Home Teachers' Resources FORM FOUR HISTORY SIMPLIFIED NOTES IN PDF

FORM FOUR HISTORY SIMPLIFIED NOTES IN PDF

Welcome to History and Government for form 4.

This year, we are going to study devolved government in Kenya, public revenue and expenditure in Kenya, Social, economic and political developments and challenges since Independence in Kenya; Social, economic and political developments and challenges since Independence in Africa; World wars; International relations; Co-operation in Africa; National philosophies in
kenya; and The Electoral processes and functions of government in other parts of the world. Devolved Government

In this lesson we are going to define the term devolved government. We are also going to state the objectives and principals of devolved government. Further we shall study structures and functions of County Governments. Prior Knowledge

In form 3, we learnt about formation, structure and functions of the government of Kenya. in order to review that topic, attempt the exercise provided by dragging the answers in Box B to the respective questions in
Box A. Objectives

By the end of this lesson you should be able to:

  1. Define devolved government
    2. State the objectives of devolution of government.
    3. State principles of devolved government

    Objectives and principles of Devolved Government

    The constitution of Kenya that was promulgated in August 2010 provides
    for a devolved system of Government that comprises of National and County
    Governments. In this lesson, we are going to define what devolution
    means, objectives of a Devolved Government as well as the Principals that
    govern a Devolved government. Definition of Devolved Government

    Definition of Devolved Government

    Devolved Government is when a National Government gives power to a group or organization at a lower or more local level. The devolved government in Kenya allows people living in a particular
    area to make their own decisions on matters that concern them directly.
    The devolved government gives people more say within the specific regions
    in the county. The constitution in Kenya provides for 47 counties.

    Objectives of Devolution in Government

    Some of the objectives of devolved government include; To promote
    democratic and accountable exercise of power.
    To foster National Unity within the regional diversity
    To give new powers of self-governance to the people and enhance the participation in decision making.
    To recognize the rights of communities to manage their own affairs.
    To protect and promote the interests and rights of minorities and marginalized communities.
    To Promote social and economic development
    To ensure equitable sharing of National and local resources throughout Kenya
    To facilitate decentralization of state organs, their functions and
    services from the capital of Kenya

To enhance checks and balances and the separation of powers.
Principles of Devolved Government

What are the principals that guide devolved government in Kenya? these
principals are : County government shall be based on democratic principles and the
separation of powers. County government shall have reliable sources of revenue to enable them
to govern and deliver services effectively. No more than two-thirds of the members of representative bodies in each
county government shall be of the same gender. Prior Knowledge

Prior Knowledge

We have previously leant objectives of devolved government. We said that
some of those objectives are:
Promoting democratic and accountable exercise of power
Fostering national unity by recognizing diversity
Gives power of self-governance to the people
Recognizes the right of communities to manage their own affairs
Ensures equitable sharing of national and local resources throughout Kenya

Objectives

By the end of this lesson you should be able to:

  1. Describe the structure and functions of county governments
    2. Explain the relationship between national and county government
    3. Discuss the challenges facing county government and possible solutions

    Quiz

    To summarise the lesson, attempt the exercise given by indicating whether the statements are True or False

    Structure and Functions of County Governments

    In this Lesson we will discuss the structure and functions of county
    Governments. We will also explain the relationship between National and
    County Governments as well as discuss the challenges facing county
    governments and possible solutions. County Government

    A county is the system of government that oversees the administration of
    a county. This government enacts legislation at the county level and
    oversees its implementation. However, it works hand in hand with the
    national government. It is also referred to as devolved government

    The counties in Kenya

    Structure of the County Government

    A county government consists of:
    Members elected by the registered voters of the wards
    There are special seats meant to ensure that not more than two thirds of
    the assembly membership belong to the same gender
    Representation from marginalized groups, for example persons with
    disabilities, the youth, etc
    The speaker who is an ex-officio member
    A county assembly is elected for a term of five years

    County Executive Committee

    The county executive committee consists of; County governor and the deputy county governor
    Members appointed by the county governor with the approval of the assembly

    Functions of County Executive Committee

    What are the functions of the countee executive committees? A county
    executive committee has several functions which include: Implementation of county legislation

    Manage and coordinate the functions of the county administration and its
    departments

    Perform any other functions conferred on it by the constitution or
    national legislation

    Prepare proposed legislation for consideration by the county assembly

    Provide the county assembly with full and regular reports on matters
    relating to the county

    County Assemblies

    A county assembly makes laws that are necessary for effective performance
    of functions of the county government. What are the duties of county
    assemblies? The duties of the county assembly include:

  2. County planning
    2. Street lighting
    3.Providing pre-primary education, village polytechnics etc
    4. Providing houses, buildings and managing new houses
    5. Providing recreation facilities
    6. Pass laws to govern the county
    7. Manage and exploit resources within the count
    8. Provide fire-fighting services and disaster management

Relationship Between National and County Governments

The functions and powers of the national and county government are
clearly defined in the constitution. A function of power of government at
one level maybe transferred to another level if it will be more
effectively performed by the receiving government.
Counties will receive money from the national government
Some services will be managed by the national government such as defense,
foreign affairs, citizenship and immigration, while other like
agriculture, health and control of pollution will be managed by the
county government.

Election for both national and county assemblies will be held on the same
date supervised by the independent electoral and boundaries commission. Government at each level may set up joint committees and joint authorities
Government at either level will perform its function in a manner that
respects the functional and institutional integrity of government at the other level.
Government at either level shall liase with government at the other level
for the purpose of exchanging information.
In case of dispute between the two levels of government, attempts will be
made by both governments to solve the dispute in accordance with the law

Thika Super highway

County Assemblies

A county assembly makes laws that are necessary for effective performance
of functions of the county government. What are the duties of county
assemblies? The duties of the county assembly include: County planning

Street lighting

Providing preprimary education, village polytechnics etc
Providing houses, buildings and managing new houses
Providing recreation facilities
Pass laws to govern the county
Manage and exploit resources within the county
Provide firefighting services and disaster management

Relationship between County and National Governments

The functions and powers of the National and Gounty Government are
clearly defined in the constitution. A function of power of government at
one level, maybe transferred to another level if it will be more
effectively performed by the receiving Government. Counties will receive
money from the national government.

Some services will be managed by the
national government such as defense, foreign affairs, citizenship and
immigration, while other like agriculture, health and control of
pollution will be managed by the county government. Election for both
national and county assemblies will be held on the same date supervised
by the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC).

Government at each level may set up joint committees and joint  authorities. Government at either level will perform its function in a manner that respects the functional and institutional integrity of
government at the other level. Government at either level shall liase
with government at the other level for the purpose of exchanging
information. In case of dispute between the two levels of government,
attempts will be made by both governments to solve the dispute in
accordance with the law.

Relationship between County and National Governments

The functions and powers of the National and County Government are
clearly defined in the constitution. A function of power of government at
one level, maybe transferred to another level if it will be more
effectively performed by the receiving Government. Counties will receive
money from the national government. Some services will be managed by the
national government such as defense, foreign affairs, citizenship and
immigration, while other like agriculture, health and control of
pollution will be managed by the county government. Election for both
national and county assemblies will be held on the same date supervised
by the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC).

Government at each level may set up joint committees and joint
authorities. Government at either level will perform its function in a
manner that respects the functional and institutional integrity of
government at the other level. Government at either level shall liase
with government at the other level for the purpose of exchanging
information. In case of dispute between the two levels of government,
attempts will be made by both governments to solve the dispute in
accordance with the law.

Relationship between County and National Governments

Challenges Facing the County Governments

What are some of the challenges facing county governments in Kenya?
County governments in Kenya face several challenges. Some of these
challenges are: Lack of information on how county government operates

Disagreements over the headquarters of the county
Lack of qualified personnel to run affairs of a county
Lack of adequate facilities
Weak financial resources for some counties
Inefficient system of tax collection
Misappropriation and mismanagement of funds
Political interference
High population in some counties
Poor planning

Public Revenue and Expediture

In this topic, we shall discuss sources of public Revenue at the National
and County levels. We shall also discuss expenditure and management of
Public Revenue. In addition, we shall also explore the functions of the
commission on Revenue Allocation.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. Identify sources of National and County government’s revenue.
Sources of Public Revenue

Public Revenue refers to the money that the government receives from
various sources eg. Taxes. This unit deals with the sources of revenue
for both national and county governments. Sources of revenue for National Government

Sources of revenue for National Government

There are various ways in which the government raises the revenue. These
include: Taxes

i. Direct taxes: eg. P.A.Y.E., Income tax, Airport tax, Game Park, Museum
Fees, entrance fees by tourists.

  1. Indirect taxes: eg. Value Added Tax (VAT), Excise duties, sales
    taxes, export tax, import tax or custom duties, traffic revenue taxes,
    investment revenue tax, loan interests, land rates, house rates.

Loans from International Financial Institutions
Grants from other foreign countries
Sale of licenses
Profits from parastatals
Aviation revenue
Sale of government bonds
Revenue charged on government investment eg. Rent
Forestry and mining exploitation
Interests on loans from government institutions and parastatals eg. NBK
Sources of Revenue for County Governments
Sources of Revenue for County Governments
County government raises their revenue through the following; Grants from the national government

Rates from plots and land
Trade licenses fees
Rents from their buildings
Fines from law breakers
Loans from financial institutions
External grants from foreign countries
Sale of county property eg. Cars, plots etc
Donations from corporates and wealthy people
Cess- taxes charged on cash crops eg. Tea and coffee
Market fees

Prior Knowledge

Previously, we learnt about the sources of public revenue for both national and county governments. Some of them are;

  1. Taxes
    2. Loans
    3. Profits from parastatals
    4. Fines charged by courts
    5. Sale of licenses
    6. Rents from government buildings
    7. Donations from business partners

    Objectives

    By the end of this lesson you should be able to: 1. Explain the expenditure of the National and County government revenue

    Expenditure and Management of Public Revenue

    In this lesson we will discuss the expenditure and Management of public
    revenue at the National and County Governments. Recurrent Expenditure

    This refers to funds used by the government to sustain and maintain the
    existing facilities and services. These include:

  2. Repair and maintenance of building and roads
    2. Purchase of drugs
    3. Purchase of equipment
    4. Purchase of stationary
    5. Wages and salaries

    Development Expenditure

    This is the money set aside for development projects

    1. Infrastructural development such as roads, air ports, bridges, harbours
    2. Establishing essential facilities such as schools, colleges, dams, irrigation projects, etc
    3. Providing social services like health and education

    County Governments

    The county government spends its revenue in various ways.

  3. Constructing and maintaining nursery and primary schools
    2. Maintaining the road network
    3. Provision of health services by constructing and maintaining health centers and hospitals
    4. Building and maintaining markets
    5. Provision of water and sewerage services
    6. Provision of security

    Financial Management

    Revenue raised nationally should be shared equatably among the national
    and county governments. Financial control for both levels of government
    should be managed through three accounts:

  4. The consolidated fund made up of all the money raised or received by or on behalf of the national government

    2. Equalization fund receives one half % total annual revenue to provide basic services in marginalized areas

    3. Revenue accounts in different county governments receives all the money raised or received on behalf of the respective county governments. The committee on revenue allocation should be consulted and recommendations considered before parliament passes any financial bills. Every financial year the cabinet financial secretary submits to the national assembly estimates of the country. A committee of national assembly discusses and reviews the estimates and makes recommendations to the assembly for approval

    Appropriation bill is introduced in the national assembly to authorize money withdrawn from the consolidated fund (National Assembly can authorize withdrawal of up to 50% if the bill is late). County governments prepare and adopt their own respective annual budgets and appropriation bills, but must conform to procedure prescribed in the
    acts of parliament

    Accounts all government levels and other state organizations shall be audited by the auditor general. Prior Knowledge

    Previously, we discussed expenditure and management of public revenue. It
    is important that the government ensures that public revenue is managed
    well. That is why the Constitution of Kenya which was promulgated on 27th
    August 2010, created national institutions to assist the government in
    offering efficient services to the citizens. The Commission of Revenue
    Allocation is one of these institutions whose main responsibility is to
    give recommendations to the Ministry of Finance on how to allocate
    finances to national and the county governments. Objectives

    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. Discuss the functions of the Commission on Revenue allocation

    The Commission on Revenue Allocation

    In this lesson, we shall discuss the functions of the commission charged with the responsibility of managing the revenue allocation. Kenyan Currency

    Functions of the Revenue Commission

    The functions of this commission include:

  5. To decide the basis for the sharing of revenue raised by the national government.
  6. To make recommendations on how finances should be managed by the county governments as required by the Kenyan Constitution.
  7. To encourage fiscal responsibility and financial accountability among the national and county governments.
  8. To determine, publish and regularly review a policy which sets the criteria for identifying the marginalized areas.
  9. To submit the recommendations to the Senate, the National Assembly, the National Executive, County Assemblies and County Executives. First Chairperson of the Commission on Revenue Allocation. Social Developments and Challenges Since Independence in Kenya

    In this topic we shall discuss social, economic and political
    developments and challenges in Kenya since Independence. We shall discuss
    political developments from 1963-1991; types of land holdings in Kenya
    and land policies; as well as Education developments between 1963 and
    2011. People who shaped the politics of Kenya

    Prior Knowledge

    Kenya got her independence from Britain in 1963. In 1964 Kenya became a republic with an elected president as head of state and government.

Click
on the play button to view video. Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

  1. Discuss the political developments in Kenya since independence.
  2. Discuss political challenges in Kenya since independence.

    Political Developments

    In order to understand the political development, we shall listen to an interesting dialogue between a grandfather and a grandson.

    From the Conversation we have heard that Kenya attained Independence from
    the British in 1963. The main parties at this time were KANU and KADU.
    However KADU dissolved itself and joined KANU to form a unitary
    government under President Jomo Kenyatta as the first executive
    president. We have also heard that before 1966, there was only one party.

The first post independence party Kenya Peoples Union was formed in 1966
by Jaramogi Oginga Odinga. President Kenyatta ruled Kenya until his death
in 1978. Daniel Arap Moi succeeded him in the same year. President Moi
strengthened KANU by conducting massive recruitment. In 1979, he banned
all tribal organizations and unions. In 1982, Kenya became a one party
state by law with KANU as the sole legal political party. We have also
heard that there were other constitutional amendments. In 1987, the
electoral constituencies were increased from 158 to 188. In 1988, quing
system of voting was introduced in the general election. In 1990, the
quing system of voting was abolished and secret ballot system introduced.
in 1991, section 2 (A) of the constitution was repealed and multi-party
legalized

Political Challenges

Kenya had experienced several political challenges since independence.

  1. In 1965 Pio Gama Pinto an elected KANU member of Asian origin was murdered.
  2. In 1969, Thomas Joseph Mboya, the then MP for Bahati constituency and minister for economic planning and development was assassinated. This caused riots in Kisumu, Nairobi and other major towns in Kenya.
  3. In 1975 Josiah Mwangi Kariuki popularly known as J.M. was brutally maurdered. His murder caused major riots by the university students and other members of the public.
  4. In 1978, Kenya faced a major political challenge when the first
    president of the republic of Kenya, Mzee Jomo Kenyatta died.
  5. In 1982 there was an attempted coup in the government by the Kenya Air
    force soldiers. This led to looting, loss of lives and destruction of
    property.
  6. In 1990, Dr. Robert Ouko, Minister for Foreign Affairs and
    International Co-operation was brutally murdered. This led to riots
    throughout the country especially the university students.
  7. In 1991 some parts of Kenya mainly in the Rift Valley, Nyanza, Coast
    and Western provinces were hit by ethnic clashes. As a result many people
    died and others were displaced.
    Objectives

    By the end of this lesson you should be able to:

  8. Discuss the economic developments and challenges since independence.

    Types of Land Holding in Kenya and Land Policies

    Did you know that the land policy was revised with the promulgation of
    the constitution? In this lesson we will discuss types of land holding in
    Kenya and land policies.
    Types of land holding in Kenya

    Land in Kenya is held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable

    1. All land in Kenya belongs to the people of Kenya collectively as a nation, as communities and as individuals.
    2. Land in Kenya is classified as public, communal or private. Let us discuss each of these types of land holdings. Part of Land in Kenya

    Public Land

    Public land can be defined as, Government land. It cna be said to be;

  9. Land occupied or used by a state organ
    2. Land transferred to the state by the way of sale revision or by way of surrender
    3. Unclaimed land by an individual or a community
    4. All minerals and mineral oils
    5. Government forests, game reserves, water catchment areas, national parks etc
    6. All roads
    7. All rivers, lakes and other water bodies
    8. Any land not classified as private or community

    All land is managed by A National Land Commission. Mt. Kenya, which is public land

    Community Land

    What do you understand by the term Community Land?

  10. Community land is land held by communities identified on the basis of ethnicities, culture and similar community of interest.
  11. It is Land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives.
  12. It is Land lawfully transferred to a specific community by any process of law.
  13. It is Land that is lawfully managed or used by specific community as
    forests, grazing areas or shrines.
  14. It is Ancestral lands and lands traditionally occupied by hunter gatherer community lawfully held as trust land by the county governments. An African village located on communal land. Private Land

    What do you understand by the term private land?

  15. It is Registered land held by any person under any freehold tenure

    2. It is Land held by any person under lease of tenure

    3. It is Land declared private under an act of Parliament

    Holding by Non Citizens

    Several factors determine the conditions in which a non citizen can hold
    land in Kenya. 1. A person who is not a Kenyan citizen may hold land on the basis of
    leasehold tenure which shall not exceed 99years

    2. A body corporate shall be regarded as a citizen only if the body corporate is wholly owned by one or more citizens

    3. Property held in trust shall be regarded as being held by a citizen only if all of the beneficial interest of the trust is held by persons who are citizens

    Land Policies

    Land policies are guidelines set by the government which regulate the
    ownership, acquisition [distribution] and utilization of land. Since
    independence in 1963 the government has embarked on several methods to
    tackle the economic problems affecting the people especially in relation
    to land. One of these methods was through lands policies. Examples of
    these are;

  16. Settlement and resettlement
    2. Land consolidation
    3. Agricultural development corporation
    4. Diversification of agriculture
    5. Irrigation schemes
    6. Conservation of the environment
    7. Mechanization

    Challenges of Land Policies Since Independence

    Land issues in Kenya have been very sensitive since independence. Some of
    the challenges on land policies include;

  17. Population pressure
    2. Conflicts arising from issues of land ownership and use
    3. Massive corruption eg. Land grabbing
    4. Inappropriate methods of establishing settlement schemes
    5. Inadequate funds to complete the process of land demarcation and adjudication
    6. Inaccurate and incomplete records of land in the Ministry of land and Settlement making it difficult to verify land ownership records and allocation

    Prior Knowledge

    During the colonial period in Kenya the Africans were discriminated in
    the provision of social services. The African communities in Kenya
    received very poor educational services. At the onset of independence,
    the Founding Father of our Nation (Jomo Kenyatta) outlined ignorance as
    one of the enemies of progress. Through the sessional paper No. 10 of
    1965, Education was proposed as a strategy to eradicate ignorance, thus
    the various changes that have taken place in the education sector since
    independence. Objectives

    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

  18. Discuss the developments that have taken place in the Education Sector in Kenya since independence.

2.Analyse the challenges facing the Education Sector. Education Developments

There have been several changes that have taken place in the Education
sector since Independence. In this lesson, we shall address those that
took place between 1963 and 2011. University of Nairobi one of Education Institutions in Kenya

Education Developments

1.From 1963 racial schools were abolished and the government started supplementing missionary schools with teachers.

  1. Kenya Institute of Education was established in 1964 to conduct research and prepare the curriculum for pre-primary to secondary school.
  2. 1967 – Teachers Service Commission was created to manage the teaching profession.
  3. The government has established various education commissions over time to make changes in education system to make it relevant to the changing times. These include:
  4. a) Ominde 1964
    b) Gachathi 1976
    c) Mackay 1981
    d) Kamunge 1988
    e) Koech 2002

    National Exams were administered by East African Examination Council until 1977 when KNEC was formed to replace E.A.E.C. after the collapse of East African Community.

  5. Names of national examinations have changed over the years as follows:
    In primary up to 1966 students sat for KAPE at Std. In 1967 KAPE was
    replaced with CPE at Std 7. In 1985 CPE was replaced with KCPE at Std 8.
  6. In secondary schools, up to 1966 Cambridge Overseas Secondary Certificate was awarded to Form 4.
  7. 1967 the Cambridge oversees school certificate was replaced with EACE
    up to 1977 when it became KCE, currently this exam is KCSE (8-4-4) since 1989.
  8. KJSE introduced in 1970 at Form II in Harambee Schools has been abolished together with KACE at Form VI after the introduction of the
    8-4-4 system.
  9. Free primary education was introduced in 1974 which failed on the way. After NARC government took over, free primary education was implemented which was extended to secondary in 2006.
  10. Over time many middle level institutions have been established to offer technical and vocational training. Over the years, university education has expanded greatly with establishment of many public and private universities. Public; University of Nairobi (UNO); Moi University; Kenyatta University; Egerton University; Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT); Maseno University; Masinde Muliro University. Private; United States International University; Dayster University; Catholic University; Baraton University; Kenya Methodist University (KEMU); Nazarene University; Mount Kenya University (MKU)

    Challenges Facing Education in Kenya

    Education sector in Kenya has continued to face many challenges
    especially due to rapid increase in population. Some of these challenges
    include; 1. Inadequate funds to finance the education. 2. Inadequate facilities like classrooms books etc. 3. Inadequate personnel i.e. qualified teachers. 4. Teacher-student ratio is very high. 5. low salaries leading to strikes from teachers and lecturers. 6. Frequent riots from schools, polytechnics and public universities. 7. Academic theoretical oriented education. 8. Few higher education institutions eg. Public universities. 9. Brain drain from qualified personnel in higher learning institutions. 9. Due to high poverty levels and early pregnancies many children are dropping out of school. 10.Mismanagement of learning institutions and embezzlement of funds. 11. Gender inequality.

World Wars

In form 3 we learnt about the scramble and partition of Africa. In this
topic we will discuss the 1st and 2nd world wars. War refers to fighting
between two or more conflicting parties. A world war is a war that is
fought between many countries in different parts of the world, usually
over long periods of time. We shall also discuss the League of Nations
established to bring peace after the First World war. Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;

  1. Define the term war
    2. Define the term world war
    3. Discuss the causes of the first world war
    4. Describe the course of the first world war
    5. Discuss the impacts of the first world war

    World War 1

    In this lesson we shall learn about the world war 1. World war 1 was
    fought between 1914 to 1918. Its was fought between the allied forces and
    the central powers. The allied forces comprised of:

  2. Britain
    2. France
    3. Russia
    4. U.S.A

    The central powers included;

1.Germany
2.Turkey
3. Bulgaria
4. Austria
5. Hungary

In order to understand the causes of the World War 1, it is important to
understand how Europe was divided before the out break of the war. The
map provided gives these details. Causes of World War 1

Causes of World War 1

Several the factors led to the outbreak of the First World War. These causes were both long term and immediate

1. Economic rivalry due to the need to acquire raw material and markets created tension among European powers

2. The need for colonies created friction and mistrust among European powers

3. Disputes over morocco intensified enemity between Britain and Germany and France

4. Arms race led to mistrust between European powers

5. The system of alliances created tension between the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente

6. France wanted to revenge her defeat which she suffered during the
Franco-Prussian war

7. The need by nationalities in the Balkans to be free from Turkish rule
who were supported by European powers

8. The assassination of the arch duke of Austria, Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo led to outbreak of the war

Course of World War 1

The First world war was fought between 1914-1918. It followed the following course;

  1. The tension between Austria, Hungary and Serbia sparked off the war. Austria declared war on Serbia on 28th July1914.
  2. Russia mobilized her forces in support of Serbia on 1st August 1914.
  3. Germany declared war on Russia and France on August 3rd 1914.
  4. Britain declared war on Germany 4th August 1914.
  5. The war was fought on three major fronts

    a) the Western Front

    b) the Eastern Front and

    c) the War at Sea.

  6. Germany attacked Western powers who included Britain and France before attacking Russia with the support of Turkey and Bulgaria.
  7. In 1917 U.S.A. joined the Allied forces and in the following year, the war came to an end. One might wonder why USA had remained neutral untill 1917. A number of
    reasons explain USA took the isolitionist policy upto 1917. Some of these
    reasons were;
  8. The isolationist policy in international affairs, where USA isolated
    herself from the European affairs as demanded by the Monroe doctrine of
    1823.
  9. U.S.A. feared an outbreak of Civil War back home because of citizens
    of German decent.
  10. U.S.A. was benefiting from the War by selling arms to both sides.
  11. U.S.A’s interests had not been interfered with by the War until 1917
    when the Germans sunk a U.S.A. ships in the Atlantic Ocean. Machines used at war

    Effects of World War 1

    What then were the effects of the world war 1?

The First World War had several effects:

  1. There was loss of life and property .
  2. It led to creation of new states for example Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland.
  3. Huge sums of money was used during the War which led to poverty and slowed the pace of industrialization.
  4. It led to the emergence of U.S.A. as a super power.
  5. It led to the formation of the League of Nations.
  6. The Nursing profession was born

    Effects of war

    Prior Knowledge

    In the previous lesson, we discussed World War 1 and learnt about its long term causes. We also learnt about the immediate causes of the war, its course and the impact, which included the formation of the League of
    Nations.

    Part of the soldiers who fought in the war.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;

  1. Explain the reasons for the formation of the league of nations
    2. Describe the organization of the league of nations
    3. Explain the problems that faced the league of nations

    League of Nations

    In this lesson we will discuss the League of Nations.This was the first
    international organization to be established after the world war

  2. It was established in January 1920 with headquarters at Geneva in
    Swirtzerland. Map of Switzerland, showing Geneva, headquarters of League of Nation. Aims of the League of Nations

    There are a number of reasons that led to the formation of the League.
    Some of them include;

  3. Maintain international peace and prevent another world war
    2. Encourage international cooperation and arbitrate conflicts between countries
    3. Guarantee sovereignity of world countries whether small or big
    4. Improve the living standards of people throughout the world
    5. Combating diseases and controlling drug trafficking
    6. Sorting out predicament of displaced persons after the war

    Structure of the League of Nations

    Inorder to understand the organisation of the League, we will discuss its structure. The League of Nations was made up of five organisations as follows:

  4. GENERAL ASSEMBLY
    This was made up of representatives from all member countries throughout
    the world. The members met once a year at the headquarters to deliberate
    on issues threatening international peace

    B. COUNCIL
    This was made up of nine countries. Five permanent and four non permanent
    members. The council met three times a year to implement decisions by the
    general assembly. The permanent members were the victorious countries in
    world war 1, i.e. Britain, Japan, France, USA and Italy.

  5. SECRETARIAT
    This was the administrative organ or the civil service of the league of
    nations. The organ was headed by a secretary general appointed for a
    renewable five year term. The main responsibility of the organ was the
    day today running of the organization.
  6. INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
    This was the principal judicial organ of the league of nations based at
    the Haque-Netherlands and made of fifteen judges from different
    nationalities, races and religions throughout the world.
  7. THE COUNCIL OF MANDATED TERRITORIES
    This organ was in charge of the former colonies of Germany that were
    taken over by other European powers and colonized on behalf of league of
    nations until when they could be mature enough for independence

    Performance of the League of Nations

    The League of Nations had a number of achievements. Some of them include;

  8. League of Nations established International Labour organization (ILO) which was able to improve labour conditions worldwide

    2. Through International Health organization, it helped combat diseases and epidemics

    3. Successfully arbitrated in conflicts between several countries eg Greece and Bulgaria, Sweden and Finland

    4. Established the International Court of Justice that dealt with International crimes

    5. The organization helped to eradicate slavery eg by setting up the permanent slavery commission in 1932

    6. Helped war reconstruction in various countries such as Austria and Hungary

    Challenges of the League of Nations

    In its operations, the League of Nations faced a number of challenges which include;

  9. Lack of finances. Some members never paid their contributions
    2. She was not a super power but an association of nations, so most decisions depended on the goodwill of the members
    3. Never had a police force or army to enforce her decisions or resolutions
    4. New super powers, USA and USSR were not members
    5. Veto power held by some of the members gave them more authority to make decisions on behalf of the others
    6. Economic sanctions which was the main weapon used by the league of nations never worked because many states were non members

    Objectives

    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;

  10. Explain the causes of the Second World War
    2. Describe the course of the World War II
    3. Discuss the results of World War II

    World War II

    In this lesson, we shall discuss the causes, course and the results of
    the World War 2. This is a war that took place between 1939 and 1945. It
    involved two rival groups. These were the Allied forces which consisted
    of Britain, France and the USA. The other group was the Axis forces which
    was made of Germany, Italy and Japan. Soldiers in the World war 2

    Causes of World War II

    There were Several factors that contributed to the occurrence of World
    War II. These include;

  11. The violation of the Treaty of Versailles
    2. Weak League of Nations
    3. Hitler’s Ambition
    4. Economic Problems
    5. Growth of Nationalism
    6. Rise of Dictators eg. Benito Mussolini of Italy , Stalin of Russia
    7. Policy of Appeasement
    8. Formation of Alliances
    9. Territorial violations
    10.Arms Race

    Adolf Hitler

    Causes of World War II

There were Several factors that contributed to the occurrence of World War II. These include;

  1. The violation of the Treaty of Versailles
    2. Weak League of Nations
    3. Hitler’s Ambition
    4. Economic Problems
    5. Growth of Nationalism
    6. Rise of Dictators eg. Benito Mussolini of Italy , Stalin of Russia
    7. Policy of Appeasement
    8. Formation of Alliances
    9. Territorial violations
    10.Arms Race

    Course of World War II

    From the conversation, we have learnt that, the 2nd World War broke out
    in 1939 between two rival groups, that is, the allied forces against the
    axis forces. It ended in 1945 after the bombing of two Japanese cities
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    To understand the course of the World War 2, listen to the conversation
    between a student and a teacher. Student: What are some of the major events in the second world war? Teacher: That a good question.

The events of World War 2 involved;

1, In 1939 German invaded Poland and sparked off the war.

  1. In the same year, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
  2. In 1940, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway.
  3. In 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union

    6. In 1942, the Allied troops landed in Algeria and Morocco.

  4. In 1943, Italy declared war on Germany.

8 In 1944, the Allies liberated France from Germans and Belgium from
central powers.

  1. In 1945, USA dropped atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki which
    marked the end of 2nd World War. Student: How did the Atomic bomb end the war? Teacher; This is an interesting question.

The Atomic bomb had very devastating effects on Japan. For instance very many lives were lost and
thousands were injured. As a result of that Japan surrendered unconditionary on 15th August 1945 bring an end to the war. Student; Thank you teacher. You have made it very clear. From the conversation, we have learnt that, the 2nd World War broke out in 1939 between two rival groups, that is, the allied forces against the
axis forces. It ended in 1945 after the bombing of two Japanese cities
Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Effects of World War II

The World War II had devastating Social, Economic and Political
consequences in Europe and other world countries. They included the
following; SOCIAL

1. Massive loss of lives
2. Widespread suffering
3. Displacement of people
4. Outbreak of infectious diseases
5. Change in the status of women
6. Formation of European Economic Cooperation

ECONOMIC

1. Slow economic development
2. Unemployment
3. Destruction of property
4. Developments in engineering
5. Rise in debts
6. Formation of European Economic Cooperation

POLITICAL

1. Partition of Germany
2. Emergence of Super Powers namely USA and USSR
3. Rise of Nationalism in Asia and Africa
4. Establishment of Communist Government
5. Growth of Military Technology
6. Formation of UNO. International Relations

In this topic, we shall define international relations and discuss the
formation, organisation and perfomance of the UN. International relations
refers to the cooperation of independent nations from different parts of
the world politically, socially and economically. We shall also discuss
the cold War. United Nations Headquarters in New York. Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;

  1. Define the term international relations
    2. Analyze the reasons for the formation of the UN
    3. Discuss the organization of the UN
    4. Analyze the performance and the challenges of the UN

    United Nations

    In this lesson, you will learn about the United Nations. The United
    Nations is an association of sovereign states formed after World War 2

    United Nations Logo

    Reasons for Formation of UN

    There are several factors that led to the formation of the UN.

  2. To maintain international peace and security
    2. To replace the league of nations which had collapsed
    3. To promote social progress and better living standards of the people
    4. To promote respect for fundamental human rights and freedoms
    5. To promote economic growth as the member states work to reconstruct the world economy
    6. Cooperate in solving international social cultural and humanitarian problems

    Reasons for Formation of UN

    There are several factors that led to the formation of the UN.

  3. To maintain international peace and security
    2. To replace the league of nations which had collapsed
    3. To promote social progress and better living standards of the people
    4. To promote respect for fundamental human rights and freedoms
    5. To promote economic growth as the member states work to reconstruct the world economy
    6. Cooperate in solving international social cultural and humanitarian problems

    Reasons for Formation of UN

    Organisation of UN

    How does the UN achieve its objectives? To achieve its objective and
    purposes, the UN established six principal organs contained in its
    charter. These are:

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
Comprises all member states and occupies a key position in the functions of the UN.

THE MEMBER STATES
Since its inception in 1945, the UN has seen its membership steadly
increase. By 1970, the membership had risen to 127. By year 2000,
membership had risen to 187 which included African Nations that had
attained their Independence. The table provided shows the countries that
joined the UN and the years that they joined.

SECURITY COUNCIL
This is composed of 15 nations which consist of five permanent
states/nations which include:
-USA
-Russia
-France
-China
-United Kingdom
-Ten others are elected by the general assembly

THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
This is the organ responsible for all the legal matters and disputes
between member states. It is based at the Hague, Netherlands

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
It deals with matters pertaining to economic development, health and
education. It works through various specialized UN agencies eg ILO, the
WHO.

THE SECRETARIAT
This is the chief administrative organ of the UN headed by a Secretary
General. So far, UN has 8 Secretaries General. These are: Trygve Lie from
Norway from 1946-1953, Dag Hammarskjold from Sweden 1953-1961, U Thant,
from Burma from 1961-1971, Kurt Waldheim, from Austria, from 1971-1981,
Javier Perez de Cuellar, from Peru, 1982-1992, Boutros Boutros Ghali,
Egypt, 1992-1997, Kofi Annan, Ghana, from 1997-2006, Ban Ki-Moon from
South Korea, from 2007 to present.

THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL
It is in charge of territories which are governed by member states of the
UN on behalf of the UN itself

HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
In December 1948, Un General Assembly adopted universal declaration of
Human Rights that spells out the universal rights and freedoms entitilled
to an individual. There are several bodies or organisations affiliated to
the UN that are involved in the fight for human rights. These include;

  1. Transparency Internatioanl (TI)
  2. Amnesty International

    3. United Nations High Commission on Human Rights (UNHCR)

  3. United Nations High Commission of Refugees (UNHCR)
  4. United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF)
  5. International labour Organisation (ILO)
  6. Convention on Rights of Children

    All the above bodies fight against race, gender, cultural, economic and
    religious discriminations though out the world which include the rights
    of the child. Organisation of UN

    How does the UN achieve its objectives? To achieve its objective and
    purposes, the UN established six principal organs contained in its
    charter. These are: THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
    Comprises all member states and occupies a key position in the functions
    of the UN. THE MEMBER STATES

Since its inception in 1945, the UN has seen its membership steadly
increase. By 1970, the membership had risen to 127. By year 2000,
membership had risen to 187 which included African Nations that had
attained their Independence. The table provided shows the countries that
joined the UN and the years that they joined. SECURITY COUNCIL
This is composed of 15 nations which consist of five permanent
states/nations which include:
-USA
-Russia
-France
-China
-United Kingdom
-Ten others are elected by the general assembly

THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
This is the organ responsible for all the legal matters and disputes
between member states. It is based at the Hague, Netherlands

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
It deals with matters pertaining to economic development, health and
education. It works through various specialized UN agencies eg ILO, the
WHO. THE SECRETARIAT
This is the chief administrative organ of the UN headed by a Secretary
General. So far, UN has 8 Secretaries General. These are: Trygve Lie from
Norway from 1946-1953, Dag Hammarskjold from Sweden 1953-1961, U Thant,
from Burma from 1961-1971, Kurt Waldheim, from Austria, from 1971-1981,
Javier Perez de Cuellar, from Peru, 1982-1992, Boutros Boutros Ghali,
Egypt, 1992-1997, Kofi Annan, Ghana, from 1997-2006, Ban Ki-Moon from
South Korea, from 2007 to present.
THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL
It is in charge of territories which are governed by member states of the
UN on behalf of the UN itself
HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
In December 1948, Un General Assembly adopted universal declaration of
Human Rights that spells out the universal rights and freedoms entitilled
to an individual. There are several bodies or organisations affiliated to
the UN that are involved in the fight for human rights. These include; 1. Transparency Internatioanl (TI) 2. Amnesty International

3. United Nations High Commission on Human Rights (UNHCR) 4. United Nations High Commission of Refugees (UNHCR) 5. United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF) 6. International labour Organisation (ILO) 7. Convention on Rights of Children

All the above bodies fight against race, gender, cultural, economic and
religious discriminations though out the world which include the rights
of the child. Performance of UN

The United Nations has had tremendous achievements since its inception.
Some of them include; 1.Solved disputes between Nations eg India and Pakistan in 1949

2. Decolonization of the third world eg Tanzania and Togo

3. Championed the rights of all people world wide

4. Combating diseases and training medical personnel through WHO

5.Assisting refugees and other displaced people worldwide

6. Initiated successful development programs in the third world countries
through UNDP

7.Helped to improve working conditions through ILO

8.The World Food Program (WFP) has been involved in the distribution of
relief food supplies to disaster victims

Distribution of relief food

Challenges Facing the UN

The UN has faced various challenges since its inception. Some of these
challenges are; i. Ideological differences eg. Communism and capitalism. ii. Shortage of funds: member states fail to remit their contributions. iii. Lack of military machinery to enforce peace. iv. Deep rooted regional conflicts such as Arab-Israel conflicts. v. Derailment of decision making by the VETO powers

vi. Lack of commitment among member states due to their interest in other
organizations

vii. Member states acting contrary to the decision of the UNO. UN Peace keeping force

Prior Knowledge

In the previous lesson, we discussed the reasons that led to the
formation of the United Nations. The UN has managed to promote peace and
security in the world. We also learnt the organization, performance and
challenges facing the UN. UN Headquaters in Nairobi

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to; 1. Define the term cold war

2. Discuss the causes of the cold war

3. Describe the course of the cold war

4. Discuss the effects of the cold war

The Cold War

The cold war refers to the rivalry that developed between USA and her
allies on one hand, and the USSR and her allies on the other hand after
the end of the second world war. President Ronald Reagan

President Mikhall Gorbachev

Methods Used in the Cold war

Previously we discussed the topic on World War 2. in this lesson we shall
discuss the Cold war. What were some of the methods of the cold war? Some
of the methods used during the war include:

  1. Words
    2. Propaganda
    3. Economic sanctions
    4. Financing of political parties
    5. New inventions in weapons

    Causes of the Cold war

    The cold war was caused by several factors:

  2. Mistrust and suspicion based on ideological differences between the capitalist west and the communist soviet bloc

    2. The disagreement between the USA and USSR over the issue of disarmament caused tension between them

    3. The policy adopted by the USSR to seal Eastern Europe from the west

    4. Conflicts in Europe in 1940’s, for example the civil war in Greece increased tension between the two super powers

    5. The formation of military alliances by the two power blocs

    6. The Marshall plan of 1947 which was initiated by the USA intensified the cold war

    The Berlin Wall

    Course of the Cold war

    Place the cursor on each continent for more.
    Course of the Cold war

    The cold war started after the end of the second world war. It affected
    Europe, Asia, America and Africa

    EUROPE

    1. The cold war was felt in Europe in 1947 when the USA issued the Truman Doctrine to check the spread of communism in Greece and Turkey

    2. The Marshall plan was initiated by the USA to help the post war Europe to recover economically from the effects of the second world war

    3. USSR rejected the Marshall plan and sealed off Berlin

    4. As a result, German was divided into two: East Germany controlled by the USSR and West Germany under the allied powers.

  3. Later the war intensified with the formation of military alliances namely North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw pact for the communist powers

    6. In 1961, the Berlin wall was constructed by USSR to separate the West
    from the East.

THE COLD WAR IN ASIA

1. In Asia, the USSR helped to install a communist government in china in 1949

2. Both powers, USA and USSR clashed over Vietnam. This led to the division of Vietnam into to two:
-The north controlled by the USSR

– The south controlled by the USA

THE COLD WAR IN CENTRAL AMERICA

1. Cuba became a communist state in 1959 under Fidel Castrol

2. USSR supported Cuba by arming her with dangerous missiles

3. In 1962, USA ordered a blockade of Cuba and demanded USSR to stop
military build up in Cuba. Factors that Led to the end of the Cold war

Several factors led to the end of the cold war. These include:

  1. The coming to power of Khrushchev in USSR in 1956 who favored a policy of peaceful co-existent
    2. Convening of disarmament conferences for example Strategic Arms limitation treaty of 1986 and 1991
    3. Establishment of Western democracies in former USSR’s controlled states in Eastern Europe
    4. US president Ronald Reagan policy helped to diffuse tension during the cold war.
  2. Accession to power of Mikhail Gorbachev in the soviet union in 1985 who adopted a liberal policy
    6. Cancellation of Warsaw pact in 1991controlled areas in Eastern Europe.
  3. Disintegration of the USSR into separate republics in 1991

    Effects of the Cold war

    The cold war affected the world in various ways. These included:

  4. It led to splitting up of countries for example Korea onto North and South
    2. It caused suspicion and mistrust between nations
    3. It led to international insecurity and disruption of world peace
    4. It led to space race between USA and USSR
    5. It led to real war in certain situations, for example Korea and Vietnam

Click on the play button to view the movie.

Cooperations in Africa

In this topic, we shall discuss Cooperation in Africa formed by African Independent states. We shall discuss the Organisation of African Union (OAU), African Union (AU) and East African Community (EAC). We shall look
at their formation, structures, achievements and challenges facing them. Prior Knowledge

One of the sub-topics discussed under African Cooperation is Pan-Africanism. Pan-Africanism was an African brotherhood movement that was striving for the closeness and unity of all the black people throughout the world. They were joined by the fact that all the black people shared a common ancestry, the same colour,
homeland and misery suffered by the forefathers in the hands of slave dealers and slave masters.

The movement formed the basis on which OAU was founded, which was an
organization of independent African states in the 1960s.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

  1. Explain the origin and development of OAU
    2. Discuss the performance of the OAU
    3. Discuss the challenges faced by the OAU

    Organisation of African Union

    The formation of the OAU has got its background in the ashes of the
    collapsed Pan-African movement ie. On 25th May 1963 about thirty African
    head of states who were already independent at that time decided to
    replace the movement with a more effective and rigid organization which
    they called the OAU. Refurbished OAU buildings in Addis Ababa

    Objectives of Organization of African Unity (OAU)

OAU had several objectives at the time of its formation. These are:

  1. Decolonization of African countries
    2. International cooperation within independent African countries
    3. Promote better living standards of the African people
    4. To have a united voice in African matters at UNO’s meetings
    5. Eradication or racism and apartheid especially in South Africa
    6. Creating a forum where African heads of state could meet occasionally to discuss African matters
    7. Non-interference in internal affairs of the member states

    Organs of Organization of African Unity (OAU) Place the cursor on the points for more information. Organs of Organization of African Unity (OAU) The OAU charter outlines the structure of the organisation by
    establishing five main organs. OAU was made up of five organs.

  2. a) General assembly. This was the supreme organ of the organization. It was made up of all the heads of the member states.The main function of the organ was to make policies to guide the future of the African countries.
  3. b) Council of ministers. This council was made up of Foreign ministers of the member states. They
    met twice every year. The main function of the council was implementation of decisions by the General Assembly and preparation of the agenda to be discussed by the heads.
  4. c) Secretariat

    The secretariat was headed by a Secretary-General, who is elected for a
    reasonable four year term by the General Assembly. The main function of
    the secretariat was the day- to- day running of the organization.
  5. d) Arbitration committee

    This was the organ that resolves disputes between the member states
    peacefully eg. On boundaries, refugees etc. This was made up of twenty
    one members picked from different member states to serve a five year term. e) Liberation committee

    This was a committee that was concerned with organizing and supporting
    liberation movement in the African continent. This was done away with
    when all African states acquired their independence

    Achievements of Organization African Unity (OAU) OAU had several achievements:

  6. It actively supported liberation movements eg. In Mozambique, Angola,
    Zimbabwe, and Namibia.
  7. OAU was very active in breaking of the apartheid government in South
    Africa ie. They financially supported the African National Congress (ANC)
    together with the military training camps in Tanzania and other frontline
    states.
  8. It was able to resolve boundary between member states esp.
    Kenya-Somali dispute 1967, Ethiopia-Somalia 1977 and the Cameroon-Nigeria
    2004.
  9. It established African Development Bank (Bank) to support economic
    projects in Africa through financial loan.
  10. OAU enabled African countries to identify themselves to speak in one
    voice at international forum.

Challenges of Organization of African Union(OAU) Although the organisation had several successes, it also encountered a number of challenges.

  1. OAU membership was voluntary so some member states withdrew their membership eg Morocco 1989.
  2. OAU lacked its own army for peace keeping operations. It depended on armies from the member states.
  3. Boundary disputes between member states ended into open war which embarrassed OAU eg. Ethiopia-Eritrea conflicts.
  4. Financial problems facing the OAU were chronic eg. Budget could not even effectively pay salaries of the secretariat.
  5. African states had different forms of government and Ideologies.
  6. OAU members belonged to other regional or international organizations eg. Commonwealth, UNO, NAM etc. and hence lack of commitment.
  7. Interference by super powers in African affairs, especially during the cold war era. Objectives

    By the end of the lesson you should be able:

  8. Explain the origin and development of African Union.
  9. Discuss the differences of Africa (AU) and Organization of African Union (OAU)
  10. Discuss the challenges facing the AU. African Union (AU) AU was established on 19th July 2002 at Durban in South Africa. When presidents of African states resolved to replace the 38 year old OAU with a more effective body called the AU. Mr. Amara Essy of Ivory Coast was  brought on board to replace Dr. Ahmed Salim of Tanzania to become the first Secretary General of the new AU. Muammar Gadaffi who was the architect of AU

    Differences between AU and OAU

    Although AU evolved from the OAU, this new organisation differes from the predecessor in the following ways:

  11. AU challenges the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of member countries especially when there are cases of violation of human rights.
  12. AU envisages a union of African people with even a united parliament throughout Africa unlike OAU which was an organization of African heads of states.
  13. AU has accountability and mechanisms to review and checks economic progress within the different African countries once in a while.
  14. AU intends to establish peace and security councils with a joint African army to maintain peace and security throughout the African continent.
  15. AU proposes to establish a peace and security-council with law
    enforcement powers through the creation of a standing African military. Differences between AU and OAU

    Although AU evolved from the OAU, this new organisation differes from the predecessor in the following ways:

  16. AU challenges the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of member countries especially when there are cases of violation of human rights.
  17. AU envisages a union of African people with even a united parliament throughout Africa unlike OAU which was an organization of African heads
    of states.
  18. AU has accountability and mechanisms to review and checks economic progress within the different African countries once in a while.
  19. AU intends to establish peace and security councils with a joint African army to maintain peace and security throughout the African continent.
  20. AU proposes to establish a peace and security-council with law
    enforcement powers through the creation of a standing African military. Structure of the African Union

    Place your cursor on the points for more information. Structure of the African Union

    The structure of the OAU was slightly different from that AU in that while OAU had five organs, the AU had nine.The African Union consists of the following organs:

  21. a) THE ASSEMBLY

    This is the decision-making body of the organization which is made of all
    the heads of states.

  22. b) THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

    This is made up of Foreign Ministers of all member states. The main
    function for this organ is coordination of policies in areas of common
    interest to the member states.

  23. c) PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE COMMITTEE

    This committee is composed of ambassadors to the AU and has the
    responsibility of preparing the work of the executive council.

  24. d) THE COMMISSION

    This replaced the secretariat of the OAU. The main function of the organ
    is running the day-to-day activities of the union.

  25. e) PEACE AND SECURITY COUNCIL

    It is made up of 15 members chosen from the member states by the General
    Assembly whose responsibility is to monitor peace and security throughout
    the African continent.

  26. f) PAN-AFRICAN PARLIAMENT

    Will be made up of elected representatives nominated from five regions
    within the African continent to debate and ensure that the civil society
    and participate in the AU programmes.

  27. g) COURT OF JUSTICE

    This would operate like the Court of Appeal in the African continent but
    paying attention to international law.

  28. h) FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Three financial institutions would be set up in Africa under the AU to
    provide finances for the projects and programmes.

  29. African Central Bank

    2. African Monetary Fund

    3. African Investment Bank.

  30. i) SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL COMMITTEES

    Transport and communication
    b. Education culture and human resources
    c. Trade, customs and immigration rural economy and agriculture
    d. Industry, science and technology
    e. Health, labour and social affairs

    Structure of the African Union

    What are some of the challenges facing the African Union?

  31. Some dictators in Africa are not yet ready to give up power through democratic means.
  32. In Africa there are two kingdoms where democracy is still out of the question ie. Swaziland and Morocco.
  33. Ethinic, religious and racial differences in some parts of Africa are too extreme to be changed over-night eg. Sudan, Nigeria, Rwanda etc.
  34. Loyalty to former colonial masters has split Africa into Franco-phone and Anglo-phone.
  35. Boundary disputes between member states always embarrass the African Union.

6.Lack of adequate financial resources remains one of the major challenges in the operation of the Union.
.
Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

  1. Analyse the reason for the formation of the East African Community.
  2. Describe the organization of EAC.
  3. Discuss the challenges up to 1977
    4. Analyse the Rebirth of the EAC 2001

    East African Community (EAC) In this lesson, we shall discuss the reasons for the formation,
    organisation, challenges and the rebirth of East African Community. What is the East African Community and when was it established? The East African Community was an economic and social cooperation between Kenya,
    Uganda and Tanzania. It was established after the Presidents of the three countries signed a treaty in 1967. EAC Logo

    Reasons for Formation of EAC

    Several reasons led to the formation of East African community.

  4. To promote and provide free trade of goods produced within East Africa.
  5. To provide common services in areas eg. Railway and Harbours

    3. To facilitate free movement of people within the region.

4.To establish similar custom tarrifs and duties to the member states.

  1. To enhance and strengthen closer ties and understanding between member states

    6. To enhance self sufficiency, self reliance and full independence from the rest of the world. Kenya-Tanzania Border at Namanga

    Organisation of EAC

    The treaty of 1967 established EAC organs to co-ordinate the activities
    and direction of the organization as follows: 1. East African Authority

    This was the community’s supreme organ which comprised of the heads of
    the three states

    2. The East African legislature Assembly

    It was charged with the role of making laws to govern the services
    offered by the community

    3. The Secretariat

    Headed by the secretary general and based at Arusha, Tanzania. It co-ordinated the work of the councils that ran the community.

  2. The Common Market Tribunal

    The tribunal was to settle trade disputes between member states.

  3. The Court of Appeal. It was to hear appeals from the courts in the three member states.
  4. EAC Corporations. These were established to offer services to the three member states.
    Challenges of EAC

    The EAC was in existence up to 1977. A combination of challenges
    contributed to its collapse.

  5. Ideological differences. Tanzania favoured socialism, Uganda and Kenya favoured capitalism.
  6. Personality differences. President Idi Amin of Uganda and Julius Nyerere were bitter enemies

    3. Political instability in Uganda. Caused by the political differences
    among the leaders that is, Idi Amin and Dr. Milton Obote.

  7. Perceived unequal gains. The perception that Kenya was acquiring the lion’s share of the benefits accruing from the EAC.
  8. National pride and interests. Each member state was proud of her own independence.
  9. Boundary closure. The tension between the three member states led to border closure between Kenya and Tanzania in 1977. Rebirth of EAC 2001

    On 15th, January, 2001, the new East African community was launched in Arusha Tanzania. The objectives of the new East African Community included :

  10. To develop policies that will foster closer political co-operation among member states.
  11. To establish a customs union, common market, monetary union and if possible political federation.
  12. To provide economic development within East African Region

    4. To develop adequate and reliable energy supply in the region.

  13. To develop social sector issues such as culture and sports.
  14. To develop areas of common economic interest such as Lake Victoria

    Heads of state of the new East African Community

    National Philosophies (Kenya) In this topic we shall define National Philosophies. These philosophies
    include African Socialism, Harambee and Nyayoism. In particular, we are going to discuss African Socialism.We shall explain its features and analyse its impact. Tom Mboya, key advocate of African Nationalism

    Objectives

    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

  15. Define African Socialism
    2. Explain the features of African Socialism
    3. Analyse the impact of African Socialism

    Quiz

    To summarise this topic, attempt the following exercise. Drag the
    statements in Box L and drop them to the corresponding statements in Box
    K. African Socialism

    African Socialism is a social-political system that has its roots in
    African values. It is based on ideologies that are drawn from African
    traditions. This philosophy incorporates foreign values and ideologies
    that were deemed useful. Its Origin

    African Socialism existed in African traditional societies. KANU
    manifesto of 1963 borrowed heavily from existing indigenous African
    socialism. The ideas were published in sessional paper no. 10 of 1965
    entitled “African Socialism and its application to planning in Kenya”.
    This philosophy was coined by the Kenyan leader who intended to use it to achieve development in the nation.
    . Reasons why the Government Adopted African Socialism

    There were several reasons that made the government to adopt African
    Socialism as a national philosophy. These included:

  16. The leaders wanted to create a new society different from the colonial one.
  17. The leaders wanted to create a society free from social-economic inequalities, racism and oppression.
  18. The leaders desired to create a just and humane society in which all were considered equal before the law.
  19. The leaders desired to create a united and free Kenya where individual rights and freedoms would be recognized.
  20. To achieve high and growing income per capita. .

Features of African Socialism

African Socialism is characterized by the following features:

  1. Political democracy:It stresses that all people are politically free and equal.
  2. Mutual social responsibility: It demands that Kenyans be motivated by the spirit of service and not greed for personal gain.
  3. Various forms of ownership: – This advocates for free enterprise which allows private ownership of property.
    – It did not reject nationalization policy where the government controls and owns key industries.
  4. Equity:The state should ensure equal opportunities to all its citizens
  5. Progressive taxation: It advocates for the gap between the rich and the poor being narrowed. The wealthier members of the society should pay higher taxes. Effects of African Socialism

    The application of African Socialism as a philosophy has affected the society in many ways. These include:

  6. Promotion of democratic processes. This has been realized for example through the establishment of a multi-party system of government
  7. Building of a society where human dignity is upheld and respected.
  8. It has promoted a sense of service and patriotism by upholding the policy of mutual responsibility.
  9. It has helped to promote African cultures.
  10. Agricultural development has been realized.
  11. It has promoted social development in Education and Health sectors. Social, Economic and Political Development and Challenges in Africa since Independence

    In this topic, we are to discuss the Social, Economic and political
    development and Challenges in Africa since Independence and also analyse
    the challenges upto date. In particular we will learn about the
    Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly known as Zaire. Map of Central Africa showing DRC

    The Electoral Processes and Functions of Government in other parts of the World

    In this lesson we shall discuss the electoral process and functions of
    Government in United States of America and India. Statue of Liberty

    Prior Knowledge

    DRC is located in Central Africa and is one of the largest countries in
    Africa. DRC was colonized by the Belgiuns, though earlier it was the
    property of King Leopald II of Belgium who later gave it to the
    Government of Belgium as a colony. She got her independence in 1960. King Leopald II of Belgium

    Objectives

    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

  12. Discuss the socio-political and economic developments in DRC since independence.
  13. Analyse the political and economic challenges in DRC since independence.

    Democratic Republic of Congo

    In this lesson, we shall learn about the social, economic and political
    developments of Democratic republic of Congo since independence. We shall
    also analyse the challenges she has faced upto date.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

  1. Explain the electoral process of USA

    2. Discuss the functions of the USA government

    United States of Ameica (USA) The electoral process refers to a series of actions or steps through
    which people elect their governments. USA became independent in 1776 when 13 British colonies declared themselves independent from Britain. The USA is a federal government comprising a union of 50 states. States that make USA

    Objectives

    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

  2. Explain the electoral process in India

    2. Discuss the functions of government in India

    Electoral Process in India

    In this lesson we shall discuss the electoral process and functions of government in India. Map of India

    Socio – Political Developments and Challenges

    Immediately after independence in June 1960, DRC turned chaotic where
    Patrice Lumumba (Prime Minister) and Joseph Kasavubu (President) differed
    in ideologies because each one of them was supported by opposing camps of
    the cold war. This resulted to Lumumba’s assassination in December, 1962.
    This did not stop the anarchy up to 1964 when Joseph Mobutu took over the
    government. Mobutu Sese Seko

    1. Joseph Mobutu organized a bloodless coup and he declared himself life president, stripped parliament powers and banned all political parties and established authoritarian rule.

  3. 1971, Mobutu introduced Africanisation programme, where people were forced to drop European names. DRC was changed to Zaire, Leopaldville (capital) became Kinshasa. He also dropped his name Joseph. Playing of
    Foreign music was also banned thus promoting Congolese music (Lingala).
  4. From 1977, the rebels started fighting the government and in 1997, Laurent Kabila toppled Mobutu’s government.
  5. However Kabila was also murdered by his guards in 2001 and he was succeded by his son Joseph Kabila.
  6. In 2006, the first democratic elections were held in DRC where Joseph Kabila was elected as the president of DRC.
  7. Tribalism has continued to be a political challenge for DRC. There are about 150 different tribes. Electrol Process

    Electoral Process

    There are three types of elections in the USA. These are; Presidential elections held every four years

    Elections for senators held every 6 years and those of members of the House of Representatives held every 2 years

    Elections for state governors and state legislators held every four years.
    The elections are conducted at 2 levels: The lower

    Central level
    At the central level there is the federal election commission whose
    functions include: To assist state and local election officials in the administration of
    federal elections

    Introducing voting election standards

    Gives voluntary voting guidelines

    Electoral Process and Functions of Government in India

    In this lesson we will discuss electoral process and functions in India. India got her independence on 14th August 1947 with Jawaharlal Nehru as  the first prime minister. India exercise a democratic system of government.

ELECTORAL PROCESS IN INDIA
There are three types of elections in India, namely:
o Presidential
o Parliamentary
o Regional governments

Presidential and parliamentary elections are held after every five years
There is an independent body that organizes elections called the independent election commission
Parliament consists of two houses namely the upper house (Rasya Sabha), and the lower house (Lok Sabha)
The country is divided into 543 parliamentary constituencies

Economic Development and challenges

DRC is pottentially one of the richest countries in Africa with rich
minerals deposits, heavy rainfalls, fertile soils and good forests.
However DRC remains one of the poorest countries in Africa because those
natural resources have never been exploited fully due to mismanagement
and corruption. Other reasons that have resulted in under development of
DRC include;

  1. Agriculture was neglected by the Belgians who concentrated on mining a trend still taking place long after independence.
  2. Mobutu’s nationalization of private firms scared of international investors and the locals lacked the capacity. High inflation rates caused by escalating oil prices from 1973.
  3. Congo’s relations with donors is strained due to unserviced heavy foreign debts.
  4. The rural areas are improverished because in 1971, Mobutu placed state resources under him. Thus reducing flow of capital to provinces.
  5. The country lacks a clear economic policy and adequate finances to exploit her resources.
  6. Unemployment is widespread, due to high population and corruption.
  7. In the 1990s, trade imbalance between DRC and her partners seriously
    affected her economy.
  8. DRC economy may take more years to recover from plunder it experienced
    during the colonial rule and Mobutu Sese Seko’s reign.
    Federal Government

    Independent Electoral Commission

    This commission organizes and supervises parliamentary and state legislature elections. It performs the following functions:

1 Prepares, maintains and updates the electoral roll which shows who is entitled to vote
2 Registers political parties
3 Supervises the nomination of candidates
4 It facilitates the coverage of the elections process by the media
5 Monitors the election campaign including candidates funding
6 Organize the polling booths where voting takes place
7 Supervises the counting of votes and the declaration of results

Functions of the Legislature

The Legislature consists of two houses; the senate and the house of
representatives. The legislature is also referred to as the Congress.

Functions  Legislature

  1. Control of taxation and government spending
  2. Checks on the executive arm of the government
  3. Makes and amends the laws
  4. Controlling government revenue and expenditure
  5. In charge of foreign relations eg making treaties
  6. Vets appointments of senior civil servants
  7. Representing their constituencies / and states

Voter Registration

In India any citizen aged 18 and above is allowed to vote. An electoral roll with the names of all the registered voters is used during voting. The electoral roll has been computerized.
Nominations

The process of nominations in India is carried out in the following ways. 1 Any Indian citizen who is registered as a voter and is over 25 years of age can contest for election to the state legislative assemblages

2 The candidates for the Lok Sabha deposit 10,000/= rupees while those
for Raja Sabha deposit 5000/= rupees. 3 Nomination must be supported by one registered elector for the
constituencies

4 Returning officers are appointed by the election commission to oversee the elections in each constituency

Campaigns

The following methods of campaign are used in India;

  1. Use of print media
    2. Use of electronic media
    3. Public speeches
    4. Canvassing

    Political Parties

    The main political parties in India are:

  2. The congress party / India national congress

    2. The Bharatiya Janata party

    3. The communist party of India

    Regional parties eg India Anna DMK, the National conference, the Telegn Desam.
    Political Parties

    The main political parties in India are: The congress party / India national congress

    The Bharatiya Janata party

    The communist party of India

    Regional parties eg India Anna DMK, the National conference, the Telegn Desam.
    Functions of the Executive

    Functions of the Executive

    The executive consists of the president, the vice president, the cabinet and the civil service

FUNCTIONS OF THE PRESIDENT are;

  1. The president is the head of state
  2. The president appoints the cabinet and senior government officials
  3. Chairs cabinet meetings
  4. Commander in chief of the armed forces
  5. Accents to bills before they become law
  6. Appoints supreme court judges
  7. Can grant clemency to those convicted of breaking federal laws
  8. Signs international treaties with other countries

Function of Government in India

1) The government in India is a combination of federal and parliamentary democracy

2) The states have limited powers compared to the federal unions in the USA

3) There are three arms of government in India

The legislature
The executive

The judiciary India has two houses of parliament

The house of people (Lok Sabha) and the

The council of state (Raja Sabha). The languages used in the house are English and Hindu

The Executive

The executive arm of government in India comprises of: President

The prime minister
Cabinet
Civil service
The President

The president is elected for a period of five years and can be re-elected for a second term. some of the functions of the President; Appoints the prime minister

Appoints the attorney general
Appoints ministers on advice of the prime minister
May proclaim a state of emergency
May impose direct presidential rule
May dissolve the Lok Sabha and call for parliamentary elections
Appoints Governors to head the state

Prime Minister

The Prime Minister is the executive head of government. some of his / her
functions include; Advices the president on the appointment to the cabinet

Chairs cabinet meetings
He or she is the chief spoke person in the Lok Sabha
Advices on the appointment of senior officers of government
With the advice of the president, he or she can dissolve the Lok sabha

The Cabinet

The Cabinet is the central decision making body of the government. Some of the functions of the cabinet are; Collectively formulates policy matters of the government

Collectively responsible for all decisions of parliament
Advices the prime minister and the president
Defends government policies in both houses of parliament
Generates bills that are passed on either to the state parliament or the house of the people
Coordinates the activities of various government departments
Oversees the execution of government policies

Functions of the Civil Service

The functions of the civil service are:

  1. implements government policies
  2. explains and interprets government policies
  3. maintains government records
  4. helps in the collection of government revenue
  5. draws up development plans and government budget

Functions of Parliament in India

Parliament in India is the most supreme organ of the Government, due to the functions that it undertakes. These include: It initiates amendments to the constitution

It advices, commands and even disciplines stray leaders
It scrutinizes bills before they become laws
It approves the national budget
It debates on national and international matters
It has powers to impeach the president
It oversees the administration of the country
It controls national security and can declare war or make peace with other countries
It maintains and supervises the judiciary both in the states and in the federal union
It maintains national highways and water ways after they are identified by the state

Functions of the Judiciary

The judiciary is the country’s legal system. The judicial system is divided into two distinct courts:
state courts
federal courts

FUNCTIONS of the judiciary;

  1. interpreting the constitution
  2. arbitrating in cases between USA and other foreign states
  3. settling disputes between the federal and state governments
  4. adjudicating disputes between the president and the congress
  5. settling inter state disputes

The Judiciary

The highest court in India is the supreme court made up of the chief-justice and 17 Judges.

Some of the functions of the judiciary include;

  1. solving disputes between the union, government and one or more states
    2. it interprets the constitution
    3. swears in the incoming president and other similar government officials
    4. interprets the laws and enforces discipline among the citizens
    5. fines offenders raising revenue for the Indian government.

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