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HISTORY MOKASA FORM 4 JOINT EXAMINATION QUESTIONS & MARKING SCHEME

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

TIME: 2½ hours

MOKASA 1 JOINT EXAMINATION EXAM PLUS MARKING SCHEME

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

Paper 2

Section A (25 marks)

  1.      Define the term history.                                                                                (1 mark)
    • It is the study of man’s past activities/events

1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  1.      Identify two methods used by archeologists to date fossils.                       (2 marks)
  •      Chemical dating like Radio Carbon (/Carbon 14 method
  •      Geological periods
  •            Statistical dating
  • Fission Track
  •      Lexico Statistics
  • Stratigraphy

Any 2 point @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1. Name one sub-species of Homo Sapiens.                                                     (1 mark)
  •      Cro Magnon
  •      Neanderthal man
  •            Rhodesian man

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.      Give two characteristics of early agriculture in Europe before the Agrarian                                                                                                            (2 marks)
  •      Small scale farming
  •      Shifting cultivation
  •            Subsistence/ peasant farming
  • Use of simple tools
  •      Broadcasting/scattering of seeds
  • Use of open field system of farming/Strip farming
  • Land belonged to the feudal land lords
  • Land was unconsolidated
  • They practiced inter cropping
  •      They practiced common grazing
  • They used human and animal labour/no machines
  • Poor breeds of crops/animals were raised

Any 2 point @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.      Identify one river responsible for early agriculture in Mesopotamia.       (1 mark)
  • Tigris
  • Euphrates

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.      Give two shortcomings of barter trade.                                                       (2 marks)
  • Some commodities are bulky or heavy thus difficult to transport
  •      It may not be easy to establish exchange rates of commodities/value
  •            Perishable goods are likely to go to waste if negotiations are not done in time
  • It requires coincidence of demand and supply
  •      Indivisibility of some trade commodities
  • It consumes time and energy

Any 2 point @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.      Give two advantages of using a motorcycle as a means of transport.       (2 marks)
  • They are cheap to acquire and maintain
  • They are flexible
  • They are readily available
  • They are convenient for short distances

 

Any 2 point @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.      Identify the person who invented the first aeroplane.                                (1 mark)
  • The Wright brothers/Wilbur Wright/Orville Wright

1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  1.      Name two early metals used in industrial development.                             (2 marks)
  • Iron
  • Steel
  • Bronze
  • Copper
  • Gold

Any 2 point @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.      Give two advantages of metal tools over stone tools.                                (2 marks)
  •      They were durable.
  •      They could not break easily.
  •            They could be re- sharpened when blunt.
  • Molten metals could be cast into a variety of shapes with patterns and designs on            
  •      Broken objects could be re- worked.

Any 2 point @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.      Identify one early urban centre in Europe.                                      (1 mark)
  • Athens
  • London

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.      Give the main reason for the development of Kilwa as an early urban centre.                                                                                                                                              (1 mark)

(i)        The control of Sofala gold trade

1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  1.      Identify two communities that took part in the Maji Maji rebellion.        (2 marks)
  • Matumbi
  •      Pogoro
  •            Ngindo
  •     Mbunga
  •      Ngoni
  • Zaramo
  • Luguru
  • Sangu
  • Wamakonde
  •      Wamwere
  • Ndendeule
  • Bena

Any 2 point @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.      Give the main reason why Europeans used scorched earth policy against African                                                                                                            (1 mark)
  • To weaken them economically, socially and politically

1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  1.      Name two communes in Senegal where the policy of assimilation was applied                                                                                                         (2 marks)
  • Louis
  •      Goree
  •            Dakar
  •  Rufisque

Any 2 point @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.      Name the policy adopted by France and Britain to avoid the outbreak of another       war after the First World War.                                                                    (1 mark)
  • Appeasement policy

1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  1.     Identify the immediate cause of the Second World War.                           (1 mark)
  • German invasion of neutral Belgium

1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)

  1.        (a)     Identify five hunting methods used by early man.               (5 marks)
  • Digging pits for them to fall into them
  • Using traps/snares
  • Chasing them and throwing weapons at them
  • Driving animals towards swampy/muddy/water bodies
  • Driving animals over cliffs
  • Using other animals like dogs
  • Chasing animals until they get tired
  • Poisoning/drugging the animals

Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

  (b)     Describe the culture of man in the Middle Stone Age period.        (10 marks)

  • Man continued hunting and gathering especially big animals
  • Man-made tools like hand axes using levallois method.
  • Man did fishing on rivers and lakes
  • They lived in groups and camps for protection purposes
  • They made shelters and also lived in caves.
  • They used simple hunting methods of chasing animals and throwing stones at them as well as using traps
  • They started wearing animal skins as clothing
  • They painted themselves using red ochre and oil
  • Distinct language developed to enhance communication
  • Rock painting was done on cave walls and rocks.
  • They decorated themselves with necklaces made from seeds and animal bones
  • Fire was made during this period and was used for a number of purposes like providing warmth during cold seasons

Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  1.    (a)       Identify five methods used to acquire slaves during the Trans-Atlantic slave                                                                                                                             (5 marks)
    •      Raids organized by chiefs
    •      Sale of war captives
    •            Leaders sold their subjects to enrich themselves/ slaves were exchanged with     European products
    • They were obtained through kidnapping
    •      Social misfits were sold
    • Through enticement /trickery
    • Selling of debtors/ panyarring

Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

(b)       Explain five factors responsible for the decline of the Trans-Atlantic slave             trade.                                                                                                  (10 marks)

  •    The rise of humanitarian movement in Britain which viewed slave trade as unjust      and inhuman e.g. William Wilberforce, James Fox and Thomas Clarkson.
  •    Leading economists like Adams Smith argued that free people were more                  productive than slave labour.
  •            The development of industrial revolution in Britain shifted the demand of slaves             to agricultural produce.
  • Resistance by Africans both in West Africa and in the new world made the     Europeans to abandon the activity.
  •    The need to discourage mass migration of population from Africa so as to retain       market for European manufactured goods.
  • The result of American civil war of 1865 won by those opposed to slavery led                ending the crucial slave trading/ closure of the slave market in the United States       of America
  • The coming of Christian missionaries who condemned the activity as unchristian.
  • The attainment of independence by the USA in 1776 left Britain without colonies where they could take slaves to work.
  • The use of machines in farms and industries rendered slave labour unnecessary.
  •    Effects from the French revolution of 1789 spread liberty and equality among all            thus discouraged slave trade.
  • Development of legitimate trade which was more profitable and less costly                            replaced slave trade and slavery.
  • Britain influenced other European countries to stop the slave trade by signing anti slave trade treaties.

Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  1.     (a)       List five traditional forms of communication.                                  (5 marks)
  •      Drum beats
  •      Horn blowing
  •            Messengers/human beings/runners/birds/animals
  • Fire and smoke signals
  •      Gestures and signals/body movements
  • Flags
  • Bells
  • Whistles
  • Screams and cries/whistles
  •      Semaphores   

Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

(b)       Explain five negative impacts of modern means of communication.                                                                                                                                              (10 marks)

  •    Some have promoted immorality through watching of pornographic films.
  •    They have promoted international crime and drug abuse.
  •             It has encouraged idleness and addiction to programmes by viewers.
  • They have created unemployment
  •    Some are expensive to buy and install
  • Some like radios and televisions cause noise pollution
  • Some programmes on televisions promote violence
  • Prolonged exposure to computer screens cause eye problems
  •  Mobile phones can cause illnesses through exposure to radioactive rays

Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)                      

  1.      (a)       Give five economic activities of the Shona Empire during the pre-colonial                                                                                                                              (5 marks)
    • They grew crops/ agriculture
    • They kept livestock
    • They traded with Arabs and Swahili traders/ took part in long distance trade/ trade
    • They hunted elephants for ivory
    • They were iron worked/ blacksmiths
    • They made clothes from wild cotton/ bark fibres
    • They mined gold
    • They were fishermen
    • They gathered/ gathering

Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

 

(b)       Discuss the social organization of the Asante Empire in the pre-colonial             period.                                                                                                (10 marks)

  • The kingdom was composed of many communities who spoke Akan or Twi    
  •    The Asante were organized in clans.
  •            Marriage between members of the same clan was prohibited. They practiced             exogamy and polygamy.
  • Inheritance of property was matrilineal.
  •    The community was bound together by the golden stool.
  • There was an annual cultural festival (Odwira) held at Kumasi to honour the    
  • The society was divided into social classes (social stratification).
  • The Asante worshipped many gods and goddesses/polytheists.
  • The King, chiefs and Omanhenes were religious leaders (semi divine).
  •    The ancestors mediated between god and the people.
  • They believed in a supreme god called Onyame.

Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

Section C (30 marks) 

  1. (a)       Give three methods used by African nationalist in South Africa in their                   struggle for independence.                                                                (3 marks)
  •    Formation of trade unions to fight for workers’ rights.
  •    Formation of political parties to air their grievances e.g. ANC
  •            The use of mass media e.g. radios and newspapers
  •   Leaders engaged in direct negotiation with the government.
  •    Many detained nationalists went on hunger strike
  • Imposition of economic sanctions by international organizations like U.N.O
  • The churches took part in protest demonstrations e.g. the Anglican Church
  • Through armed resistance e.g. the armed wing of ANC
  • Use of boycotts and strikes against the regime.
  •    They also organized protests and demonstrations.

Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

(b)       Explain six problems encountered by nationalists in Ghana in their struggle             for independence.                                                                              (12 marks)

  •    The nationalists were arrested/ detained
  • The political parties were banned
  •            The government enacted pass laws which restricted            movement thus
  • They lacked adequate funds to finance the struggle thus slowing their          
  •    They lacked press freedom making it difficult for them to spread their                                    
  • They lacked advanced weapons thereby making them less effective in            their armed struggle.
  • They had different approaches in their struggle (moderate/radical     wings)                         thus creating a loophole which was exploited by the government.
  • Use of divide and rule policy to divide the Africans.
  • Rivalry between political parties e.g. CPP and NLDtowards o

Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

 

 

 

 

  1.      (a)       Give three terms of the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885.             (3 marks)
  •    African territories were partitioned thus effective sphere of influence.
  •    The Niger, Congo, Nile and Zambezi rivers were declared free areas for     European navigation.
  •            The Congo basin was given to Leopold’s (II)’s International African Association..
  • The European nations vowed to protect missionaries and traders in their areas       irrespective of their nationalities.
  •    It was unanimously agreed that slave trade be stopped in favour of legitimate           
  • European powers reasserted their occupation and control of the African    
  • Nations were encouraged to use peaceful means in solving their differences.
  • Any state laying claim of any part of Africa must inform other interested groups.
  • The European countries with coastal possessions in Africa could have the     immediate hinterland as their sphere of influence.

Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

(b)       Explain six results of Buganda collaboration.                                  (12 marks)

  •    It led to loss of independence.
  •    It led to introduction of Christianity and European influence in Buganda.
  •            Islamic influence declined.
  • Buganda got protection from external enemies like Bunyoro.
  •    Kabaka gained recognition and was referred to as His highness.
  • Kabakas power was gradually eroded as British administrators gave authority to         his officers.
  • Buganda was given an advantageous position in the colonial administration and was helped to conquer other communities.
  • Buganda advanced more economically than other communities as it acquired European manufactured goods like clothes.
  • Buganda benefited from western education and medicine.

Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

  1.     (a)       Outline the structure of the League of Nations.                             (3 marks)
  •    The Council
  •    The Secretariat
  •            The International Court Of Justice
  • The International Labour Organization
  •    The Mandates Commission
  • The Assembly
  • The Minorities Committee

Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

(b)       Explain six causes of the Second World War.                                 (12 marks)

  •    The rise to power of Adolf Hitler and his determination to restore Germany’s lost         
  •    Unfavourable conditions imposed on Germany by the treaty of Versailles     humiliated and made her nurse a grudge against the allied powers.
  •            The growths of nationalism made countries to be inward looking and therefore were reluctant to participate in international issues.
  • The great depression of the 1930s intensified economic instability and forced     some countries to practice economic protectionism.
  •    The inability of the League of Nations to implement its resolutions and punish      those who violated them encouraged the aggressors to pursue their objectives/           ambitions and this intensified tension in the world.
  • The policy of appeasement practiced by France and Britain encouraged the     dictators to carry on with their acts of aggression
  • Establishment of alliances between major powers encouraged acts of aggression because of the feeling of mutual support
  • The rise of dictators in the 1920’s and 1930’s destroyed democratic rights
  • Armament and increased armed forces increased tension contrary to the wishes of the Versailles treaty
  •    The Spanish civil war (1936 – 1939).
  • Territorial violations e.g. in 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia,

Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

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