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FORM FOUR MOKASA HISTORY EXAMINATIONS PLUS MARKING SCHEMES

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

TIME: 2½ hours

FORM FOUR MOKASA 2 EXAMINATION WITH MARKING SCHEME

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

Paper 1

Section A (25 marks)

  1. Identify one period in history                                                            (1 mark)
  •      Pre-history
  •      History

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.    Identify any one type of government that existed in Kenya during the pre-colonial                                                                                     (1 mark)
  •    Kingdoms/monarchy
  •    Chiefdoms/Chieftaincy
  •            Council of Elders

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.    Identify  one  cultural  practice   which  was  introduced  by  the Cushites  to the      Bantu  communities in                                                                      (1 mark)
  •      Circumcision
  •      Taboo against eating fish
  •            Age set system
  • Cattle breeding

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.    Give two reasons why the Portuguese attempt to introduce Christianity to the     coastal people failed between 1500-1700 AD.                                             (2 marks)
  •      Harsh and cruel administration
  •      Were anti-social as they failed to mix freely with the locals/ lived in segregated            settlements
  •            Islamic dominance at the coast
  • Rebellion from the local people
  •      They never made any attempt to spread Christianity.
  • Christianity was not accommodative to the African culture compared to Islam
  • They were few and never made any impact socially

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.    Identify one person who qualifies to be Kenyan citizen by birth. (1 mark)
  •      If he or she is born in/outside Kenya by parents who are citizens of Kenya.
  •      A child found in Kenya who is less than eight years and whose nationality and            parentage cannot be ascertained is assumed/ becomes a Kenyan citizen.
  •            A person who is a Kenyan citizen but ceased to be a Kenyan citizen by acquiring         citizenship of another country as per the earlier constitution can regain             citizenship through application.

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.    State two constitutional amendments made in the Kenya constitution in 1991.                                                                                                                               (2 marks)
  •      Repealing of section 2A of the constitution legalizing multi partysm
  •      The presidency was limited to two, five year terms
  •            Presidential candidate must attain 25% votes cast from five of the eight         

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.    Identify one characteristic of Human Rights.                                              (1 mark)
  •      They apply equally to all people/universal
  •      They have limitations.
  •            They are indivisible/ inherent.
  • Their application may be suspended g. in war/derogation of human rights.
  •      One can enjoy as long as he does not interfere with the rights of others.
  • They are enshrined in the constitution.
  • They are inalienable.
  • They are a precondition of peace and stability in the society and form the basis of

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.    Give two reasons that made the British to use direct rule in administering some     parts of Kenya.                                                                                              (2 marks)
  •      Most communities did not have a centralized administrative system thus the       British appointed chiefs.
  •      There were many ethnic groups with diverse socio-cultural systems which made it      difficult for the British to apply indirect rule.
  •            Most communities resisted the British rule and so they had to be controlled            
  • There was an existing system of direct rule used by the Imperial British East       Africa Company on which the British built their administration.
  •      The British had enough administrators.
  • The British had enough funds for administration

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.    State the first African nationalist newspaper that published African grievances in     the 1920s.                                                                                                       (1 mark)
  •      Muiguithania/Reconciler

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.    Give the main objective of political parties which were formed in Kenya after 1945.                                                                                                                                   (1 mark)
  •      To demand for their independence/ Decolonization

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.    State one grievance raised by the Settlers in Kenya that was addressed by the     Devonshire White Paper 1923.                                                                     (1 mark)
  •      They wanted the Kenyan highlands to be exclusively reserved for the whites.
  •      They wanted more independence from Britain/Internal self-rule.
  •            They wanted restriction on Indian immigration into Kenya.
  • They never wanted Asians to be represented in the Legislative Council.

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.    State two roles of Daniel arap Moi in Education development in Kenya between     1979 and 2002.                                                                                               (2 marks)
  •      Introduction of 8-4-4 system of education
  •      Introduction of the school milk /feeding programme in 1979
  •            Expansion of primary /Secondary  schools
  • Increase of Public universities.
  •      Expansion of tertiary institutions
  • Introduction of cost sharing in education    

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.    Give two sources of electoral regulations in Kenya.                                  (2 marks)
  •      The Constitution
  •      The Election Offence Act
  •            The Local Government Act/the County Government act
  • The National Assembly and Presidential Elections Act

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.     Identify two functions of the National Intelligence Service (NIS) in Kenya.                                                                                                                                               (2 marks)
  • It collects intelligence information on threats to State Security.
  •    It keeps the State informed on the feelings of the people towards the government         and its policies.
  •            It gathers information on external threats to the nation

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  1.    Name the education commission that recommended introduction of a totally          integrated quality education and training in Kenya.                                   (1 mark)
  •      Davy Koech Commission

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.    State two principles of the Devolved Government in Kenya.                     (2 marks)
  •      It is based on democratic principles
  •      It is founded on the doctrine of separation of powers
  •            There has to be a reliable source of revenue to enable it govern and deliver       services effectively
  • It should ensure gender balance in their representative bodies

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

 

 

  1.    State two functions of the controller of budget in Kenya.              (2 marks)
  •      Giving authority on the withdrawals from public funds such as the Equalization,        Consolidated and Revenue Funds.
  •      Overseeing the implementation of the Budgets at both the County and National   
  •            Submitting to each house of parliament a report on the implementation of the       budget of both the County and National Governments.

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

Section B (45 marks)

  1. (a)      Identify five results of the migration and settlement of the Cushites into                                     Kenya during the pre-colonial period                                               (5 marks)
  •    Their settlement led to increased rivalry  and conflict over control of resources
  •    Those who were Muslims spread the religion into areas where they settled.
  •            They displaced some communities in areas where they settled like the Pokomo   and the Mijikenda from Shungwaya.
  • They introduced livestock farming into areas where they settled.
  •    They intermarried with communities whom they came in contact with.
  • There was increase in population in areas where they settled.
  • There were increased trading activities between them and their neighbours.
  • Bantu borrowed some practices from them like circumcision and, age set system
  • Some communities borrowed the art of iron working from them.
  •    They acquired mixed farming from the Bantu.
  • It led to population re-distribution

Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

            (b)       Describe the political organization of the Mijikenda during the 19th century.                                                                                                                                             (10 marks)

  • The family was the smallest political unit headed by the father
  • They had a decentralized type of government
  • The Mijikenda were organized into clans with many sub clans
  • The clans were headed by council of elders
  • Each clan lived in protected villages known as Kaya
  • Young men became members of age – sets after going through circumcision and there after took part in political activities.
  • Senior age –set members made up the governing council called Kambi
  • The council was responsible for the administration  of a clan
  • Council meetings were chaired by headmen
  • The junior age- set members made up the warrior group for defending the community

Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  1. (a)      State five written evidence to show that there was contact between the East                            African coast and the outside world.                                                (5 marks)
  •      The Graeco Roman documentary
  •      The Periplus of the Erithrean Sea
  •            The Ptolemy Geography- written by Claudius Ptolemy in the 5th
  • The Christian Topography written by Cosmas Indicopleaustes
  •      Accounts of Arab travellers like Al Masudi, Al Idrisi and Ibn Batuta
  • Several documented Swahili histories and chronicles
  • Natural history by Pliny

Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

           (b)       Explain five social impact of the Indian Ocean Trade on the people of East                                     African Coast.                                                                                    (10 marks)

  •    Muslim traders converted Africans to Islam.
  •    Foreign architecture was introduced to the region by the traders.
  •            Islamic culture was introduced like way of dressing, education and eating habits.
  • It led to the development of towns and city states due to lucrative and profitable
  •    Arab merchants intermarried with the local Bantu communities giving rise to the           Swahili community.
  • A class of rich merchants emerged after benefitting from trade like Chief Kivoi.
  • Increased demand for slaves led to warfare among African communities.
  • Change of social roles in the society due to enslavement of people
  • Emergence of Kiswahili as a new language of communication as locals interacted            with foreigners
  •    Settlement of Arabs/foreigners at the coast.

Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  1. (a)       Identify five factors for the rise of Independent Churches in Kenya during                                     the colonial period.                                                                            (5 marks)
  • To develop worship pattern that are relevant to their needs
  •      To avoid being discriminated against in the missionary churches
  •            To preserve their cultural heritage this was being threatened by European
  • To provide a forum for cultural activities
  •      Some Africans claimed to have had revelation from God to establish their own           churches
  • To get positions of leadership in Church
  • Some Africans perceived White missionaries as colonialist since they paved

      way for the colonialists/the flag followed the cross.

Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

            (b)       Explain five roles of Professor Wangari Mathai in environmental                                                conservation.                                                                          (10 marks)

  •    She was the founder of the Green Belt movement to fight environmental     degradation
  •    She was involved in tree planting activities in the country.
  •             She safeguarded Karura forest from destruction by private developers
  • She succeeded in stopping the proposed construction of a sixty storey Kenya     Times Media Trust complex at Uhuru park
  •    She served as an assistant minister for Environment, Natural resources and     Wildlife
  • Chair of the Board, the Green Belt Movement (2002-2011)
  • She fought against land grabbing and the encroachment of agriculture into the forests
  • Addressed international networks like UN to seek support for environmental     conservation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
  • She held seminars to educate citizens to press the government to conserve the           environment
  •    She won the Nobel Prize for her efforts in environmental conservation

Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  1. (a)     State five roles of National Philosophies on economic development. (5 marks)
  •   It has promoted peaceful co-existence among Kenyan communities.
  •   Expansion of educational facilities like schools
  •            Expansion of medical facilities
  • Expansion of the Jua kali sector to create employment.
  •   Development of the rural areas through district focus for rural development.
  • Development of sporting activities through the building of stadiums/ stadia.
  • Expansion of agriculture.
  • Environmental conservation was done through tree planting and construction of
  • Construction of infrastructures like bridges.
  •   It encouraged mutual social responsibility by being mindful of other people’s            
  • Has helped in the re- distribution of wealth between the rich and the poor.

Any 5 points @ 1mark each (5 marks)

            (b)       Explain five challenges facing the health sector in Kenya. (10 marks)

  • Inadequate funding by the government which has resulted into provision of poor services.
  • Corruption in the health sector has made it difficult for the government to provide equipment/facilities/medicine required.
  • Inadequate hospitals/dispensaries/health centres makes it difficult for                    many people to access health services/high population.
  • Poor payment/remuneration or health workers has demoralized them                    hence making them less productive/Brain drain
  • Frequent/industrial unrests by health workers has resulted into death/suffering of many patients.
  • Inadequate facilities/equipment’s has made it difficult for the public to access quality services.
  • Poor supervision of health workers has led to infiltration of the sector by unqualified health providers.
  • The spread of HIV/AIDS pandemic/terminal diseases like cancer has increased the cost of treatment/medication.
  • Poverty/cost sharing policy has hindered some people from accessing health services/expensive.
  • Unforeseen rate of accidents/injuries has strained the scarce resources.

Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

Section C (30 marks) 

  1. (a)      Identify three rights of the youth in Kenya.                                    (3 marks)
  •    Right to access to relevant education and training.
  •    Right to associate, be represented and participate in political, social, economic             and other spheres of life.
  •            Right to access to employment.
  • Right to protection from harmful cultural practices and exploitation.

Any 3 points @ 1 marks each (3 marks)

(b)       Explain six political responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen.               (12 marks)

  • Respecting other citizens, their views to ensure peaceful co- existence.
  • Exercising one’s voting rights during presidential, parliamentary civic elections and referendum to enhance democracy.
  • Taking part in community policing and volunteering information about criminal activities to the police to enhance security
  • Offering positive criticism to the government to promote good governance/ Participating in constitution making process and referendum
  • Participating in meetings organized by government official and other community leaders to ensure effective implementation of policies.
  • Obeying the laws of the country to promote peace and harmony
  • Offering oneself/candidature for election

Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

  1.       (a)       State three functions of the Cabinet in Kenya.                   (3 marks)
    • It performs any duties delegated to it by the president.
    • It appoints board members of the parastatals in their respective ministries.
    • It initiates new bills/government bills which are debated in the parliament.
    • It formulates policies/programmes of the government and interprets them to the people.
    • The coordinate/control activities in the respective ministries.
    • It updates the president on the progress of activities taking place in the ministries.
    • It advises the president on matters pertaining to the administration/governance of            the country.
    • Through the minister for Finance, it prepares the budget which shows government expenditure/sources of revenue.
    • Provide parliament with full and regular report concerning matters under their control.

Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

            (b)       Explain six circumstances that can make a member of parliament lose his or                                her seat.                                                                                             (12 marks)

  •    If one ceases to be a Kenyan citizen.
  •    If one is declared bankrupt by a court of law.
  •            If one receives a jail term exceeding six months or a death penalty from a court of   
  • If one is found to have committed an election offence and had his or her elections
  •    If one resigns from the National Assembly in writing to the speaker.
  • If one is found to be of unsound mind.
  • If one resigns from the party that sponsored him or her to parliament.
  • If one defects from one party to another.
  • If one fails to attend eight consecutive sessions of parliament without the     speaker’s permission.
  •    If one who was elected to parliament as an independent candidate but decides to            join a political party.

Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

  1. (a)      Identify three relationships between the County and the National                                               Government in Kenya.                                                                      (3 marks)
  • There is mutual respect in exercising/performance of their powers
  •    The national government assists or supports the county government as     appropriate
  •            They should implement legislations of other level of government
  • They liaise for the purposes of exchanging or coordinating policies
  •    They co-operate in the performance of functions/exercise of power through setting                 up of joint committees.
  • They set up mechanisms of settling disputes
  • The National Government has powers to intervene in a County Government if it is unable to perform its functions.
  • The National Government through the president may suspend the County

Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

            (b)       Explain six challenges faced by the National Government in revenue                                          collection                                                                                                (10 marks)

  •    Many individuals and organizations evade the payment of taxes.
  •    In wealth declaration people and companies give wrong information thus     reducing the amount to be taxed.
  •            Embezzlement of funds by individuals responsible with revenue collection.
  • Rich individuals at times keep their money in foreign banks instead of investing in Kenya.
  •    In some cases officers responsible with collecting revenue collude with some     citizens to cheat about their income.
  • People have negative attitude towards paying tax
  • Loans from developed countries are charged high interests
  • Donor governments give tough conditions to be met before getting donor funds

Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

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