colonial period?
    • They moved in search of water and pasture for their livestock
    • The outbreak of diseases/ epidemics forced them to move
    • Attacks from their communities forced them to move/ external attacks
    • There was population pressure in their original homeland
    • They moved due to draught and famine
    • Family/ clan dispute/ conflicts forced them to migrate/ internal conflicts
    • They moved for adventure

( Any 5 x 1 = 5 mk)


(b)       Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Highland

Nilotes sin Kenya

  • They displaced some communities they found in the area where they

settled e.g. Abagusii, the Kwavi, Maasai and the Abaluyia ( example a must)

  • Some highland Nilotes were absorbed/ assimilated by the Bantu such a the Teriki and the Tachoni
  • The Highland Nilotes traded with their neighbours/ they exchanged animal products for grains from the Abaluyia and the Abagusii. This led to the expansion of trade in the region.
  • Their settlement increased the population of the region
  • The highlands Nilotes intermarried with the Luo, Abagusii and Abaluyia. This strengthened their relations.
  • There were ethnic wars/ conflicts due to cattle raids
  • There was cultural exchange leading to enrichment of their lives

( Any 5 x 2 =  10 mk)


  1. (a)   What were the activities of the Imperial British East Africa Company

(IBEA Co) Between 1888 and 1895?

  • It traded with the local communities/ promoted legitimate ttrade
  • It established administrative posts/ maintained law of order
  • It discouraged slave trading
  • It provided information about the interior of East Africa
  • It built the Uganda Railway
  • It secured the British sphere of influence/ promoted the spread of Western civilization
  • It suppressed African resistance against the British
  • It pioneered the construction of roads/ improved infrustruct

( Any 5 x 1 = 5 mk)


(b)       Why did the imperial British East Africa Company (IBEA Co.) Rule come

to an end in 1895?

  • The company lacked qualified administrators
  • There was mismanagement of funds by the company officials/ corruption
  • The area was too vast for the few officials to manage
  • Some African communities resisted/ rebelled against the company rule
  • The company lacked adequate funds/ capital for its day to day activities
  • There was poor communication between the company officials and the colonial office in Britain/ poor communication
  • Company official were affected by unfavourable climate conditions/ tropical diseases
  • Translation of the Bible into local languages enhanced missionary activities
  • The discovery of quinine which was cure for malaria facilitated missionary work
  • Some African rules were friendly to missionaries therefore they supported missionary activities
  • African convents became evangelists and thus spreading Christianity

(Any 5 x 2 = 10 mk)




  1. (a) What five situations can make registered voter to be denied the right to

vote in Kenya?

  • When one is in custody
  • When one is insane/ unsound mind
  • When one presents oneself in a constituency where one s not registered
  • When one is discovered to have registered twice
  • When one does not have a voter’s card on the voting day
  • When one does not have a national identification Card on the voting day/ one has a defective National Identification Card
  • When ones name does not appear in the voters register
  • When one is time barred/ late

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 mk)


(b)       Explain the rights to an accused person during trial in a court of Law in Kenya

(i)        The accused person is presumed innocent until proven guilty

(ii)       He/ She should be informed of the charge with sufficient detail so as to

prepare a defence.

  • One should be given adequate time to consult with the advocate/ witness
  • One should be present when court proceedings are taking place
  • One should be given a chance to plead for leniency
  • One should not be forced to give evidence
  • One should be allowed to be heard
  • One should be allowed to appeal against the ruling
  • Right to legal representation

(Any 5 x 2 = 10 mk)


  1. (a) What is the composition of the executive Arm of Government in Kenya?
    • The executive consists of the president
    • It also consists of the Vice President
    • The minister/ cabinet
    • The civil servants
    • The Attorney General


(b) Describe six functions of the Civil Servants in Kenya

(i)              Civil servants interpret and explain government policies to the people

(ii)                         They implement government policies and programmers/ training

(iii)            Civil servant such as permanent secretaries advise their respective

Ministers on matters of government policy

(iv)                         They collect government revenue

(v)              They maintain law and order

(vi)                         Civil servants prepare development plans

(vii)            Civil servants link the people with central government through the

Provincial administration

(viii)           Civil servants keeps the government operations running after the

dissolution of parliament

(ix)             Senior Civil Servants ensure proper use of public funds and resources/ protect and conservation of National Resource

( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mk)


  1. (a) What are the units of the Kenya Police Force?

(i)        Traffic police which controls traffic and inspects vehicles

(ii)       Regular police who maintains law and order

(iii)      The Criminal investigation department/ C.I.D ( ½ for abb

(iv)      Anti – stock theft unit

(v)       The general Service Unit/ G.S.U (½ abb

(vi)      Anti- narcotics unit

(vii)     Tourism police

(viii)    National security intelligence service

(ix)      Special crime prevention unit. (flying squad, Kenya police reserve)

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 mk)


(b)       Explain FIVE factors that make it difficult for the prison department in

Kenya to work effectively

  • Inadequate/ dilapidated facilities have led to congestion and frequent outbreak of diseases inadequate vehicles and equipment.
  • Increase in number of Prisons has led to poor living conditions
  • Inadequate finances have led to provision of poor service such as food
  • Inadequate number of prison warders leads to overworking hence brutal handling of prisoners
  • Poor living conditions low salaries of prison officers has demoralized them and affected their performance of duty
  • Corruption of prisons has forced some prisoners to pay so as to get better services
  • Shortages of trained counselors to assist in reforming the inmate effectively
  • Inadequate food, medical facilities and clothing for inmates
  • Some inmates have become hardened thus, difficult to rehabilitate
  • Political interference/ rapid changes affecting prisoners.

( Any 5 x 2 = 10 mk)





Paper 1



Oct. /Nov. 2007


  1. Give two reasons for studying government. (2mk)

(i)        To understand how different organs of government function.

(ii)       To understand how laws are made/enforced

  • To have knowledge of the duties/responsibilities of citizens.
  • To enable citizens know their rights.
  • To be able to compare political systems of the world.

Any 2×1=2mk

  1. State two advantages of the discovery of fire by early man. (2mk)

(i)        Man used fire to cook food.

(ii)       Fire provided light at night.

  • Man used fire to keep himself warm
  • Fire was used to harden tips of tools.
  • Fire was used to frighten/keep off dangerous animals. (Any 2×1=2mk)
  1. Name the dispersal area of the Eastern Bantu.

-Shungwaya                                              1×1=1mk


  1. State two duties of the Orkoyot among the Nandi. (2mk)

(i)        He presided over religious functions

(ii)       He foretold future events/seer.

  • he was a medicine man.
  • He was a rain maker

Any 2×1 = 2mk

  1. Give the main reason why the rulers of Malind welcomed the Portuguese in the 16th century. (1mk)

-They wanted

  1. Give two factors which influenced Seyyid Said to develop agriculture in zanzibar

in the 19th Century.                                                                 (2mk)

  • Zanzibar had favourable climate for clove growing.
  • Availability of labour/slave labour
  • Zanzibar had a natural deep harbour which would promote trade in agricultural products.
  • Zanzibar had fwertile soils. Any 2×1=2mk


  1. Apart from the Nandi name two other communities that resisted the establishment of colonial rule in Kenya. (2mk)

(i)       Agiriyama

(ii)      Bukusu

(iii)      Somali




  1. State the main duty of the Governor during the British colonial rule in Kenya. (1mk)

– To facilitate effective administration of the colony                       1×1=1mk

  1. State one reason why the colonial government established local native councils in Kenya in 1924. (1mk)

(i)        To serve as a link between African people and the Central government.

(ii)       To involve African in the management of their affairs.

  • To provide a forum through which African would express themselves.

Any 1×1=1mk

  1. Identify two features of African farming in Kenya during the colonial period.


  • Small scale farming was practiced
  • Africans mainly grew foods
  • Traditional methods of farming were used .Any 2×1 = 2mk


  1. State one recommendation of the Lennox-Boyd Constitution regarding the

legislative council in Kenya.


  1. Name one Ex- officio member of parliament in Kenya? (1mk)

(i)        The Speaker

(ii)       The Attorney-General.                                   Any1x1= 1mk

  1. Who was the first Vice-President of independent Kenya? (1mk)

Oginga Odinga                                   (1×1=1mk)


  1. State two ways through which a person can become a citizen of Kenya? (1mk)

(i)        By naturalization

(ii)       By birth

(iii)      By registration                                                Any 2×1=(2mk)


  1. State two ways in which poor leadership affects sporting activities in Kenya.


  • Constant Wrangling leading to negligency of duty
  • Mismanagement of funds/greed
  • Demoralization of sports men and women
  • Discrimination/ favouring teams over others. (Any 2×1=2mk)
  1. State one type of government expenditure in Kenya (1mk)

(i)        Capital

(ii)       Recurrent                    Any 1×1=1mk


  1. Who gives assent to a parliamentary bill before it becomes law in Kenya?
  • The president



  1. a) Give five reasons for the migration of the Luo from their original

homeland into Kenya.

(i)        They were looking for new settlements as a result of overpopulation

(ii)       Diseases and natural disasters forced them to migrate.

  • They migrated in order to escape internal conflicts.
  • Overstocking and Overgrazing led them to look for more pasture.
  • They moved to search for fertile lands with favourable climate.
  • Some people migrated for adventure (spirit of adventure)

Any 5×1 = 5mk


  • What the social effects of the expansion of the Luo into Western Kenya?


  • They intermarried with their neighbours, such as Luhyia, Kalenjin, Abagusii and Kuria.
  • They shared the name ‘Nyasaye’ with some Luo communities as a title of God
  • They had similar funeral rites and burial customs with their neighbours
  • They assimilated other communities.
  • They displaced other communities
  • Their movement and settlement increased conflicts.
  • Their settlement in Western Kenya led to population increase.
  • They influenced their neighbours to adopt their language and naming system.

Responses to be written in prose.                        Any 5×2=10mk


  1. a) Identify five factors that led to the growth of towns along the coast of

Kenya before the 19th Century.                                              (5mk)

(i)        The coming and establishment of settlements along the coast by early visitors.

(ii)       The development of the Indian Ocean trade.

  • Some towns were established on Islands/security.
  • Existence of deep, well sheltered harbours.
  • Climatic conditions were favourable.
  • Increase in population due to intermarriages.
  • The settlement of Muslim refugees from Arabia.
  • Effective administration by the rulers of the towns enabled them to expand. Any 5×1= 5mk.


  1. Describe the way of life in the coastal towns of Kenya before the 19th


Each town had a leader whose title was the Sultan or sheikh.

The towns were governed using Islamic Laws/Sharia.

People developed and spoke the Kiswahili language.

Women wore ‘Buibui’ and men put on ‘Kanzu’

The main religion practiced was Islam.

The people adapted Arabic and Persian architectural designs.

They ate oriental foods.

They carried out trade with Europeans as well as with the communities in the interior of Kenya.

They practiced mixed farming/or grew bananas, cashew nuts as well kept animals.

They carried out fishing.

Education was provided in ‘Madrasa’                 Any 5×2= 10mk

Responses should be in prose.


  1. a) Give reasons why the British colonial government encouraged Europeans

to settle in Kenya by 1939.                                                    (3mk)

(i)        Governor Northey saw the need to develop the highlands to meet administrative costs.

(ii)       The British industries needed cheap raw materials

  • They thought the area had no occupants/was empty land.
  • The government wanted to make the protectorate economically viable
  • In order to control further influx of Asians into the protectorate

Any 3×1=3mk.

  1. b) Explain the effects of land alienation in Kenya during the colonial period.


  • Africans who lost their land became poor.
  • The displaced Africans were confined to Native Reserves thus leading to congestion/over use of land.
  • May Africans became squatters and lived in misery and hopelessness.
  • The landless were to supply labour in setter farms for wages in order to pay taxes.
  • The displaced Africans were forced to move to towns to look for employment.
  • The movement to towns by the displaced African was disrupted.
  • The traditional Social-Economic set-up of the African was disrupted.
  • Loss of land led to bitterness and made Africans later to form political organizations to demand for their land.

Responses should be in prose.           Any 5×2= 10mk


  1. a) Identify five methods that the colonial government used to discourage the

activities of Mau Mau Movement.

(i)        Many people were arrested/or detained in various camps.

(ii)       The armed forces were used to suppress the movement

  • They killed/or executed the activists.
  • They used traitors and spies to reveal hiding grounds of the fighters.
  • The activists houses were destroyed/looted/villages burned down.
  • The people were put in concentration camps to curtail their movement
  • Kenya African Union (K.A.U.) was banned.
  • The people were put in concentration camps to curtain their movements.
  • State of Emergency was declared.
  • The government tortured Mau Mau supporters any 5×1=5mk


  1. Explain five reasons why the MauMau movement was able to last for a long time. (10mk)
    • Oathing united people and this made them to be committed to the cause.
    • Fighters used guerrilla warfare which made it difficult for the British government to contain the rebellion.
    • The civilian population sustained the rebellion by supplying food, weapons and information.
    • The movement was led by able leaders.
    • The aberdares and Kenya forests provided goods hideouts for the Mau Mau fighters.
    • The fighters were ex-service men and were therefore able to apply the military experience they had gained in the first and second world wars.
    • The movement received moral and material support from Independent African countries. Any 5x 2= 10 mk.

Responses should be in prose.




  1. (a) Give three reason that can make the parliament in Kenya to be dissolved.                                                                                                       (3mk)
  • It can be done when a vote of no confidence is passed on the government president.
  • The constitution allows the president to dissolve it at will.
  • It can be done after the expiry of the five year parliamentary period.
  • During a state of emergency
  • It can be done when the opposition has more members then the ruling party in Parliament. (Any 3×1=3 mk)

Responses should be in prose.

  • Explain six functions of the speaker of the National Assembly in Kenya. (12mk)
  • The National Assembly Parliament debates and makes laws which are used to govern the country.
  • It amends/changes existing laws and the constitution when necessary.
  • It acts as a check on the possible abuse of power by either the judiciary.

Executive or any other institution in the country.

  • It represents the views of the people /elected members provide a link between the people and the government.
  • It ensures that the rule of law is respected/everyone is governed by the same laws.
  • It approves and controls sources of government revenue and expenditure/the budgets which contain the estimates of the two sums are read/debated and approved annually.
  • It monitors the government spending through the public Accounts

Committee/This Committee can summon public servants for misuse of public funds.

  • The National Assembly debates issues of national and international concern and makes recommendations for appropriate action.
  • The National Assembly has power to pass a vote of no confidence in the president and Government /It can terminate the life of a government when two thirds of its members pass a vote no confidence in the two thirds of its members pass a vote of no confidence.
  • Parliament can fire an individual member through a vote of no confidence/The member of parliament is forced to resign.
  • It creates parastatal or other government agencies through Acts of


(xii)     The members of the National Assembly elect the speaker and the deputy


Responses should be in prose.                 Any 6×2=12mk


  1. a) A part from the High Court identify five other types of courts in Kenya.


(i)       The Court of Appeal

(ii)      The Chief Magistrates Court

  • The resident Magistrates Court
  • The senior Principal Magistrates Court
  • Special Courts/Tribunals.

Any 5×1=5mk

  1. b) Why should there be separation of powers between Legislature, Executive and Judiciary in Kenya. (10mk)
  • In order to make the co-ordination of government programmes and administration effective.
  • To enable the government to facilitate division of labour.
  • It helps prevent abuse of power/provides checks and balances.
  • It promotes efficient service delivery.
  • It is a constitutional requirement
  • To enhance accountability
  • It promotes transparency/openness in government dealings.
  • It ensures that no arm of the government interferes with the other.

Any 5×2=5mk.

Responses should be in prose.


  1. a) State five functions of the Kenya Police.                  (5mk)

(i)Maintain law and order

(ii)Quelling civil disturbances.

  • Prosecute criminals.
  • Inspect vehicles to ensure roadworthiness.
  • Entertain people during national functions.
  • Conduct driving tests.
  • Detect and prevent crimes/investigate
  • Arresting suspected criminals.
  • Guarding the country’s entry points.
  • Combining crime.
  • Protecting government property/senior government officers.

Any 5×2=5mk

(b)Describe five duties of the District Commissioner in Kenya.     (10mk)

  • Represents the president in the district.
  • Oversees the implementation of government policies.
  • Interprets and explains government policies to the people in the district.
  • Interprets and explains government policies to the people in the district.
  • Conducts civil marriages on behalf of the state.
  • Chairs the district security committee.
  • Co-ordinates disaster management activities.
  • Issues licences and trade permits in the districts
  • The accounting officer.
  • Ensures law and order is maintained in the district.
  • Acts as a link between the people and the state Any 5×2=10mk.

Responses should be in prose.




  • History and Government Paper 1 (311/1)


  • Locating pre-historic sites.
  • Excavating/digging the site.
  • Dating the fossils and artifacts.
  • Recording the findings.                                     (Any 2×1 = 2 mks)


  •                                     (Any 2×1 = 2 mks)


  1. Ethiopian highlands.                         (1 mk)


  • The clan formed the basic political unit.
  • Leadership was by the council of elders.
  • Both had age-set systems.
  • The council of elders settled disputes.
  • They had warriors who defended their communities. (Any 2×1=2 mks)


5          They wanted to participate in trade.                                                              (1 mk)


  1. The Church Missionary Society (C.M.S).                         (1 mk)


  • They did not want to pay taxes to the British.
  • They had lost their independence/the British replaced the Agiriama traditional rulers with their own appointees.
  • The British did not respect their culture,for example:-destruction of shrines/raping their women.
  • They were forced to join the British army.
  • They lost their land to the British.
  • The British disrupted their trade in ivory and food stuffs.(Any 2×1=2 mks)


  • They were attracted by social amenities.
  • Towns offered higher job prospects/better wages.
  • Many Africans found themselves in over crowded reserves/land alienation.
  • In order to escape hut tax/forced labour.
  • Some Africans wanted to open up businesses in towns. (Any 2×1 = 2 mks)



    • They demanded equal rights with the whites.
    • They wanted to own land in the Kenyan highlands.
    • They opposed restrictions on their migration into Kenya.(Any 1 x 1 =1 mk)


  • They were constantly threatened with closure by the colonial government.
  • They lacked trained teachers.
  • Inadequate funds/lack of facilities.
  • Leadership squabbles.
  • Competition from the mission schools.                         (Any 2 x 1= 2mks)


  • By birth.
  • By registration.
  • By naturalization. (Any 2 x 1= 2mks)


  • If one makes untrue/malicious utterances about another individual/government.
  • If one publishes seditious documents/Reveals Government Secrets.
  • If one incites others against government/other people.
  • If one talks ill against the president. (Any 1 x  =1 mk)


  • Parliament cannot make laws that contradict traditional customs and practices of the people.
  • Parliament cannot pass a law that contradicts Kenya’s constitution.
  • The president can limit the supremacy by making independent decisions.
  • Parliamentary supremacy can be limited by the application of international laws.

(Any 1 x 1=1 mk)


  • The Public Investment Committee.
  • The Public Accounts Committee.             (Any 1 x 1=1 mk)


  • By ensuring that all citizens are subjected to and governed by the same law.
  • By ensuring that matters are handled according to the law of the land.
  • By ensuring that everyone has the right to legal representation.
  • By ensuring that all suspected criminals are assumed innocent until proved guilty.

(Any 2 x 1=2 mks)


  1. The Chief Justice. (1 mk)


  • It helps the government to determine the sources for revenue.
  • To ensure transparency in the use of public funds.
  • It helps in appropriate allocation of resources to different ministries.
  • To enable Kenyans and other foreign organizations to know the economic planning and expenditure of the government.                   (1 mk)


  1. (a)
  • The availability of trade items
  • The demand for goods.
  • Existence of enterprising merchants.
  • The accessibility of the coast.
  • Existence of local trade.
  • There was political stability.
  • Existence of natural harbours
  • The occurrence of monsoon winds.             (Any 3×1 =3 mks)



  • The coastal city states organized constant rebellions against the Portuguese.
  • The Portuguese administrators were corrupt/misused the funds meant to finance the administration.
  • Portugal was too small to provide enough soldiers and administrators to control the whole of its empire far away
  • Malindi, their traditional ally refused to support the Portuguese because they were cruel to them.
  • Decline of the Indian ocean trade since it was the main source of income for the empire.
  • The annexation of Portugal by Spain weakened Portuguese control of the coast.
  • Intense commercial rivalry from the Dutch, the British and the French reduced the Portuguese source of revenue.
  • The defeat and departure of Fort Jesus by the Omani Arabs brought Portuguese rule to an end.                                                 (Any 6×2=12 mks)


  1. (a)
  • To carry out farming in order to meet the administration of the colony.
  • The climate of the white highlands was suitable for white settlement.
  • The whites would be loyal to the colonial government as opposed to the Africans.
  • There were large tracts of seemingly unutilized land.
  • The settlers were to carry out farming in order to produce goods to be transported by the railway. This would help meet the cost of maintaining the railways.
  • The government did not want the Asians to take control of the colony.

(Any 3 x 1=3 mks)



  • They were subjected to constant raids by the African whose land had been alienated.
  • They had inadequate labour force as many Africans refused to work for them.
  • The settlers lacked essential agricultural skills as many had not practiced farming before.
  • They were not familiar with the seasons and therefore could not predict when and what to plant.
  • They had inadequate capital to invest in farming.
  • They were unable to mket their produce during the world wars.
  • The economic depression affected the mket prices.
  • There was high cost of production due to animal and crop diseases.
  • There was inadequate transport and communication network which affected the movement of people and goods.                         (Any 6×2=12mks)


  1. (a)
  • Local Government Workers Union.
  • Domestic and Hotel Workers Union.
  • East African Federation of Building and Construction Workers Union.
  • Transport and Allied Workers Union.
  • Garments Workers Union.             (Any 3×1=3mks)



  • They aired the grievances of the workers to the employers/colonial government.
  • They managed to achieve better conditions for the workers through strikes and collective bargaining.
  • They achieved better wages for Africans and Asians under the colonial government.
  • They enlisted the support of the international community and alerted it of the oppression experienced under the colonial government.
  • They educated people on their political rights through seminars and public meetings.
  • They opposed racial discrimination/colour bar among the workers to enhance unity.
  • Trade Unions provided training ground for national leaders who took part in the struggle for independence.
  • They assisted and supported those who struggled for independence.
  • They provided an alternative forum for independence struggle after the banning of political organizations by the colonial government.                   (Any 6×2=12 mks)


  1. (a)
  • To ensure equal opportunities for all citizens.
  • To promote democracy.
  • To ensure that resources are used for the benefit of society and its members.
  • To encourage various forms of ownership of property.
  • To promote freedom from disease, ignorance and of poverty
  • To promote freedom of conscience and human dignity. (Any 5×1 = 5 mks)



  • The philosophies have encouraged cooperation/unity/understanding among Kenyans.
  • They have encouraged Kenyans to actively participate in development projects.
  • Through the philosophies, education has been promoted by building schools, colleges and universities.
  • The philosophies have encouraged mutual social responsibility among Kenyans.
  • The philosophies have helped improve medical services, by constructing dispensaries, health centres and hospitals.
  • The plight of the disadvantaged people has been addressed by the philosophies through organizing harambees to assist them.
  • The philosophies have promoted African culture through borrowing of positive African traditions.
  • The philosophies have promoted spiritual wellbeing through building of churches.

(Any 5×2=10 mks)


  1. (a)
  • To form the government after elections/appoint the cabinet.
  • To summon parliament after a general election.
  • To open parliament.
  • To give assent to bills.
  • To dissolve parliament.
  • To prorogue parliament.
  • To appoint the leader of government business in the house.(Any 3 x 1=3 mks)



  • Persistent lack of funds to run the country.
  • There was widespread poverty, disease and ignorance which made it difficult for him to administer the country effectively.
  • Many Kenyans lacked essential skills to provide the country with sufficient manpower. This forced him to use expatriates.
  • Poor transport and communication system hampered the rate of economic development.
  • People in Kenya were divided over his land policy. For some, his policy of compromising with the whites and promising to protect their land and property was too moderated.
  • There was opposition from KADU which did not favour a government of national unity but wanted a majimbo system of government.
  • The people’s confidence in his government was tainted by political assassination of Tom Mboya, Kariuki J.M. and Pio Gama Pinto/crackdown on government critics.
  • The existence of banditry (Shifta Menace) in N. Eastern/NFD posed a security problem.
  • There were sharp divisions within the cabinet which made it difficult for them to come up with unanimous decisions. (Any 6×2=12 mks)


  1. (a)
  • To control traffic on roads.
  • To inspect motor vehicles.
  • To guide the flow of traffic on the roads.
  • To arrest traffic offenders.
  • To provide emergency assistance in case of a road accident.
  • To education the public on road safety measures..
  • To conduct driving test/issues provisional driving licences.(Any 5×1=5 mks)



  • The police officers have been allocated modern technological devices to helpdetect crime.
  • They have been allocated more vehicles to ease their mobility
  • There is the introduction of professional training programmes for officers to improve their competence/capacity building.
  • The raising of the academic qualification requirements for joining the police force with the aim of improving their performance.
  • The introduction of a public relations office/a police spokesperson to ensure that information is delivered effectively and efficiently to the general public.
  • The introduction of community policing to help police gather information from the public so as to assist them detect crime.
  • Introduction of police booths/hotlines that people can use if they have information vital to the police.
  • There has been an improvement in their terms (salaries) and conditions (Housing) of service.                                                                         (Any 5×2=10 mks)


  1. (a)
  • Provision of civic education.
  • Collecting views from the public.
  • Drafting the constitution.
  • The draft constitution is published for the public/disseminated.
  • The Review Commission holds public hearings in all the areas for further recommendations.
  • Convening of a national constitutional conference to amend or reject the recommendation.
  • The agreed upon issues are re-drafted and presented to the Attorney General by the review commission.
  • If certain issues are rejected at the conference, the commission organizes a referendum for the public to vote.
  • The Attorney General publishes the draft constitution in form of a bill.
  • It is introduced in parliament for enactment.             (Any 5 x 1=5 mks)



  • It provided for a Governor General who was the head of state on behalf of the Queen.
  • It provided for an independent judiciary to ensure justice and to preventcorruption.
  • It set up a judicial service Commission to appoint judicial officers.
  • It provided that the Governor in consultation with regional authorities and the Prime Minister appoint the Chief Justice.
  • It provided for six Regional Governments and Assemblies whose power included control of land, education, health and the police.
  • It entrenched rules of citizenship, fundamental rights of citizens.
  • It specially provided for the establishment of the Public Service Commission and the Central Land Board to ensure fair and effective government.
  • It provided for the position of a Prime Minister as the head of Government.
  • It provided for the tenure of the office of the judges and the Attorney General
  • It provided for a multi-party democracy where the party with the majority in parliament formed the government.
  • It entrenched the amendment procedures such that a special majority of two thirds majority was required to change the constitution.
  • It provided for the separation of powers for the three arms of the government/executive, judiciary and legislature.
  • It provided for a bicameral house of a Senate and House of Representatives.

(Any 5×2=10mks)








SECTION A: (25 mks)

  1. Identify one branch in the study of History and Government of Kenya
    • Social
    • Economic
    • Political

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Apart from the Maasai name one other plain Nilotes found in Kenya
    • Turkana
    • Samburu
    • Njemps
    • Iteso

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. What was the main economic activity of the Cushites in the pre- colonial period?

(i) Pastoralism/ livestock keeping

(1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. State two political functions of the council of elders  among the Agikuyu during the  colonial period
    • To settle disputes
    • To make laws for the community
    • To punish the law breakers/ wrong doers
    • To declare war/ make peace

(2 x 1 = 2 mk)

  1. Name two groups that rivaled the Portuguese for the control of the Kenyan coast  in  the 16th century
    • Egyptians
    • Turks
    • Arabs
    • Persians
    • The British
    • Dutch
    • French

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk)

  1. Identify two communities which resisted the British Occupation  of Kenya
    • Agiriama
    • Bukusu
    • Somali
    • Nandi

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk)

  1. Give the main reason why poll tax was introduced in Kenya during the colonial period

–           To force Africans to work on European settler farms.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Who was the chairman of the East African Association during the colonial period in Kenya?

Harry Thuku

(1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Name the first African to be nominated to the legislative Council in 1944 in Kenya

Eliud Mathu                                                                     (1 x 1 = 1mk)

  1. Identify two methods  used by Trade Unionists to demand for their rights during the  colonial period
    • Strike/ riots
    • Boycotts
    • Go slows/ sit – ins
    • Demonstrations
    • Petitions

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk)

  1. State the main reason why the second  Lancaster House Conference was held  in 1962

To come up with a constitution for independent Kenya

(1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. State two roles played by the Kenya African Democratic union in the struggle for independence in Kenya.
    • It united the smaller communities in Kenya
    • It educated/ mobilized Africans against  colonial domination
    • It pressed for the  release  of Jomo Kenyatta
    • It participated in the drawing up of the independence constitution

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk)

  1. State two ways through which the government has encouraged the preservation of African culture through music and dance.
    • Creation of the Ministry of Culture and social Services
    • Allowing the various ethnic communities to perform at  public gatherings
    • Inclusion of music as a subject in the national curriculum/ promoting music/ drama festivals
    • Development of cultural Heritage Centers
    • Allowing the media  hoses to play traditional music/ dance

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk)

  1. State one way though which  the Minister for Local Government Exercises control over Municipal Councils  in Kenya
    • Regulates the issuing of grants
    • Monitor expenditure/ auditing
    • Approves levies/ taxes

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Name the unit of the police department  which is responsible for maintaining law and order at the Chief’s  office

The Administration police     ( A.P  ½ for  abbre)

(Any 1 x 1  = 1 mk)

  1. Who appoints the Head of the Civil Service in Kenya?

The president

(Any 1x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Identify two characteristics of African Socialism that promote national development in Kenya
    • Democracy
    • Equal opportunities
    • Respect for human dignity
    • Mutual; social responsibility

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk)


  1. (a) Give the evidence which shows that the early visitors reached the KenyanCoast before the 15th century
    • The Greeks and  Chinese coins were found at the KenyanCoast
    • There are fragments of Chinese  Pottery which  have  been preserved
    • Documents that mention the presence  of early visitors  to the  Kenya  coast have been  preserved
    • Presence of  monuments  constructed by the early  visitors

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 mk)

(b) Explain six results of the interaction between the people of KenyanCoast    and the Arabs

(i)        Some African people living along the Kenya coast were converted to


(ii)       The volume of trade increased between the interior and the coastal towns

(iii)      Arabs introduced Islamic culture/ architecture to the coastal people

(iv)      The Arabs introduced new crops which were later adopted by the coastal


  • Demand for imported goods led to the decline of traditional industries
  • Some communities such as Akamba resorted to long distance trade in search of commodities.
  • There was an increase in population as many traders settled  at the coast
  • The Arabs established city  states/ towns at the coast
  • The Islamic law  and system  of administration was introduced by Arabs at the coast
  • There was the development – Kiswahili language  as  a result of the interaction  between Arabs  and Coastal  people
  • Intermarriage between Africans and Arabs led to emergency of Washahili people.
  1. (a) Give three causes of Somali resistance to the British  rule in Kenya

                        during the 19th century?

  • The Somali were opposed to the division  of Somaliland into the British  and Italian spheres of  influence which separated  the clans
  • They were opposed to punitive expeditions sent against them by the British
  • The Somali people  being Muslims  were  opposed to being  controlled by  the British who were  Christians
  • The British attempted to stop the Somali raiding activities against their  neighbours
  • The Somali were against British Control of their pasture  land and  watering  points
  • The British wanted the Somali to drop their nomadic way  of life

(b) Explain six negative effects of British Colonial rule  on the people of Kenya

(i)        Colonial rule led to the loss of political independence

(ii)       Creation of reserves for Africans led to the emergence of Squatters

(iii)      It led to the introduction of forced labour among the Africans

(iv)      Led to the introduction of taxation on Kenyans

(v)       Creation of colonial boundaries split communities and affected their social cohesion.

(vi)      Africans in Kenya lost their land to Europeans settlers leading to landlessness

  • Colonial rule undermined African cultural practices
  • It destroyed traditional African political systems  replacing them  with appointed leaders
  • Introduces segregation/ colour bar which  created divisions among Kenyans

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mk)

  1. (a) Why did the colonial government deny the Africans the right to grow

                        cash crops in Kenya before 1954?

  • Africans were expected to provide labour on settler  forms
  • Europeans settler did  not want to compete  with Africans  in cash crop  growing
  • The settlers claimed that Africans did  not  have enough knowledge of growing cash crops as this would  lead to low  quality products
  • They feared that crops diseases would spread from African Farms to settler plantations.
  • Europeans setters claimed that African farmers would produce low quality crops due to inadequate resources

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 mk)

(b)       Explain six problems faced by Africans in urban centers during the colonial period in Kenya

(i)        There were inadequate housing facilities to meet the demand of the people

(ii)       The social services provided to the Africans were inadequate and of poor


(iii)      Increased population in urban centers led to serious water shortages

(iv)      Lack of planning of housing led to poor drainage and sanitation


  • Establishment of industries in urban centers led to pollution of the environment which affected the health of the inhabitants.
  • There were  many  unemployed people who got involved in social vices/ crimes
  • Overcrowding especially in slums/ shanties led to the  outbreak  of diseases
  • Inadequacy in housing led to the development  of shanties/ slums
  • Africans working  in urban centers received  low  wages which affected  their standard of living

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mk)

  1. (a) Give three reasons  for the coming of European Christian

                        Missionaries to Kenya in the 19th century.

  • To spread Christianity
  • Some came to spread western culture
  • They came to stop slave trade/ establish legitimate trade
  • To explore/ gain geographical knowledge of Kenya
  • To counter the spread of Islam

(Any 3 x 1= 3 mk)

(b)       Explain six factors that hindered the work of the early Christian missionaries in Kenya

(i)        Lack of knowledge of local languages made it difficult for missionaries to spread Christianity

(ii)       Tropical diseases led to ill- health/ death of the missionaries slowing down their work.

(iii)      Lack of transport and communication facilities limited their movement into the interior

(iv)      There was opposition from Muslims who were already established at the Kenyan Coast

(v)       Lack of security led to loss of their property

(vi)      Lack of support from the Africans due to missionaries interferences with

traditional African cultural practices

(vii)     They had inadequate funds to maintain/ sustain their activities

(viii)    They faced hostility from slave traders/ raiders because of condemning

the practice

(ix)      They were few in numbers compared to the vast population of  Africans

to be converted

(x)       Lack of geographical knowledge of the area which made them look for guides

  1. (a) Identify five elements of good  citizenship in Kenya
    • Respect for other people/their property
    • Obedience to the laws of the country
    • Participation in development projects
    • Participation in the democratic/ electoral processes
    • Being loyal/ patriotic to ones country
    • Practicing integrity/ honesty when performing duties
    • Reporting law- breakers to the authorities
    • Efficient use of  national resources

Any 5 x 1 = 5 mk)

(b)       Explain five ways in which the Harambee philosophy has promoted the development of education in Kenya since independence

(i)        Many education institution have been constructed using funds raised through harambee effort.  Thus enabling many children to attend school

(ii)       Many students have been assisted to pay school fees/  pursue further studies thus enabling the needy to go on with learning

(iii)      Physical facilities have been constructed/improved through harambee this enables learning in a conducive environment

(iv)      Teaching/ learning materials have been purchased/ donated to schools to improve the quality of Education

(v)       Additional staff/ workers in schools have been paid through harambee contributions by the parents to offsets the inadequacy.

(vi)      Through the Harambee spirit co- curricular activities have been supported by well wishers thus helping the learners to exploit their talents.

(a)       State five reasons that may lead to a presidential by – electron in Kenya

(i)        President’s election may be nullified by court due to electron offences

(ii)       The serving president may die while in power

(iii)      The president may resign

(iv)      If the president becomes physically/ mentally incapacitated

(v)       Parliament may pass a vote of no confidence in the president/ government

(vi)      If the serving president deserts/ defects from the party that sponsored her/ him to parliament

(vii)     If the serving president ceases to be a Kenyan citizen

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 mk)

(b)       Explain five functions of the speaker of the National Assembly in Kenya

(i)        Chairs parliamentary sessions during which he invites members of   parliament to contribute to motions/ debates

(ii)       He maintains order by enforcing  standing orders/ rules

(iii)      He gives permission to members who wish to be absent for eight consecutive sittings

(iv)      Swears in members of parliament after election before they can participate in proceedings

(v)       He is in charge of the general administration of the National Assembly

(vi)      He chairs the standing order committee which interprets the standing  orders of the National Assembly.

(vii)     He declares parliamentary seats vacant in order to pave way for general and by elections

(viii)    He receives and accepts letters of resignation from members of parliament who have left/ defected to other parties

  • He chairs the parliamentary service commission which looks after the welfare  of the members
  • He represents parliament in international for dealing with matters of common interest.

(Any 5 x 2 = 10 mk)

  1. (a) What is the importance of the rule of Law in Kenya?
    • It protects rights of individuals/ groups
    • It spells out of conduct/ responsibilities among people
    • It promotes fairness in the administration of justice/ equality before the law.
    • It creates peace and order in society
    • It gives direction  on what  is right or wrong

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 mk)

(b)       Describe six functions of the High Court of Kenya

(i)        To hear cases that cannot be heard by the lower courts

(ii)       It listens to appeals from the lower courts when the parties involved are

not satisfied.

(iii)      It correct/ amends irregularities in decisions made by lower courts

(iv)      It hears cases that carry death sentences/ involves large sums of money

(v)       It deals with cases involvement land/ succession disputes

  • It deals with disputes that take place outside Kenya’s territorial waters/ maritime
  • It hears appeals from decisions made by professional disciplinary tribunals  involving advocates of the high court and other members of the profession
  • It acts as a constitutional court  by  determining whether a case  brought  before  it is constitutional  or unconstitutional
  • It listens to appeals from special courts when the parties are not satisfied with the decisions made.

(Any 6 x 2 = 12 mk).






SECTION A (25 mks)


  1. Give the meaning of history

– The study of man’s past events/activities                                       1 x 1 = 1mk


  1. Identify one age-grade for elders among the Akamba.
  2. i) Junior elders / anake
  3. ii) Intermediate elders / medium Nthele

iii)             Full elders / Atumia ma Kivalo /Ithembo

  1. iv) Senior elders / Atumia ma Ithembo any 1 x 1 = 1 mar


  1. State the first settlement area of the Luo during their migration from Sudan.

– Pubungu/Pakwach    1 x 1 = 1 mk


  1. Name one early Christian Missionary who worked in Kenya.
  2. i) Johann Ludwig Krapf
  3. ii) Johann Rebman

iii) Jacob Erhardt                                                                                      any 1 x 1 = 1 mk


  1. State two characteristics of Independent Churches in Kenya during

the colonial period.

  1. i) They were formed/started by the Africans
  2. ii) They accommodated African cultural beliefs/values

iii) Africans held senior positions/they were led by the Africans

  1. iv) The churches worked closely with the African political Associations

any 2 x 1 = 2 mks


  1. Identify the constitutional change that increased the number of African members

 to the legislative council in Kenya in 1957.

– The Lennox – Body constitution                                                      1 x 1 = 1 mk


  1. Identify one Asian who took part in the struggle for independence in Kenya.
  2. i) M. Jevanjee
  3. ii) Pio Gama Pinto

iii) M.A. Desai

  1. iv) Makhan Singh any 1 x 1 = 1 mk


  1. Name one African political party whose leaders attended the second Lancaster

House Conference in 1962.

  1. i) Kenya African National Union (KANU)
  2. ii) Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU)                                      any 1 x 1 = 1 mk



  1. Identify Two Education Commissions appointed by the government of Kenya

to review the Education system since independence.

  1. i) The Kenya Education commission/Ominde Commission of 1964.
  2. ii) The National Committee on Education objectives and polices/Gachathi commission of 1976.

iii) The presidential working party on the second University/Mackay Commission of 1981.

  1. iv) The Kamunge Commission 1988
  2. v) David Koeche Commission Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks


  1. Give the main reason why the government of Kenya introduced the Constituency

Development Fund.

– To speed up development/uplift peoples living standards in the constituencies.(1 x 1 = 1 mk)


  1. State two ways in which the government has promoted the culture of the people

of Kenya since independence.

  1. i) Encouraging people to take part in traditional dances/music/festivals
  2. ii) Establishing/preserving cultural centres/sites

iii) Licensing vernacular radio stations which enhance culture.

  1. iv) Encouraging the production/mketing of traditional handworks/crafts
  2. v) Establishment of ministries of sports, gender and culture.               Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks


  1. Identify two ways in which the government has promoted the culture of the

people of Kenya since independence.

  1. i) One must be 18 years old and above.
  2. ii) A person should be a Kenyan citizen with an identity card.

iii) One must not have been convicted of any election offences or sentenced to imprisonment for a period of 12 months and above.

  1. iv) One must be of sound mind.                                                        Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks


  1. Give two special courts in Kenya.
  2. i) Kadhi’s courts
  3. ii) Military courts/criminal marital

iii) Juvenile courts/children’s courts

  1. iv) Industrial courts/special tribunals/rent restrictions/business premises tribunal, LSK Any 2 x 1 = 2 mk


  1. State two duties of the leader of Government Business in Parliament in Kenya.
  2. i) Second bills moved by ministers.
  3. ii) Chairing committee meetings on all procedural motions.

iii)             Regularly consulting with the leader of official opposition.

  1. iv) Is in charge of the government’s debating team
  2. v) Notifying the house on when to adjourn. Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks



  1. Identify two symbols of National Unity.
  2. i) The National Anthem
  3. ii) The Coat of Arms

iii)             The Constitution

  1. iv) The National Flag
  2. v) Parliament
  3. vi) The Presidency             Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks


  1. Give two reasons that can make a registered person lose citizenship in Kenya.
  2. i) If one is disroyal to the state.
  3. ii) If during war one trades/communicates with the enemy.

iii)       If one reveals the country’s secrets to another country.

  1. iv) If one is sentenced for a period of twelve months within five years from the date of registration.
  2. v) If one stays out of the country continuously for seven years without registering with the Kenyan embassy abroad.
  3. vi) If registration was obtained through fraud.               Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks


  1. Give one type of human rights.
  2. i) Economic rights
  3. ii) Political rights

iii) Social/cultural rights

  1. iv) Solidarity rights Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk




   SECTION B (45 mks)

  1. a) Give five reasons which influenced the migration of the plain Nilotes to Kenya during the pre-colonial period.
  2. i) They moved in search of pasture and water for their livestock.
  3. ii) Due to outbreak of disease/epidermics

iii)       Pressure/raids from other communities forced them to move to safer areas.

  1. iv) Family/clan disputes forced them to migrate
  2. v) There was over population/population pressure in their original homeland.
  3. vi) They moved due to drought/famine

vii) The spirit of adventure made them search for new lands.


  1. b) Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Maasai in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.
  2. i) They displaced some communities that they found in areas that they settled.
  3. ii) Their settlement led to increased population in the region.

iii) They intermarried with their neighbours. This strengthened their relations.

  1. iv) Some section of the Maasai (Kwavi) became cultivators/assimilated
  2. v) There was ethnic conflict due to cattle raids/land for settlement.
  3. vi) There was borrowing/exchange of cultural practices among the communities

vii) There was increased trade between the Maasai and their neighbours.

viii) They influenced the socio-political organization of the Nandi who created the institution of Orkoyoit similar to Oloibon of the Maasai. Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks




  1. a) Give three reasons why the early visitors came to the Kenyan Coast before 1500A.D.
  2. i) They wanted to participate in the trade/control the commercial activities along the coast.
  3. ii) Some came as political/religious refugees

iii) Some came as explorers/wanted to find out about the resources along the coast

  1. iv) They wanted to spread their religion.
  2. v) They wanted to establish settlements along the coast Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks


  1. b) Explain six factors that contributed to the development of trade between the Kenyan Coast and outside world by 1900.
  2. i) Availability of items of trade encouraged traders to come to the coast.
  3. ii) The high demand for goods/trade items from Kenyan coast by consumers in the outside world led to increased trade.

iii)  The existence of local trade among the Africans along the coast provided a base upon which Indian    Ocean trade developed.

  1. iv) The Monsoon winds facilitated the movement of vessels/ships to and from the coast thus enabling the merchants to take part in the trade.
  2. v) The Indian Ocean provided access to traders from Asia and Europe.
  3. vi) The relative peace/political stability provided conducive environment for trade.

vii) The availability of credit facilities from Indian Banyans/money lenders enabled many people to take part in trade.

viii) Existence of enterprising merchants at the coast/foreign lands promoted trading links enabled trade to flourish.

  1. ix) The natural harbours along the coast ensured safe docking of ships for loading and unloading of items of trade.
  2. x) Advancement in ship/boat building led to better sailing vessels thus increased trading activities to and from the coast. Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks


  1. 20. a) State three socio-economic reasons why Britain colonized Kenya in the 19th Century.
  2. i) To obtain raw materials for her industries.
  3. ii) To stop slave trade/establish legitimate trade.

iii)       To establish mket for her manufactured goods.

  1. iv) To protect her trading empire from other European powers.
  2. v) To protect Christian Missionaries who were already operating in Kenya.
  3. vi) To invest surplus capital in Kenya

vii) To impose their cultivation/culture.                               Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks



  1. b) Explain six factors that contributed to the formation of Political Associations in Kenya before 1939.
  2. i) Africans organized themselves to fight for the return of their land which had been alienated for Europeans settlers.
  3. ii) The association offered a forum for the Africans to demand representation in the Legco.

iii)The introduction of the Kipande system limited their movement which was resented by the Africans.

  1. iv) Introduction of taxation was oppressive because it made Africans work for Europeans against their
  2. v) They were meant to work for long hours and yet they received low wages.
  3. vi) Africans were against the introduced forced labour by colonial administrators.

vii) The prohibition of the Africans to grow cash crop denied them participation in economic development of their country.

viii) Racial discrimination practiced by the European created ill-feelings among the Africans.

  1. ix) The limited educational opportunities of the Africans made them to feel inferior.
  2. x) The desire of Africans to maintain their independence without foreign interferences.
  3. xi) The introduction of the destocking policy/undermining African culture. Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks


  1. a) State three ways in which the government of Kenya facilitated the acquisition of land for Africans after 1963.
  2. i) Resettling people in the irrigation schemes.
  3. ii) Encouraging people to form co-operative societies/land buying companies.

iii)       Opening up the former white highlands to willing buyers

  1. iv) Giving/providing loans to those who were willing to buy land.
  2. v) Consolidation/adjudication of land to enable farmers to maximize production.
  3. vi) Issuing of land title deeds to make ownership legal/lease land transfers. Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks


  1. b) Explain six challenges facing the agricultural sector in Kenya today.
  2. i) Poor infrastructure in some parts of the country has led to great losses of farm produce thus reducing earnings of farmers.
  3. ii) The unstable prices of agricultural commodities on the local/world mket has discouraged farmers.

iii) Various parts of the country have been hit by drought/famine thus forcing the government to provide relief food.

  1. iv) Farmers produce is often destroyed by pests after harvest leading to food shortages/poor storage.
  2. v) Poor technology/use of traditional methods has contributed to low yields.
  3. vi) Politically instigated ethnic clashes have discouraged farmers from carrying out immense farming due to insecurity.

vii) The population of Kenya has been growing faster than gains made in the agricultural sector.

viii) Corrupt government officials have grabbed/sold research land thereby affecting the operations of research institutions/mismanagement of funds for agricultural development.

  1. ix) Farming has become a costly venture for most farmers are not able to meet the high costs of farm inputs.
  2. x) Overproduction of similar agricultural products leads to wastage due to lack of buyers.
  3. xi) Shortage of agricultural extension officers has made it difficult for farmers to get advice on how to improve yields.

xii) Mismanagement of cooperatives has impoverished farmers.

xiii) Competition from COMESA/Industrialized nations has frustrated Kenyan farmers.


   SECTION C (30 mks)

  1. 22. a) Give the structure of the provincial administration in Kenya.
  2. i) The province is headed by a provincial commissioner.
  3. ii) The province is divided into districts each headed by a District Commissioner.

iii)           The District is sub-divided into divisions each headed by a District Officer/Divisional officer.

  1. iv) The Division is divided into locations each headed by a Chief
  2. v) The location is then divided into sub-locations each headed by an Assistant chief. 5 x 1 = 5 mks


  1. b) Describe five functions of the president of the Republic of Kenya.
  2. i) Being the head of state, the president represents the people locally and internationally.
  3. ii) Determines the parliamentary life/calendar by opening/prologuing/dissolving it.

iii)  Appoints the cabinet ministers/senior civil servants.

  1. iv) Chairs cabinet meetings where matters of national importance/policies are made.
  2. v) Appoints senior officers in the armed forces in his/her capacity as commander-in-chief of the armed
  3. vi) Leads the people of Kenya during national celebrations/important national functions.

vii)  Grants freedom/pardons a convicted person unconditionally.

viii) Assents the bills passed by the National Assembly.

  1. ix) Attends/participates in parliamentary proceedings.
  2. x) Receives/hosts heads/envoys of foreign countries who visit Kenya.
  3. xi) Can declare a state of emergency for a maximum of 14 days when the security of the country is

xii)  Confers honours on people who have rendered distinguished service.

xiii) Ensures that the constitution is safe guarded so that Kenyans enjoy their rights.


  1. a) Give three reasons why the constitution is important in Kenya.
  2. i) It defines the structure/outlines the functions and powers of various branches of government.
  3. ii) It clearly states the rights/responsibilities of individuals.

iii) It spells out the responsibilities of those in power/limits their authority/promotes good governance.

  1. iv) It ensures equality of all Kenyans.
  2. v) It is the basis of all legislation in the country. Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks


  1. b) Explain six factors that may undermine the administration of justice in Kenya.
  2. i) Lack of impartiality during trials may lead to unfair judgement.
  3. ii) Censoring judges publicly on decisions made in court may influence the final judgement/political interference.

iii) Corrupt practices in courts of law may lead to unfair/oppressive decisions.

  1. iv) Confining suspects in remand for longer periods without presenting then to a court of law for prosecutions.
  2. v) Failure to protect the legal rights of the ordinary people when they conflict with the rich and powerful.
  3. vi) Lack of commitment/inability by the police to carry out thorough investigations on suspected criminal activities.

vii) The inability of ordinary people to meet the costs of prolonged court cases.

viii) Lack of knowledge regarding legal procedures hence find themselves implicated unfairly.

  1. ix) Failure by the legal officers to attend to cases promptly due to pressure of work/inadequate legal officers to handle the many cases.
  2. x) Use of outdated colonial laws which do not address the current/contemporary issues/lack of modern technology.
  3. xi) Lack of one common law derails the effective administration of justice.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks


  1. a) Identify five stages in the preparation of the national budget.
  2. i) Each government ministry prepares its estimates.
  3. ii) The Ministries are forwarded to the ministry of finance.

iii) The Ministry of Finance compiles the estimates into a single budget/the proposed budget.

  1. iv) The proposed/compiled budget is discussed by the cabinet.
  2. v) The government announces the budget day.
  3. vi) The Minister of Finance presents/reads the budget before parliament.

vii) Parliament discusses/debates/approves the budget.       Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks




  1. b) Explain why it is important for the government to prepare the national budget annually.
  2. i) It enables the government to identify sources of revenue that will be required to meet its financial obligations.
  3. ii) It enables the government to explain to the public that tax structure/set the tax levels.

iii) It ensures that there is a balance in the country’s revenue and expenditure hence avoiding budget deficit.

  1. iv) The government is able to identify ways of spending without any wastage.
  2. v) Parliament is able to monitor public resource utilization through its watchdog committees.
  3. vi) It enables the government to identify/prioritize the development projects to finance in the coming year.

vii) The government is able to assess its performance in the previous year and improve where necessary.

viii) The government is able to set aside some funds to be used in case of emergencies in the course of the financial year.

  1. ix) The budget provides useful information to individuals/organizations that may be interested in keeping track of government expenditure/enhances accountability and transparency in the eyes of the public.
  2. x) The government is able to win confidence among local and international development partners/donors through its plans and policies spelt out in the budget.
  3. xi) Ensure equitable share of resources and balanced development. Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks





SECTION A (25 mks)


1          Give two unwritten sources of information on History and Government.   (2 mks)

  1. Oral traditions/oral source
  2. Archaeology/paleontology
  • Genetics
  1. Linguistics
  2. Anthropology

Any 2×1 = 2 mks

2          What was the main reason for the migration of the Eastern Bantu from Shugwaya during

Pre-colonial period.                                                                                        (1 mk)

  1. Due to attacks by the Galla

1×1=1 mk

3       Give two reasons why Kenyan Communities fought against each other

during the pre-Colonial period.                                                                                  (2 mks)

  1. Competition for land for cultivation/settlement.
  2. Competition for water/pasture.
  • To demonstrate their military power.
  1. To raid for cattle.

Any 2×1=2 mks

4          Identify the two main items of trade from the interior of Kenya during the long distance

Trade.                                                                                                             (2 mks)

  1. Ivory
  2. Slaves

5          Identify two contributions made by the early Christian Missionaries in the field of

Education in Kenya.                                                                                      (2 mks)

  1. They set up schools/encouraged Africans to go to school.
  2. They taught Africans how to read/write.
  • They taught Africans vocational Skills.
  1. They translated the Bible into African Languges
  2. They wrote books/dictionary Any 2×1 = 2 mks


6          Give the meaning of the term ‘national integration’                                    (1 mk)

  1. It is the process of bringing together people of diverse backgrounds in a country.

1×1=1 mk

7          What constitutional amendment made Kenya return to a multi-party state?  (1 mk)

  1. Repeal of section 2A of the constitution in 1991.

1×1=1 mk

8          Name the document which contains the Rights of the Child in Kenya.       (1 mk)

  1. The Children’s Act of 2001

9          Identify two economic benefits of the Kenya-Uganda railway during the colonial period.

(2 mks)

  1. It facilitated the transportation of goods/services.
  2. It led to the development of urban centres.
  • It facilitated the movement of traders/promoted trade.
  1. It opened up the interior for economic development e.g Plantation Agri & Industry
  2. It led to the creation of employment opportunities.
  3. It led to the development of other forms of transport & communication e.g roads &telecommunication
  • It was the major source of revenue for colonial Authority

10        Give two ways through which the white settlers acquired land in Kenya during the

Colonial period.                                                                                             (2 mks)

  1. The colonial government provided land to the settlers.
  2. The white settlers bought land from the colonial government.
  • The colonial government passed land legislations that encouraged white settlers to own land.

Any 2×1=2 mks


11        State two problems faced by trade union movement during the colonial period in

Kenya.                                                                                                             (2 mks)

  1. It had insufficient funds to run its activities.
  2. The colonial government harassed its leaders.
  • Constant wrangling among the leaders which weakened the movement/poor leadership.
  1. Most people did not support trade unions due to ignorance.

Any 2×1 =2 mks



12        State one change introduced by the Lyttleton constitution of 1954 that benefitted the

Africans in the struggle for independence.                                                    (1 mk)

  1. It led to the establishment of a multi-racial council of ministers to replace the Governor’s executive council.
  2. The ban on political organizations was lifted/allowed political organizations to operate at district level.

1×1 = 1 mk


13        What was the main contribution of Thomas Joseph Mboya to the History of Kenya?

  1. He led/organized the trade union movement.

1×1 = 1 mk


14        State the main functions of parliament in Kenya.                                        (1 mk)

  1. To make laws

1×1 =1 mk


15        Give one member of the AEMO at its inception in 1957.                            (1 mk)

  1. Daniel Arap Moi
  2. Masinde muliro
  • Lawrence Oguda
  1. James muimi
  2. Tom Mboya
  3. Ronald Ngala
  • Bernard Mate
  • Oginga Odinga

Any 1×1=1 mk


16        Name the education commission that recommended the introduction of 8.4.4 education

System in Kenya.                                                                                           (1 mk)

  1. Mackay Report/Commission. 1×1 = 1 mk


17        Give two external sources of Government revenue in Kenya.                      (2 mks)

  1. Loans.
  2. Grants.
  • Donations. Any 2×1 = 2 mks


SECTION B (45 mks)

18        (a)       State five economic activities of the Borana during the pre-colonial period.

(5 mks)

  1. They participated in trade.
  2. They kept livestock.
  • They hunted wild animals.
  1. They were gathers.
  2. They practiced crafts.
  3. They practiced fishing.
  • They made iron tools.
  • They grew food crops.

Any 5 mks x 1= 5 mks


(b)       Describe the social organization of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period.

(10 mks)

  1. The lowest social unit was the family which comprised of the father, his wife/wives and children.
  2. Several related families formed a clan.
  • The Maasai were organized into age groups age sets which were made up of people who were circumcised at the same period.
  1. There was a warrior class whose duty was to defend the community/conduct raids.
  2. The Maasai believed in the existence of a supreme God Enkai, who was the creator of the universe.
  3. There was a religious leader, Laibon who mediated between the community and Enkai.
  • They offered sacrifices to God in special places/celebrated the century that mk graduation of Martin
  • They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits whom they revered.

Any 5 points x2 = 10 mks





19        (a)       State three reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan Coast in the

15th Century.

  1. They wanted to find a sea route to India.
  2. They wanted to spread Christianity/reduce the Muslim influence.
  • They wanted to take part in the Coastal trade.
  1. To control strategic points on the East-African Coast from other European rivals/to act as a supply base for their sailing vessels.
  2. Due to desire for exploration/adventure.

Any 3×1 = 3 mks


(b)       Explain six effects of the Portuguese rule on the East African Coast.    (12 mks)

  1. The Portuguese built fort Jesus for defence purpose which later became a tourist attraction.
  2. Their harsh and cruel manner of suppressing rebellions led to loss of lives.
  • They introduced new food crops which are staple foods for many Kenyans.
  1. Constant rebellions against the Portuguese rule interfered with the trading activities leading to its decline.
  2. The coastal towns that resisted Portuguese rule were destroyed and left in ruins.
  3. They educated the coastal people on how to use animal manure in farming and thus increasing crop yields.
  • Some words borrowed from Portuguese language were used to enrich Kiswaili language.
  • The Portuguese imposed heavy taxation which impoverished the coastal people.
  1. They fostered good relation between the E.A and India

Any 6×2 = 12 mks


20        (a)       Identify three methods used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya.

(3 mks)

  1. Signing treaties between colonial agents and Africans rulers/collaboration.
  2. Use of military attacks against unfriendly communities/ use of force
  • Establishing administrative stations/operational basis.
  1. Offering gifts to friendly chiefs/treachery.
  2. Use of missionaries to pacify Africans through preaching.

Any 3×1=3 mks


(b)       Explain six results of the Nandi resistance against British occupation.  (12 mks)

  1. The land belonging to the Nandi was alienated for white settlement.
  2. The Nandi lost their independence as the British established their rule.
  • The Nandi were resettled in reserves where they could not carry out their farming activities.
  1. They were forced to live as squatters on European farms where they provided cheap labour.
  2. There was massive loss of life as the British forces raided/carried our punitive expeditions.
  3. The Nandi lost property which was either destroyed or confiscated by the British.
  • The Nandi lost their military superiority in the region as they were subdue by the British.
  • The Nandi warriors were conscripted into the colonial security forces.

Any 6×2 = 12 mks




21        (a)       State five demands made by the East African Association (EAA) to the British

Colonial Government in Kenya.                                                        (5 mks)

  1. They demanded for the return of alienated land.
  2. They wanted the colonial government to abolish hut/poll tax.
  • They demanded for the abolition of the Kipande.
  1. They demanded for better working and living conditions.
  2. They demanded that elections to the legislative council be on a common roll.
  3. They demanded for the abolition of forced labour.
  • They demanded for more education for Africans.
  • They demanded an end to compulsory destocking.
  1. They demanded for the revocation of colonial status

Any 5×1 = 5 mks


(b)       Explain five factors that promoted the rise of African nationalism in Kenya after

1954                                                                                                    (10 mrks)

  1. Acquisistion of Western Education by many Africans enabled them to understand political developments at international level and forcefully demanded for independence.
  2. The experiences of the ex-soldiers in the second world war made them realize that Europeans were not superior hence the demand for self rule.
  • The realization by Britain that colonies were expensive to administer hence the need to grant them self rule. The rise of power of the British labour per
  1. The granting of independence to India in 1947 inspired Africans to demand for political independence.
  2. The support given by pan-Africansists in demanding for political independence gave Africans confidence to press for political freedom.
  3. The decolonization policy by the United Nations inspired African nationalists to press on for independence.
  • The failure by the colonial government to reward the ex-world war II soldiers increased the agitation for independence.
  • Signing of Atlantic charts in 1941

Any 5×2 = 10 mks


SECTION C (30 mks)


22        (a)       State three circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be denied the right

To life.                                                                                                (3 mks)

  1. When defending one self/property
  2. When effecting a lawful arrest
  • When preventing escape of a lawfully detailed person
  1. When preventing a person from committing a crime/folony
  2. In a situation of war
  3. When suppressing a riot/rebellion/mutiny

Any 3×1 = 3 mks




(b)       Explain six Civic responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen.                                (12 mks)

  1. A responsible citizen pays tax to enable the government meet its financial obligation
  2. To participate in community development activities to improve the welfare of people in the community.
  • To participate in the democratic process by electing leaders/being elected to ensure good governance.
  1. To obey laws so as to enhance peace in the society.
  2. Takes care of the environment in order to promote healthy living.
  3. Prevents/fights corruption to promote proper utilization of resources by all.
  • Promote/protects the rights and freedom of all people in society for harmonious co-existence.
  • Promotes the rule of law by reporting wrong doers/law breakers to the police.
  1. To participate in National debates/Barazas.

Any 6×2 =12 mks




23        (a)Give three reasons why general elections are important in Kenya.        (3 mks)

  1. They provide Kenyans with an opportunity to choose political leaders.
  2. They enable Kenyans to exercise their democratic rights.
  • They offer alternative ideas of running the government through different political parties manifestos.
  1. It is a constitutional requirement.
  2. They make elected leaders/prospective leaders work hard to ensure that they are reelected/ elected.

Any 3×1 =3 mks


(b)       Explain six functions of the body in charge of elections in Kenya.  (12 mks)

  1. To maintain and revise the voters’ register to ensure it is up to date.
  2. To prepare, distribute and ensure safety of election materials/pooling stations.
  • To conduct voter education in the country in order to prepare citizen for the voting exercise.
  1. To conduct and supervise elections so as to endure they are free and fair.
  2. To conduct language proficiency tests for candidates interested in for different posts before nomination is carried out.
  3. To announce and provide a time-table to be followed during the election period.
  • To receive nomination papers from the candidates cleared to vie by the political parties.
  • To announce the results and declare the winners for the respective seats.


24        (a)       Identify three social functions of local authorities.                          (3 mks)

  1. They issue trade licenses.
  2. They provide mket areas.
  • They provide employment opportunities.
  1. They approve building plans/provision of housing services.
  2. They impose cess/other levies.
  3. Provision of education services e.g. ministry of primary schools
  • Provision of health/sanitation services e.g.
  • Provision of security and fire bridge services

Any 3×1 = 3 mks


(b)       Explain six challenges facing local authorities in Kenya.    (12 mks)

  1. Most local authorities have inadequate funds hence not able to provide quality services.
  2. Increased population has led to congestion in urban centres hence overstretching the social amenities.
  • Corruption/mismanagement of funds by some officers has made if difficult for the local authorities to pay its employees and provide quality services.
  1. Some local authorities are too small to be able to sustain themselves.
  2. Influential politicians interfere with the running of the local authorities hence making it difficult for them to operate efficiently. Lack of authority from central Government.
  3. Increased crime rate has led to vandalization of properties belonging to local authorities hence leading to heavy losses.
  • The presence of street families/children has contributed to insecurity/put strain on provision of social services.
  • Slums have mushroomed which have interfered with proper planning leading to poor service delivery/poverty eradication.
  1. Poor disposal of waste has resulted to environment degradation leading to outbreaks of diseases/epidemics.
  2. Shortage of quality material/shortage of personnel.
  3. Traffic congestion.




























  1. Give two limitations of using anthropology as a source of information on History and

Government.                                                                                                   (2 mks)

(i) It is time consuming

(ii) It is an expensive method

(iii) Information collected may be inaccurate/ distorted

(iv)  Information  collected  may be biased.

Any 2×1=2 mks

  1. Identify one community in Kenya which belongs to the southern Cushitic group.        (1mk)

(i) Dehallo/ Dahallo/ Dahalo/ Sanye

Any 1×1 = 1 mk

  1. Name two Bantu groups in Kenya which settled in Mount Elgon area before migrating to their present homeland.  (2 mks)

(i) Abaluhya

(ii) Abagusii

(iii) Abakuria

Any 2 xl = 2 mks

  1. State two religious functions performed by the Oloiboni of the Maasai during the

pre-colonial period                                                                                         (2 mks)

(i) He foretold the future/consulted God.

(ii) He presided over religious ceremonies/activities

(iii)    He offered prayers on behalf of the community

(iv)     He blessed warriors before going to war.

Any 2 x 1=2 mks

  1. Give two factors that enabled the early visitors to come to the Kenyan coast by 1500 A.D (2 mks)

(i) Existence of nationalharbours

(ii) Accessibility of the East African coast

(iii) Existence of monsoon/trade winds

(iv) Knowledge of boat making/sailing ship/dhows

Any 2×1=2 mks

  1. Name one Arab family which ruled the Kenyan coast on behalf of Oman. (1 mk)

(i) Mazrui

(ii) Nabahan

(iii) Buraidi

Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Name the African Community that organized the long distance trade in Kenya during       the  pre-colonial period.                                                                  (1 mk)

          (i) TheAkamba                                                                                   lxl = 1 mk


  1. Give the main reason why a Kenyan citizen should obey the law. (1 mk)

To keep peace.                                                                                    lxl = 1 mk


9.Give two ways in which education has promoted national unity in Kenya.          (2 mks)

  1. i) Common curriculum/ syllabus is used

(ii)  Learners from different schools interact through co-curricular activities

(iii) Learners from different comnrunities background attend the same schools

(iv) Learners in all public schools sit for a common national examination.

(v) Common medium of commumcation/English/Kiswahili is used in schools.

Any 2×1=2 mks

  1. State two advantages of representative democracy . (2 mks)

(i) People elect leaders of their own choice

(ii) Supreme power is vested in the people

(iii) It is easy to make decision

(iv) Elected leaders are accountable to the people/ people are able to air their                                       grievances

Any 2×1=2 mks

11      Give the main reason why the colonial government created African reserves in    Kenya.                                                                                                             (1mk)

          (i) To create room for European farming/ settlement.                      Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. What was the main reason for the formation of Kenya African Democratic Union in 1960                                                                                                    (1 mk)

(i) To protect the rights/interests of the minority groups.    1×1=1 mk

  1. Name the administrative head of the Kenya Parliament (1 mk)

(i) The clerk                                                                                     (1×1 = 1 mk)

14      State the main function of the prisons department in Kenya.          (1 mk)

(i) It reforms/rehabilitates convicts.                                                  1×1 = 1 mk

  1. Give the main reason why the government of Kenya introduced Free Primary           Education in   2003.                                                                           (1 mk)

(i)To enable more people access education.

(1×1 = 1 mk)

  1. State two ways in which government of Kenya ensures effective utilization of public funds.                                                                                                            (2 mks)

(i)  It budgets for the funds /finance

(ii) It undertakes regular auditing of funds.

(iii) It investigates /prosecutes corrupt officers.

(iv) It procures goods/services through open tendering System

          (v) Parliament approves/monitors public funds                    Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Give two disadvantages of Kenya’s reliance on foreign aid as a source of revenue.

(2 mks)

(i) It is given with conditions.

(ii) It attracts high interest rates.

(iii) It creates donor dependency syndrome/debt crisis

(iv) It limits the choice of trading partners.

(v) It delays the implementation of projects.Any 2×1=2 mks



  1. a) State five causes of the Nandi resistance against the British invasion. (5 mks)  (i)They wanted to safeguard  their independence

(ii) They were proud people who disliked interference by strangers

(iii) Had successfully raided /fought their neighbours/intruders in the past

(iv) They disliked the whiteman’s/European skin colour/dressing.

(v) They did not want to lose their land.

(vi) They fought to avert the fulfillment of Kimnyole/Orkoiyors prophecy

(vii)  They had an able leader who inspired them to fight/resist.

Any 5 x 1= 5 mks

(b)      Explain five effects of the Maasai collaboration with the British in the early 20th            Century.                                                                                                          (10 mks)

(i) Lenana was made a paramount chief of the Maasai because of his cooperation.

(ii) They lost land which was taken up by the British for farming/settlement.

(iii) They were rewarded with material wealth/granted favoured status due to their      cooperations.

(iv) They lost their independence/were manipulated as their land became a

British protectorate.

(v) It led to the division/separation between those for/against collaboration thereby         weakening them further.

(vi) They were hired as mercenaries to assist the British in subduing/suppressing                     communities that were resisting establishment of colonial rule.

(vii) It led to the eviction/displacement of the Maasai thereby causing untold suffering /loss of livelihood.

(viii) It led to thedisruption of their economic structure thereby causing loss of        wealth.                                                                                    Any 5×2=10 mks


19.(a) State five ways in which the construction of the Kenya Uganda Railway promoted         economic development in Kenya during the colonial period                        (5mks)

(i) It hastened transportation of goods/services.

(ii) It promoted the growth of trade/commercial activities.

(iii) It opened the interior for better farming/agriculture.

(iv) It led to the growth of industries/mining.

(v) It led to the growth/development of urban centres.

(vi) It generated revenue to trie colonial government. A

(vii) It created employment

(viii) It led to the development of other means of transport and communication eg                       trade.                                                                           Any 5 x 1=5 mks

(b)     Explain five problems encountered during the construction of the Kenya Uganda-     Railway.                                                                                                          (10 mks)

(i) The harsh climate created difficult working environment thus slowing down the       work.

(ii) There was inadequate labour which led to importation of workers from India.

(iii) The workers were attacked by tropical diseases/pests leading to their                           ineffectiveness/death.

(iv) The terrain was poor/difficulty thus slowing down the constructions work.

(v) Some communities attacked the workers/stole equipments thereby delaying the      construction.

(vi) They were attacked by wild-animals/man-eaters of Tsavo thus leading to deaths of some workers.

(vii) The transportation of some constructions materials was difficult due to

their bulkiness.

(viii) There was irregular/delays in the supply of construction materials/equipment     which slowed down the work.

(ix) There was inadequate supply of essential/basic commodities which made life                     unbearable                                                                          Any 5 x 2=10 mks


20 (a)            Give five grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association which were presented by    JomoKenyatta to the Colonial Secretary in 1929.                             (5 mks)

(i) Land alienation.

(ii) Taxation of Africans.

(iii) Lack of African representation of Legco

(iv) Lack of quality/poor education for Africans.

(v) Release of Harry Thuku.

(vi) Abolition of forced labour

(vii)    Abolition of Kipande system

Any 5 x I = 5 mks


(b)     Describe five roles played by Thomas Joseph Mbo’ya in the development of trade

Unionmovement in Kenya.                                                                          (10 mks)

(i) He was instrumental in the formation of trade union movement.

(ii) He served as a leader in trade union organizations both locally and internationally. :          (iii) He organized protests/ demonstrations against the arrest and harassment of trade

union members/workers.

(iv) He liaised with international trade union organizations where he gained knowledge/experience of running trade unions.

(v) He solicited for funds to finance the activities of.tradeUnion movement in Kenya.

(vi) He organized trade union courses/ seminars in various parts of the country to                   educate the workers/leaders.

(vii) He agitated for better terms/conditions for workers.

(viii) He attended courses on industrial relations abroad where he gained knowledgeonlabour relations                                            Any 5×2= 10 mks


21 (a)State five ways in which the government of Kenya has improved the health of its                       citizens since independence.                                                         (5 mks)

(i) It has established/created the Ministry of Health.

(ii) It has established hospitals/clinics/dispensaries.

(iii) It has encouraged NGOs/religious organizations/individuals to provide health services.

(iv) It has established medical training institutions.


(v) It has recognized the use of herbal medicine.

(vi) It has established National Health Insurance Fund

(vii)It has established Medical Research Institutes.

(viii)It has employed health workers.

(ix) It has subsidized the cost of healthcare/ free medical services.

(x ) It educates people on health matters.

Any 5×1=5 mks

(b)      Explain five factors which have undermined the provision of health services by the

government of Kenya.                                                                        (10 mks)

(i) High population growth rate has limited government ability to finance health                 services.

(ii) High poverty levels among the people has hampered access to medical services   due to the cost involved.

(iii) Lack of enough medical personnel has compromised the quality of the services    provided.

(iv)  Lack of adequate funds to provide enough facilities has lowered the quality of         services  provided/ lack adequate medical equipment.

(v)The continued pollution of the environment has led to increased ailments              thereby jeopardizing the government’sefforts.

(vi)Malnutrition/poor diet has made it. difficult for the government to maintain good

health among the people.

(vii)The increased number of terminal diseases has led tothe diversion of resources         fromthe core health services

(viii) Unforeseen high rate of accidents/injuries has strained the scarce resources.

(ix) Traditional/cultural practices have frustrated the government’s effort to provide                 health care.

(x) Corruption  in the health sector has compromised delivery of services.


SECTION C: (30 mks)


22 (a)            Give three circumstances in which one’s right to life may be taken away. (3 mks)

(i) When sentenced to death bv a court of law.

(ii)In self-defence – somebody might kill another in the process/defending ones                        property

(iii) When the life of a law enforcing office is endangered

(iv) When the health/ life of a mother/ pregnant woman is in danger

(v) During the war

(vi) When preventing escape of lawfully detained person

vii) When preventing a person from committing a crime/ felony

viii) When suppressing a riot/ rebellion/ mutiny.


  1. Explain six reasons why it is important to respect human rights. (12 mks)

(i) It promotes human dignity as the rights of the people are observed

(ii) It promotes unity among the people by encouraging harmonious co-existence.

(iii) It promotes the rule of law by enhancing justice/good governance in society/                            gives citizens control in decision making organs of the state.

(iv) It promotes respect for other people’s cultures by appreciating cultural diversity.

(v) It promotes tolerance by accommodating other  people’s views/ideas

(vi) It promotes democracy as other people’s opinions/views are respected.

(vii)It promotes international relations by observing conventions/ treaties on human      rights.

(viii)   It promotes development by creating an enabling/conduciveenvironment.

(ix) It justifies special treatment of minorities/disadvantaged group

(x) It provides guidance to state organs


23 a)  Give the composition of the Judicial Service Commission in Kenya. (5 mks)

(i) The Chief Justice.

(ii) One supreme court judge

(iii) One court of appeal judge

(iv) One high court judge and one magistrate

(v) The Attorney General

(vi) Two advocates, one a woman and one a man

(vii) A nominee of the public service commission

(viii)   One man and one woman to represent the public

(ix) Chief Registrar of the judiciary                                                  (any 5×1=5mks)


  1. b) Describe five ways through which independence of the judiciary is guaranteed in

                                                                                                                                  (10 mks)

(i) It is established by the constitution as an arm of the national government.

(ii) Its authority is guided/controlled by the constitution when carrying out its           mandate.

(iii) It draws its expenses directly from the Judges Consolidated Fund in order

to ensure independence.

(iv) Judges of the superior courts have security of tenure of office/ can only be         dismissed m

(v) Members of the judiciary are not held accountable to their actions/decision if they are

taken in the best interest of dispensing justice.

(vi) The judges/magistrates swear the oath of allegiance to the constitution

(vii) Remuneration/benefits given to judges cannot be varied in such a way as

to   disadvantage them

(viii) The appointment of magistrates is done by the Judicial Service Commission in    order to guarantee its independence.

(Any 5 x2 = 10mks)


  1. a) Name three categories of the Kenya Defence forces.
  2. i) The Kenya Army
  3. ii) The Kenya Air force

iii) The Kenya Navy





  1. b) Explain six challenges faced by the Kenya Police Service in the course of discharging             their


  1. i) Lack of support/negative altitude from the members of the public who       refuse/withhold useful information
  2. ii) Corruption among some officers renders them ineffective in discharging their duties

iii) Inadequate transport facilities hampers their movement thereby making it difficult for   them to respond to emergencies.

  1. iv) Sophisticated weapons used by criminals threatens/endagers police officers’ lives.
  2. v) Inadequate modern communication equipment makes it difficult for them to relay/pass confidential information.
  3. vi) Interference by politicians/members of the public demoralizes/frustrates their efforts

vii) Betrayal by some officers who collude with the criminals to break the law/subvert          justice.

viii) Inadequate training of the officers renders them incompetent in discharging their            duties

  1. ix) Increased acts of terrorism/crime
  2. x) Poor working and living conditions e.g. Poor housing/low salaries.



























4.8.1 History & Government Paper 1 (311/1)




  1. State two ways in which the study of History and Government promotes a sense of patriotism

in the learner.          (2 mks)

(i) It enables one to acquire a positive attitude towards the country.

(ii) It enables one to be a responsible citizen.

(iii) It enables one to become loyal to his/her country.

(iv) It helps one to develop positive values.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks

  1. Name the community in Kenya that belongs to the Southern Cushites. (1 mk)

– the Dahallo (Sanye)                                                                             1 x 1 = 1 mk


  1. State two political functions of the Oloibon among the Maasai during the 19th century.

(2 mks)

(i) He administered the Maasai land/acted as unifying factor.

(ii) He settled disputes.

(iii) He declared war against his enemies/Adviced and blessed worriors.

(iv) Advised the Council of Elders.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks

  1. Give two ways through which knowledge in marine technology facilitated the coming of the

early visitors to the Kenya Coast.                                                              (2 mks)

(i) It enabled them to use the compass to sail.

(ii) It facilitated the construction/use of boats.

(iii) It enabled them to develop/apply the skills of map reading.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks


  1. Identify the town that was established by missionaries in Kenya as a centre for freed slaves

during the 19th century.                                                                              (1 mk)

– Freetown                                                                                             1 x 1 = 1 mk


  1. State two ways in which the National Accord and Reconciliation Act, 2008 affected the com

position of the Government in Kenya.                                                                   (2 mks)

(i) It created a coalition government.

(ii) It created the office/position of the Prime Minister.

(iii) It created the offices/positions of the two deputy prime ministers.

(iv) It increased the number of ministers/cabinet ministers.

Any 2 x 1 – 2 mks


  1. Give two reasons why the British used the Imperial British East African Company (IBEA) to

administer its possessions in Kenya.                                                                     (2 mks)

(i) It was familiar with the area.

(ii) They lacked a clear policy on the administration of colonial possessions.

(iii) They lacked enough personnel.

(iv) They lacked sufficient funds/inadequate funds.

Any 2 x 1- 2 mks

  1. Identify two ways in which the results of the collaboration of the Maasai with the British was

similar to that of the Wanga.                                                                                 (2 mks)

(i) The British recognized their leaders.

(ii) Both communities lost their independence.

(iii) The people of both communities were hired as mercenaries.

(iv) Both communities got material gains/rewards.               Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks

  1. Give one way in which the construction of the Uganda railway speeded up the colonization

of Kenya.                                                                                                    (1 mk)

(i) It enhanced the transportation of troops/administration.

(ii) It open up the country to European settlers.

(iii) It led to forceful displacement/loss of land by some communities.

Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk


  1. Give the main political contribution of Christian missionaries in Kenya during the struggle for

independence upto 1939.                                                                          (1 mk)

– They represented the Africans in the Legislative Council (LegCo).


  1. Name the first African to be appointed a minister in Kenya by the colonial government.

– B. A. Ohanga                                                                                     1 x 1 = 1 mk


  1. State the main result of the Lyttleton constitutional amendment of 1954. (1 mk)

– It allowed for the formation of Multi-racial government/society.

1 x 1 = 1 mk


  1. Identify the leader who stepped down as the president of Kenya African Union for Jomo

Kenyatta.                                                                                                               (1 mk)

– James Gichuru                                                                                               (1 mk)


  1. State two ways in which the Harambee spirit promotes national unity in Kenya. (2 mks)

(i) It encourages people to work together.

(ii) It promotes cooperation.

(iii) It promotes equity in the distribution of resources.

(iv) It enhances interaction of the people.

(v) It promotes patriotism.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks

  1. State two ways through which the Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies in Kenya

benefit their members.                                                                                         (2 mks)

(i) They give loans/credit facilities.

(ii) They provide banking facilities/saving facilities.

(iii) They provide benevolent/insurance services.

(iv) They invest on behalf of members.

(v) They create employment.

(vi) They educate members on financial management/investment.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks


  1. State one way through which the opposition political parties in Kenya check on the

Government excesses.         (1 mk)

(i) They point out the mistakes made by the government.

(ii) They point out misuse of public resources.

1 x 1 = 1 mk


  1. Give the main challenge facing Free Primary Education Programme in Kenya since its

introduction in 2003.         (1 mk)

– Over enrollment of the pupils

1 x 1 = 1 mk


                                               SECTION B – (45 mks)


  1. (a) Give five reasons for the migration of the Mijikenda from Shungwaya during the pre-

colonial period.        (5 mks)

(i) Due to attacks by the Oromo/Cushitic speakers.

(ii) Due to increased population.

(iii) Due to internal conflicts/family/clan feuds.

(iv) In search for land for cultivation.

(v) Due to drought/famine.

(vi) Due to outbreak of diseases/epidemics.

(vii) Due to love for adventure.                                                        Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks


(b) Explain five social effects of the migration and settlement of the Mijikenda in their

present homeland.        (10 mks)

(i) They intermarried with other groups thereby strengthening relationships.

(ii) There was cultural exchange due to their interaction with other people/


(iii) There was an increase in population in the areas where they settled.

(iv) There were inter-community conflicts/wars in the areas they settled.

(v) It caused redistribution of people in the areas they settled leading to further


(vi) Some were converted to Islam due to their interaction with Arabs.

(vii) It led to the establishment of Kaya/villages which were fortified in order to

protect themselves against external attacks.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks


19 (a) State five factors which influenced the Akamba to participate in the long distance trade.

(5 mks)

(i) The central/strategic location of the community between the coast and the


(ii) There existed items of trade.

(iii) The existence of merchants/leaders/entrepreneurs.

(iv) There existed trade routes between the coast and the interior.

(v) There existed mkets for trade goods.

(vi) The establishment of trade links with their neighbours/experience.

(vii) There was demand for goods.

(viii) Drought/unreliable rainfall experienced in their area/poor soils.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks

(b) Describe five effects of the long distance trade on the people of Kenya. (10 mks)

(i) It let the settling of people in urban centres that developed along trade routes.

(ii) It led to the emergence of a class of wealthy people along the coast/in the

interior of Kenya/emergence of powerful chiefs & kingdoms.

(iii) It led to acquisition of foreign/new goods through trade/traditional industries.

(iv) People acquired /cultivated new crops leading to increased food production.

(v) Some people were converted into Islam by Muslim traders.

(vi) People were introduced to money economy thereby making transactions easy.

(vii) African slave labour led to the development of plantation agriculture along the


(viii) There was depopulation as many Africans were captured/sold as slaves.

(ix) It caused untold suffering/misery as people were raided/captured as slaves.

(x) It opened up the interior leading to colonization.

(xi) The trade routes later developed into roads and highways.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks

  1. (a) Give five factors that influenced the location of urban centres in Kenya during the

colonial period.        (5 mks)

(i) Existence of administrative centres.

(ii) Existence of social amenities eg, mission stations.

(iii) Availability of minerals/mining activities/industries.

(iv) Availability of security.

(v) Agricultural activities.

(vi) Commercial activities/trading activities.

(vii) Availability of transport/communication.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks

(b) Explain five factors which led to the migration African to the urban areas in Kenya

during the colonial period.       (10 mks)

(i) The overcrowded/unproductive reserves created by the colonial government

made living conditions difficult/unbearable thereby resulting into migrations to


(ii) Availability of better social services/amenities/health centres/education provided

in towns attracted them.

(iii) The taxes imposed on Africans forced them to migrate to towns in search of


(iv) Availability of infrastructure/piped water/paved roads/electricity attracted many

people to towns as they hoped for a better life.

(v) Employment/job opportunities attracted people to towns as it promised them

better wages.

(vi) Mistreatment/frustrations by the labour/public works forced them to move to


(vii) The widespread poverty in rural/reserves caused untold suffering thereby

making them to migrate to town.

(viii) Loss of land/landlessness caused by the colonial land policies resulted into a

state of despair thereby forcing people to move to towns.

(ix) African enterprenuers wanted to take advantage of wider mkets in towns.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks


  1. (a) Give five factors that undermined the activities of the Kenya African Union in the

struggle for independence?       (5mks)

(i) Betrayal by some Africans undermined its activities/wrangles between

moderates and radicals.

(ii) Insufficient/inadequate funds hampered its activities.

(iii) Opposition from the colonial government/settlers.

(iv) Repressive laws restricted its activities.

(v) Arrest/detention of its leaders after the declaration of a state of emergency

frustrated its members.

(vi) Lack of proper communication channels.

(vii) Banning of the party in 1953.

(viii) Ethnic divisions/fear of dominance by larger communities.

(ix) Lack of political awareness due to illiteracy.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks

(b) Describe five political roles played by the African elected members of parliament

during the struggle for independence in Kenya.    (10 mks)

(i) They demanded for the release of detained/imprisoned African nationalists.

(ii) They networked with other Pan-Africanists to hasten the achievement of


(iii) They aired/presented African grievances in international fora.

(iv) They formed political parties/movements to demand for independence/rights of


(v) They popularized Kenyatta thereby making him acceptable as a national leader.

(vi) They took part in the writing of the independence constitution/Lancaster House.

(vii) They enlightened/educated other Africans on the need to struggle for


(viii) They advocated for an increase in African representation in the LegCo.

Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks



SECTION C (30 mks)

  1. (a) Give three conditions that a person should meet to qualify to be a Kenyan citizen by

birth.      (3 mks)

(i) If the father or mother of the person is a Kenyan citizen.

(ii) A child found in Kenya who is/appears to be less than eight years of age and

whose nationality and parents are not known.

(iii) A former Kenyan citizen by birth who reapplies to regain Kenya citizenship.

3 x 1 = 3 mks

(b) Explain six social rights of the individual in Kenya.    (12 mks)

(i) The right to health care services which are of a reasonable standards.

(ii) The right to housing facilities which are accessible and adequate.

(iii) The right to have adequate food which is of acceptable quality.

(iv) The right to regular supply of water which is clean and safe.

(v) The right to appropriate social security to persons who are unable to support

themselves and their dependants.

(vi) The right to accessible formal education inorder to promote literacy.

(vii) The right to embrace culture/language of one’s choice regardless of his/her


(viii) The right to clean environment/sanitation which is free from pollution.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks

  1. (a) State three qualifications for a person to be eligible for election as a member of the

National Assembly in Kenya.       (3 mks)

(i) Must be a registered voter.

(ii) Must be literate.

(iii) Must be supported by at least 1,000 registered voters in the constituency/must

be nominated by a political or an independent candidate.

(iv) Should uphold good moral values.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks

(b) Explain six functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of

Kenya.    (12 mks)

(i) It registers prospective citizens who intend to participate in the elections.

(ii) It draws the boundaries of the constituencies/wards in all parts of the country

inorder to ensure equitable representation of the people.

(iii) It regulates nomination of candidates by political parties so as to ensure

proportional nomination of members.

(iv) It settles electoral disputes other than petitions arising from the electoral process

in order to ensure smooth/fair elections.

(v) It registers that all candidates who intend to contest for positions during

elections/announces and provides an election timetable.

(vi) It educates voters on their  rights/importance of participating in the electoral

process so as to make informed decisions.

(vii) It monitors/observes the elections in order to ensure transparency/honesty.

(viii) It regulates the amount of money spent by a candidate/political parties to

prevent some candidates from influencing the voters.

(ix) It develops code of conduct for candidates/parties participating in elections with

the view of checking malpractices.

(x) It ensures compliance with the electoral laws by all the parties involved in order

to promote free and fair elections.

(xi) It distributes/transports electoral materials to all polling stations.

(ix) It appoints election officials.

(x) It announces the results and declares the winners.

Any 6 x 2 =12 mks

  1. (a) State three objectives of devolving the government of Kenya. (3 mks)

(i) To promote democratic exercise of power.

(ii) To promote unity in the country.

(iii) To empower the people to participate in decision making /to make informed


(iv) To protect the interests of the minority/marginalised groups.

(v) To promote equitable development in the country.

(vi) To enable people access services/take services closer to the people.

(vii) To decentralize state organs/functions from the capital.

(viii) to enhance checks and balances/accountability.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks

(b) Explain six ways in which the county governments raise their revenue.

(12 mks)

(i) They impose property rates within their territories to enable them raise revenue

for their operations.

(ii) They charge for the services they render to the residents of the counties in order

to generate income.

(iii) They are allocated part of the annual national revenue in order to supplement

their supplement.

(iv) By borrowing loans from the national government international organizations to

finance development projects.

(v) They levy taxes on the services/goods generated in the county to finance their


(vi) Through licences granted to businesses/services operating in the counties.

(vii) By charging fees for the use of the counties property/fines.

(viii) By renting property/houses to people inorder to raise funds for development.

(ix) Through grants eg. local and external sources.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks































  1. Give two ways in which archaeologists identify a pre-historic site
  • Existence of a collection of artefacts/Techtonic forces/ Erosion
  • Evidence of burial sites /cultivation and construction/ fossils
  • Evidence of ruins of settlements / vision
  • Evidence of art/paintings.
  • Historical research and documentation
  • Use of experience of skills

 (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)

  1. Identify one natural factor that caused the Abagusii to migrate from Mount Elgon region to their present homeland.
  • Due to famine.
  • Due to disease.
  • Due to drought.

(Any 1×1 = 1 mk)

  1. State the main factor that contributed to rise of city-states along the Kenya-coast before 1500 AD.


(i)Trade between the Coast and the outside world.                       (lxl=1 mk)


  1. Give one way in which the translation of the Bible into vernacular languages facilitated the spread of Christianity in Kenya. (1 mk)
  • The local people could read the Bible.
  • It created better understanding of the teaching of the Bible.
  • More Africans could identify themselves with Christianity,

                                                                                  (Any lxl = 1 mk)

  1. Give one economic responsibility of a Kenyan citizen.
  2. Participating in development activities.
  3. Paving taxes.
  • Protecting the environment
  1. Fighting corruption (Any lxl = 1 mk)


  1. Give one economic factor that promotes national unity in Kenya.
  • Equitable distribution of resources
  • Commercial interaction/trade
  • Equal employment opportunities
  • Use of a common currency (Any 1×1 = 1 mk)


  1. Identify one way in which elders resolve conflicts in the community.
  • through arbitration.
  • through mediation.
  • through conciliation / reconciliation
  • Through negotiation/discussion                                  (Any 1×1= 1 mk)


  1. State two similar grievances of the Taita Hills Association and the Ukamba Members Association to the colonial government.
  • They resented land alienation by the white settlers.
  • They were against destocking order by the government.
  • They protested forced labour.
  • They were against taxation.

                                                                                       (Any 2×1= 2 mks)

  1. Outline two ways in which the ex-soldiers of the Second World War contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya.


  • They were instrumental in the formation of the Mau Mau movement.
  • They trained freedom lighters in war tactics.
  • They waged armed struggle against the colonial government.
  • They made weapons used in the Struggle.
  • They dispelled the myth of European Supremacy (Any 2×1 = 2 mks)


  1. What was the main contribution of Prof. Wangari Maathai to the development

        of Kenya?
Environmental conservation/ Tree planting.                             (Any 1×1= 1 mk)


  1. State two functions of the supreme court in Kenya.


(i)   To hear/ determine disputes relating to the election of the President of Kenya.

(ii)  .    To hear/ determine appeals from the Court of Appeal/ other courts/ tribunals.

  • To give an advisory opinion concerning County Governments.
  • To handle any case/ issue which has to do with the interpretation/ application of the constitution.
  • To review the certification made by the Court of Appeal on a matter of general public importance.
  • To make rules for the exercise of its jurisdiction.

(Any 2×1=2 mks)

  1. Give two qualifications that a person must fulfill in order to be allowed to register as a voter in Kenya.
  • Must be a Kenyan citizen.
  • Must be 18 years or above.
  • Must be of sound mind.
  • Not been convicted of an election offence during the period preceding 5 years

(Any 2×1=2 mks)


  1. State two functions of the secretary to the cabinet in Kenya.
  • He/ she is incharge of cabinet office
  • Keeps minutes of the cabinet (writing)
  • Arranging the business of the cabinet /agenda
  • Convey decisions of the cabinet to appropriate authorities/persons
  • Executes directives of the cabinet

(Any 2×1=2 mks)

  1. Name the two branches of National Police Service in Kenya


  • The Kenya Police Service.
  • The Administration Police Service.

(Any 2×1=2 mks)

15.Give one reason for the adoption of Harambee strategy in Kenya after independence.


  • To pool the scarce resources together.
  • To eradicate, poverty among the people.
  • To promote unity among the people,

(Any 1×1 = 1 mk)


  1. Identify two types of land ownership in Kenya.


  • Public land.
  • Community land.
  • Private land.

(Any 2×1=2 mks)


  1. Give the main function of the commission on Revenue Allocation in Kenya.


To ensure equitable sharing of revenue between National and County governments/ among County governments.                                                                     (1 mk)



  1. a) Identify the three Luo groups which migrated into Kenya period.
  • Joka – Jok .
  • Joka – Owiny
  • Joka – Omolo.

(Any 3×1=3 mks)


  1. b) Describe the political organization of the Luo during the Pre-colonial period.
  2. The family was the lowest unit and its head was the father who was referred to as Jaduong
  3. Several related families formed a clan.
  • There were lineage councils (Buch Dhoot) which settled domestic issues.
  1. A council of elders existed in the clan which was responsible for settling interfamily disputes
  2. Clans were grouped together to form Oganda headed by a chief elder (Ruoth)
  3. There existed a council of elders (Buch Piny) which comprised of representatives from each clan and mainly settled inter-clan disputes.
  • There was a class of warriors (Thuondi) headed by a war leader (Osumba Mrwayi) and its main responsibility was to defend the community
  • The Luo was a decentralized community as they did not have an overall leader.

(Any 6 points well explained x2 = 12 mks)


  1. a) State three methods used by the British to establish colonial rule in Kenya.
  2. They used military force.
  3. They signed treaties/ agreement with some African rulers/ collaboration/ diplomacy.
  • They used divide and rule tactics.
  1. They lured Africans with gifts/ presents/trickery
  2. They established bases of operation / company rule



(b)     Explain six problems experienced by the imperial British East Africa Company in   


  1. There was scarcity of mineral wealth and profitable export commodities which made it difficult for the company to generate enough wealth to meet the cost of administration.
  2. There was poor transport network which made movement of goods slow/ difficult/ expensive thereby making the enterprise less profitable.
  • There was lack of proper co-ordination between the company headquarters in Britain and the officials in Kenya hence delays/ waste and misunderstandings.
  1. The company officials lacked the experience which was necessary for the success of the administration in the protectorate.


  1. Some of the company officials were corrupt and therefore concentrated on their personal enrichment at the expense of the enterprise
  2. Resistance from the local communities posed a great challenge to the company as it had to administer and at the same time suppress the communities
  • There was inadequate capital to carry out its operations thus making the administration of the protectorate ineffective
  • Unfavourable climatic condition /tropical diseases claimed lives of some of the company personnel
  1. Lack of enough personnel
  2. Rivalry from the German E.A Company

                                                       (Any 6 points well explained x2 = 12 mks)


  1. a) Give 3 reasons why African were put in reserves during the colonial period
  2. To create a pool of African labour for settler farming/Europeans
  3. To avail land/create space for white settlement
  • To restrict the movement of Africans
  1. For easy control/monitoring of African activities
  2. For easy control of African nationalism

(Any 3×1 = 3mks)


  1. b) Explain six problems faced by African workers for the European settlement during the colonial period
  2. They were paid low wages which could hardly meet their expenses thereby making them lead squatter /impoverished lives
  3. The living conditions were poor as they were crowded in residential houses with inadequate sanitation
  • The working conditions were very difficult as they were sometimes mistreated/whipped
  1. They were subjected to long working hours without compensation which made them develop negative attitude towards work
  2. They were forced to pay taxes despite their poor remuneration/low wages
  3. There were inadequate amenities/schools/health facilities to cope with the large number of workers
  • They were despised on the basis of their colour/race and this lowered their dignity
  • They were not allowed to form workers’ union as the settlers feared that they would incite/organize strikes against them
  1. They were provided with inadequate food rations which led to malnutrition

                                                                                                                (Any 6 points well explained x2 = 12 mks)


  1. (a) State three challenges that have determined government efforts to eradicate illiteracy in Kenya since independence
  2. Traditional /cultural beliefs in some communities discourage people from schooling.
  3. Lack of enough schools/inadequate educational facilities has-made inaccessible in some regions/shortage of teachers
  • High poverty levels in the society has made education unaffordable
  1. Misconceptions that one can succeed without education
  2. Nomadic way of life in some communities has hampered provision of education
  3. Negative attitude towards adult education programmes has resulted

in low enrolment

  • Insecurity in some regions e.g Kapendo, Baragoi, Tana River.

                                                                                                                         (Any 3×1 = 3mks)



  1. b) Discuss six factors that have facilitated industrialisation in Kenya since independence


  1. The availability of modern sources of energy has enabled the establishment of more industries which process different products.
  2. Availability of both skillful/ unskilled labour from large population provides the work force required in industries
  • Good transport and communication infrastructure has created a viable environment for industrial development as the products can be transported with ease.
  1. The rich agricultural country provides raw materials required in the processing of various products.
  2. The existence of mineral resources has given rise to industries which process them into finished products.
  3. The existence of both mineral and manmade forests has promoted the development of furniture industries in many parts of the country.
  • Availability of varied tourist attractions in the country has promoted tourism as many local and International tourists visit the countryside.
  • Availability of water resources rich in fish has given rise to fish processing

industries in the country

  1. Government initiative through creation e.g ministries of trade, commerce industry offering technical and financial aid/support

(Any 6 points well explained x2 = 12 mks)



  1. (a) State five decisions reached after the first Lancaster House conference of 1960


  1. Maintenance of the 12 elective seats in the Legco
  2. Composition of the Council of Ministers was to be changed to include 4 Africans, 3 Europeans and 1 Asian
  • There were to be 33 open seats in the Legco which were to be contested/vied for on a common roll
  1. 20 seats would be reserved that is 10 for Europeans, 8 for Asians and 2 for Arabs
  2. Formation of country wide political parties e.g KANU and KADU was allowed
  3. The state of emergency was lifted
  • A bill of rights would be included in the constitution


  1. b) Describe five main features of the constitution of Kenya


  1. It vests sovereign power on the people of Kenya who can exercise it directly or through their representatives
  2. It contains a comprehensive bill of rights which has been expanded to include socio-economic and cultural rights as well as group rights
  • It spells out national values and principles of governance which guides/binds all people/institutions
  1. It contains affirmative action for women/the youth/persons with disabilities/marginalized communities as it protects them from all forms of discrimination
  2. It defines the powers of the executive it consist of the president, deputy president and the cabinet
  3. It provides a mechanism for its implementation by creating specific organs for that purpose e.g commissions and independent offices
  • It has provision for transitional requirements that ensure a smooth transition of government
  • It provides stringent amendment procedures in order to safeguard peoples’ interests
  1. It provides for devolved government by creating forty seven counties/equitable sharing of public finance /national revenue
  2. Citizenship it describes what citizens are entitled to e.g acquisition and revocation of citizenship
  3. It outlines the principles of land policy and classification
  • Leadership and integrity – it states the responsible conducts and restrictions on activities of state officers
  • National security- it establishes three national security organs i.e Kenya defense forces, National intelligence service and national police service
  • It establishes a bi-comard legislature composed of the national assemble and the senate
  1. It creates an independent judiciary composed of a system of courts with superior and subordinate courts

                                                                           (Any 5 points well explained x2 = 10 mks)


  1. a) Give five reasons why human rights are important


  1. They give the general public access to information necessary for protection of democracy and accountability
  2. They assist in achieving a dignified life which respects human needs/ respect for human rights
  • They guide organs of state on the exercise of state power
  1. When respected, these rights reduce conflicts and enhance national integration
  2. They empower citizens by giving them control in decision making organs of the state
  3. Rights are inherent to human beings since one has rights because they are human

                                                                                                               (5 x2 = 10 mks)


  1. b) Explain five functions of the Kenya National Commissions on Human Rights
  2. To protect respect for human rights/develop a culture of human rights in the country
  3. To receive complaints about alleged abuses of human rights form the citizens
  • To monitor /investigate on the observance of human rights in the country and take appropriate action/report on observance of human rights
  1. To provide a shadow report to the United Nations on the status of observance of human rights in the country
  2. To formulate/implement programmes intended to create public awareness of the rights/obligations of citizens
  3. To ensure that the country complies with international treaties/conventions regarding human rights.
  • To work with the national gender and equality commission and commission on administrative justice to ensure efficiency/effectiveness/complementarity in their activities/promote gender equality and equity.
  • To make recommendation to the state to improve the functioning of the state organs

                                       (any 5 points well explained x2 -10 mks)


  1. a) State five qualifications of a presidential candidate in Kenya


  1. Be of sound mind
  2. A Kenyan citizen by birth
  • Not have served for more than 2 consecutive terms as president
  1. Nominated by a political party, or is an independent candidate
  2. Nominated by at least 2000 voters from each of majority of counties
  3. Not have been declared bankrupt by a court of law
  • Abide by the requirements of chapter 6 of the constitution on integrity
  • Must be a registered voter
  1. Be qualified to stand for an election as a MP (moral, education ethical issues)

                                                                                                               (Any 5×1=5 mks)


  1. b) Explain five functions of the national assembly in Kenya


  1. It makes laws that govern the country so as to ensure smooth running of the country
  2. It determines the allocation of public revenue to all government sectors in order to promote development
  • It approves funds for expenditure by the national government to ensure provision of services
  1. It exercises oversight over public revenue and expenditure thereby promoting accountability /transparency
  2. To review the conduct in office of the executive in order to check excesses in government
  3. To approve appointments made by the president to ensure merit/professionalism/integrity of the appointees
  • To approve declaration of war and extension of states of emergency
  • It represents peoples interests through their elected members of parliament.
  1. Oversight on state organs i.e it supervises and checks state organs ensuring proper and accountable handling of duties.

                                                   (any 5 points well explained x2 -10 mks)



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