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HISTORY FORM 1 NOTES NEW SYLLABUS FREE

Introduction to History and Government

Introduction to History and Government

In this subject you will learn about the past and present which will eventually help you understand the future. You will therefore be in a position to recognize the relationship between the events of today and the world of tomorrow. This subject opens you to the universe.

Sources of Information on History and Government

This is where information on History and Government is obtained. There are three main sources of historical information,

  1. Unwritten
  2. Written
  3. Electronic In this topic we shall discuss only the unwritten sources of historical   information.

This is where information on History and Government is obtained. There are three main sources of historical information

Unwritten Sources

They are sources of Historical Information which are not found in any recorded form. They include;-

oral traditions
Archaeology
Anthopology
Genetics
Linguistics
Palaeontology

We shall discuss each source in detail.
Oral Traditions
Oral tradition is the passing of information from one person to another or from one generation to another by word of mouth. This information is passed through:

  1. Poems
  2. Proverbs
  3. Riddles
  4. Myths
  5. Discussions
  6. Interviews
  7. Stories
  8. Folk tales

Oral traditions are very important in informing History and Government. However they have their own advantages and disadvantages

Advantages of oral traditions

Oral traditions have the following advantages;

  1. it compliments other sources
  2. makes history real and practical
  3. it is cheap
  4. makes history fascinating and interesting

Disadvantages of Oral tradition

Oral traditions have the following disadvantages;

  1. Information may be exaggerated
  2. some information or facts may be omitted
  3. information given maybe biased
  4. information obtained may be inaccurate
  5. some historical information may be forgotten due to loss of memory
  6. Verification of facts is difficult

Historical linguistics is the study of language as it changes in the course of time. It traces the form, content and vocabulary in order to understand the historical background of the people who speak it. Please click on the start button in the animation below to take note of the pronunciation of the word ‘person’ by different Bantu communities.

Advantages of linguistics

Linguistics has the following advantages;

  1. compliments other sources of information on History and Government
  2. helps to trace the movement of people and their relationships
  3. helps historians to know which groups shared a common origin
  4. enables historians to establish links between different communities which were previously unknown

Limitations of Linguistics

Linguistics has the following limitations;

  1. it may take a long time to learn a particular language
  2. wrong interpretation of linguistic materials may distort historical information, for example, similar words in different communities may have different meanings, for example the word ‘mutumia’ among the Akamba and the Kikuyu as shown in the following pictures.

Archaeology is the study of material remains from past human life and culture. This is done through the following methods;

  1. excavation
  2. survey
  3. experimentation
  4. ethno archeology

Archaeology is the main source of history

Excavation

Archaeological excavation is the scientific recovery of past cultural materials by means of digging. Such materials include bones, stone tools and pieces of pottery and remains of houses, among others. Excavations at Marmonet Drift, Naivasha 2003- courtesy M D Kyule
Archaeological remains, stone tools

Other archaeological methods

Other methods of Archeology besides excavation inclue the following;
Survey
This is the deliberate search for archeological sites and materials
Experimentation

It is a recreation of artefacts and patterns found in excavated sites in order to understand how the artifacts were made and how the patterns were formed Ethno archeology
It is the study of present day pre industrial cultures to help interpret materials found in archeological sites

Anthropology

Anthropology is the study of a peoples culture. Anthropologists help archaeologists to use present day human relationships to suggest what may have been happening in the past. The picture below depicts an aspect of peoples culture

Paleontology

Paleontology is the study of fossils. Fossils are preserved remains of animals and plants that existed in the past. Paleontologists help archaeologists by establishing the nature of plants, humans and other animals that existed in the past.

Genetics is the study of how biological characteristics (genes) are transmitted from parents to their children. Genetics provides archaeologists with information that can be used to establish the biological relationship between different communities.

Geology
This is the study of earth’s structure and processes. Geology helps archaeologists to know when certain events happened in the past. Fossils entrapped in the rocks can have their age traced if one can trace the years the rocks were formed.

Geologists from University of Nairobi at work along the theEnamankeon region, Narok District, Kenya-Kyule

Advantages of archaeology

Archaeology has the following advantages;

  1. helps to recapture the remotest period of human past
  2. enables historians to understand how cultures have developed over time
  3. provides tangible evidence for past events

Limitations of Archaeology

Archaeology has the following limitations;

  1. archaeological material is limited
  2. archaeological material is non renewable
  3. large areas have not yet been surveyed or excavated because there are very few archaeologists
  4. archaeological interpretations based on inference may be inaccurate

Early Man

Various theories are advanced about the origin of man. In this session we will look at some of these theories that explain where man came from. This picture from the museum of Kenya show the various phases of man’s development.

Stages of mans development

The video clip shows the various stages of evolution

Origin of Man

Human beings are different from animals because they;

  1. are able to think and reason
  2. are able to communicate
  3. make tool and weapons
  4. have cultures and traditions
  5. are moral beings
  6. are spiritual beings
  7. invent and discover things

This makes human beings unique. Historians are therefore interested in understanding the origin and development of human beings. In this lesson we are going to learn about the various theories of origin of man.

Lesson Objectives
By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

  1. explain the religious view on the origin of man
  2. explain the traditional view on the origin of man
  3. explain the evolution theory on the origin of man

THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF MAN

There are three main theories which explain the origin of man
1. creation theory
Gods creation
2. traditional / mythical theory

An illustration of mythical believe on origin of Maasai

3. evolution theory
Social, Economic and Political organisation of Kenyan Societies in the 19th century. Before we start on this topic, it is important to review the topic on the peoples of Kenya up to the 19th century.

THE BANTU

The term Bantu refers to a group of people who speak related languages. They make up the largest language group in Africa

Bantu migration and settlement

The Social, Political and Economic Organization of TheAmeru In The 19th Century

The Ameru belong the Eastern group of the Bantu. As they migrated, they interacted with various communities. This interaction enabled them to develop a system of government that ensured high standards of morality and stability.

There are several sub-tribes of the Ameru
These are:
-Igembe
-Tigania
-Imanti
-Miitine
-Igoji
-Mwimbi
-Muthambi
-Chuka
-Tharaka

FAMILY TREE

Creation Theory

According to this theory, God created everything in the universe. It also states that God created man in His own image and put him to control the rest of the creation. It asserts that humans, as well as the rest of the natural world, were created by one or more supernatural beings or gods.

MYTHICAL AND TRADITIONAL THEORY

Traditional theories differ from one community to another. Each community has its own myth, explaining their origin. They all believed that they were created by a supernatural being for a special purpose. Some of the common traditional theories include that of the Agikuyu which states that their Ngai created the first man called Gikuyu and provided him with a wife, Mumbi, and gave them land at MukurwewaNyagathanga. Gikuyu and Mumbi became the ancestors of the Kikuyu community

Gikuyu, Mumbi and their 9 daughters
The Luos myth of creation states that they were created by God (Nyasaye), and placed at Ramogi hills. This become the ancestors of the Luo people .Ramogi believed to be ancestor of the Luo

The ancient Egyptians believed that man was created by God who governed with the help of other gods, whose earthly representative was the Pharaoh.

Evolution Theory

Another theory advanced on the origin of man is the evolution theory by a man called Charles Darwin. This theory states that man has been changing over time as a result of adaptation to changing environments. According to Charles Darwin, all living things evolved from simple living cells to complicated plants and animals we have today.

We have said that man has been changing over time as a result of adaptation to changing environments. We have also said that all living things evolved from simple living cells to complicated plants and animals that there are today. Evolution of humans takes place through:

  1. Natural selection: the fittest organisms will always survive best in any given environment. The week organisms become extinct
  2. Mutation: this is the means by which genetic structure changes to different forms and get transmitted to the next generation
  3. Isolation and adaptation: this where species are separated by natural factors and subsequently they adapt to their new environments
  4. Speciation: this is the gradual developmental changes of species from a lower state to a more superior state

By the end of this lesson you should be able to:

  1. Identify the stages of human evolution before and during the Stone Age period.
  2. Identify characteristics of species in each of the stages.
  3. Locate in a map where the species have been found

Stages of Evolution

Man is believed to be an evolving creature due to change in the environment. This came about through several stages as illustrated on the tree of evolution shown.

Evolution tree

The following illustrations show the difference between man and the ape from whom he is believed to have descended.

The earliest primate related to humans is known as Aegyptopithecus (Egyptian ape). Aegyptopithecus lived 35-33 million years ago and its fossils have been found in the Fayum Desert in Egypt. They ate fruits, weighed 4 kgs, had enclosed eye sockets and had 32 teeth.

Dryopithecus

The next primate related to humans is an ape known as Dryopithecus. Its fossils have been found in Rusinga Island in Lake victoria, Kenya. they have also been found in North Eastern Europe and South East Asia. Dryopithecus had Long teeth and walked on four limbs. they lived from 12 to 9 million years ago.

Kenyapithecus

Kenyapithecus is another primate ape related to early humans. The remains have been found in Kericho, Fort Tenan, Samburu Hills and Ngorora in East Africa. Those that have been found in Asia are known as Ramapithecus. He lived 14 million years ago, walked on four limbs and had small canines.

Australopithecus

Australopithecus is a genus of extinct apes that are likely to be ancestral to human beings. They lived in Africa between 4 and 1 million years ago. At least seven species of australopithecines are now generally recognized. These are Australopithecus afarensis, A. africanus, A. bahrelghazali, A. anamensis, A. boisei, A. robustus, and A. aethiopicus.

They were bipedal and had an upright posture. Their teeth were more humanlike than apelike, but their brains were small and not very different from those of living apes. They weighed between 36 and 66kgs and were 1.5 metres tall.

Australopithecus also known as the southern ape is believed to have existed some 4 million years ago in the Eastern and Southern Africa. It is known to be the earliest hominid closer to modern man. It is estimated to have weighed between 36-66kgs. He was about 1.5 metres tall and had powerful teeth. This hominid is said to have walked with 2 legs (biped) and walked upright. The picture is of Australopithecus anamensis from the national museums of Kenya.

Homo Habilis

A type of extinct humans regarded as the earliest member of the human genus, Homo. The name Homo habilis means ‘handy man’. They inhabited parts of sub-Saharan Africa about 2-1.5 million years ago. Remains were first discovered in 1959 at Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania; then at Koobi Fora in the Lake Turkana region of northern Kenya and at Sterkfontein in South Africa. They walked upright and were able to make and use crude tools refered to as the Oldowan tools. It is possible that homo habilis lived at the same time with the robust Australopithecines (A. robustus /paranthropus), and perhaps also early Homo ergaster.

Homo ergaster

Homo ergaster (‘working man’) lived throughout eastern and southern Africa between 1.9 to 1.4 million years ago. The equivalent of Homo ergaster outside Africa is known as Homo erectus. The most complete Homo ergaster skeleton is the 1.6 million year old specimen known as the ‘Turkana Boy’, discovered in 1984 at Lake Turkana, Kenya.

Homo ergaster may be distinguished from H. erectus by its thinner skull bones and more straight jawed face; It is estimated that H. ergaster stood at 1.9 m. tall. Remains have been found in Tanzania, Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Africa. H. ergaster has been associated with use of advanced tools known as the Acheulean industry. The Acheulean comprised various tools such as hand-axes and cleavers. Charred animal bones in fossil deposits and traces of camps suggest that the species made creative use of fire.

Homo erectus is best presented by a specimen commonly referred to as the ‘Turkana boy’. This species was found on the western part of Lake Turkana, a place called Nariokotome in Kenya. The movie clip provided shows the whole skeleton of the species obtained from the National Museums of Kenya. The new discovery of Homo erectus by DrManthi of Museums of Kenya

Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens (intelligent or thinking man) refer to a species into which all modern human beings belong. The oldest known fossil remains of Homo sapiens date to between 120,000 and 400,000 years ago years ago. Some sites where fossil remains of Homo sapiens have been found include Eliye Springs near Lake Turkana, Kanjera and Kanam in Kenya, Omo River Valley in Ethiopia and Ngaloba in Tanzania.

Homo sapiens is distinguished from earlier species of Homo by characteristics and habits such as bipedal stance, brain capacity averaging about 1,350 cc, high forehead, small teeth and jaw, defined chin, construction and use of tools. He is said to be the transition between Homo erectus and “you and me”

Homo sapien sapiens, also known as modern human beings had virtually occupied the entire globe by 13,000 years ago. Modern humans generally have more delicate skeletons. Their skulls are more rounded and their brow ridges generally protrude much less. They also have relatively high foreheads and pointed chins. Scholars suggest that Homo sapien sapiens evolved from Homo sapiens primarily in Eastern Africa, and that they had spread to Asia by around 60,000 years ago, and to Europe by 46,000 years ago.

Early human cultural and economic activities

Culture is a peoples way of life. It includes peoples:

  1. values
  2. language
  3. food
  4. clothing
  5. technology
  6. customs

FAMILY TREE

Creation Theory

According to this theory, God created everything in the universe. It also states that God created man in His own image and put him to control the rest of the creation. It asserts that humans, as well as the rest of the natural world, were created by one or more supernatural beings or gods.

MYTHICAL AND TRADITIONAL THEORY

Traditional theories differ from one community to another. Each community has its own myth, explaining their origin. They all believed that they were created by a supernatural being for a special purpose. Some of the common traditional theories include that of the Agikuyu which states that their Ngai created the first man called Gikuyu and provided him with a wife, Mumbi, and gave them land at MukurwewaNyagathanga. Gikuyu and Mumbi became the ancestors of the Kikuyu community

Gikuyu, Mumbi and their 9 daughters
The Luos myth of creation states that they were created by God (Nyasaye), and placed at Ramogi hills. This become the ancestors of the Luo people .Ramogi believed to be ancestor of the Luo

The ancient Egyptians believed that man was created by God who governed with the help of other gods, whose earthly representative was the Pharaoh.

Evolution Theory

Another theory advanced on the origin of man is the evolution theory by a man called Charles Darwin. This theory states that man has been changing over time as a result of adaptation to changing environments. According to Charles Darwin, all living things evolved from simple living cells to complicated plants and animals we have today.

We have said that man has been changing over time as a result of adaptation to changing environments. We have also said that all living things evolved from simple living cells to complicated plants and animals that there are today. Evolution of humans takes place through:

  1. Natural selection: the fittest organisms will always survive best in any given environment. The week organisms become extinct
  2. Mutation: this is the means by which genetic structure changes to different forms and get transmitted to the next generation
  3. Isolation and adaptation: this where species are separated by natural factors and subsequently they adapt to their new environments
  4. Speciation: this is the gradual developmental changes of species from a lower state to a more superior state

By the end of this lesson you should be able to:

  1. Identify the stages of human evolution before and during the Stone Age period.
  2. Identify characteristics of species in each of the stages.
  3. Locate in a map where the species have been found

Stages of Evolution

Man is believed to be an evolving creature due to change in the environment. This came about through several stages as illustrated on the tree of evolution shown.

Evolution tree

The following illustrations show the difference between man and the ape from whom he is believed to have descended.

The earliest primate related to humans is known as Aegyptopithecus (Egyptian ape). Aegyptopithecus lived 35-33 million years ago and its fossils have been found in the Fayum Desert in Egypt. They ate fruits, weighed 4 kgs, had enclosed eye sockets and had 32 teeth.

Dryopithecus

The next primate related to humans is an ape known as Dryopithecus. Its fossils have been found in Rusinga Island in Lake victoria, Kenya. they have also been found in North Eastern Europe and South East Asia. Dryopithecus had Long teeth and walked on four limbs. they lived from 12 to 9 million years ago.

Kenyapithecus

Kenyapithecus is another primate ape related to early humans. The remains have been found in Kericho, Fort Tenan, Samburu Hills and Ngorora in East Africa. Those that have been found in Asia are known as Ramapithecus. He lived 14 million years ago, walked on four limbs and had small canines.

Australopithecus

Australopithecus is a genus of extinct apes that are likely to be ancestral to human beings. They lived in Africa between 4 and 1 million years ago. At least seven species of australopithecines are now generally recognized. These are Australopithecus afarensis, A. africanus, A. bahrelghazali, A. anamensis, A. boisei, A. robustus, and A. aethiopicus.

They were bipedal and had an upright posture. Their teeth were more humanlike than apelike, but their brains were small and not very different from those of living apes. They weighed between 36 and 66kgs and were 1.5 metres tall.

Australopithecus also known as the southern ape is believed to have existed some 4 million years ago in the Eastern and Southern Africa. It is known to be the earliest hominid closer to modern man. It is estimated to have weighed between 36-66kgs. He was about 1.5 metres tall and had powerful teeth. This hominid is said to have walked with 2 legs (biped) and walked upright. The picture is of Australopithecus anamensis from the national museums of Kenya.

Homo Habilis

A type of extinct humans regarded as the earliest member of the human genus, Homo. The name Homo habilis means ‘handy man’. They inhabited parts of sub-Saharan Africa about 2-1.5 million years ago. Remains were first discovered in 1959 at Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania; then at Koobi Fora in the Lake Turkana region of northern Kenya and at Sterkfontein in South Africa. They walked upright and were able to make and use crude tools refered to as the Oldowan tools. It is possible that homo habilis lived at the same time with the robust Australopithecines (A. robustus /paranthropus), and perhaps also early Homo ergaster.

Homo ergaster

Homo ergaster (‘working man’) lived throughout eastern and southern Africa between 1.9 to 1.4 million years ago. The equivalent of Homo ergaster outside Africa is known as Homo erectus. The most complete Homo ergaster skeleton is the 1.6 million year old specimen known as the ‘Turkana Boy’, discovered in 1984 at Lake Turkana, Kenya.

Homo ergaster may be distinguished from H. erectus by its thinner skull bones and more straight jawed face; It is estimated that H. ergaster stood at 1.9 m. tall. Remains have been found in Tanzania, Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Africa. H. ergaster has been associated with use of advanced tools known as the Acheulean industry. The Acheulean comprised various tools such as hand-axes and cleavers. Charred animal bones in fossil deposits and traces of camps suggest that the species made creative use of fire.

Homo erectus is best presented by a specimen commonly referred to as the ‘Turkana boy’. This species was found on the western part of Lake Turkana, a place called Nariokotome in Kenya. The movie clip provided shows the whole skeleton of the species obtained from the National Museums of Kenya. The new discovery of Homo erectus by DrManthi of Museums of Kenya

Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens (intelligent or thinking man) refer to a species into which all modern human beings belong. The oldest known fossil remains of Homo sapiens date to between 120,000 and 400,000 years ago years ago. Some sites where fossil remains of Homo sapiens have been found include Eliye Springs near Lake Turkana, Kanjera and Kanam in Kenya, Omo River Valley in Ethiopia and Ngaloba in Tanzania.

Homo sapiens is distinguished from earlier species of Homo by characteristics and habits such as bipedal stance, brain capacity averaging about 1,350 cc, high forehead, small teeth and jaw, defined chin, construction and use of tools. He is said to be the transition between Homo erectus and “you and me”

Homo sapien sapiens, also known as modern human beings had virtually occupied the entire globe by 13,000 years ago. Modern humans generally have more delicate skeletons. Their skulls are more rounded and their brow ridges generally protrude much less. They also have relatively high foreheads and pointed chins. Scholars suggest that Homo sapien sapiens evolved from Homo sapiens primarily in Eastern Africa, and that they had spread to Asia by around 60,000 years ago, and to Europe by 46,000 years ago.

Early human cultural and economic activities

Culture is a peoples way of life. It includes peoples:

  1. values
  2. language
  3. food
  4. clothing
  5. technology
  6. customs

Development of Agriculture in Egypt.

Factors that led to the development of Agriculture in Egypt.
Several factors led to the development of early agriculture in Egypt:

  1. River Nile which provided water for irrigation
  2. Fertile silt deposited
  3. Wheat and barley were found growing wildly
    4. Invention of agricultural tools such as hoes and ox drawn plough
    5. Use of the shadoof irrigation

    Farm tools

    Tilling of land using Ox-driven plough
    Effects of early Agriculture in Egypt

There were several effects of early agriculture in Egypt:

  1. increased food production which led to increase in population
  2. settled life
  3. increased in trade due to surplus food
  4. development of urban centers like Memphis, Thebes and Aswan. The map provided in the next page shows these towns.

Urban centers

5. specialization in other activities like weaving, basketry, pottery and tool making
6. discovery of writing, arithmetic, geometry and use of the calendar. This enabled the Egyptians to predict seasons and measure the farms
7. increase agricultural production supported a new class of people for example the kings, priests and soldiers

EARLY AGRICULTURE IN MESOPOTAMIA

Mesopotamia means the land between two rivers, i.e. Tigris and Euphrates. These rivers were important in the development of agriculture. Mesopotamia is part of the present day Iraq. Food production in Mesopotamia began around 8000 BC and it was introduced by settlers from the Iranian plateau and the Egyptians  The Sumerians developed skills and techniques for controlling flood waters

Mesopotamia means the land between two rivers, i.e. Tigris and Euphrates. These rivers were important in the development of agriculture. Mesopotamia is part of the present day Iraq. Food production in Mesopotamia began around 8000 BC and it was introduced by settlers from the Iranian plateau and the Egyptians. The Sumerians developed skills and techniques for controlling flood waters.

Factors that led to the development of agriculture in Mesopotamia

Several factors led to the development of agriculture in Mesopotamia.

  1. Availability of indigenous crops for example wheat, dates and barley
  2. Domestication of animals for example goats, sheep and cattle for food
  3. Rivers Tigris and Euphrates deposited fertile silt during the floods
  4. The use of canal irrigation to grow crops.
  5. The Sumerians developed skills and techniques for controlling flood waters, for example, they build dykes, ditches and canals to drain water from swampy areas.
  6. The invention of ox drawn ploughs and seed drills
  7. The invention of the wheel facilitated transportation of farm produce
  8. Increased demand for food due to increased population

Effects of early Agriculture in Mesopotamia

Early agriculture had the following effects:

  1. resulted to settled life
  2. increased food production resulting in increase in population
  3. emergency of urban centres for example Kish, Erindu, Uruk, Nippur, Babylon and Ur.
  4. the development of trade
  5. promotion of religious activities
  6. emergence of rules and regulations to govern people
  7. development of writing and arithmetic to help keep records. The writing developed in Mesopotamia was called cuneiform.
  8. Development of farm implements such as seed drill, the hoe and ox-driven plough
  9. invention of the wheel

The Agrarian Revolution

Agrarian Revolution refers to the time when sudden and radical change in agricultural practices took place.

Use of tractors in farming

Describe the Agrarian revolution in Britain and U.S.A.

Agrarian revolution involved changes in:-

  1. Use of machines
  2. Enlargement of farms
  3. Scientific methods of farming
  4. Scientific methods of processing foods including preservation and refrigeration

Agrarian revolution in Britain

Agrarian Revolution began in Britain then spread to the rest of the world. Before the revolution, agriculture was practiced on small scale using simple tools like sticks, wooden hoes and wooden ploughs. They mainly practiced mono cropping, ie they grew only one type of crop in the same place every year.

Factors that influenced Agrarian evolution in Britain

The agrarian revolution in Britain was caused the following factors

  1. demand for food by the growing urban population
  2. demand for agricultural raw materials for textile industry
  3. the invention of horse drawn seed drill by Jethro Tull
  4. land consolidation and enclosure system
  5. Another factor was selective bleeding
    6. Another factor was introduction of new farming tools
    7. Another factor was application of new methods of farming for example use of fertilizers and crop rotation.
  6. Another factor was land enclosure systems by fencing
    Land enclosure had various disadvantages:-
  7. Landlessness among peasants
  8. Rural Urban migration as peasants went to towns in search of alternative livelihood
  9. Led to emigrants to other new lands such as USA, Australia and New Zealand
  10. Exploitation of poor farmers.

Establishment of the Royal Agricultural Society in 1838 was another factor that led to agrarian revolution in Britain. This society published journals which disseminated new ideas and techniques of farming.

Effects of Agrarian revolution

Effects of Agrarian revolution in Britain include;

  1. Improved methods of farming that led to increased food production
  2. Increase in population
  3. diversification of agriculture. Crops like clover, potatoes, beans, maize and citrus fruits were grown
  4. those who lost land became landless. Landlessness led to unemployment and migration to other parts of the world.
  5. Improved road networks and transport systems
  6. emergence of class of rich people in the society
  7. promotion of international trade
  8. Peasants became landless and were forced to move to towns
  9. Mechanization of farming led to unemployment. As a result, jobless people moved to towns to get jobs
  10. Establishment of large scale farming to replace subsistence farming created a class of landless people as some became farm laborers while others moved to towns and mines to look for employment.
  11. It resulted to the landless peasants migrating to other parts of the world eg Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand
  12. It led to improvement of transport system for example road and railways

An industry

  1. It led to the rise of a class of rich people who specialized in agriculture
    12. It promoted both local and international trade
    13. The price of the land in Britain increased considerably
    14. It resulted to improved standards of living
    Agrarian revolution in U.S.A
    Agrarian revolution rapidly spread to other places. One of the places where it spread to was U.S.A

    It is important to review the previous lesson by looking at the highlights of agrarian revolution in Britain. The agrarian revolution in Britain was caused by some of the following factors;

  2. high demand for food by the growing urban population
  3. great demand for agricultural raw materials for many modern and improved textile factories
  4. mechanization introduced by Jethro Tull, especially the invention of horse drawn seed drill
  5. identify the factors that led to the development of agriculture in USA
  6. explain how agrarian revolution developed
  7. discuss the effects of development of agriculture in USA

Factors that led to the development of agriculture in USA

Agrarian revolution did not only take place in Britain, but also spread to other areas. An example is agrarian revolution in the USA. The factors that led to the development of agriculture in USA include

land enclosure system in Britain that left many people landless. This made them to move to America where they got involved in agriculture

religious / political differences in Britain and other parts of Europe such as German, France etc forced many Europeans to migrate and settle in America

laborers and craftsmen from Britain migrated to USA in search of better lives
relocation of prisoners who found an opportunity in farming

Other factors that contributed to agrarian revolution in USA included The teaching of agricultural economics, discovery of the preservation methods and government assistance in the form of grants.

It is also important to note that the development of Agriculture in USA existed even before the coming of the Europeans.

The teaching of agricultural economics, i.e. use of agricultural fertilizers and introduction of the spinning wheel.

discovery of the preservation methods

government assistance in the form of grants

Modern Farming

Development

The development of agriculture was gradual. It is important to note that agriculture existed in America even before the coming of Europeans. The indigenous people used to grow crops such as

  1. maize
  2. yams
  3. tobacco
  4. coco
  5. pepper
  6. beans

In the 17th century, European settlers started to establish settlement in North America. This was due to favorable climate in USA. With increased migration to USA, the agrarian revolution started in the 18th century. It was characterized by modern plantations, estate farming, crop joining, and the use of hybrid seeds, animals and farm machinery. Another notable feature of agrarian revolution in USA was the introduction of new technology in farming. In 1863, the homesteads act legalized individual land ownership.

Effects of Agrarian revolution in U.S.A

Agrarian revolution had various effects. Some of these are;

  1. food shortage was common due to harsh climate or failure in rainfall
  2. population increase
  3. diversification of agriculture as indigenous crops were improved besides animal husbandry
  4. these changes gave rise to more research and scientific innovation
  5. increased industrialization as many factories were opened to process agricultural products

Factory processing agricultural products

The expansion in agricultural production led to increase in trade between the USA and Western Europe
The expansion in agricultural production led to increase in trade between the USA and Western Europe

Trade between USA and Europe

The food situation in Africa and other Third World Countries
The term Third World refers to less developed countries most of which are found in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

These countries have some common characteristics. They;

  1. were once colonized
  2. have weak economies.
  3. experience constant food shortages.
  4. rely on the developed countries for aid.
  5. some political instabilities.
  6. have chronic food shortages.

Third world countries in most cases are unable to feed their populations and often rely on food relief from international organizations.

  1. Identify the causes of food shortages in Africa and the rest of the Third World.
  2. Discuss the effects of food shortages in Africa and the rest of the Third World.
  3. Discuss the remedies of food shortage in Africa and the rest of the Third World

People receiving relief food

Factors contributing to food shortages in Third World countries
Several factors have contributed to food shortages in Third World countries. These include:
1. High rate of population growth in the Third World compared to the rate of food production.

Family
2. Poor methods of farming:
3. Inadequate funds for agricultural practices
4. Adverse climatic conditions
5.Natural calamities such as draught and floods

Dead animals due to drought

6.Desertification.
7. Over-emphasis on cash crops:
8. Rural-urban migration leading to shortage of labour on the farms
9. Political instability which affects agricultural production
10. Poor infrastructure for example roads and railways

Pot holed road

  1. Pests and diseases which affect food production
    12. Poor and inadequate storage facilities for storage of surplus produce.
    13. HIV and AIDS and other tropical diseases that reduce productivity in labour force
    14. Poor economic planning
    15. Neglect of indigenous drought-resistance crops

    Effects of food shortage in Africa and other Third World countries

Food shortage has led to devastating effects in the Third World countries. These include:

  1. Loss of lives
    2. Increasing suffering among the people for example malnourished mothers will deliver sickly and weak children.
    3. Social problems in the society for example raiding neighboring communities.
    4. Rise in number of refugees as people flee their countries due to drought and famine.
    5. Under-development because a lot of money is used on importation of food.
    6. Dependence on food aid from developed countries.
    7. Unemployment due to collapse of the agricultural industries.

    Remedies to food shortage in the Third World

Third World countries have taken several steps to alleviate the problem food shortage;
1. Introduction of new methods of farming which have resulted to increased production.
2. More land has been brought under irrigation to counter the inadequate rainfall. Click on play button to view movie on irrigation .
3. More land has been reclaimed hence increasing arable land.
4. Good storage facilities have been built to minimize the loses.
5. Government should formulate better food policies. This enhances utilization of available land.
6. Governments should intervene to stop civil strife by peaceful means. This will ensure that the resources in those countries are used effectively.
7. Mobilization of funds by the government to boost agricultural production some of the crops that can be grown with funding to farmers
8. Farmers should be encouraged to grow drought resistant crops such as sorghum, yams, millet and cassava.
9. Developing countries should improve their transport networks so that farm produce can be transported easily to the market.
10. Establishments of co-operative society which assist the farmers in accessing credit facilities, marketing produce and getting farm inputs.

Steps taken by the Kenyan Government to solve food shortage

  1. Extensive research has been carried out in research institutions for example the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI). This has led to the production of hybrid crops like maize. Other institutions include I C I PE (International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology), International Livestock Research Institute (I L R I)
  2. Genetically engineered crops and animals which have been introduced in the Kenyan agricultural sector. For example bananas that are resistant to pests and diseases have been developed by Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology and K A R I.

Genetically engineered banana

  1. Establishment of Agricultural Training Institutions to train experts like agricultural officers, veterinary doctors and horticulture experts. Examples of such institution are J K U A T and University of Nairobi.

    4. The government has introduced the teaching of agriculture in the school curriculum.
    5. The government has educated people on the need for family planning.
    6. The government has formulated a food security policy to enhance production in the country.

The peoples of Kenya migrated from their original homelands and settled in various parts of Kenya . Use the scroll bar to see peoples’ movement from various places.
People and their movements

The term Bantu refers to a group of people who speak related languages. They make up the largest language group in Africa. Use the scroll bar to see Bantus movement from their origin..

The social political and economic organization of the Ameru in the 19th Century
The Ameru belong the Eastern group of the Bantu. As they migrated, they interacted with various communities. This interaction enabled them to develop a system of government that ensured high standards of morality and stability.There are several sub-tribes of the Ameru.These are; Igembe, Tigania, ImentiMiitine, Igoji, Mwimbi, Muthambi, Chuka, Tharaka. The map provided in the next page shows the current settlement of the Ameru.

Social organization

There are several aspects of the Ameru social organization.

– they had councils which ranged from the children councils to the supreme councils.

– the supreme council was known as NjuriNcheke. This council made the moral code which was followed by all.

  1. the council ensured a high standard of morality in the society.
    4. there were penalties for those who did not adhere to the moral code for example they paid fines like a bundle of miraa, a pot of cowpeas for women and even a bull or goat.
    5. marriage was an important social institution. Marriage within the same clan was not allowed
    6. theAmeru believed in the existence of a supreme God called BaabaWeetu (our father). They believed that their God was omnipresent and was loving to all.
    7. they believed in the existence of spirits who played a significant role in the community.
    8. they believed in life after death.
    9. they initiated both boys and girls through circumcision
    10. initiation was important because it ensured upright behavior, instilled courage and enhanced the devotion of a person to the community.
    11. there was division of labor among the Ameru for example women built houses while men defended the community. The movie shows a woman smoothing the wall of her house.

    Political Organization

  2. The clan formed the basis of the Ameru political system
  3. They had a system of councils which was in charge of the day to day running of the community
  4. The supreme council of elders was called NjuriNcheke. This council was responsible for settling disputes. They also presided over religious ceremonies and functions
  5. The Ameru had an age set system which provided the community with warriors for defense. The warriors were called Nthaka and were isolated from the community for military training
    5. They had religious leaders who influenced their political administration, for example Mugwe.

Economic Organization

The Ameru engaged in various economic activities. These included

  1. cultivation crops like millet, black beans and miraa
  2. kept animals like cattle, sheep and goats
  3. traded with their neighbors for example the Agikuyu
    4. made iron tools like spears, arrows and knives
    5. hunted wild animals and gathered wild fruits and vegetables to supplement their diet
    6. practiced basketry, weaving and pottery

    The Social, Political and Economic organization of the Abagusii in the 19th century
    The Abagusii belong to the Western Bantu speakers. They settled in the Kisii Highlands in the southern parts of Nyanza.

    organization of the Abagusii

  4. The clan was the basis of their social organization. Members of the clan shared a common ancestor.
  5. They circumcised both boys and girls.
  6. During initiation, the initiates were taught community values, customs. Taboos and secrets.
  7. The Abagusii believed in the existence of a powerful God called Engoro, who was the overall creator.
  8. They believed in ancestral spirits who mediated between God and man.
  9. They offered sacrifices to appease the spirits.
  10. They had diviners, seers and priests.
  11. Priests offered prayers whereas diviners interpreted God’s message to the people.

Political Organization of the Abagusii

The clan formed the basis of their political setup.

Each clan occupied a ridge and was led by a council of Elders. The council of Elders had the following functions:

(i) It solved clan and land disputes
(ii) It maintained law and order
(iii) It disciplined offenders and law breakers
2. The Abagusii had a hereditary clan Chief called Omogambi (plural Abagambi). The Abagambi presided over religious ceremonies.
4. They had age-sets formed after circumcision. These acted as the military wing responsible for the defence of the community.

Economic organization of the Abagusii

They engaged in several economic activities. They;

– cultivated crops like millet and sorghum.

— kept animals like cattle, sheep and goats for meat, milk and skins

– traded with their neighbors, for example the Luo. They exchanged grains, iron tools and soapstone with the Luo for fish.

The Cushites

The Cushitic speakers are said to have originated from the Ethiopian Highlands. It is from here that they moved to their current homelands. In Kenya they arrived in two groups, the Eastern and southern Cushites

Current settlement of the Cushites

The social political and economic organization of the Somali in the 19th century
The Somali are the largest group of Eastern Cushitic speakers in Kenya. They are believed to have originated from the Northern part of present day Somalia along the Gulf of Eden. The Somali of Kenya speak the same language with their kin in Somalia. The map provided in the next page shows their current settlement.

Social Organization

  1. Their social setup was based on the clan which consisted of related families
  2. They circumcised boys who became members of an age set
  3. They believed in the existence of a God called Wak whom they believed was creator and controller of all aspects of their lives
  4. They also had people who mediated between them and god in the religious centers
  5. In the 16th century, they interacted with Muslims and adopted Islamic culture and religion
  6. There was division of labor according to gender, for example men took care of animals while women carried out domestic chores and constructed houses
  7. The institution of marriage was highly valued and was polygamous in nature.
  8. Marriage within the same clan was not allowed.

Political Organization of the Somali

  1. The Somali had a decentralized system of government
  2. It was based on the clan which comprised of related families
  3. Due to their pastoralists’ way of life, their political organization was not stable
  4. The clan was headed by a council of elders which had the following duties:
  5. a) maintaining law and order
    b) settling land disputes

    The Somali had the age set system which formed the basis of their military organization. The age sets had a responsibility of defending the community

    6.Due to Islamic influence, the Somali political set up was changed. They adopted the institution of sheikhs and imams as leaders of the community

    An Imam

7.The political system was based on the Islamic sharia law

Economic activities of the Somali

The Somali had several economic activities

  1. They were nomadic pastoralists
    2. They kept animals like camels, cattle, goats and sheep from which they got milk, blood and meat.
    3. They traded with their neighbors. They exchanged their goods with the Pokomo and the MijiKenda
    4. A section of the Somali practiced iron working and craft industries for example pottery and weaving.
    5. They practiced hunting and gathering

    Nilotes
    The craddle land of the Nilotic speakers is said to be Bahr el Gaza in Sudan. From these place, they moved and settled in different areas. One group settled along the River Nile region and came to be known as the River Lake Nilotes. Another group moved into the plains and glasslands of the Rift valley and were known as the plain Nilotes. The other group settled around Mount Elgon and came to be known as the the Highlands Nilotes. In this lesson we are going discuss the maasai.

    The social political and economic organization of the Maasai in the 19th century
    The Maasai belong to the plain Nilotic speakers. They expanded as far as Northern Tanzania by the end of the second half of the 18th Century. By 19th Century, they had reached the peak of their power and they developed political, social and economic institutions

    The Maasai belong to the plain Nilotic speakers. They expanded as far as Northern Tanzania by the end of the second half of the 18th Century. By 19th Century, they had reached the peak of their power and they developed political, social and economic institutions. The map provided shows their current settlement.
    Discuss the social, political and economic organization of the Maasai in the 19th Century

    Social organization of the maasai

  2. Their social organization was based on the clan. Each clan had a particular brand of cattle. There were five clans which were spread throughout Maasai land
  3. They circumcised both boys and girls at puberty
  4. After initiation, the boys joined an age set which they belonged to for the rest of their lives
    4. The age set formed a bond that united all the Maasai
    5. Boys circumcised together joined the junior warrior class called the Morans
    6. The Morans lived in special homesteads called Manyattas
    7. The Maasai had diviners and medicine men.
    8. By the first half of the 19th century, the PurkoMaasai created the institution of the Oloibon
    9. The Oloibon was a religious leader who presided over religious ceremonies. He was the custodian of rituals. He blessed the warriors before going to war.
    10. The Maasai believed in the existence of a God called Enkai
    11. They offered prayers and sacrifices to Enkai at the shrines
    12. The Maasai had several social ceremonies which marked their rites of passage like birth, circumcision and death
    13. The most important of these ceremonies was the Euonoto ceremony that marked the graduation of the Morans into junior elders

    Political organization of the Maasai

  5. The largest political unit among the Maasai was the tribal section. It was a geographically distinct entity which operated as a nation
  6. Their governing system was based on the age set. For example, affairs involving inter clan cooperation were delt with within meetings comprising age set spokesmen
  7. After circumcision, the Morans joined the rank of junior warriors whose functions included:
  8. defending the community against external attacks
    ii. conducting raids for cattle
    4. The warriors were led by a military leader called Olaiguani
    5. The Maasai had junior elders who formed the political authority. The junior elders had the following functions
    i. they evaluated the day to day issues affecting the community
    ii. they were the heads of their households
    iii. they maintained law and order
    6. The junior leaders were allowed to own livestock
    7. The junior elders graduated into senior elders. This comprised the senior most age set among the Maasai
    8. Senior eldersdelt with difficult cases and political decisions
    9. In the 19th century, the maasai adapted the institution of the Oloibon, a religious leader who assumed political powers
    10.The Oloibon became a unifying force for example during time of crisis like war

    Economic organization of the Maasai

  9. The Maasai were mainly pastoralists. They practiced nomadic pastoralism. Cattle provided milk and meat, and were a measure of one’s wealth.
  10. They raided their neighbors for cattle e.g., they raided the Luo, the Nandi, Agikuyu and Abagusii
  11. A section of the Maasai, the Kwavi, practiced cultivation of crops like finger millet and sorghum in addition to pastoralsim
    4.They traded with their neighbors for example the Agikuyu, Kalenji, Taita and Abagusii
    5.They practiced crafts like basket weaving, making leather items like sandals and necklaces
    6. The Maasai practiced hunting and gathering to supplement their diet
    7. They practiced iron-working and they made items like spears, arrowheads, hoes and swords

East African coast

Establishment and Impact of Omani rule in the coast.

The Arabs replaced the Portuguese who had ruled the East coast of Africa for about 200 years. The Omani Arabs wanted to control the East African coast for the following reasons;

  1. Trade with people of East Africa
  2. To spread their religion Islam
  3. East African Coast was Strategically positioned
  4. Religious persecutions in Omani
  5. Good climate for Agriculture in East Africa
  6. Good natural harboolves bringing people or groups in the opposing sides together.

Law enforcement officers restoring peace during the 2007 post election violence in Kenya

  1. define conflict resolution
  2. identify methods of resolving conflicts
  3. describe the process of resolving conflicts

Causes of conflict

There are several causes of conflicts. These include:

(i) Economic causes
This may arise when a number of parties disagree on matters that affect the development of trade, industry and wealth for a example a dispute between employers and employees where the employees seek higher pay.

(ii) Social causes.
This occurs when people in a group or community fail to agree on matters affecting their social life for example a family dispute, land disputes.

(iii) Political causes.
This arises out of political differences for example difference between political parties and boundary disputes between countries.

Methods of resolving conflicts

As we mentioned earlier, conflict resolution refers to ways of settling disputes or disagreements when they occur.

There are various ways through which conflicts are settled. They are discussed here. Click on the above panel for more details on the methods of conflict resolution.

Negotiation:
This refers to discussions between people who are trying to reach an agreement. It involves three important steps. These are;

Fact finding which involves finding the root cause of the dispute

Disussion which involves a give and take situation.This creats a friendly environment to solve the conflict.

Reaching an agreement which involves the parties showing willingness to compromise for the negotiation to succeed.

Arbitration

The process of arbitration involves:-
(i) The sides involved in the conflict should be ready to present their case.
(ii) The arbitrator then asks questions to clarify some aspect after listening to each side.
(iii) Based on the applicable rules, the arbitrator considers the facts and makes a decision to settle the dispute.

Mediation
This involves a situation where a person who is not involved in a dispute tries to help two conflicting groups to reach an agreement. The parties involved must be willing to listen and come up with good ideas that will enable them reach an agreement

Kofi Annan former UN Secretary General who mediated peace after the 2007 post election violence in Kenya

There are several steps towards meditation
(i) The mediator explains the rules.
(ii) The parties involved in the conflict explain in their own words what the problem is.
(iii) The mediator summarizes the facts from submission of the two sides.
(iv) Solutions are suggested by the mediator and the parties are invited to give their opinions on the solution.
(v) Depending on the parties’ reaction the solution may be looked at afresh to get an acceptable solution.
(vi) An acceptable agreement is reached by both parties which is written down. Both parties must be committed to it.

Compromise

This is based on bargaining where the opposing parties take a middle position in the conflict. They accept the conflict between them and the fact that they can co-exist.
Problem Solving
This method attempts to determine the root causes of a conflict and then resolve the basic issues.
This is possible where there is mutual trust among the conflicting parties.

Collaboration

This is where there is willingness by the opposing parties in the conflict to work with the other to resolve differences between them.

THE PROCESS OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION

There are several phases involved in the process of resolving conflicts. These are:

(i) Recognizing that a conflict situation exists.
(ii) Diagnosing the conflict. This involves establishing the nature of the conflict and its causes.
(iii) Examining the grievances because most conflicts are caused by a situation where parties have varying information.
(iv) Determine how far the conflict has advanced.
(v) Problem solving or handling grievances.

Relevant information is examined and a range of possible solutions is considered. The ideas are critically considered from the alternatives given.
(vi) Implementing the solution: This should be done with careful planning to avoid any further conflict.
(vii) The follow up action; which involves establishing the degree of effectiveness of the solution.
(viii) Evaluating the solution to determine the reasons behind success or failure.

  1. Name the different Arab families that were ruling the East African Coast
  2. Explain at least five reasons for the establishment of Omani rule along the East African Coast
  3. Discuss the effects of Omani rule on the East African Coast

Initially the Omani Arabs administered the region through Arab families namely:

  1. Mombasa by Mazrui family
  2. Lamu by Nabahami family
  3. Zanzibar by Abusaidi family

However the Omani Arabs were not able to control the region due to various reasons

  1. Civil war in Oman
  2. Persian threats of invasion
  3. Rebellion from the Coastal towns
  4. The harsh rule of the Omani rulers
  5. Dual responsibilities of controlling Oman and East African Coast
  6. Disunity among the ruling families

The Oman Arabs were controlling Oman and the East African Coast at the same time. This proved difficult, hence they had to entrust local Arab families to administer the East African Coast. These local Arab families were:

  1. Mazrui family to control Mombasa
  2. Nabahan family to control Lamu

Old Lamu

The Mazrui family took advantage of the long distance of East African Coast and Oman, and claimed autonomy of Mombasa. The rebellion was led by Mohammad Ibn Uthman. The Mazrui family allied with the MijiKenda to revolt against Omani rule. They also forced other Coastal towns to pay homage to them. These were Malindi, Pate and Pemba

Malindi, Pate and Pemba

The Mazrui rebellion was later crashed resulting in the assassination of Ibn Uthman.The Oman Arabs with the help of Abusaidy’s family managed to bring the East Coast of Africa under their control. They moved the capital from Muscat in Oman to Zanzibar in 1840. Seyyid Said became the Sultan of Zanzibar.The capital was consequently moved from Muscat in Oman to Zanzibar in 1840. Seyyid Said became the sultan of Zanzibar.

SeyyidSeyyid

Seyyid Said and the development of plantation agriculture
Now listen to this conversation between Seyyid Said and an Imam in Zanzibar

From the conversation, you have heard that Seyyid Said decided to move his capital to Zanzibar so that he could have better control of the East African coast.
Due to the fertile soils and the adequate rainfall favorable for large scale farming, he established plantation agriculture

He also introduced growing of crops using plantation. The crops were cloves, coconuts, maize, millet, rice, beans, sim sim and sorghum. Mangoes, citrus fruits and cashew nuts were also grown

Since plantation agriculture depended on intensive labour, use of slaves became necessary. Increase in internal demand for labour due to intensive agriculture made importation of slaves necessary thus leading to slave trade.

He also encouraged settlers from Oman to come and acquire land in Zanzibar for crop growing.

Effects of Omani Rule

The Oman rule affected the people of East Africa in the following ways:

  1. Led to the increase in slave trade. Slaves were needed for work in the crop plantations in East Africa and in Brazil
  2. It led to depopulation because of the slave trade

Slave trade
3. Increased warfare as a result of slave raids
4. Decline of traditional industries e.g. pottery, weaving, etc
5.Introduction of new crops e.g. cloves, rice, spices, sugarcane, mangoes
6.Introduction of new architectural designs e.g. mosques and other buildings
7. It led to the opening of East African Coast to the outside world. This improved trade both internally and internationally
8. It led to growth of coastal towns e.g. Mombasa, Malindi, Zanzibar and Lamu
9. Introduction of new religion (Islamic) and Swahili culture

Islamic men’s cloth

  1. increase in slave trade. Slaves were needed to work in the crop plantations in East Africa and as domestic servants in Arabia
  2. depopulation because of the slave trade
  3. Introduction of new architectural designs e.g. mosques and other buildings. The movie provided shows Fort Jesus, an example of the architectural design.
    4. Increased warfare as a result of slave raids
    6. opening of East African Coast to the outside world. This improved trade both internally and internationally
    7. growth of coastal towns e.g. Mombasa, Malindi, Zanzibar and Lamu
    8. Introduction of new religion Islam and Swahili culture

    National Integration

We have learnt that Kenya has different communities living in it. It is important for these communities to live together in harmony. In this session, we are going to look at how people can live together in peace.

National integration

As you tackle National integration, it is important that you know clearly some of the terms that are at times confusing. They have been defined as follows:
A Nation is a large community of people usually sharing a common
a) history
b) culture
c) language
d) one government
e) one territory
f) common experiences

The concept of nation and ethnic are similar, the only difference is that a nation has a political aspect while an ethnic group refers to social cultural identity. In Kenya, there are many ethnic groups, for example
a) Maasai
b) Akamba
c) Oromo
d) Pokot
e) Kuria
f) Taita
g) Giriama

State: An institution formed by people occupying a particular geographical territory for common goal and under one government

Nation state: this is a term loosely applied to all modern states (countries) but mostly to states where population is made up of one nation under one government
Government: the machinery in which the state operates. It comprises parliament, civil service and the courts

Kenya gaining independence

  1. Define the term National integration
  2. Explain the importance of national integration.
  3. State factors that promote and limit national integration.

Meaning of National Integration :

National integration is the process of bringing together people with different customs, values, culture language etc to make a nation.
National integration is important to our nation in the following ways:

  1. promotes national unity
  2. brings peaceful co existence of different ethnic groups and races
  3. gives a sense of national direction
  4. it is easier, more efficient and more accurate when communicating the policies of the government.

Factors that promote national integration

There are many factors that promote national integration. These include:

  1. Common language, for example Kiswahili. This increases national unity and breaks ethnic differences
  2. Education brings national integration because there is uniformity in the following areas:
  3. a) Examination
  4. b) Syllabus
    c) Teachers
    National activities – common activities among people help promote national unity. For example national days remind Kenyans of important national events in their history
  5. Agricultural and trade fairs which enable the different economic sectors to display and advertise their goods and services. For example, the Nairobi international trade fair

    5. National symbols give identity to Kenyans. These are: i) National Flag

    a) Black – symbolizes the color of the people
    b) Red – symbolizes the blood shed during the struggle for independence
    c) White – symbolizes peace
    d) Green – symbolizes the fertility of the land

The flag also has a shield and two spears. These are symbols of defense of life, truth, justice, freedom and peace.

  1. ii) National anthem: the playing of the national anthem brings a strong sense of patriotism for one’s country

iii) Coat of arms: Coat of arms is found in different items and places to represent the government of Kenya. It is found in currency, government buildings, official government letters, official presidential vehicle and Kenyan Embassies in foreign countries.

  1. Kenyans come together in support of their sports men and women.

    Another factor that promote national integration is the constitution which is a set of rules agreed upon by a group of people living together.One government, yet another factor key in national integrity, refers to the three arms that run the affairs of the nation at various levels. They are the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.

    The arms of the government

    The presidency unifies Kenyans. The president is the spokes person and international representative of all Kenyans

    The mass media is important in that it ensures that information is disseminated to all at the same time. It enables Kenyans from all parts of the country to contribute to national debates before decisions of national importance are made.

    Factors that hinder National Integration

National integration can be hindered by the following factors

  1. Racism – discrimination based on race
  2. Tribalism- practice of favoring people because they are from one’s ethnic group
  3. Nepotism – practice of favoring people because they are related to you
  4. Corruption – practice of using one’s position or power for selfish gains
  5. Greed – a situation where one has an extreme desire to acquire wealth or power disregarding other peoples’ welfare.
  6. poverty- state of lacking the basic needs such as food, shelter, clothing

Conflict Resolution

When people live together, disagreements are inevitable. These disagreements are referred to as conflicts. They could be as a result of self interest or differing ideas. It is important that a way is sought to restore peace hence conflict resolution. This is where disputes are settled and peace is restored.

Meaning of conflict

Conflict refers to a situation where people or groups are involved in disagreement. This could be as a result of self-interest or differing ideas.

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