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# FORM 3 GEOGRAPHY JOINT EXAMS PLUS MARKING SCHEMES FREE

FORM GEOGRAPHY   CONTEST PAPER

TIME: 2: 00 HRS

INSTRUCTION TO THE CANDIDATES

This paper contains five sections

Answer all the questions in English

SECTION A : (PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY-STRUCTURED)(20 MARKS)

1. (a) What is equinox ? (2 marks)

(b)    State two reasons for high temperatures in the interior of the earth                       (2 marks)

1. (a) Name two features formed due to earth movements.             (2 marks)

(b)   Outline three evidences supporting continental drift theory                        (3 marks)

1. Name three features resulting from extrusive volcanic activity. (3marks)

1. (a) Define weathering. (2 marks)

(b) List two types of weathering.                                                                                   (2 marks)

1. Use the diagram below to answer question (a)

(a) Identify the features labelled S and T                                                           (2 marks)

(b) Name two types of river erosion                                                                   (2 marks)

SECTION B: MAP WORK                                (20 MARKS)

1. Study the map of Kijabe 1:50,000 provided and answer the following questions.

(a)(i) Give the longitudinal extent of the area covered by map.                              (2 marks)

(ii) Name two types of scale used in the map                                                        (2 marks)

(iii) Identify two human features at grid square 3699                                          (2 marks)

(b) Name three types of natural vegetation in the area covered by map.              (3 marks)

(c ) Draw a rectangle 8cm by 6 cm to represent area bound by Easting 30 and 34 and Northing 90 and 93.                                                                                                 (2 marks)

On it mark and label.

•                                                               (1mark)
• All weather road bound surface. (1 mark)
•                                                   (1 mark)

(d) Describe the relief of the area covered by map.                                                   (5 marks)

SECTION C:    STATISTICS                              (20 MARKS)

1. The table below shows the forest products of different countries in Kenya between 2009 and 2011 in tones.

Use it to answer the questions below.

 COUNTY 2009 2010 2011 UASIN GISHU 320 340 380 KAKAMEGA 260 280 300 BOMET 200 240 280 KERICHO 300 350 370

(a ) (i) . Use a scale 1 cm represents 100 tonnes to draw a compound bar to represent the above data.                                                                                                                        (8 marks)

(ii) Give three advantages of using compound bar graphs as a method of data presentation                                                                                                                       (3 marks)

(b) (i) What is agroforestry?                                                                                          (2 marks)

(ii) Give three reasons why the government is encouraging agroforestry in Kenya.

(3 marks)

(c ) State four factors favouring development of softwoods in Kenya.                    (4 marks)

SECTION D: PHOTOGRAPH WORK                                      (20 MARKS)

1. Study the photograph shown and answer the questions that follow
• (i) Identify the type of photograph                                                          (1 mark)
• Draw a rectangle 10cm by 6cm to represent the main features in the photograph. (5 marks)
• (i) Name the type of mining shown above.                                                       (1 mark)

(ii) Explain three effects of this type of mining to the environment.             (6 marks)

(c ) (i) Name three areas of gold mining in South Africa.                                      (3 marks)

(ii) State four significance of gold mining to the economy of South Africa. (4 marks)

SECTION E:    CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND FIELD WORK)       (20MARKS)

1. (a ) i) Give three characteristics of convectional rainfall.                                      ( 3 marks)
2.  ii)    Name two instruments kept in a Stevenson screen                                     (2 marks)

(b). (i) State three characteristics of climate experienced in the Kenya Highlands. (3  marks)

(ii) List two greenhouse gases.                                                                                   ( 2 marks)

(c ) (i) Outline four characteristics of the dominant natural vegetation in the Narok region.                                                                                                                                               (3 marks)

(ii) Describe the characteristics of coniferous forests.                                            (4 marks)

(d ) You intend to carry out fieldwork in a forested area:

• State two objectives you might formulate for the study. (2 marks)
• Give one reason for drawing a time schedule.  ( 1 mark)

FORM    THREE   GEOGRAPHY

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A : (PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY-STRUCTURED)(20 MARKS)

1. (a) What is equinox ? (2 marks)
• is the date when the sun is overhead at the equator at mid day

(b)    State two reasons for high temperatures in the interior of the earth                       (2 marks)

• The interior of the earth cooled slowly after breaking away from the sun hence retained much of its original temperatures
• The weight of the overlying materials / layers exerts pressure on the core resulting in high temperatures
• Radioactivity taking place within the earth releases a lot of energy in form of heat(2 x 1 = 2mks).

1. (a) Name two features formed due to earth movements. (2 marks)

• Fold mountains
• Formation of trenches
• Mid-ocean ridges

(b)   Outline three evidences supporting continental drift theory                         (3 marks)

• paleontological evidence(similar fosills
• Jigsaw fit of continental margins
• Geological evidence /similarity in rocks
• Paleoclimatic evidence
• Biological evidence
• Evidences of continental drift
1. Name three features resulting from extrusive volcanic activity. (3marks)

• Composite cones
• Lava domes
• Plug domes
• Spine / volcano plug
• Hot springs and geysers
• Lava plateau
• Crater / caldera
• Ash and cinder cones.
1. (a) Define weathering. (2 marks)

Weathering is mechanical breakdown or chemical decay of rocks in situ (without movement)

(b) List two types of weathering.                                                                                   (2 marks)

• Mechanical /physical
• Biological /biotic
• Chemical weathering
1. Use the diagram below to answer question (a)

(a) Identify the features labeled S and T                                                           (2 marks)

S-resistant rock cap/horizontal rock

T-Plunge pool

(b) Name two types of river erosion                                                                   (2 marks)

• Head ward erosion /Spring sapping
• Lateral erosion
• Vertical erosion
1. Study the map of Kijabe 1:50,000 provided and answer the following questions.

(a)(i) Give the longitudinal extent of the area covered by map.                              (2 marks

• 36 0 30’E to 36 0 45’ E =15’

(ii) Name two types of scale used in the map                                                        (2 marks)

• Linear scale

ratio scale.

(iii) Identify two human features at grid square 3699                                          (2 marks)

• Houses
• Dry weather

(b) Name three types of natural vegetation in the area covered by map.              (3 marks)

• Wood land
• Bamboo
• Scrub
• Thickets
• Forests
• Scattered trees

(c ) Draw a rectangle 8cm by 6 cm to represent area bound by Easting 30 and 34 and Northing 90 and 93.                                                                                                 (2 marks)

On it mark and label.

• (1mark)
• All weather road bound surface. (1 mark)
• (1 mark)

A RECTANGLE SHOWING THE BY  AREA BOUND BY EASTING 30AND 34 AND NORTHING 90  AND 93

(d) Describe the relief of the area covered by map.                                                   (5 marks)

• The area covered by the map has conical hills eg Kijabe hill
• The area covered by the map has escarpment .
• The area covered by the map has valleys eg Ewaso Kedong Valley
• The area covered by the map has many river valleys .
• The highest point in the area covered by the map is 2660m and the lowest is 1720m
• The land is flat around the plantations in the northern part of the map
• The Eastern part of the area covered by the map is gently sloppy this is evidenced by wide spread contours
• The area has steep slopes on the north eastern part

SECTION C:                                                     STATISTICS                              (20 MARKS)

1. The table below shows the forest products of different countries in Kenya between 2009 and 2011 in tones.

Use it to answer the questions below.

 COUNTY 2009 2010 2011 UASIN GISHU 320 340 380 KAKAMEGA 260 280 300 BOMET 200 240 280 KERICHO 300 350 370

(a ) (i) . Use a scale 1 cm represents 100 tonnes to draw a compound bar to represent the above data.                                                                                                                        (8 marks)

(ii) Give three advantages of using compound bar graphs as a method of data presentation                                                                                                                       (3 marks)

The create a good visual impression

The can be used to show many commodities

It is used where there is need for comparison

(b) (i) What is agroforestry?                                                                                          (2 marks)

is a land use system, which enables the production of trees, crops and livestock on a given unit of land either in spatial arrangement

(ii) Give three reasons why the government is encouraging agroforestry in Kenya.

(3 marks)

(c ) State four factors favouring development of softwoods in Kenya.                    (4 marks)

• Cool climate in the Kenya highlands for tree growth
• Fertile soils-Volcanic soils within the Kenya highlands
• High precipitation ranging between 1000-2000 which favours growth of trees
• Rugged landscape in some areas which discourages settlements and agriculture leaving growing of trees as the only alternative
• Varied altitude which favours growth of different types of trees due to varied temperatures and rainfall
• Creation of forests reserves which enables forests to develop without interference form humans

SECTION D:                           PHOTOGRAPH WORK                                      (20 MARKS)

1. Study the photograph shown and answer the questions that follow
• (i) Identify the type of photograph                                                          (1 mark)
• ground general view
• Draw a rectangle 10cm by 6cm to represent the main features in the photograph.                        (5 marks)

A SKETCH OF THE PHOTOGRAPH

• (i) Name the type of mining shown above.                                                       (1 mark)
• open cast mining

(ii) Explain three effects of this type of mining to the environment.             (6 marks)

• The land is left with gaping quarries which are ugly and interferes with the beauty of land. √
• The heaps of rocks hinder any other forms of land use. √
• The clearing of land before extraction of minerals exposes it to soil erosion. √
• dust produced is a health hazard and pollutes the atmosphere. √
• It causes shortage of land as people are displaced. √
• Open cast mines create ponds which become habitat for disease vectors. √
• It destroys the natural vegetation. √
• Large scale blasting of rocks leads to instability of the basement rocks. √ 6marks.

(c ) (i) Name three areas of gold mining in South Africa.                                      (3 marks)

• The Rand/Witwatersrand.
• Orange Free State.

(ii) State four significance of gold mining to the economy of South Africa. (4 marks)

• It earns Republic of South Africa foreign exchange through exports.
• It’s a major source of employment thus helping raise the living standards.
• It has led to widespread urbanization contributing to the formation of conurbation in the Rand.
• The profit accrued from gold has been used to develop infrastructure- roads, railways, and social amenities.
• It has led to the development of industries in the Orange Free State and Trans-vaal.

SECTION E:    CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND FIELD WORK)       (20MARKS)

1. (a ) i) Give three characteristics of convectional rainfall.                                      ( 3 marks)
• Occurs in the afternoon
• Is short lived
• Occurs in large drops
• Is Torrential
• Is accompanied by thunder and lightning
• Usually accompanied by hailstones
1. ii) Name two instruments kept in a Stevenson screen                                     (2 marks)
• Thermometer
• Hygrometer

(b). (i) State three characteristics of climate experienced in the Kenya Highlands. (3  marks)

• Temperature ranges between 170C to 240C
• Annual rainfall totals are between 1000mm – 1500mm
• Humidity is moderate
• Annual range of temperature is 30C to 50C
• Coolest months are between June and August the rest are warm
• Orographic / relief rainfall is experienced
• Has double maxima rainfall regime.
• Rainfall occurs throughout the year (long rains between March and May, short rains between September and December )

(ii) List two greenhouse gases.                                                                                   ( 2 marks)

• Carbon dioxide (CO2)
• Chlorofluorocarbons (CFS)
• Methane
• Nitrous oxide (N2O)

(c ) (i) Outline four characteristics of the dominant natural vegetation in the Narok region.                                                                                                                                               (3 marks)

• Consist of a mixture of trees and grass.
• Grass is the dominant type of vegetation of the savanna./ Grass dominates the vegetation
• Most of the trees are umbrella-shaped.
• The common tree species are acacia, baobab, palms and ceiba.
• Some trees are stunted barks and are drought resistant.
• Most of the trees shade their leaves during the dry season and the grass withers and dry up.
• Some of the trees have long tap roots which develop in the ground.
• Some of the trees like baobab have thick stems.
• Along some river valleys there are tall trees and thick bush /River valleys have tall trees and thick bushes/ riverine vegetation
• In the wetter areas the grass is tall and close together
• The grass dominates the undergrowth ( in the woodlands)
• In the drier areas, the grass is shorter and tufted
• The trees are shorter more scattered
• During the wet season, the grass withers away/ trees shed their  leaves/trees are deciduous
• During the dry season, the grass sprouts and the dormant seeds germinate.

(ii) Describe the characteristics of coniferous forests.                                            (4 marks)

• Trees respond to harsh climatic conditions which include cold winters, cool summers and high summer rainfall.
• Trees have needle leaves that help to reduce transpiration.
• Trees have a conical structure which helps in stability during strong winds and also in dripping snow to the ground.
• Trees have deep roots that spread out widely to absorb maximum amount of water.
• Trees have great uniform stands with little undergrowth.
• The forest species are generally few, covering large tracks of land.

(d ) You intend to carry out fieldwork in a forested area:

• State two objectives you might formulate for the study. (2 marks)
• To find out the uses of the vegetation in the tropical rain forest.
• To identify the plant species in the forest.
• To investigate the influence of aspect on vegetation.
• To determine the relationship between attitude and vegetation.
• Give one reason for drawing a time schedule. ( 1 mark)

• To ensure proper time management and reduce tendency of wasting time.
• To ensure that all important areas are adequately covered.
• Ensures that the researcher remains on course.
• It is a pointer as to how much time will be required for the study.