1. Name two archeological sites in Kenya *KKC*
  2. -Kobi Fora -Rusinga Island                                                                                                   *KKC*

-Gamble cave -Fort Ternan

-Kariandusi -Hyrax Hill

  1. Identify one role of the Njuri Ncheke among the Ameru of Kenya in the pre-colonial period *KKC*
  2. – Settled disputes among members of the clan.             *KKC*

     –  Final court of appeal

   –  Presided over religious functions

  1. Give two written evidences of contact between the Kenyan coast and the outside world *KKC*
  2. – Periplus of Erythrean sea.             *KKC*

 – Greco — Roman documentary

–  Ibin Batuta and Al-Masudi documents

  1. State two economic effects of Seyyid Said’s rule on East African Coast *KKC*
  2. – Revival of the Indian ocean trade             *KKC*

–  Encouraged establishment of plantation Agriculture.

–  Encouraged trade in the interior of East Africa

  1. Give the main trade item from the interior during the long- distance trade in Kenya in the

16th century                                                                                                                                    *KKC*

  1. – slaves                                                                                                                                  *KKC*
  2. State two ways in which the Nandi undermined the construction of the Kenya- Uganda railway *KKC*
  3. – Fought against the British administrators and railway workers.                         *KKC*

– Declined to provide African labour

–  Looted the construction materials.

–  Decline to supply food to the railway workers

  1. Identify one term of the Devonshire white paper of 1923 *KKC*
  2. – Interests of the Africans were declared paramount             *KKC*

–  African would get representation in the legco through a missionary.

–  Kenya Highlands were to be left for the whites

  1. Give two roles of AEMO in the struggle for independence in Kenya *KKC*
  2. – Mobied African nationalists in Kenya against the colonial government.                                   *KKC*

–  Led to the demand of self-government.

–  Demanded for increased African representation in the legco.

–  Agitated for release of African detainees

  1. State two functions of African chiefs during colonial administration in Kenya *KKC*
  2. – Recruit labour for Europeans             *KKC*

–  Collect taxes.

–  Construct roads and public utilities

–  Maintain law and order.

  1. Identify the main philosophy during the reign of president Moi *KKC*
  2. – Nyayoism                                                                                                                             *KKC*
  3. Identify two political challenges in Kenya after independence *KKC*
  4. 11. – Assassinations i.e Tom Mboya, J.M. Kariuki             *KKC*

–  Change of constitutions

–  Existence of tribal or Ethnic organizations

  1. Name the first vice president of Kenya *KKC*
  2. Oginga Odinga *KKC*
  3. Name two women in Kenya who contributed towards the struggle for independence in Kenya *KKC*
  4. – Wamuyu Gakuru — Nyeri             *KKC*

– Chief Mang’ana — Kadem — Wanjiru Nyamarutu

–  Kobilo Kwondoat Kimosop — Ingen medicine woman

– Moraamoka Ngiti — Gusii prophetss

– Mekatilili wa menza — Giriama

– Wambui Otieno

– Marshall Muthoni


  1. Identify two rights of a Kenyan child as provided for in the children’s act *KKC*
  2. – Right to life             *KKC*

–  Right to name and identity

–  Good medical care

–  Right to education

–  Right to play and leisure

  1. State two political causes of conflict in the Kenyan Society *KKC*
  2. – Rigging of elections                         *KKC*

–  Tribal and regional groupings during election campaign.

–  Increased influx of refugees from neighbouring countries.

–  Border disputes i.e Migingo Island

  1. a) State three social factors for the migration of the Bantu to their present day area *KKC*
  2. a) – Overpopulation in cradle land                                                                                           *KKC*

– Spirit of adventure

–  Outbreak of human epidemics

  1. b) Describe the political organization of the Mijikenda during pre-colonial period *KKC*
  2. b) – The clan was the basic political unit.                                                                               *KKC*

–  It had a decentralized system of government

–  Each clan had a council of elders (kambi)

–  It acted as final court of appeal on judicial matters.

–  There was the age-set system which provided warriors

–  Warriors defended the community against external attacks as well as expanding

     the   territories.

–  Intermarriages among clans encouraged strength of their social and political unity.

  1. a) Give five reasons for the easy conquest of the E.A coast by the Portuguese before

16th Century                                                                                                                       *KKC*

  1. a) – The coastal towns were unprepared to fight the Portuguese.             *KKC*

   – The Portuguese were armed with superior and modern arms.

  – Disunity among the coastal towns

 – Portuguese were determined to conquer and settle at the East Coast.

– Well-trained Portuguese soldiers.

– Inferior weapons used by the coastal people

  1. b) Explain the impact of Portuguese rule on E.A Coast             *KKC*
  2. b) – Decline of the Indian ocean trade                                                                                *KKC*

    –  Destruction of the coastal city states

  –  News crops were introduced

–  Developed the Kiswahili language

–  Construction of Fort Jesus — remained a Historical site.

    introduced Christianity

  1. a) State reasons for Maasai collaboration with the British during the colonial period *KKC*
  2. a) – Wanted protection against their traditional enemies i.e Agikuyu                         *KKC*

–  Lenana wanted their assistance against his brother Sendeyo in their succession dispute

–  The Lenana hoped to be made a paramount chief.

–  Hoped to receive Western modernization/civilization  education

–  Natural calamities had weakened the maasai to resist

  1. b) Explain how settler farming affected Africans in Kenya during colonial rule             *KKC*
  2. b) – African land was alienated/Africans became squatters             *KKC*

–  Forced labour to work on European farms

–  Africans were confined into reserves

–  Led to forced taxation to raise revenue to maintain European farms.

–  Interfered with traditional farming systems of the Africans.

     –    Undermined African culture

  1. a) State three features of independent churches and schools in Kenya during the colonial

period                                                                                                                                  *KKC*

  1. a) – Both were run by African leaders             *KKC*

–  Both embraced European practices and African traditional practice

–  They were tribal or Ethnic based organizations

–  Opposed colonialism

  1. b) Explain six roles played by political movements in Kenya during the struggle for

independence                                                                                                                     *KKC*

  1. b) – Created unity among Africans from diversed Ethnic and regional background. *KKC*

–  Created awareness among people about the rights and ills of colonial Administration.

–  They became grounds of training for future political leaders.

–  Laid the foundation for political parties which led Kenya to Independence.

–  Demanded for self-government.

–  Opposed land alienation and racial discrimination

  1. a) State three devices of direct democracy practiced in Kenya             *KKC*
  2. a) – Universal suffrage             *KKC*

– Free and fair elections

– Referendum democracy

– Plebiscite

  1. b) Explain the process of constitution making in Kenya             *KKC*
  2. b) – Civic education conducted by the constitution of Kenya Review commission.               *KKC*

–  Public consultation – Commission receives from the public about the proposed constitution

–  National constitutional conference. Selected people meet to agree on the constitution.

–  The referendum. Here the people vote (decide) directly on the constitution.

–  The national Assembly. Parliament gives final approval on the constitution

  1. a) State five reforms undertaken in the prison department in Kenya                         *KKC*
  2. a) – Improvement on the diet provided to inmates             *KKC*

– Improved medical services

– Provision of distance learning to prisoners

– Allowing prisoners to watch, read and listen to news

– Easing of congestion in prisons

– Visits by spouses among married prisoners.

– Provision of clothing and bedding

  1. b) Explain functions of the speaker of the national Assembly in Kenya             *KKC*
  2. b) – Chairs parliamentary sessions.                                                                                          *KKC*

–  Spokesman of parliament.

– Presides over the proceedings of the House

–  Declares a seat vacant hence a by-election.

–  Ensures orders is observed and adhere to the rules followed.

–  Maintains attendance register of parliament

–  Swears in members of parliament before participating in house deliberations.

  1. a) State why the government of Kenya prepares national estimates                         *KKC*
  2. a) – Assist the government to identify sources of revenue.                                                      *KKC*

–  Government can prioritize its needs

–  Enables the government to control its expenditure.

–  Government determines and cpluin to the public tax structure.

–  Government can plan for future operations

–  Assists the government to set standards of performance

  1. b) Explain how the government of Kenya ensures its revenue is well spend                         *KKC*
  2. b ) – Government estimates must have parliamentary approval.             *KKC*

–  Parliament approves money allocated to each ministry.

–  Supplementary estimates are approved by parliament.

–  All government expenditure is audited by the controller and auditor general

–  Parastatal accounts are audited by the auditor general of State Corporation.

–  Public accounts committee examines government expenditure

  1. Name one source of the history of Kenyan community during pre-colonial period *KKE*
  2. – Oral tradition *KKE*

   – Anthropology

– Linquistics

– Genetics

– Written sources

– Archeology        

  1. Name one city state that developed on the Kenyan coast by 1500 AD *KKE*
  2. – Mombasa             *KKE*

– Gedi

– Sofala

– Vumba

– Lamu

– Kilwa e.t.c.

  1. State two reasons why the Akamba participated in the long distance trade *KKE*

– Their land was unsuitable for agriculture                                                                        *KKE*

– Their land was centrally situated between the coast and the interior making it possible for them to

– High demand for ivory

– Availability of trade goods

– They were skilled traders

  1. State one negative effect of the Indian Ocean trade before 1500 AD *KKE*

– Importation of goods led to decline of local industries                                                    *KKE*

– Led to destruction of wild life due to increased demand for ivory

– East Coast was exposed to foreigners who eventually colonized the region

– It increased inter – communal warfare due to the demand of slaves

  1. Name the Nandi leader during their resistance to the British colonial rule *KKE*
  2. – Koitalel Arap samoei             *KKE*
  3. State two effects of the land alienation on the Africans *KKE*
  4. – Led to widespread poverty among Africans             *KKE*

– Led to development of the squatter system

– Africans were pushed into created reserves and marginal areas

– Led to overcrowding in reserves

– Led to misery, low wages and poor working conditions among Africans

  1. Name two chartered companies that acquired colonies in east Africa *KKE*
  2. – I.B.E.A. Co *KKE*

   – G.E.A Co

  1. State two factors which undermine the performance of local authorities in Kenya *KKE*
  2. – Inadequate funds – to finance them services             *KKE*

– Lack of administrative autonomy since the ministry of local government has wide powers above

– Tax evasion- by individuals and organizations which pose a problem for their operations

– Mismanagement due to lack of qualified staff/ nepotism/ tribalism

– Population pressure which puts a lot of strain to the local authorities making it impossible

     to provide adequate social services e.g. water, housing e.t.c.

– Size of local authority – the power given to the minister to upgrade local authorities has

   been misused whereas some are too small and too poor to undertake responsibility expected

   of them

  1. Name the British governor that was involved in the drafting of the Kenyan multi-racial

constitution in 1954                                                                                                                       *KKE*

  1. – Lyttleton             *KKE*
  2. State two reasons why the Kenyan prisons are categorized *KKE*
  3. – Gender sensitivity/ sex         *KKE*

– Age

– Different crimes committed

  1. Identify two types of local authorities in Kenya *KKE*
  2. – County councils *KKE*

– City councils

– Municipal councils

– Town councils

– Urban and area councils

  1. State one function of the Orkoiyot in the pre colonial Kenya *KKE*
  2. – Settled disputes *KKE*

-Presided over religious functions

-Maintained law and order

-Blessed warriors before going to war

  1. Give two reasons why the British used direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya *KKE*
  2. – Had enough manpower *KKE*

– Most Kenyan communities resisted colonial rule

– Most communities had decentralized system of government except the Wanga

– Had capital       

  1. State two ways one can become a Kenyan citizen *KKE*
  2. – By birth *KKE*

– By registration

– Naturalization

  1. State two challenges facing the free primary education in Kenya *KKE*
  2. – Congestion/ over crowding in schools *KKE*

– Delays in disbursement of funds

– Inadequate teachers

– Corruption/ mismanagement of funds meant for free primary education

  1. Give the main function of the Kenya anti corruption commission of Kenya (KACC) *KKE*
  2. – To investigate cases of corruption and make public the findings             *KKE*
  3. Who appoints the district commissioner in Kenya *KKE*
  4. – The President             *KKE*
  5. (a) Describe the social organization of the mijikenda during the pre colonial period *KKE*

18.a) – It was clan based                                                                                                                   *KKE*

   – Lived in fortified villages/ kayas

         – People had defined roles

        – Had social ceremonies such as planting and harvesting

        – Practiced polygamy and payment of dowry

       – Believed in supreme being known as Mulungu

       – Worshipped ancestral spirits

       – Had prophets and medicine men

       – Practiced circumcision           

(b) Explain the effects of Bantu migration and settlement in Kenya                                          *KKE*

18.b) – Led to increase in population in the regions they settled                                                    *KKE*

   – Spread iron working into the regions and other communities like the Luo adopted the art

   – Led to trading activities e.g. agikuyu and Maasai, Abagusii and Luo

  – Led to exchange of knowledge i.e. Bantu adopted age set system and practice of circumcision

       from the cushites

 – Enrichment of languages due to word borrowing

– Led to cultural interaction of Bantu hence assimilated some Southern Cushites and some Bantu were assimilated by Nilotes and Cushites 

– Led to displacement of some communities e.g. the Gumba and athi

– Led to intermarriages with other communities

  1. (a) Identify five grievances of the kikuyu central association against the British colonial

Government in Kenya                                                                                                            *KKE*

19.a)    –    Releases of Harry Thuku                                                                                                *KKE*

  • End of Kipande system
  • Return alienated land of the Agikuyu
  • Demand for African representation in Legco
  • An elected Kikuyu paramount chief
  • Increased educational opportunities for Africans



(b) Describe at least five roles played by Ronald Ngala in the struggle for independence in

Kenya                                                                                                                                        *KKE*

  1. b) – He joined the coast association (CAA) in 1947 which expressed the problems and hopes of

            the  Mijikenda people                                                                                                                        *KKE*

   – He was a founder member of the Mombasa african Democratic Union

   – He also helped to form the Kilifi African Peoples Union

   – In 1957 he was elected to the Legco to represent coast rural constituency

  – He was the treasurer of AEMO

  – AEMO forced the colonial government to introduce the Lennox- Boyd constitution of 1958

  – He was instrumental in the formation of KADU to defend the interests of the minority

     African groups against possible domination by KANU

  -He became the president of KADU

  – He attended the first Lancaster House Conference to discuss the independence

  – He supported and called for the release of detained leaders

  – 1960, he was appointed minister for labour, social security and adult education

  – 1961, KADU under the leadership of Ngala formed the 1st independence government

  – In 1962 he became minister of state for constitutional affairs

  – In 1963 he was elected to the House of representatives as a member of Kilifi

  1. (a) State five factors that contributed to the growth of Nairobi city in Kenya  *KKE*
  2. a) – Availability of water *KKE*

         – Construction of the Kenya- Uganda railway – it acted as a railway depot

         – Was centrally placed- acted as intersection of different transport routes

         – Trading activities

        – Establishment of administrative posts/ military posts

        – Good climate suitable for farming and settlement

        – Cool temperatures which favoured the European settlement

        – Flat land suitable for railway workshops hence encouraged settlements

(b) Explain the positive effects of urbanization to Kenya                                                          *KKE*

  1. b) – Created employment opportunities for many Africans *KKE*

          – Led to formation of tribal/ social welfare associations

         – Promoted national integration

        – Led to small entrepreneurship e.g. traders to earn a living

        – Led to rise of trade unions to promote the welfare of workers

       – Led to cultural interaction

       – Created market for agricultural products in the surrounding environment

       – Industries expanded due to availability of labour

  1. (a) State five features of early political associations in Kenya between 1919-1935  *KKE*
  2. a) – They were ethnic based *KKE*

          – Their grievances were quite similar

         – They did not advocate for independence but clamored for better living conditions and an end

            to  colonial exploitation

         –  They did not attract a large following

         – They were led by mission educated young men

         – Non- militarial

         – Formed in response to social economic problems

(b) Explain five factors that promoted the growth of African nationalism in Kenya between

1945 and 1963                                                                                                                          *KKE*

  1. b) – African participation in the 2nd world War *KKE*

         – Indians and Burmas independence in 1947 and 1948 respectively, gave nationalists a

            strong urge to fight for their liberation

        – KAU mobilized Africans against colonial office to institute constitutional changes

       – African elected members in the Legco put pressure through their organization AEMO

       – Ghana’s independence in 1957 under Kwameh Nkrumah championed the cause of

          nationalist struggle through Pan Africanism

      –  Formation of national political parties such as KANU, KADU and APP intensified the struggle

   – Jomo Kenyatta played a great role of trying to unite Kenyan against colonial rule

  – British labour party took over power after 1945 and its policies were against colonization

 – Maumau activities- made Africans more determined to achieve independence through oathing

  1. (a) What factors led to the development of multi-party democracy in Kenya in the early 1990 *KKE*
  2. a) – Western aid conditions – a number of countries made it clear that they would grant aid only

             to developing countries that embraced democratic policies and pluralistic politics            *KKE*

         – Unification of Germany – it marked the end of the cold war and communism USSR lost her

            power in the world leaving USA to promote its political ideology of advocating liberal

           democracy    throughout the world

         – Political changes in the USSR e.g. some of her republics broke away from the union and

           started   independent governments. These developments spelt change for Kenya

       – Multi- party having been successful in other countries e.g. Zambia

       – Pressure from the church e.g. Rev Njoya, Bishop Muge and Bishop Henry Okullo

       – Dissatisfaction with the 1988 general election that were alleged to have been rigid due to

         the   queuing system

      – KANU’s response to criticism e.g. those who criticized the government for corruption and other

         ills were arrested and others expelled from KANU

      – Pressure from lawyers and journalists

       – Saitoti review committee report of 1990. as a result of the recommendations section 2A of

       the constitution was reviewed reverting the country to a multi- party democracy

(b) Explain how the existence of many parties has promoted democracy in Kenya                   *KKE*

  1. b) – They provide Kenyans with an opportunity to join parties of their choice *KKE*

          – They promote accountability and transparency in the government

          – They mobilize people to participate in democratic process as well as development

          – They create public awareness on certain issues e.g. referendum

           – They help provide an alternative perspectives on parliamentary debate on certain issues

              like   children’s rights and environment sell alternatives ideas to the citizens

           – They check the excesses of the government by letting the public know the ills being done by

              the government e.g. Anglo- leasing scandal

           – They lay more ground for training the future leaders      

  1. (a) Give three symbols of national unity in Kenya *KKE*
  2. a) – The flag *KKE*

          – National anthem

          – Loyalty pledge

          – Coat of arms

          – National awards       

(b) Explain six factors which promote national unity in Kenya                                                             *KKE*

  1. b) – National languages i.e. Kiswahili and English *KKE*

           – Education – pupils are drawn from different ethnic groups to interact freely in public and

               private schools

          – The constitution – protects all Kenyan from any form of discrimination based on race, colour

            ,  tribe e.t.c.

          – Intermarriages, sports and games

          – Equal distribution of resources e.g. hospitals, schools

           – National philosophies e.g. Harambee and Nyayoism call unity among different

               ethnic communities to pull together their resources for development- they emphasize

               peace,     love and unity

           – Urbanization

           – The institution of the presidency – he represents and protects all Kenyans

  1. (a) state five ways through which the Kenyan government raises its revenue *KKE*
  2. a) – Direct taxes e.g. payee, stamp duty and capital gains tax *KKE*

         – Indirect taxes e.g. sales tax, custom duty, excise duty, VAT

         – Sale of government bonds and treasury bills

         – Profit acquired by parastatals

        – Charges on provision of government services e.g. water, electricity, medical treatment

    – Land rates levies on land paid by citizens and companies as rent

   – House rent from government buildings

  – Fees/ levies on fuel and mining fees paid by millers

  – Court fines

  – Tourism fees paid as entrance to game reserves and national parks   

(b) Describe ways in which the parliament in Kenya controls government expenditure             *KKE*

  1. b) – Public investment committee ensures that public finance is spent for the intended purpose


– Before any money is allocated to the government ministries and departments, it has to

  be approved by parliament

– Government estimates have to be approved by parliament after they are prepared and

    presented by the minister for finance on budget day

– All supplementary estimates must be approved by parliament and it also demands an

    explanation when money has to be returned to the treasury

– Parliament requires all government expenditure to be audited and the audited reports

  1. Identify one community that is part of the original inhabitants of Kenya *MGN*
  2. (i) The Khoisan                                                                                                                          *MGN*

        (ii)The Southern Cushites

  1. Give the main social custom the Abasuba adopted from the Luo *MGN*
  2. – Language (Dholuo)             *MGN*
  3. State two reasons why the Portuguese built Fort Jesus *MGN*

3   – Used as a watch-tower. They could sport the enemy from far and prepare for an attack or

        counter attack                                                                                                                            *MGN*

– It served as a hiding place against attacks by their enemies

– Served as a military base/Barrack

– It acted as their residential place

– It acted as a store. They could store their goods and trading items

– It acted as a centre of trade

– It acted as a cell/detention camp

– It offered them security and protection

  1. Name the fortified villages where the Mijikenda settled in Kenya by 19th Century *MGN*
  2. – The Kayas             *MGN*
  3. Mention two methods used by the British to promote settler farming in Kenya *MGN*
  4. (i) Acquisition of land by the settlers                         *MGN*

(ii) Provision of labour

(iii) Technical assistance

(iv) Transport and communication

(v) Security

(vi) Credit facilities

  1. State two consequences of British Colonial Land Policies in Kenya by 20th Century *MGN*
  2. – Landlessness             *MGN*

     – Development of squatter system

    – Restricted the movement of Africans

   – Overpopulation in the reserves

  – overuse of land which led to soil erosion

  – Influx of Africans to towns

  – Brought misery, poverty and fear among African

  – Introduced the Kipande system

  – Rise of African nationalist parties

  – Development of African welfare organizations  

  – Brought the payment of taxes      

  1. Mention one Portuguese Commander who took part in the conquest of the East African Coast *MGN*
  2. – Vasco-Dagama *MGN*

    – Fransisco de Almaida

    – Pedros Alveres Cabral

    – Lawrence Ravasco

  1. What two reasons led to the collapse of the Imperial British East African company (IBEACO) *MGN*
  2. – The company lacked qualified administrators *MGN*

   – Mismanagement of funds by the company officials (corruption)

  – Vast area for the few officials to manage

  – Some African  communities resisted the company rule

  – They lacked funds  for it’s day to day activities

 – Poor communication between the company officials and colonial office in Britain

    (poor co-ordination)

 – The officials were affected by climatic conditions and tropical diseases like malaria et.c

– Rivalry from the German East African company

– Poor infrastructure hindered its effectiveness e.g. lack of navigable rivers

 – Lack of strategic natural resources for export    

  1. Identify the Christian Missionary who established a medical station at Thogoto in 1907. *MGN*
  2. -Dr. J. W. Arthur             *MGN*
  3. Name two independent African Churches in Kenya before 1940. *MGN*
  4. – Nomiya LUo Church             *MGN*

– Dini ya Musambwa

– Dini ya Roho

– African Independent Church

– Luo Joroho Church

           –  African Orthodox Church

  1. Name an African appointed as a Minister for Housing after Lonox Boyd Constitution

proposal of 1958.                                                                                                                          *MGN*

11 – Musa Amalemba                                                                                                                                    *MGN*

  1. What is the main role of Kenya anti-corruption Commission? *MGN*
  2. -To investigate and prosecute officers/bodies/firms involved in corruption deal *MGN*
  3. State two development rights of a child. *MGN*
  4. – Education *MGN*

     – Play and leisure

     – Access to information

     – Social security

    – Parental love

  1. Name two organs of government that promote national unity in Kenya. *MGN*
  2. – A single curriculum taught in schools *MGN*

      – Public schools enrolled children from all communities without discrimination    

  1. Identify two types of direct taxes paid by Kenyans. *MGN*
  2. – Income tax/PAYE *MGN*

      – Withholding tax

     – Capital gain tax

     – Corporate tax     

  1. Name one parliamentary committee that monitors government expenditure in Kenya. *MGN*
  2. – Parliamentary Accounts committee (PAC) *MGN*

      – Parliamentary Investment Committee (PIC)  

  1. Identify the Kenyan leader who introduced the Harambee philosophy. *MGN*
  2. – Mzeee Jomo Kenyatta *MGN*
  3. (a) Identify three communities of the Western Bantus of Kenya. *MGN*

18.. a) – Abaluhya                                                                                                                              *MGN*

     – Abagusii

     – Abakuria      

(b) Describe the migration and settlement of the Western Bantus into Kenya.                         *MGN*

  1. b) – Originated from the Congo region alongside rest of the Bantus *MGN*

         – Moved North Eastwards into Eastern Uganda

        – Abagusi settled around Mt. Elgon

    – In 1500AD the Abagusii moved south into Yimbo and AlegoI

   – In 1600AD the arrival of the Luo forced the Abagusi to move into Kano plains

  – The Abagusii migrated into kabianga before the Kipsigis forced them into the Gusii highlands

  – The Abakuria moved south through Yimbo around 17th C

  – The Abakuria migrated around Chepalungu to settle into the present Kuria land in 1800

 – The Abaluhya had diverse origins

 – The Maragoli broke off from the Abakuria and Abagusii in the 16th C.

 – The Bukusu  evolved around Mt. Elgon and spread in Bungoma around 18th C

 – The Samia and Banyala migrated to their present homelands from Southern Uganda

  1. (a) Name three commodities that were exported to Arabia from the Kenyan Coast. *MGN*
  2. a) – Ivory *MGN*

         – Slaves

        – Rhinoserous horns

        – Animal skins

       – Ostrich feathers

      – Copper

      – Gold

     – Tortoise shells

(b) Explain the factors that led to the development of the Indian Ocean Trade.                                    *MGN*

  1. b) – Availability of goods required by traders *MGN*

          – Relative peace and stability along the Coast

         – High demand for goods from East Africa and Arabia

        – Existence of natural habours made the Kenyan Coast easily accessible by sea

       – The monsoon winds assisted the traders to easily travel to and from the coast

       – Existence of enterprising merchants both in Kenya and Arabia     

  1. (a) Give three factors that led to the issuing of the Devonshire white paper of 1923 *MGN*
  2. a) – The influence of the dual mandate (a book of the league of nations that has

             regulations    concerning mandates) – It was committed to the principle of trusteeship

              whereby    it was interested on its African population than European settlement            *MGN*

– The Indian opposition to the privileged position of European settlers.

– The rise of race conflicts i.e. African versus European dominion and also European

    versus Asian conflict

– The decision by the colonial government to ban racial segregation apart from the

   white highlands only, disappointed the settlers who didn’t want the ban to be lifted hence

    they sent a delegation to London to see the colonial secretary the duke of Devonshire.

– The need to arrest /stop a racial war

– The African general resentment on land alienation, forced labour, taxation system, Kipande system, low wages and no political representation e.t.c

(b) Explain six effects of the construction of the Kenya-Uganda railway.                                 *MGN*

  1. b) – Development of towns like Nairobi, Nakuru and Eldoret *MGN*

          – Stimulated  development of telecommunication systems like telegraph

          – Enhanced the British control over Kenya by easing movement of soldiers and administrators

         – Alienation of African land for its construction

        – Stimulated internal and external trade based on local agricultural produce like tea,

           pyrethrum, maize and coffee

        – Offered employment to Africans

        – Provided the colonial government with steady source of income

        – Promoted and eased the spread of Christianity

         – Promotion of nationalism by enhancing interaction among Africans

       – Emergence of Indian communities in the country who later contributed to the development of

          the economy                

  1. (a) List any three political parties that were formed in Kenya before 1939. *MGN*
  2. a) – East African Association *MGN*

          – Kikuyu Central Association

         – Kavirondo tax payers welfare association

     – Ukamba members association

     – Coast African association

     – Taita Hills association 

(b) Explain six ways in which the existence of many political parties has promoted democracy

in Kenya.                                                                                                                                  *MGN*

  1. b) – It has promoted freedom of expression and choice/freedom of speech *MGN*

         – Has reduced abuse of power and priviledges by leaders

         – Has promoted respect for human rights in Kenya

         – Has created transparency in government dealings

        – Has promoted freedom of association by providing alternative parties for the people

       – Has provided people a forum to express their views on how a country should be managed

      – Has made the government more accountable to the people through constant criticism

     – Has provided a system of scrutinizing government expenditure through PIC and PAC

     – It has made people feel free to contribute to any aspect of development n the country

       without feeling intimidated

    – It has enabled people who wish to form political parties to go ahead

  1. (a) State any five peaceful ways of resolving conflicts in Kenya.             *MGN*
  2. a) – Through negotiations/diplomacy             *MGN*

           – Through arbitrations

           – Through mediations

           – Through litigations

           – Through legislations

           – By use of council of elders

           – Use of peace keeping mission

         – Through the Church/clergy /pastors

(b) Describe six preparations made by Interim Independent electoral commission of Kenya

(I. I. E.C.) before general elections are made in Kenya.                                                        *MGN*

  1. b) – Marking boundaries of constituencies *MGN*

          – Registration of voters

          – Creating new constituencies if need be

          – Choosing/recruiting of election officials such as returning officers, presiding officers,

            election clerks e.t.c

         – Preparation of election materials e.g ballot papers and boxes

         – Nomination of candidates to contest various seats in the election

         – Arranging for security of ballot papers and boxes and for general voting day

         – Organizing for transportation of electoral officials and materials

         – Examination of voters registers to remove dead voters from the register

  1. (a) Identify the sources of revenue for local authorities in Kenya. *MGN*
  2. a )- Grants from the central government *MGN*

          – Fees charged on services rendered by the councils

          – Sale of licences to the public

         – Fines imposed on offenders

         – Cess money collected from petty/minor traders

         – Service charge paid by the residents

         – Aid from donor agencies and countries

        – Rates on property

        – Loans from financial institutions

        – Profits from council investments

       – Rents charged on houses and office places for local authorities     

(b) What are the challenges facing local authorities in Kenya?                                                            *MGN*

  1. b) – Some local authorities are too small to operate on their own effectively                         *MGN*

          – Those with high population face management problems since it strains available resources

          – Many do not have a strong financial base/shortage of funds

          – Existence of inefficient revenue collection system

          – Tax evasions by individuals and organizations

        – Misappropriation /mismanagement of funds by corrupt officers

        – Political interference  in the affairs and management of the local authorities

        – Conflicts between councilors and Chief officers

        – Lack of autonomy due to too much control by the central government

       – Widespread corruption in the council

       – Lack of qualified staff in areas of administration and financial management

       – Poor staff remunerations/salaries delay even for 10months

       – Over-employment thus straining their financial abilities

       – Election of illiterate councilors to manage the affairs of the authorities

       – Poor infrastructures in the councils

       – Vandalism of facilities offered by the local authorities

  1. (a) Identify categories of civil servants whose appointments are not subject to the public

service commission.                                                                                                               *MGN*

  1. a) – Personal staff of the president             *MGN*

           – Judges of the High Court and court of Appeal

          – The auditor and controller General

         – Ambassadors and High Commissioners

         – Permanent secretaries          

(b) Explain the importance of the institution of parliament in Kenya.presented to it for scrutiny

and debate. This is done by the public Accounts Committee

  1. b) – Parliament is the supreme law mapping institution in the country. Its laws are binding

             to everybody                                                                                                                           *MGN*

           – Parliament represents the interests of the electorate as it’s made up of the electorate as it

            is made up of their elected representatives

          – Checks on the abuse of power by the executive and thus promotes good governance

             and accountability

         – It’s empowered to control revenue collection and government expenditure e.g. annual

           budgets are approved by parliament

        – Can pass a vote of not confidence in the government of the day

        – It is empowered to investigate the activities of any public officer if it feels that the person is

          not doing well

       –  Ensures that the government revenue is spent properly e.g. done through the   controller

           and  auditor general  

  1. State one economic way through which the Luo and the Abagusii interacted during the

pre-colonial period                                                                                                                                    *NYR*

  1. -trade             *NYR*
  2. Name two groups of the Luo who had entered Kenya by the 17th Century *NYR*
  3. – Joka-jok (15th c)             *NYR* –  Joka-winy (17th c)
  4. State two reasons why the Akamba got involved in the long distance trade during the pre-colonial

period                                                                                                                                            *NYR*

  1. – The Akamba were strategically positioned between he coast and the fertile highlands of central

     Kenya.                                                                                                                                *NYR*

     –  Ukambani was suitable for agriculture hence they ventured into trade.

     –  They were skilled hunters and were able to get ivory and other animal products for trade.

     –  They had developed good contacts with local people.

     – They had rich merchants who finances their trade e.g. chief Kivoi

  1. Name two early Christian missionaries who helped in translating the Bible to local languages *NYR*
  2. – Johann Ludwig Krapt *NYR*

   – Johann Rebman

  1. State the main factors that contributed to the decline of gold trade during the period of Portuguese

rule on the Coast of East Africa                                                                                                    *NYR*

  1. – Smuggling             *NYR*
  2. Give two ways in which rural to rural migration in Kenya contributes to national unity *NYR*
  3. – It promotes inter ethnic integration. *NYR*

    –  It promotes peaceful co existence/harmonious living between different communities

  1. State two circumstances under which the right to life of Kenyan citizen can be taken away *NYR*
  2. – To prevent the escape of a prisoner or in the process of lawful arrest. *NYR*

    –  In the event of war

    –  In case of rebellion, riots or muting

   –  To prevent a person from committing a crime

   – In self defense

  – To carry out death sentence by court.

  1. State two advantages of unwritten constitution *NYR*
  2. i) It preserves the traditions of a nation             *NYR*
  3. ii) It is simple to amend

iii) It is indigenous and therefore suited to a state

  1. iv) It is flexible. Can be changed with circumstances
  2. What is democracy? *NYR*
  3. – It is the rule of the people directly or through representations *NYR*
  4. State the importance of the Heligolant treaty of 1890 to the later history of East Africa? *NYR*
  5. -It completed the process of scramble and partition of east Africa *NYR*
  6. Name two communities who displayed mixed reactions to European rule in Kenya *NYR*
  7. i) Akamba             *NYR*
  8. ii) Agikuyu

iii) Luo

  1. Give the main reason why poll tax was introduced inn Kenya during the colonial period *NYR*

12.-To force Africans to work on European settler farms                                                              *NYR*

  1. Name two founder members of the Young Kikuyu Association *NYR*
  2. i) Harry Thuku             *NYR*
  3. ii) Abdalla Tairara
  4. What is the main function of the Civil Service in Kenya? *NYR*
  5. – To implement government programmes *NYR*
  6. Name the National philosophy used immediately Kenya achieved independence *NYR*
  7. – African socialism *NYR*
  8. State two causes of divisions within the opposition political parties since 1992             *NYR*
  9. -ethnic affiliations             *NYR*

-external interference from government

-ideological differences

-suspension based on personal differences among leaders

-conflicts over leadership/power/wealth/fame

  1. What is the main constitutional change made by the tenth parliament *NYR*
  2. -creation of the office of the prime minister *NYR*
  3. (a) State five economic factors for the migration of Kenyan societies *NYR*
  4. a) i) Search for water and pastures             *NYR*
  5. ii) Search for land to cultivate

iii) The use of iron tools and weapons helped them to clear large tracts of land to

      defend themselves

  1. iv) Search for new areas to hunt and gather food
  2. v) Expansion of trade.

(b) Describe the political organization of the Borana during the pre-colonial period              *NYR*

  1. b) i)it was divided into two halves as moieties which were further sub-divided into

                sub-moieties.                                                                                                                       *NYR*

  1. ii) Sub-moieties were sub-divided into clans

iii) Clans traced their origins to a common descent.

  1. iv) Each moiety was ruled by a hereditary leader known as Kallu. He was also a

      religious leader and elected age-set leaders

  1. v) The Kallu ruled with the help of the council of elders
  2. vi) The clans lived in camps under a council of elders whose duties included making

     and enforcing  rules, land and well ownership, Marriages, dispute, theft and rape cases

      and religions ceremonies

vii) Boys were circumcised and formed age-set (Hariyya) which defended the community

  1. (a) State five factors that facilitated the development of international trade between the Coast
  2. a) i) Long historical links between the coast and other parts of the world e.g. the Far East *NYR*
  3. ii) Seyyid Said played an important in promoting the role of trade e.g. he encouraged

     foreign traders to come to the coast, levied unified custom duty, signed commercial

     treaties with the USA etc

iii) He improved monetary system by introduction small copper coins and silver currency

  1. iv) There was availability of goods which were in high demand in the international market.
  2. v) Deep harbours at the coast
  3. vi) Fresh water and food at the coast

vii) Peace and security at the coast

viii) Trade routes to the interior

  1. ix) Spread of brutish influence to the interior.
  2. x) Trade was financed by rich merchants

(b) Explain five problems faced by Oman rulers in east Africa                                                 *NYR*

19.b)    i) There was constant rebellion from the coastal towns                                                     *NYR*

  1. ii) There was civil war back in their country

iii) The Oman rulers were harsh and ruthless as a result they were hated by the coastal people.

  1. iv) They were attacked by sea privates along the Indian Ocean.
  2. v) British arrival at the coast threatened their dominance
  3. (a) Why did the British use direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya ? *NYR*
  4. a) i) There were may ethnic groups with diverse socio-cultural system which made it difficult

                 for the British to apply indirect rule                                                                               *NYR*

  1. ii) Most communities did not have centralized administrative system there the British appointed


iii) There was an exiting system of direct we used by the imperial British east Africa

      company on which the British built their administration

  1. iv) Most communities resisted British rule and so they had to be controlled directly
  2. v) Had enough administrative

(b) Describe the problems associated with Moi’s leadership as president of Kenya               *NYR*

  1. b) – He was authoritarian. There was torture and detention without trial *NYR*

    – There were several tribal clashes in various parts of the rift valley blamed on his government

    – Poverty and the spread of HIV/AIDS

    – Violation of human rights e.g. the murders of Robert Ouko and Alexander Muge

    – Demand for political pluralism led to riots causing deaths of many people and destruction

       of property.

         –  Poor relation with Sudan Ethiopia and Somali

  1. (a) Give two main challenges that have faced the re-writing of Kenya constitution *NYR*
  2. a)  – Political interference                                                                                                  *NYR*

– Financial constrains

– Selfish ambition of leaders

– Political differences on the mode to be followed.

                   –  Illiteracy of the masses          

(b) Explain six challenges facing the education sector in Kenya today                                     *NYR*

  1. b)- Inefficient funds to adequately remunerate teachers and develop learning facilities *NYR*

  – Inadequate learning facilities e.g. classrooms laboratories etc

  – High drop out rate due to lack 0f school fees and pregnancy of girls

 – Moral decay in schools, drug abuse, strikes/indiscipline

– Corruption and mismanagement of learning institution and embezzlement of funds

– Education is expensive and costly for ordinary Kenyans

      – Lack of clear education policies/frequent changes and revision of curriculum

  1. (a) Give three symbols of National unity *NYR*
  2. a) i) The national flag *NYR*
  3. ii) The national

iii) The coat of arms

  1. iv) The loyalty pledge
  2. v) The presidency
  3. vi) The constitution

           vii) The national language

(b) Explain six factors that undermine free and fair elections in Kenya                                              *NYR*

  1. b) i) tribalism/ethnic people choosing leaders on tribal lines *NYR*
  2. ii) Rigging of votes during counting

iii) Violence and chaos which hinders the voting process

  1. iv) Corruption /bribery of voters
  2. v) Illiteracy hence some Kenyans cannot be able to mark ballot papers
  3. vi) Inadequate civil education-voters are not sensitized on their right to vote

vii) Alcoholism and drug abuse used by candidates to hire voters

  1. (a) Name five sources of revenue for municipal councils in Kenya *NYR*
  2. a) i) licenses-sales of license to business people             *NYR*
  3. ii) Fines to those who breaks the by-laws of the local authorities

iii) Grunts from the central government.

  1. iv) Rents on property like land owned by local authorities
  2. v) Cess taxes on crops through cooperatives
  3. vi) Profits from investments

vii) Loans and donations e.g. from the ministry of local government

viii) Fees changed on water mortuary (services)

(b) Describe the problems facing the local authorities                                                                *NYR*

  1. b) i) Inadequate funds to finance operations *NYR*
  2. ii) Misappropriate and mismanagement of funds/corruption

iii) Lack of autonomy from the central government which causes delays hence inefficiency.

  1. iv) Political interference by people well connected to the central government
  2. v) Duplication of roles with the central government
  3. vi) Increasing population hence rise f slums unplanned structures, environmental degradation,

   HIV/AIDS street families etc

vii) Traffic congestion due to poor plannin

  1. (a) State five challenges the government is facing in raising its revenue *NYR*
  2. a) i)some people evade pay tax             *NYR*
  3. ii) People give wrong information hence they end up reducing the amount payable in taxes

iii) Those who assess taxes are bribed so that they give falsified assessment making

      the government loose a lot of money.

  1. iv) Some rich Kenyans deposit their money in foreign countries hence denying Kenya access

      to the money.

  1. v) Donor funds come with strings attacked
  2. vi) Loans are issued with very high interest rates

            vii) Government reliance on foreign debt attracts heavy penalties on failing to pay hence

                  debt crisis

(b) Describe ways through which the government of Kenya ensures public finance is not

misused                                                                                                                                   *NYR*

  1. b) i) Parliament approves all government expenditure by the ministries *NYR*
  2. ii) There is a parliamentary committee that scrutinizes all accounts report from government

      ministries e.g. public investment committee, public accounts committees (PAC) etc.

iii) Permanent secretaries in the ministries are chief accounting officers. They are responsible

      for all  the money allocated to ministries

  1. iv) All government contracts are publicly advertised for the awarding of tenders
  2. v) The government established the Kenya anti-corruption cases in a non-partisan manner
  3. vi) Putting in place mechanisms to curb revenue evasion e.g. wealth declaration for

      all government employees

vii) All government supplementary expenditure by the government ministries must get

       approval of parliament

  1. Name two Kenyan communities that are part of the plain Nilotes   *STK*
  2. i) Iteso               *STK*
  3. ii) Maasai

    iii) Turkana

  1. iv) Jie
  2. v) Njemps
  3. Give one main reason why the Arabs came to Kenyan coast   *STK*
  4. To trade   *STK*
  5. Identify two factors that contributed to the spread of Islam along the Kenyan coast in around

1500 A.D                                                                                                                                          *STK*

  1. i) Trade               *STK*
  2. ii) Arab immigration into East Africa

   iii) The Islamic schools established along the coast of East Africa

  1. iv) The Swahili culture which had mainly Islamic elements
  2. v) Intermarriages between the Muslim and the indigenous communities along the coast of

      East    Africa

  1. Give two terms of the heligoland treaty of 1890   *STK*
  2. i) Germany officially recognized that Uganda was a British sphere of influence. The British also

       laid claims over Kenya                                                                                                                 *STK*

  1. ii) Germany abandoned her claim over witu

     iii) The British gave up Heligoland, an island in the North sea to Germany

  1. iv) Germany acquired a strip of land on Tanganyika and purchased the coast of Tanganyika

        from the Sultan of Zanzibar

  1. v) The Sultan of Zanzibar retained the 16 km coastal strip
  2. State two powers given to the Imperial British East African Company by the royal charter of 1888 *STK*
  3. i) To establish political authority in British East Africa and maintain general order and security


  1. ii) To develop and regulate trade by facilitating the movement of goods and people

        between the coast and the interior

   iii) To collect taxes and institute custom duty in the area

  1. iv) To develop and civilize the indigenous people through stopping of slave trade, developing

         means of transport, education and health facilities

  1. v) To exploit the natural resources in the colonies on behalf of Britain
  2. vi) To protect the Christian missionaries in Kenya                   
  3. Name two Women leaders of the Agyriama resistance against the British invasion and rule *STK*
  4. i) Mekatilili wa menza               *STK*
  5. ii) Wanje wa Madorika
  6. Name the first African chairman of the African Districts Councils in Kenya appointed in 1958 *STK*
  7. Pascal Nabwane                                                                                                                           *STK*
  8. Give one provision of the native land trust ordinance of 1930   *STK* 8.  – It stated that African reserves belonged to the Africans permanently                                                  *STK*                            
  9. State two duties of the leader of government business in Kenya   *STK*
  10. i) Chairing weekly committee meetings on procedural motions, including motions of adjournment


  1. ii) Seconding most bills moved by ministers

      iii) Consulting regularly with the leader of the official opposition on parliamentary issues

  1. Identify one landmark constitutional amendment that was made in Kenya in 1991   *STK*
  2. i) Repeal of section 2A of the constitution that reverted back into a multiparty state   *STK*
  3. ii) The president term of service was limited to a two five year term
  4. Give one way in which the Swynnerton plan of 1954 benefited the Africans in Kenya *STK*
  5. i) It provided for land consolidation and registration therefore enabling Africans to get

             title deeds to their lands                                                                                                       *STK*

  1. ii) It also enabled Africans to acquire loans using the security they had obtained i.e title deeds
  2. Identify one form of child abuse   *STK* 12. i)  Exploitation                                                                                                                            *STK*
  3. ii) Child labour

       iii) Sexual abuse

  1. iv) Discrimination
  2. v) Exposure to drugs
  3. vi) Battering
  4. State two roles of the public service commission in Kenya   *STK*
  5. i) It appoints, confirm and exercise disciplinary control over civil servants                           *STK*
  6. ii) Advertises vacancies in the Country in the local dailies or the Kenya Gazette

        iii) It deals with promotions and transfers of civil servants to improve efficiency

  1. iv) It can interdict or suspend officers, retire them in public interest or terminate their services
  2. Who assents to parliamentary bills before they become laws in Kenya   *STK*
  3. i) The president of the republic of Kenya   *STK*
  4. Give one type of local authority in Kenya   *STK*
  5. i) City council                                                                                                                              *STK*
  6. ii) Municipal councils

       iii) County councils

  1. iv) Town councils
  2. v) Urban and area councils
  3. Name one type of a co-operative society found in Kenya today   *STK*
  4. i) consumer cooperative                           *STK*
  5. ii) Producer cooperative

        iii) savings and credit cooperative

  1. State two ways in which the government of Kenya has encouraged sports in the country *STK*
  2. i) Kenya has sports officers in every district   *STK*
  3. ii) Physical education is part of primary and secondary curriculum in Kenya

      iii) Kenyatta university trains teachers upto post graduate level in various aspects of sports

  1. iv) President Mwai Kibaki in 2004 awarded commendations to sportsmen and women in

            recognition  of their role in the promotion of sports in the country

  1. v) Sports facilities have been improved e.g Moi international sports centre kasarani
  2. vi) The government gives incentives to the outstanding perfomers e.g. ksh 300,000 to 500,000 for

           any gold medal

18 a) Why did the Bantu migrate from their original homeland?                                                      *STK*

  1. a) – There was an increase in population thus the need for land for settlement               *STK*

            – They needed land for grazing pasture

            – Internal conflicts

            – External attacks

            – Outbreak of diseases/ epidermics

            – Drought and famine

            – Some migrated for the sake of adventure

  1. b) Describe the political organization of the Akamba during the pre-colonial period               *STK*
  2. b) – The basic political unit was the clan               *STK*

            – The clan was ruled by a council of elders

             – The akamba society was divided into various age grade and age sets

             – The lowest age-grade was that of junior elders who defended the community warriors

            – The next in rank was the junior elders who precided over minor cases

             – Full elders precided over the major cases

             – The Akamba had a decetraliaed system of government/ autonous clans

  1. a) Outline the first three stages of Portuguese conquest of the coastal towns in East Africa *STK*

19.a)    – In 1500 Pedro Alvares cabral conjured sofala                                                                 *STK*

            – In 1502 vasco Dagama attached the town of Kilwa and Zanzibar and other coastal towns

              were conquered by Ruy Lourenco Ravasco and forced to pay tribute.

            – In 1505 Mombasa and Kilwa were conquered by Francisco D Almelda

            – Between 1506-7 Lamu was conquered by Triastao da cunma

            – 1509 majia, Pemba and Zanzibar were brought under Portuguese ruling

  1. b) Explain six factors that led to the decline of the Portuguese rule at the Coast of East Africa *STK*
  2. b)The decline of the Indian Ocean trade denied them revenue to support administrative          activities                                                                                                                     *STK*

           – The Portuguese officials were corrupt and pocketed funds which would have been used

              to manage the empire.

           – Portuguese officers were cruel/ruthless to the Africans and Arabs who resented than

              and therefore did not cooperate.

           – There were constant rebellion against the Portuguese and this weakened their control.

            – Combined attacks by the Persians, Arabs and Turks proved formidable to the Portuguese

            – They faced stiff competition from the British and the Dutch which reduced their profits.

            – The Portuguese had inadequate personnel to effectively manage the extensive coast.

            – Portugal lacked capital to pay the administrators at the Coast and this demoralized them.

            – The Portuguese lacked administrative skills hence were unable to rule effectively.

  1. a) Give five reasons for the construction of the Kenya-Uganda railway   *STK*
  2. a) – To facilitate transportation of troop s and government administration.                           *STK*

– To link Uganda with the Coast and outside world

– To facilitate economic exploitation of the regions

– To establish effective control over the British East Africa

– To eradicate slave trade and replace it with legitimate commerce

            – To enable the British to protect her strategic interests in the region

  1. b) Explain five reasons why settler farming was encouraged in Kenya during the colonial

period                                                                                                                                         *STK*

  1. b) – To finance the administrative cost of the colony                                                            *STK*

                 – To help pay for the construction cost of the railway

                 – To provide cheap raw materials for the British industries

                 – The Kenyan highlands were ideal for British settlement

                 – To counter Asian influence in Kenya

                 – The colony lacked other natural resources to be exploited

                 – The settlers would form the backbone of the economy and help make Kenya a

                     white man’s country

  1. a) Give the factors that led to the multiparty democracy in Kenya since 1991   *STK*
  2. a) – External factors *STK*

       – Political changes in the Soviet union led to the overthrow of dictatorial regions establishment

         of democratic leadership

       – Re-unification of Germany-making the end of communism and cold war

       – Western Aid conditions- The donars pressurized the government of developing countries

          to emptrace democratic, policies and pluralism

       – Influence of pluralism in Zambia and Togo

       – Internal factors

       – The rigid policies of KANU- The critics were expelled from the party

       – Rigging of the general elections in 1998

       – Pressure from activists who organized defence campaigns e.g. saba saba riots in 1990

– The Saitoti review committee in KANU which paved the way for multipartism

  1. b) Explain the challenges of multiparty democracy in Kenya since 1991             *STK*
  2. b) – Leadership wrangles e.g. those in Natioanl rainbow coalition, NARK and those in the party

               of national unity (PNU)                                                                                                      *STK*

   – Shortage of funds

   – Ethnic based parties

   – Political interference e.g. campaign violence, intimidation, banning of political rallies

– Culture of defection- lack of loyalty to political principles and beliefs

– Parties lack clear policies and ideology

            – Tribalism with different parties linked to particular ethic groups

  1. a) Identify three categories of human rights in the Kenya constitution *STK*
  2. a)Political and civil rights   *STK*

         – Social, economic and cultural rights

          – Solidarity rights        

  1. b) Explain six principles of democracy               *STK*
  2. b) – Freedom of speech               *STK*

– Participation of the people as a whole in the government

– Open and accountable mass media

– Decentralization of economic power to individuals

– Equality before the law

– Transparency

– Establishment of a system of law that all participants adhere to

– A balance of power between the governors and the governed

– Citizens should obey the law

– Patriotism

– Political tolerance

– Regular and free elections

– The consent of the people

             – Control of abuse of power

  1. a) Give three constitutional powers of the president of Kenya   *STK*    23. a)          – The power to make appointments e.g. VP, cabinet ministers, AG, chief justice and

                       other judges of high court and court of appeal

– The power to declare a state of emergency

– The power to dismiss ministers and all senior civil servants he/she appoints

– Legislative powers- he has the power to address the National assembly at any time and

   can – attend meetings as a member of parliament

– The power to dissolve parliament and call for fresh elections

– Assent of bills before they become laws

– Being the commander in chief of the armed forces, he appoints senior officers within

   the armed forces and receives the oath of loyalty pledged by all members of the

   armed   forces

– Judicial powers- He may grant pardon to any person or respite any person – power

   of clemency

– Emergency powers- He/she can declare war or make peace. He can deal with the

    situations which can plunge the country into instability and insecurity 

– He can declare state of emergency in the country

                   – The power to confer honors on men and women of Kenya for their outstanding

                       or distinguished achievements    

  1. b) Explain six roles played by the civil service in Kenya’s development             *STK*
  2. a) – Interpret government policies to the people             *STK*

– Implement the programs that the government of the day wants to accomplish

– It is a machinery through which the government provides welfare services to the society

– They act as a link between the government of the day with the people

– Senior civil servants advice the ministers on matters of policy and also preparation

   of answers for the questions asked in parliament by the members

  1. a) State five sources of government revenue in Kenya *STK*
  2. a) – Business permits               *STK*


– Water and sewerage fee

– Road maintenance levy fund

– Licenses

– Local authority property e.g. houses

– Rates paid by plot owners in towns

– Fees for markets

– Loans from central government

– Charges for services e.g. museums

– Fines

– Direct taxes

  1. b) Explain five factors that undermine the performance of local Authorities in Kenya   *STK* b)   – Lack of autonomy                                                                                                               *STK*

– Misappropriation/ mismanagement of funds by unscrupulous council workers

– Over employment of workers who are not well paid

– Political interference

– Rise of unplanned structures leading to corruption of buildings

– Increasing population hence strain on limited resources

– Environmental degradation/ pollution especially in towns

–  Vandalism and grabbing of property

– Duplication of roles e.g. education and health

– Street families who are a security threat

– Brain drain due to poor salaries

– Traffic congestion

– Poverty which is hard to eradicate

  1. Name two historical sources of information on the East African coast up to the 16th Century *UG*
  2. – The periplus of the Erythraean sea *UG*
  • Geography written by Ptolemy
  • Graco-Roman documentary
  • Arabic documents by Al-Masudi and Ibin Batuta

      –    Archeological sources – coins, pottery, beads

  1. Name two eastern cushites *UG*
  2. Borana             *UG*






  1. Where was the major dispersal point of the Western Bantus *UG*
  2. Mt. Elgon *UG*
  3. Name one dynasty which ruled the cost of Kenya before the 18th C *UG*
  4. Mazrui Nabahan

       Busaidi                Yorubi                                                                                                            *UG*

  1. List two groups which were responsible for the development of education in Kenya

during the colonial period                                                                                                             *UG*

  1. – Christian missionaries                         *UG*

    –     The colonial government

     –     The Africans themselves

  1. Name two women who led in the resistance against colonial rule in Kenya *UG*
  2. – Prophetess Moraa *UG*

– Aginama – Mekatili wa Menza

– Marshall Muthoni

– Wambui – Otieno   

  1. Identify two labour organizations that fought for independence in Kenya *UG*

7.-  African workers Union                                                                                                               *UG*

– Kenya Local Government Union

– Kenya Federation of Labour         

  1. State two reasons why social welfare organizations were started during the colonial period *UG*
  2. – Organize harambee to pay for medical bill for the sick *UG*

       – Organize for fund raising to members who wanted to further their education

      – Take care of the un-employed members who had recently come to towns

  1. Give two negative consequences of colonial urbanization on the Africans in Kenya *UG*
  2. Led to prostitution, drunkenness and other social evils *UG*

– Africans suffered poor working conditions and little pay

– Un-employment became widespread

– Slums emerged as African housing was neglected

  1. Give two levels of local authorities in Kenya *UG*
  2. – City councils *UG*

     – Municipal councils

    – County councils

    – Town councils

    – Urban councils

  1. State the main role played by a returning officer during an election process *UG*
  2. Announcing the results of the election on each constituency *UG*
  3. Name the head of the executive arm in Kenya *UG*
  4. President *UG*
  5. Name one type of indirect democracy *UG*
  6. – Parliamentary *UG*

     – Presidential

     – Blend of parliamentary and presidential

  1. List one factor that can lead to the termination of the term of the president in Kenya before

five years                                                                                                                                      *UG*

  1. – Resignation *UG*

     – Death

     – Physical and mental incapacity

    – Nullification of the president as an Mp

  1. Identify one feature of African socialism *UG*
  2. Equal opportunities to everybody *UG*

– Political equality

– Social justice

– Equitable distribution of resources

  1. State the main function of the prime minister in Kenya *UG*
  2. Supervise and co-ordinate the work of all ministers *UG*
  3. Name the chief accounting officer in a ministry *UG*
  4. The permanent secretary *UG*
  5. (a) Trace the migration and settlement of Eastern Bantu speaking communities in Kenya

up to 1800 AD                                                                                                                        *UG*

  1. (a) They came from their original homeland between Eastern Nigeria and Cameroon highlands

           (Congo Basin)                                                                                                                         *UG*

            – They passed though Tanzania and settled around Mt. Kilimanjaro by 2nd C AD.-

            – They moved and settled along the Coast at Shungwaya

            From Shungwaya population pressure and attack from the Oromo made them to migrate

            -The Pokomo, Mijikenda and Taita settled in the hinterland of the Coast forming eastern            Bantus.

            The other group moved upward along River Tana and moved around Mt. Kenya region             forming the Eastern Mt. Kenya group

(b) Describe the political organization of the Mijikenda during the pre-colonial period                        *UG*

18.(b) The basic political unit was the clan                                                                                                 *UG*

– It was made up of several related families

– Each clan lived in protected villages known as Kayas

– The clan was governed by a council of elders called Kambi

– The duties of Kambi included maintaining law and order, solving disputes and conducting religious ceremonies

– Young men were circumcised at puberty to form age-sets.

– They also joined the warriors

– The duties of the warriors were to defend the society from external attacks

  1. (a) State three characteristics of city states along the coast by 1500 *UG*
  2. (a) Started along the Indian ocean *UG*

– Trade was the main economic activity

– Governed by Sharia law

– Islam was the main religion

– They were independent of one another

– Governed by Sultan

– Buildings had Arabic architectural designs.

(b) Explain six factors that enabled Seyyid said to establish plantation farming along the

East African Coast                                                                                                                  *UG*

19.(b) Existence of fertile sols favoured large scale farming

– Adequate rainfall and suitable climate promote farming                                                                        *UG*

– The Mijikenda gave large tracts of land around Malindi

– There was available labour from slaves

– Sultan Seyyid encouraged settlers from Oman and Zanzibar to settle in Mombasa, Malindi and Lamu

  1. (a) State five terms of the Devonshire white paper of 1923 *UG*
  2. (a) The highlands were to be exclusively for white settlers

– The Indians would elect five members of the Legco on a communal roll                                               *UG*

– The European settlers demand for self government in Kenya was rejected

– Racial segregation in all the residential areas and restriction on immigration were abolished.

– The interests of the Africans were to be given priority before those of the immigrant races if there was a conflict

– The colonial secretary would exercise strict control over the affairs of the colony

– A missionary would be nominated to the Legco to represent the interest of the Africans.

– The settlers had to maintain their representation in the Legco

(b) Discuss five impacts of colonial land policies in Kenya                                                      *UG*

  1. (a) Give any five challenges encountered by Kenyan government since independence *UG*
  2. (a) – High illiteracy rate *UG*

– Many diseases e.g. malaria, small pox

-High level of poverty among the various African communities

– A lot of suspicion among the various racial groups

– Poor health and educational facilities

– Ignorance among sections of the populations

(b) Explain five measures adopted by the Kenyan government to improve the health sector

since independence                                                                                                                 *UG*

21.(b) The Ministry of Health was created to oversee health matters                                           *UG*

– Health facilities expanded through harambee and donor funds e.g. the new Nyanza General Hospital – Kisumu.

– Many health training institutes were started e.g. MTCs.

– Improvement in hygiene through provision of piped water

– Establishment of several research institutions on human disease e.g. KEMRI

– Provision of more basic education in order to uplift hygiene standards in the society.

– Provision of free anti-retroviral drugs for those infected with HIV/AIDS and provision of tuberculosis drugs.

  1. (a) Name three classes of prisons in Kenya *UG*
  2. (a)- Principal – institutions *UG*

– District – I and II prisons

– Detention camps

– Youth institutions

– Borstal institutions

– Youth corrective Training centres

(b) Describe six functions of Kenyan prisons                                                                             *UG*

22.(b) Confine prisoners convicted by courts of law this ensures that public rights and freedoms

       are protected                                                                                                                               *UG*

– Watch over the behaviour of suspected criminals whose cases have not been determined.

– They implement or execute the courts decision on the treatement of prisoners e.g. administering capital or corporal punishment

– Rehabilitate prisoners by counselling in order to correct their behaviour and become acceptable members of the society

– Offer prisoners vocational training to make them productive citizens after completing their jail term e.g carpentry

– The prisons take care of the welfare of prisoners by providing necessary medial attention

– Confine suspected dissidents who are a threat to state socurity

  1. (a) State the principle of the rule of law in Kenya *UG*
  2. (a) Law regulate the behaviour of the citizen and protect weak from powerful l*UG*

– All legal matters should be handled according to the law

– If the prosecution fails to prove the defendants guilty then he or she should be presumed innocent

– Any one must make decisions that are within the law

– The law should apply to everybody equally without any discrimination

– One should not be punished unless he or she has broken the law or if proved guilty.

– It implies that no one is above the law.

– Every person should be given opportunity to defend himself or herself before a competent court of law

(b) Explain five ways in which parliamentary supremacy in exercised in Kenya                     *UG*

23.(b) It’s the only institution that makes, amend or repeal laws

– Parliament has power to pass a vote of no confidence in the sitting president                          *UG*

– It can limit the powers of the executive

– Approve the budget i.e. government revenues expenditure

– It regulates other arms of the government through amendment of the constitution

– It can declare war or state of emergency

– Members of parliament cannot be prosecuted for whatever they say in parliament while contributing to debate.         

  1. (a) Name three external sources of revenue for the Kenyan government *UG*
  2. (a) Grants and loans from donor countries                                                             *UG*

– Money in form of loans from World Bank or IMF

– Borrowing from African Development Bank

– Import and export duties

– Get donation from well wishers/friendly countries.

(b) Explain six challenges facing the Kenya government in her effort to raise revenue                         *UG*

24.(b) _ Evasion of tax by people and organization                                                                         *UG*

– The rich Kenyan keeps their money in foreign banks such monies do not earn interest for the country

– In adequate information for local investment through treasury bills, post office, bonds and shares at the Nairobi Stock Exchange

– Some officers embezzle the revenue collected so it does not reach the treasury

– The donor condition is too harsh and undermines the sovereignty of countries. The recipient nation is forced to import goods from the country giving her loans.

peoples negative attitude towards tax payment due to lack of information on the importance of paying tax.

– Wealth declaration of paying tax provide the right information

  1. Name two archeological sites in Kenya *MAT*

1.- Hyraxhill                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     *MAT*

  – Rusinga island

 – Gede

 – Chesowanja

– Njoro river cave

 – Gambles cave

 – Fort Ternan

 – Lake Turkana

– Oloigescuilie

  1. Name two communities in Kenya who belong to the plain Nilotes *MAT*
  2. – Iteso *MAT*

  – Samburu

  – Turkana

  – Maasai

  – Njemps      

  1. Identify two communities of hunters and gatheres who occupied western Kenya in pre-colonial period


  1. – Onguye *MAT*

   – Okuro       

  1. State two main reasons why Omani rulers were interested in establishing their control over the

Kenyan Coast                                                                                                                                 *MAT*

  1. – To expand their commercial empire *MAT*

  – To establish political control over Kenyan Coast

  – To assist in ending the Portuguese rule 

  1. Give one reason which led to the decline of Gedi during the 15th century *MAT*
  2. – External attacks             *MAT*

       – Adequate water supply

  1. Name the missionary society that established a home for freed slaves at the coast of Kenya in the

19th century                                                                                                                                     *MAT*

  1. – The church missionary society ½ mk for initials (C.M.S)                                            *MAT*
  2. Give two reasons for the Akambas resistance against the establishment of colonial rule *MAT*
  3. – Feared to lose their independence             *MAT*

The British had disputed their long distance trade

The British were raping their (Kamba women)

The British failed to respect their religion

Resisted the British punitive expeditions

  1. State one grievance raised by the Asians in Kenya that was addressed by the Devonshire white paper


  1. They demanded equal rights             *MAT*

They wanted to own land in Kenya highlands

They opposed restrictions on their migration into Kenya  

  1. Give one reason why Africans were denied equal educational opportunities with other races during

the colonial period                                                                                                                                    *MAT*

  1. – Europeans wanted to produce and maintain semi- skilled labour force for the colony *MAT*

   – Fear of competition from educated Africans

  1. Give two reasons why corruption is being discouraged in Kenya *MAT*

10.- To promote economic development                                                                                           *MAT*

To promote peace and stability

To promote national unity

To provide fair distribution of national resources

To gain international confidence    

  1. Give one example of indirect taxes in Kenya *MAT*

11        – Sales tax                                                                                                                             *MAT*

Value added tax


  1. Identify two aims of the oathing system during the mau mau period *MAT*
  2. To ensure loyalty of members             *MAT*
  • To maintain secrecy
  • To inspire courage
  1. Give two reasons why cultural activities are important in Kenya today *MAT*
  2. They entertain people                         *MAT*

They educate the masses

They bring people together

They promote patriotism

They create employment opportunities

  1. Mention two types of democracy in Kenya *MAT*
  2. Direct or pure             *MAT*

Indirect or representative     

  1. Name two groups that are involved in monitoring human rights in Kenya             *MAT*
  2. Law enforcement officers e.g. police                        *MAT*

Lawyers and judges

Trade unions


Religious organization

Association such as women organization   

  1. a) Give five reasons which led to the migration of the cushites from their original homeland

into Kenya during the pre-colonial period                                                                      *MAT*

  1. a) They were searching for pasture and water             *MAT*

Escape from drought and famine

Due to outbreak of diseases and epidemics

Due to clan feuds

External attacks from neighbours

Looking for extra land for their populations

Spirit and adventure 

  1. b) Explain five results of the interaction between the Bantus and cushites in the

pre-colonial period                                                                                                            *MAT*

  1. b) Intermarriages strengthened communities

Some Bantus adopted Islam from cushites

Some Bantus copied the culture of cushites e.g. circumcision and age sets

Raided each other leading to loss of lives and property

Increased further migrations/ displacement

Development of trade

Some cushites were absorbed/ assimilated             

  1. a) Why did the British use direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya?             *MAT*
  2. a) Most communities lacked centralized administration systems *MAT*

There were many ethnic groups with diverse socio- cultural systems

Most resisted British rule

They had enough administrator

  1. b) Explain the role played by women in the struggle for independence in Kenya            *MAT*

17.b) Raised funds to support political activities                                                                             *MAT*

Provided moral support to freedom fighters

Demanded for release of detained freedom fighters

Participated in armed struggle e.g Muthoni Nduta wa Kore Mekatilil

Supplied food and arms to freedom fighters

Acted as spies for freedom fighters

Took part in oathing

Kept their homes intact as the men went out to fight

Suffered for the sake of liberation              

  1. a) List three founder members of the East African Association             *MAT*
  2. a) Harry Thuku             *MAT*

Abdalla Tairasa

Mohammed Sheikh

Mwalimu Hamisi     

  1. b) Explain six ways through which Ronald Ngala contributed to the struggle for independence


  1. b) He advocated for equal living standards for all races in Kenya *MAT*

He was founder member of Mijikenda union which created political awareness among his people

As a member of Leg co, he advocated for increased African representation

He organized many political rallies and demanded for release of political detainees

As the president of KADU he advocated for independence

As a member of African elected members he mediated between the extremes and moderate voices in the Legco

He participated in drawing independence constitution

In 1961 he formed a coalition government with new Kenya party so as not to

delay independence               

  1. a) Give any five social challenges encountered by the Kenyan government since independence


  1. a) High illiteracy rate *MAT*

Many diseases

High level of poverty among the African communities

A lot of suspicion among various racial groups

Poor health and educational facilities

Ignorance among sections of the population         

  1. b) Explain how the existence of many political parties has promoted democracy in Kenya


  1. b) It has promoted freedom of association by providing alternative parties for people *MAT*

It has provided a forum to express their views about how a country should be governed

It has made the government to be more accountable to the people

It has provided checks and balances to abuse and misuse of power by leaders

It has provided a system of scrutinizing government expenditure through public accounts committee and public investment committee

It has made people to be free in contributing ideas to any aspect of development

It has enabled people form political parties as they wish  

  1. a) Outline five factors that might hinder the enjoyment of fundamental human rights of

an individual                                                                                                                       *MAT*

  1. a) Violation of the rights by the state *MAT*

Ignorance of the people on their rights

During political insecurity such as war

Conviction to a jail term by a court of law

Some areas may be declared ‘security operation’ zones

Unequal distribution of resources may impoverish others

Discrimination based on gender, tribe, race e.t.c.  

  1. b) Describe five features of the independence constitution            *MAT*
  2. b) Provided for a governor general as the head of state on behalf of the queen *MAT*

Provided for independent judiciary to ensure justice

Set up a judicial service commission to appoint judicial officers

Provided that  the governor in consultation with the Prime Minister appoints a chief justice

Provided for six Regional governments and Assemblies

Entrenched rules of citizens and fundamental rights

Provided for establishment of public service commission and a central lands board

Provided for tenure of the office of judges and Attorney General

Provided for multi-party democracy with majority party forming the government

Entrenched amendment procedures where 2/3 were required to change constitution

Provided for bicameral house// Senate and house of representative

Provided for separation of powers between the executive, legislative and judiciary

  1. a) Identify three types of local authorities in Kenya                         *MAT*
  2. a) Municipal *MAT*

Town council

Urban council

City council

Area council

County council

  1. b) Explain the relationship between central and local government            *MAT*
  2. b) Local governments operate under policy guidelines formulated by the centralgovernment*MAT*

The Minister for local government approves all activities of the local government

All councilors nominated by political parties are approved by minister for local government

All by- laws made by local authorities are approved by minister before implementation

Records of council meetings and business transactions are verified by the ministers

Annual reports from local authorities are scrutinized by the minister

Minister appoints senior officials who sit in local authorities

Financial records of local authorities are audited by officials from central government

The central government gives grants to local authorities

  1. a) Give three symbols of National Unity             *MAT*
  2. a) National flag

National Anthem

Coat of arms

Loyalty pledge



National language                

  1. b) Explain six factors which undermine national unity in Kenya            *MAT*
  2. b) Unequal distribution of national resources causing dissatisfaction and harmony

Different religious beliefs may lead to discrimination

Tribalism leads to favourism creating hatred

Nepotism leads to misuse of public resources

Ethnic conflicts discourages co-operation

Racism leads to discrimination

Sexism denies people the right to participate equally in development

Corruption violets peoples rights to equal treatment

  1. Identify the main pre-historic site in western Kenya *NDW*
  2. Rusinga Island *NDW*
  3. Identify two reasons for the migration of the Eastern Cushites into Kenya *NDW*
  4. – Family feuds/internal conflicts *NDW*

   – Population pressure

   – Search for better grazing land

   – Fleeing outbreak of diseases

   – Escaping famine and drought/natural calamities

   – External  conflicts from their neighbours

   – Spirit of adventure

  1. Give the two socio-economic sub divisions of the Maasai community in pre-colonial Kenya *NDW*
  2. – The purko/ patralists/ livestock keepers *NDW*

   – Kwavi /mixed farmers/ cultivators

  1. State two factors which facilitated the coming of the early visitors to the Kenyan coast *NDW*
  2. – Availability of monsoon winds *NDW*

   – Availability of capital

   – Accessibility  of the Kenya coast/presence of t he Indian ocean

  – Development of marine technology, which a availed dhows/ ships

  1. Give one reason which led to the decline of Gedi during the 15th century *NDW*
  2. – Attack/ burning by the Portuguese *NDW*

   – Lack of water

  – Attack by man-eaters, Zimba cannibals

  – Constant wars/disunity among coastal cities

  – Shortage of ford

  – Decline in trading activities

  1. State the main reason why Arabs were hated by the people of the interior parts of Kenya *NDW*
  2. – They captured Africans as slaves/ trading in slaves *NDW*
  3. Give two provisions of the Anglo-German treaty of 1886             *NDW*
  4. – A 10 mile/16km coastal strip was awarded to sultan of Zanzibar *NDW*

   – The islands of pemba, mafia, pate, Zanzibar and Lamu work given to the sultan of Zanzibar

   – With and the territory between R. Umba and R. Ruvuma were given to the Germans

   – The territory between R. Umba and R. Juba were given to the British

  1. Give two reasons why Imperial British East African Company (IBEACO.) failed to administer

the British East Africa Protectorate                                                                                               *NDW*

  1. – Poor transport system *NDW*

   – Poor coordination with the colonial office in London

  – Shortage of personnel

  – Inadequate administrative skills of the officers

  – Hostility from local communities

 -Inadequate funds

 – Lack of knowledge of the area

  1. State one problem faced by the independent churches and schools during the colonial

period                                                                                                                                                    *NDW*

  1. – Inadequate funds *NDW*

   – Poor/inadequate facilities

  – Lack of trained catechists/pastors

  – Competition from missionary churches

  – Leadership struggles/wrangles

  1. Identify any two characteristics of early political movements formed in Kenya before

1939                                                                                                                                                           *NDW*

  1. – Ethnics based/tribal/lacked natural outlook *NDW*

     – Addressed similar issue /local problems i.e. land alienation

   – Led by educated Africans

  – Concerned  mainly with welfare issues

  1. Who represented Central Kenya in the legislative council in 1957 elections             *NDW*
  2. Bernard Mate *NDW*
  3. State two roles played by women in the struggle for independent in Kenya *NDW*
  4. – Provision of funds to the fighters *NDW*

     – Acted as spies for the African fighters

    – Joined the fighters as soldiers

    – Composed songs  to encourage fighters to ridicule the  home guards

    – Participate the oathing ceremonies/administered oaths

    – Kept secrets of the fighters

   – Mobilized  the  people to join the struggle/convinced their husbands to join the struggle

    – Women suffered torture, arrest and detention due to their active role in the struggle

  1. Give one circumstances that may lead to the breach of an individual’s right to life *NDW*
  2. – During war *NDW*

     – On self defense

    – When resisting police arrest

    – Death sentence by a court of law

  1. Give one non military function of the Kenyan armed forces *NDW*
  2. – Entertainment during public holiday *NDW*

      – Offer emergency services

     – Participate in development projects e.g.  road construction

  1. Identify the parliamentary committee that deals with the constitutional affairs in Kenya *NDW*
  2. – Parliamentary select committee *NDW*
  3. Name two ex-officio members of the Local Authorities *NDW*
  4. – The clerk *NDW*

     – The district commission/DC

     – The district medical/officer of health/MOH

     – District engineer

17 State the main reason for post election violence in Kenya by the end of 2007                                   *NDW*

  1. – Dispute presidential election results often the general elections
  2. a) Identify five impacts of the migration and settlement of the highland Bantus

into Kenya                                                                                                                               *NDW*

  1. a) – Displacement of other communities             *NDW*

          – Absorption /assimilation of other communities

          – Led to cultural adoption

          – Increases trading activities

         – Led to inter marriages

          – Increases in population in the areas they  finally settled Increased warfare

  1. b) Describe the political organization of the mijikenda in the pre-colonial Kenya             *NDW*
  2. b) – basic political un it was the clan which shared  common  ancestor                               *NDW*

          – Clan controlled by the council of elders called Kambi

          – Kambi settled disputes among community members presiding over religious matters/acting

           as count of appeal/declaring war

         – Lived in  fortified villages called Kaya  for security

        – Had agents system which  provided warriors

        – Warriors provided security

        – Political unit was strengthened by intermarriages between different clans

  1. a) Give five reasons why Seyyid Said transferred his capital from Muscat in Oman  to Zanzibar

in 1840                                                                                                                                             *NDW*

  1. a) – To effectively control the coastal  towns                                                                           *NDW*

          – Zanzibar had good climate

          – Zanzibar was easily defensible

          – Existence of deep natural harbours

         – Zanzibar had been loyal to Omen

         – It had fresh water for drinking

         – Had  good fertile soil for growing cloves/agriculture

  1. b) Describe five ways through which Seyyid Said encouraged the development of Plantation

Agriculture                                                                                                                                     *NDW*

  1. b) – encourage slave trade which supple cheap labour to the farms                                      *NDW*

         – Introduction of crops e.g. cloves, coconut

         – signing of trade treaties  which created  international markets

         – established plantation e.g. clove plantation   in Zanzibar

        – encouraged settlers to come and engage in plantation agriculture along  the coast

        – acquired more land and put   it under plantation especially near Malindi and Mombasa

        – provided security to t he plantation farmers

        – introduced legislation that encouraged plantation of coconut

  1. a) Give five reasons for British occupation of Kenya in the 19th century             *NDW*
  2. a) – British wanted access to Uganda so as to controlled the source of the Nile             *NDW*

          – In order to establish a marked for her manufactured goods

          – To use Kenya as a outlet for settling surplus  population

         – To use Kenya as  place for surplus capital  investment

         – To use  Kenya as a   source of raw materials

         – To prevent Kenya from being colonize  by other European powers

         – To protect European missionaries  and other British materials who were already settled

           in Kenya

  1. b) Explain five results of the Agikuyu mixed reaction to the British invasion of Kenya             *NDW*
  2. b) – it fueled hatred and animosity in most kikuyu land with each section having misgiving about

              the other                                                                                                                               *NDW*

        – Large tracts of land (arable) were carried out for the British with the help of collaboration

           agikuyu leaders

       – Some leaders rose to prominate due to collaboration e.g. Karuri Wa

        Gakure those who collaborate received western education and were converted ton Christianity

      – it led to the emergency of home guards colonial headmen and many other agents of the British

        rule in Kenya

      – it led  to loss of life e.g. Waiyaki Wa Hinga and many Agikuyu fighters were

         Killed these was massive destruction of properties e.g. ford Dagorreti was burnt  down by

          Agikuyu warriors

       – it led to loss of Agikuyu independence

  1. a) Outline the pillars of Nyayoism             *NDW*
  2. a) – Peace             *NDW*

– Love

– Unity

  1. b) Describe six ways in which the spirit of Nyayoism has promoted development in Kenya *NDW*
  2. b) – it has discouraged discrimination in resource allocation *NDW*

– it has  helped in the  construction of schools, health centers  through harambee

– thought Nyayoism, nyayo buses were introduced to promote public transport

– has helped in the development of agriculture by setting up nyayo tea zones

– led to the establishment of a fund for physically challenged persons

– has enhanced cooperative and unity among Kenyans

– led to the establishment of the jua kali sector

  1. a) Give three reasons why it is important  for chiefs to hold Barazas                                                  *NDW*
  2. a) – Forum for people to express their views/wishes to  the government                               *NDW*

– Communicate government policy to the people

– Settle local dispute

– Mobilize local resources

– Identify/priorities local development projects

  1. b) Describe the structure of the provincial administration in Kenya             *NDW*
  2. b) – The link between the government and the people of Kenya             *NDW*

– at the  top is  the province headed by  the provincial commissioner, representing

  the     president

–   at the province take charge of the police  chair of provincial intelligent  and

     security committee

– the district headed by the district  level, administers marriage on  behalf of  the state,

   chairperson of the district trade licenses board and DDC

– division headed by the  district  officer

– location headed by the  chief

– sub-location headed by  the sub-chief

– clan/village  headed by the clan/villages  elders

23 a) Give three characteristics of human rights                                                                                      *NDW*

  1. a) – Human rights are thrivessal they apply equally to all             *NDW*

– They are indivisible .one right cannot be applied if the other does not exist

– Rights have limitation. in their enjoyments one has  the duty  to respect  the rights

             of the  others people

– Human rights may be derogated/in depended at times

  1. b) Explain six reasons why respects for human rights is important             *NDW*
  2. b) -Rrights are inherent to human beings .they distinguish human from other creatures        *NDW*

– Respect for human rights limits internal and external conflicts and strengthens

 material unity

– They guide the organs of state regarding the exercise of power they help human beings

 to live

  a dignified life, exploits  their  potentials and to satisfy their spiritual and physical  needs

– Rights empower citizens and residential by giving them control over decision making organs

  of state

– Rights justify special treatment of minorities  and other disadvantages people/groups

– Rights provide the citizens with the necessary information for the protection of democracy

24 a) Identify five challenges the government faces in its efforts to raise the government

revenue                                                                                                                                           *NDW*

  1. a) – Many companies/individuals evade paying taxes *NDW*

– Giving wrong information in wealth declaration by companies/individuals

– Embezzlement of revenue collected  by some government officers

– Many rich individuals keep their money in  foreign accounts instead  of  investing  in Kenya

– People lack information  on how  to invest with the government thought post

    office bonds/treasury  bills

– Donor  condition must be fulfilled before funds are released

– Overdependence/reliance  on  foreign aid

– Loans are issued at high interest rate which is a burden to service

  1. b) Explain five reasons why the government of Kenya normally prepares a National

Budget                                                                                                                                             *NDW*

  1. b) – to enable the government to priorities its needs                                                               *NDW*

– help the government to identify sources of revenue

– enable the government to explain the tax structure to the public

– enables the government to estimate the financial requirement for its needs

– help the government to identify its departments and allocate duties appropriately

  thus enhancing accountability

– give useful information to those organizations and individuals who may want tom keep

   track of the  government expenditure

– enables the government to account for funds borrowed/donated for development

  1. Name two pre-historic sites where remains of Kenya pithecus were discovered in Kenya *MUM*
  2. Fort Ternan            *MUM*

Samburu hills

Lake baringo basin

Lake turkana basin

  1. Identify one remnant of the southern cushites still existing in Kenya *MUM*
  2. – Dahallo            *MUM*

 – Sanye

  1. What was the lightest political office among the Ameru
  2. i) The king/ Raiboni            *MUM*
  3. State two social functions of the Orkoiyot among the nandi
  4. – Presided over religious functions            *MUM*

– Foretold the future

– Acted as a rain maker

– Was a medicine man

  1. Identify two written documents that provide historical information on the East African Coast before

the 19th century                                                                                                                           *MUM*

  1. – Periplus of Erithrean sea            *MUM*

– Ptolemys Geography

– Christinon topography

– Works of Ibn Batuta and Al Masoud

– Swahili chronicles

  1. State the recommendations of the Lythcerton constitution of 1954           *MUM*
  2. – The existing governors executive council be transformed into a multi-racial council of

              ministers                                                                                                                             *MUM*

– Elections should be held in 1956- 1957 in which African members for eight constituencies 

  should be elected

  1. Name the Gusii prophets who mobilized the people against the colonialists *MUM*
  2. i) Moraa Moka Ngiti *MUM*
  3. Who was the first African to be appointed as a cabinet minister in 1954            *MUM*
  4. i) B.A Ohanga            *MUM*
  5. Name the woman appointed to the legco before independence in kaya
  6. i) Jemimah Gechanga            *MUM*
  7. ii) Priscilla Abwaro
  8. State the objective of the second Lancaster house conference of 1962 *MUM*
  9. Work out the final steps to self- governance            *MUM*

– Draft independence constitution

– Sort out differences between KANU and KADU

  1. What was the main implication of the first Maasai agreement with the British in 1954 *MUM*
  2. Maasai were pushed to two reserves i.e. Ngong and Laikipia/ creation of the first African reserves


  1. State two grievances that were used by the young Kikuyu Association            *MUM*
  2. – Opposed land alienation            *MUM*

– African land owners to be issued with title deeds

– An inspired kipande system

– Opposed reduction of African workers

– Demanded a cut in the poll tax

– Demanded labour conditions

  1. Give two recommendations of the Phelps stokes education commission of 1924 *MUM*
  2. – Establishment of a uniform system of education in all government and missionary schools


– Establishment of teachers training college

– Setting up schools in rural areas

  1. What is the main role of the Kenya anti-corruption commission (KACC)
  2. – Investigate corruption cases in non- pantisan manner *MUM*
  3. Identify the main function of the armed forces in Kenya *MUM*
  4. – To defend the nation against external aggression            *MUM*
  5. Name two Africans of the provincial administration who are appointed by the president *MUM*
  6. i) Provincial commission            *MUM*
  7. ii) District commission
  8. State two roles of the public service commission in Kenya *MUM*
  9. – Appoints civil servants                        *MUM*

– Promotes and transfers civil servants

– Exercise disciplinary actions over civil servants

– Looks after the welfare of civil servants

  1. a) Give reasons for the migration of the Abaluhya into Kenya during the pre- colonial period


18a)     – Population increase in their homeland                                                                            *MUM*

– Search for fertile land for cultivation

– Internal conflicts/ quarrels/ misunderstanding

– Epidemics/ diseases/ natural calamities

– External attacks/ attacks from neighbors

– Spirit of adventure

– Knowledge of iron making technology

  1. b) Describe the political organization of the Agikuyu in the 19th century *MUM*
  2. b) – The smallest organized unit was the family and several families made up the clan *MUM*

– Clan was the basic political unit

– Clan was semi- autonomous and occupied a territorial unit (mbari/ ridge)

– Clan was ruled by a council of elders (kiama) which was headed by muramati

– Council of elders solved land and inheritance disputes

– Kiamo also solved all inter-clan disputes

– A seniour council of elders made from several clan councils existed (kiamo kiko ndundu)

   exercised- served as a court of appeal

– Each clan had its own mission of defence

– Njuiri newly initiated warriors became senior warrior at the next initiated ceremony

  1. a) Name three independent religious movements in Kenya during the colonial period *MUM*
  2. a) – Nomiya luo mission            *MUM*

– Mumbo cult

– Kilumi

– Dini ya roho

– Christian universal evangelical union

– Dini ya musambwa

  1. b) Explain problems faced by independent schools and churches in Kenya            *MUM*
  2. b) – Inadequate facilities e.g. buildings, teaching materials and teaching staff                *MUM*

–  Restrictions by the colonial government which prohibited the opening of more schools and  

    banning of existing ones

– Opposition from missionary churches

– Lack of ordained church leaders

– Lacked of trained teachers/ instructors in school

– Lack of co-ordination which resulted in rivalry between churches and schools

– Inadequate funds to carry out their programmes

– Lack of nation wide out look as they were restricted to small areas

– Some were ethnic based- served particular tribes

  1. a) Give three factors that made it possible for settlers to establish forms in the white highlands


  1. a) – Support by the colonial government which provided loans, land, labour and security *MUM*

– There was favourable climate with adequate rainfall

– Improved transport system provided by the construction of railway and feeder roads

– There were suitable fertile soils for agriculture

– Government encouraged formation of co-operative societies/ factories


  1. b) Explain the agricultural changes introduced by the British during the colonial period *MUM*
  2. b) – Subsistence farming was discouraged in reference to cash crop farming *MUM*

– Farmers formed co-operatives to assist in purchasing of farm inputs and selling of the


– New methods of farming e.g. terracing were introduced

– New cash crops were introduced e.g. coffee and wheat

– Plantations were established

– Introduced use of  machinery in farming e.g. tractors

– New methods of diseases and pest  control were introduced

– Dairy / exotic breeds and dairy farming was introduced

  1. a) Explain five constitutional changes which took place in Kenya between 1954 and 1963


  1. a) – Lytleton constitution of 1954 led to nomination of first African minister and several others

             nominated to the legco                                                                                                       *MUM*

– 1957 first elections held where the Africans were elected to the legco

– Lennox Boyd construction gave more seats for emperors from 8 to 14

– First Lancaster house conference of 1960 gave Africans more seats from 14- 33 in the legco

– 1960 state of emergency was lifted and Africans allowed to form national political parties

 (KANU and KADU)

– Second Lancaster house conference drew up their independence federal constitution

– 1961, just general election held KANU union but refused to form out the release of Kenyatta.

   KADU under Ngala formed the covenant

– 1st June, 1963 Kenya attained mutual self government with Kenyatta as prime minister

  1. b) Describe the role played by Thomas Mboya in the struggle for Kenya’s independence between 1952 and 1963            *MUM*
  2. b) – He was a member of trade union movement member of Kenya local government union

               (KLGWU) and Kenya federation of labour                                                                      *MUM*

– Protested against colonial separation of the Agikuyu, Aembu and Ameru from other

   communities in Nairobi

– He was a member of KAU and became its director of publicity in 1952. Later its treasurer

– He protested against government detention and torture of African rulers

– He solicited for financial and moral support to Kenya federation of labour from international

   trade unions and organizations

– He protested the restriction of Africans from growing cash crops

– He campaigned for the release of detained trade unionist and political leaders e.g. Kenyatta

– He facilitated trade union education in many parts of the country

– He protested the restrictions of Africans from growing cash crops

– He aired African grievances in the international for a

– 1957, he was elected to the legco

– When KANU was formed in 1960, he was elected as its secretary general

– Condemned reservation of white highlands for European settlers

–  Participated in the Lancaster house conference of 1960 which chartered the way of Kenya’s

    independence, constitution

  1. a) Give three reasons why parliamentary elections are held regularly in Kenya            *MUM*
  2. a) – It is a constitutional requirement that general elections be held regularly after five years


– So that Kenyans can elect people leaders of their choice whom they have confidence in them

– To keep leaders in their toes knowing if they do not perform they will be voted out

– To give citizens to exercise their democratic right of electing regularly

– Helps generate new ideas in leadership and representation

  1. b) Describe the stages through which a bill oases before it becomes law *MUM*

– 1st reading- the bill is tabled in parliament by either the AG in the minister whose portfolio the

   bill falls. The bill is not discussed by Mps and they may approve the bill goes to second reading                                                                                                                                  *MUM*

– 2nd reading- the bill is discussed by Mps. Ammendments can be made. It can be rejected or

  postponed for six months to enable the minister in charge to rethink or redraft the bill

– Committee stage- the committee and the house/ parliamentary select committee scrutinizes

    and analyses the bills and the recommendations made

– Report stage- the committee presents its findings back topariament for the Mps to confirm that

   their suggestions have been inco-operated

– 3rd reading- further are done and amendments can be made. A vote is taken for approval or


– Presidential assent- the president signs for the bill to become law

  1. a) State five problems facing the government in its budgeting            *MUM*
  2. a) – Budgetary deficts as the government fails to raise all expected revenue                        *MUM*

– Low tax collection resulting from unefficiency of some officials

– Tax evasion by unscrupulous individuals

– Natural calamities from emergencies like drought and floods

– Over- reliance on donor funding

– Inflation trends/ rising prices of goods

– Corruption by some government officers

– High recurrent expenditure e.g. payment of salaries

– Political experience where money is spent on projects that influence position of sane,


  1. b) Explain measures which have been taken by the Kenya government in order to monitor and control public finance            *MUM*
  2. b) – Government estimates must be approved by parliament                        *MUM*

– Parliament approves money allocated to each ministry

– Supplementary estimate must be approved by parliament

– An explanation is demanded by parliament if money is returned to the treasury

– The public accounts committee ensures government expenditure

– All government expenditure is audited by the controller and auditor general

– Parastatal accounts are audited by auditor general of states corporations

– Through tender system which checks an irregularities in financial deals

– Through budgeting before financial allocations

– Ministerial accounting for funds

– Public auditing by the public accounts committee

– Anti- corruption authority checks on misuse of public funds

  1. a) State five factors that interfere with free and fair electrons            *MUM*
  2. a) – Where there are incidences of violence                                                                                               *MUM*

– Corruption among candidates and their supports

– Efficient distribution of election materials

– Extreme weather conditions e.g. heavy rains on voting day

– Incompetent election officials

– Transport and communication problems that may lead to inaccessibility of polling stations

– Appointment of partisan- election officials

– Use of negative propaganda by party leaders and their supporters

– Gender insensitivity

– Ethnic and party loyalties

  1. b) Explain five ways in which parliament controls the executive arm of government *MUM*
  2. b) – Parliament approves source of government revenue/ budget                        *MUM*

– Ministers are accountable to parliament as they answer questions concerning their ministries

– Public accounts committee scrutinizes government expenditure

– Parliament has power to legislate bills prepared by the government

– Parliament can pass a vote of no confidence in the government

– Government expenditure must be approved by parliament

– Parliament may limit the powers of the executive through constitutional amendments


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