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FORM 4 GEOGRAPHY PP1 JOINT EXAMS PLUS MARKING SCHEMES PDF

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GEOGRAPHY                Paper1                                                                  Time: 2Hrs. 45mins  

                     GEOGRAPHY       PAPER 1         

                        FORM FOUR SERIES

Instructions to candidates

  • Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above.
  • Sign and write the date of examination in the spaces provided above.
  • This paper has two sections: A and B.
  • Answer all the questions in section A.
  • Answer question 6 and any other TWO questions from section B.
  • This paper consists of 5 printed pages.
  • Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English

 

                                                 For Examiner’s Use Only

 

 

Section Question  Maximum Score Candidate’s Score
A 1 – 5 25  
B 6 25  
  25  
  25  
Total score  

 

                                                                    SECTION A

Answer all questions on this section

  1. (a) Give two differences between longitudes and latitudes .                          (2 marks)

(b) The time in Tokyo-Japan 140ºE is noon of Monday.  What is the time and

which day is Kingston in Jamaica 77ºW.                                                                   (3 marks)

  1. (a ) Give three ways in which rocks can be classified. (3 marks)

(b)  State Three changes that occur in sedimentary rocks when they are subjected to intense heat and  pressure.                                                                                           (3 marks)

  1. (a) Mention two ways thorough which wind transports its load .                   (2 marks)

(b) Identify the three types of desert dunes                                                                    (3 marks) 4.   (a) What is the difference between elluviation and illuviation.                                 ( 2 marks)

(b) State three ways in which humus improves the quality of soil.                  (3 marks)

 

  1. (a)Define Sea wave . (2 marks)

(b) State two ways through which gradient of the shore influences wave deposition

(2 marks)

 

 

SECTION B

                   Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section

  1. Study the map of Kijabe 1:50,000 provided and answer questions that follow.
  • Identify two scales that have been used in the  map .                                (2 marks)
  • (i)What is the length of all weather road bound surface A 104 . (2 marks)

(ii)Calculate the area covered by plantation to the west of Easting 40 and north of Northing 00.                                                                                                        (2 marks)

(c )Describe relief of the area covered by the map .                                            (4 marks)

(d)Enlarge the area bound by grid references 300000,340000,300970 and 340970 by doubling the length and the width.                                                                           (2 marks)

(i)On the new frame mark and label

  • Murram pit (1 mark)
  • Plantation                                                                             (1 mark)
  • Dry weather road (1 mark)

(ii)State the new representative fraction scale.                                                          (2 marks)

(e) Citing evidence from the map, state four factors that have influenced establishment of plantations in the area covered by the map.                                          (8 marks)

 

  1. The diagram below represents sun’s rays reaching different parts of the earth. Use it to answer the questions that follow.
Sunray
Sunray
A
B
90N
0
60N
0
30N
0
0 Equator
0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • State two the reasons why region A experiences low temperatures than region B.                                                                                                                   (4 marks)

 

  • (i) State four characteristics of modified equatorial climate of the Lake Victoria basin?                                                                                                                 (4 marks)

 

(ii) Outline three consequences of climate change.                                     (3  marks)

(c )(i)Define vegetation                                                                                          (2 marks)

 

(ii) Explain how the following influencing the distribution of vegetation in Kenya.

 

  • Precipitation                                                                                                   (2 marks)
  • Drainage                                           (2 marks)
  •                                                                                                             (2 marks)

 

(d) Students from your school carried out a field study on vegetation found in Mt. Kenya.

(i) Give any three preparations students were engaged in before the actual study.                                                                                                                                            (3 marks)

(ii)   State three problems the students encountered during the study.       (3 marks)

 

 

 

8.(a)(i) What are tectonic plates .                                                                                 (2 marks)

 

Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow

(ii) Describe the formation of plate boundaries shown in the diagram above .  (6 marks)

(iii)Explain three hazards posed by earthquake .                                                    (6 marks)

(b)Give three orogenies that are known in geological history.                                        (3 marks)

 

(c ) Explain four negative effects of fold  mountains to human activities           ( 8 marks)

 

 

 

 

  1. (a)(i) What is lake .     (2 marks)

(ii)  State three factors that determine the permanency of a lake.              (3 marks)

(iii) Name three lakes in Kenya which are areas of  inland drainage .          (3marks)

(b ) Explain how the following processes may can lead to formation of a lake .

  • River deposition                     (5 marks)

(ii) Mass wasting .                                                                                                    (3 marks)

 

(c )  State  any three economic significances of lakes to human activities.           (3 marks)

(d ) Explain three human activities that cause drying up of lakes in the Rift Valley in Kenya.                                                                                                                          (6 marks)

 

  1. (a)(i)What is glacier.                       (2 marks)

(ii) Outline  three ways in which a glacier is formed.                                   (3 marks)

(b)Explain two ways through which glacial erosion takes place                     (4 marks)

(c )Describe the formation of the following features

  • crag and tail.                              (4 marks)
  • Terminal moraine                            (4 marks)

(d)Explain four positive effects of glaciations to human activities in the low lands.

(8 marks)

LAST PRINTED PAGE





GEOGRAPHY 312/1      MARKING SCHEME     FORM 4 

                                                                    SECTION A

  1. (a) Give two differences between longitudes and latitudes .                          (2 marks)

 

  • Latitudes run from west to east while longitudes run from north to south.
  • Latitudes show how far a place is from the equator while longitudes show how far a place is from prime meridian.
  • Latitudes are parallel to one another while longitudes meet at the poles .
  • Distance between latitudes is even around the globe while that between longitudes is longest at the equator and decreases pole wards.
  • Among the latitudes ,the equator is the only Great circle while each longitude and it’s opposite e number form a great circle.

(b) The time in Tokyo-Japan 140ºE is noon of Monday.  What is the time and

which day is Kingston in Jamaica 77ºW.                                                                   (3 marks)

  • Degree =77 +140 0               =217 0      
  • Change to minutes 10        =4min
    • 217 0 =4 x217=868 min   =14 hrs 28 min
  • 00 noon -14hrs 28min =  9.32 p.m Sunday
  1. (a ) Give three ways in which rocks can be classified. (3 marks)
  • According to their origin
  • According to their age
  • According to their chemical composition /physical properties

(b)  State Three changes that occur in sedimentary rocks when they are subjected to intense heat and  pressure.                                                                                           (3 marks)

  • The rocks get metamorphosized
  • Rock particles get compacted
  • Some minerals recrystallise further
  • New minerals are formed
  • The physical appearance of the rock changes.
  1. (a) Mention two ways thorough which wind transports its load .                   (2 marks)
  • Suspension
  • Saltation
  • Surface creep/rolling /traction

(b) Identify the three types of desert dunes                                                       (3 marks)

  • Barchan
  • Transverse dunes
  • Seif dunes/longitudinal dunes/linear dunes
  • Parabolic dunes
  • Star dunes
  • Drass
  • Wake dunes
  1. (a) What is the difference between elluviation and illuviation.                    ( 2 marks)
  • Elliviation is the mechanical wash down of tiny fine mineral particles eg clay in suspension by percoalating water from horizon A to lower layers while Illuviation Refers to receiving/deposition /accumulation of dissolved minerals in horizon B and C, where they are precipitated.             

(b) State three ways in which humus improves the quality of soil.                  (3 marks)

 

  • Helps improve soil porosity by operating the soils.
  • Improves moisture-retention capacity of the soils.
  • Humus provides essential minerals to the soil.
  • Humus Improves the soil texture.
  • Humus improves soil structure
  1. (a)Define Sea wave .                                                                                               (2 marks)
  • Is an oscillation of water particles caused by friction of the wind on the surface of water

(b) State two ways through which   gradient of the shore influences wave deposition .                                                                                                                      (2 marks)

  • Existence of gentle sloping shore encourages more wave deposition
  • Steep gradient of the shore discourages wave deposition

 

SECTION B

                   Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section

  1. Study the map of Kijabe 1:50,000 provided and answer questions that follow.
  • Identify two scales that have been used in the  map .                                (2 marks)
  • Linear scale
  • Ratio scale

 

  • (i)What is the length of all weather road bound surface A 104 . (2 marks)

14.2km + /- 0.1(14.1  to 14.3km)

 

(ii)Calculate the area covered by plantation to the west of Easting 40 and north of Northing 00.                                                                                                        (2 marks)

Complete square  =0

Incomplete square   =15 x1/2   =7.5 km 2  (+/- 0.5)  7 .0 to 8.0 km2

(c )Describe relief of the area covered by the map .                                            (4 marks)

  • The area covered by the map has conical hills eg Kijabe hill
  • The area covered by the map has escarpment .
  • The area covered by the map has valleys eg Ewaso Kedong Valley
  • The area covered by the map has many river valleys .
  • The highest point in the area covered by the map is 2680m /the lowest is 1720m
  • The land is flat around the plantations in the northern part of the area covered by the map
  • The Eastern part of the area covered by the map is gently sloppy this is evidenced by wide spread contours
  • The area has steep slopes on the north eastern part

(d)Enlarge the area bound by grid references 300000,340000,300970 and 340970 by doubling the length and the width.                                                                           (2 marks)

(i)On the new frame mark and label

  • Murram pit                                                                                                       (1 mark)
  • Plantation (1 mark)
  • Dry weather road (1 mark)

 

 

 

 

A SKETCH MAP OF THE AREA BOUND BY GRID 300000,340000,300970 AND 340970

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(ii)State the new representative fraction scale.                                                          (2 marks)

1/50,000 x2    =1/25,000

(e) Citing evidence from the map, state four factors that have influenced establishment of plantations in the area covered by the map.                                          (8 marks)

  • Gentle relief –widely spaced contours
  • High rainfall- evidenced by numerous permanent rivers forest
  • Sparsed settlement evidenced by few settlement -available land for expansion
  • Available labour- evidenced by dense settlements to the south and east
  • Well developed transport network-evidenced by numerous all weather loose surface/railway line for movement of timber.

 

  1. The diagram below represents sun’s rays reaching different parts of the earth. Use it to answer the questions that follow.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • State two the reasons why region A experiences low temperatures than region B.                                                                                                                   (4 marks)

 

  • Region A receives low temperature because the distance covered by the sun rays is longer hence more interference by clouds lowering temperature while the distance covered by the sun rays to reach B is shorter.
  • Region A the sun rays strike the earth surface at a cute angle spreading over a wide area hence low concentration while at B the sunrays strike at right angle hence high concentration.

 

  • (i) State four characteristics of modified equatorial climate of the Lake Victoria basin? (4 marks)

 

  • Climatic type is modified tropical climate of the highlands.
  • Temperature ranges between 170C to 240C
  • Annual rainfall totals are between 1000mm – 1500mm
  • Humidity is moderate
  • Annual range of temperature is 30C to 50C
  • Coolest months are between June and August the rest are warm
  • Orographic / relief rainfall is experienced
  • Has double maxima rainfall regime.
  • Rainfall occurs throughout the year (long rains between March and May, short rains between September and December )
  • Rainfall is mainly caused by south east trade winds.         

(ii) Outline three consequences of climate change.                                     (3  marks)

  • Increase in rainfall.
  • Effects on agriculture.
  • Disruption of natural ecosystem.
  • City environment become hotter.
  • Affect water use and long term planning.
  • Abnormal fast growth of plants.
  • Flooding from rising sea level due to melting of ice.
  • Shift of climatic and vegetation zones.
    • Increases in ultra-violet radiation

(c )(i)Define vegetation                                                                                          (2 marks)

  • Refers to total plant life / cover that occupies a given area /community plants growing in an area

 

(ii) Explain how the following influencing the distribution of vegetation in Kenya.

 

  • Precipitation                                                                                                   (2 marks)
  • Areas with low and unreliable rainfall have scrubs or grass/ has stunted vegetation while Areas with high rainfall support dense forests
  • Areas with high rainfall have many variety of tree species while Areas with low rainfall have few tree species

 

  • Drainage                                                                                                            (2 marks)
  • water logged areas support swampy vegetation.
  • Vegetation is luxuriant along water courses and coastal flats because supply of water is reliable
  • There is a large variety of plants on well drained soils while water logged soils have swamp plants such as reeds and papyrus.
  • Different drainage systems give rise to different vegetation types Mangrove swamps grow under conditions of salty water logging, swamp forests in fresh water flooding and grasslands in areas with good drainage.

 

  •        (2 marks)
  • Bacteria in the soil helps improve soil fertility resulting into more vegetation growth.
  • Bacteria cause plant diseases of plants resulting in death of some .

 

(d) Students from your school carried out a field study on vegetation found in Mt. Kenya.

(i) Give any three preparations students were engaged in before the actual study.                                                                                                                                                      (3 marks)

  • State the objectives/hypothesis.
  • Literature review/read from relevant written records / Read from secondary data
  • Divide themselves into groups.
  • Carry out reconnaissance/pre-visit.
  • Drawing a route map.
  • Planning working schedule of activities
  • Prepare the necessary stationery/tools
  • Seek permission from the school/authorities
  • Identify the methods of data collection
  • Acquiring the suitable equipment/apparatus essential for the study

(ii)   State three problems the students encountered during the study.       (3 marks)

 

  • Difficultés in walking through the thick vegetation
  • Possibility of encounter with wild animals , insects bites or snakes
  • Weather changes e.g sudden rain which may slow down or hamper progress
  • Difficult in climbing steep slopes

 

8.(a)(i) What are tectonic plates .                                                                               (2 marks)

  • Are series of semi rigid blocks of the crust floating on the upper mantle

 

Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow

(ii) Describe the formation of plate boundaries shown in the diagram above .  (6 marks)

  • (This is a convergent boundary )
  • Hot molten rocks of the upper mantle generates convectional currents
  • The convectional currents move in a circular motion from the mantle outwards towards the crustal rocks
  • These currents exert frictional drag on the crust causing the crust to move horizontally towards each other  forming a convergent boundary

(iii)Explain three hazards posed by earthquake .                                                    (6 marks)

  • Strong vibrations from the earthquake may cause damage to plants which pollute the environment and affect human health.
  • Violent motions resulting from earthquakes damage structures due to vibrations affecting their foundations leading to loss of life and property.
  • During an earthquake occurring on the sea floor, vertical displacement occur leading to development of tsunami leading to flooding of coastal areas / loss of life / disruption of human activities.
  • Earthquakes may lead to landslides which destroy agricultural land/loss of life / damage to infrastructure

(b)Give three orogenies that are known in geological history.                                        (3 marks)

  • Charnian orogeny
  • Caledonian orogeny
  • Hercynian orogeny
  • Alpine orogeny

 

(c ) Explain four negative effects of fold  mountains to human activities           ( 8 marks)

 

  • Leeward side of Fold Mountains receive little rainfall which discourage agriculture /settlement
  • Some fold mountains experience cold descending winds which damage crops.
  • South facing slope in the southern hemisphere / north facing slopes in the northern hemisphere are cooler and thus discourage settlement and agriculture.
  • Process of folding may burry minerals deeper into the ground making then in accessible.
  • Fold Mountains are a barrier to transport and communication.
  • Some fold mountains have rugged and steep topography which discourage settlements.

 

 

 

  1. (a)(i) What is lake . (2 marks)
  • A lake is a large mass of water occupying a depression or basin

(ii)  State three factors that determine the permanency of a lake.              (3 marks)

  • Depth and size of the depression
  • Rate of evaporation
  • Nature of underlying rocks
  • Permanent source of water
  • Vegetation cover of the area around the lake.
  • The Climatic type

(iii) Name three lakes in Kenya which are areas of  inland drainage .          (3marks)

  • magadi
  • Bogoria
  • Nakuru
  • LElementaita
  • Naivasha

(b ) Explain how the following processes may can lead to formation of a lake .

River deposition                                                                                                 (5 marks)

  • A river starts to meander on a flood plain.
  • Lateral erosion occurs on the outer side of the bend while deposition takes place on the inner bank.
  • Lateral erosion results in the reduction of the neck of land between adjacent bends
  • The neck of land is eventually worn away.
  • Deposition on the meander side especially during floods blocks off the meander.
  • The river abandons the meander and follows the news shortcut that was the neck of the land.
  • The abandoned meander with its water forms an ox-bow lake

(ii) Mass wasting .                                                                                                    (3 marks)

  • Land slide occurs across a river valley
  • Debris blocks the river channel
  • Water accumulates behind the barrier to form a lake

(c )  State  any three economic significances of lakes to human activities.           (3 marks)

  • Some lakes form major inland fishing grounds.
  • Some lakes are used for recreational purposes
  • Lakes provide water for domestic and industrial use
  • Fresh water lakes provide water for irrigation farming e.g. lake Naivasha supports the horticultural farming in the area
  • Some lakes are sources of valuable minerals which are exploited to generate income e,g Trona mining gins Lake Magadi
  • Human made lakes are harnessed to generate hydro-electric power
  • Lakes provide natural water ways thus facilitating water transport e.g lake Victoria
  • Sand harvested from the shores of the lakes is used in construction industry.
  • Lakes attract tourists and encourage water sports hence source of foreign revenue e.g hot springs of lake Bogoria
  • Modify the climate conditions of their immediate surrounding through land and sea breezes, increased rainfall etc.

(d ) Explain three human activities that cause drying up of lakes in the Rift Valley in Kenya.                                                                                                                          (6 marks)

  • Destruction of vegetation in the water catchment hence interfering with water towers
  • Damming of feeder rivers for irrigation ÖÖ and H.E.p
  • Deforestation and poor agricultural practices cause soil erosion.  This leads to siltation which reduces the depth of the lake

 

  1. (a)(i)What is glacier. (2 marks)
  • Is a mass of ice of limited width which moves outwards from a central area of ice accumulation√√/is a mass of moving ice

(ii) Outline three ways in which a glacier is formed.                                    (3 marks)

  • Temperature fall below dew point
  • Crystals of frozen water /snow begin to fall and accumulates in  valleys and surfaces .
  • As more ice accumulates, the underlying layers turn to solid ice due to increased weight of the upper layers.
  • With time the ice becomes thick making it to move forming glacier

 

(b)Explain two ways through which glacial erosion takes place                     (4 marks)

Plucking/sapping/quarrying/gouging√

  • Ice at the base and sides of the glacier freezes onto the rocks. As the ice moves forward, pieces of rocks over which the ice has frozen are pulled along and dislodged from the rest of the rock mass./ Freezing and thawing process of water in rock faults repeatedly puts the rock under stress and as the ice moves forward some parts of the rock break off. √

 

 Abrasion

  • This is caused by rock debris that is embedded in a glacier.
  • These debris scratch, scrape and polish the rock surfaces over which the glacier moves.

Way                   1 mark x2

Explanation     1 mark x2

(c )Describe the formation of the following features

crag and tail.                                                                                                      (4 marks)

  • A hard/resistant rock occurs on the path of moving ice.
  • A moving glacier passes over and around the resistant rock
  • The ice plucks off /erodes weak rock fragments from the upper side of the rock
  • The resistant rock protects the weak rocks on the lower / downstream side from erosion.
  • Some eroded materials are also deposited on the lower/downstream side are smoothened.
  • A feature with a resistant rock protecting soft rocks on the leeward side is formed.
  • The resistant rock is the crag while the soft rock is the tail.

Terminal moraine                                                                                               (4 marks)

  • Moving ice carries solid materials
  • Moving ice stagnates and ice at the snout melts
  • Melting ice release its load
  • Gradually the load piles into a ridge
  • Over time the ridge forms a block solid material called terminal moraine

(d)Explain four positive effects of glaciations to human activities in the low lands.

(8 marks)

  • Out wash plains, boulder plains comprises of sand and gravel which are used as materials for building and construction are sometimes fertile hence promoting crop farming.
  • Some glacial lakes are natural waterways promoting transportation.
  • Erratic, kames, drumlins form beautiful scenery promoting tourism.
  • Glacial till provide fertile soils for arable farming
  • Ice sheets in there scouring effects reduce lands surface and depth to expose mineral seams which become easy to mine.

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