·        Personality may be defined as sub-total of all behavioral and characteristics by means of which an individual is recognized as being unique

·        The study of personality development helps individuals to understand themselves and others for better interaction and harmonious living

·        The unit examines the unity of personality temperament and factors influencing personality development

·        It also discusses life skills  for psychosocial competence and living values that help on individual to lead a healthy well adjusted and productive life

·        Self awareness and attractive communication skills are also discussed in an attempt to help learners develop better interactions within the family and the community.

 By the end of the unit the learner should be able to;
 1)      Define the terms related to personality development

2)      Analyze  theories of personality development and relate them to real life situations

3)      Explain personality types and temperaments

4)      Discuss factors that influence personality development

5)      Analyze various defence mechanism, causes and effects

6)      Discuss life skills for psychosocial competence and their importance in human development and adjustment

7)      Evaluate important values and methods of imparting them in children

 There is personality development  and how they relate to real life situation                                                                                                    
 ·        Psychosocial theory (Erick Erickson)

·        Humanistic theory (Maslow and Rodgers)

·        Psychoanalytic theory (Fraud)

·        Trait theory (Egseric&Sheldom

·        Social cognitive theory (Bandura)

 Personality types and temperaments
 1)      Type A personality

2)      Type B personality

3)      Introverts & extroverts

·        Personality traits (Neurotism, Extroversion, openness to experience ignobleness, conscientiousness

 Factors influencing personality development
 ·        Heredity

·        Environmental factors

·        Individual characteristics

 Defense mechanism
 Definition  of the term ‘defense mechanism’
 Types and causes of defense mechanism
 Role of defense mechanism in human adjustments
 Skills for psychosocial competence
 Definition of the term life skills
 Importance of life skills
 Development of life skills
 Methods used to enhance acquisition of different life skills
 Important values in the Kenyan society
 Methods of imparting values to young children
 Definition of terms
1.Personality – it is any characteristic pattern of behaviour  thought or emotional experience that exhibits relative consistency across time and situations according to (Allport – 1937)
 ·        It is also characteristics or a person that explains his/her consistent way of hoping, thinking and behavior

·        An individual characteristics pattern of thought emotions and behavior together with the psychological mechanisms behind those patterns

·        In summary personality can be defined as the sum total of behavior and mental characteristics that makes one an individual.

2.Trait – it is any characteristic that a person exhibit in a relative and consistence manner e.g. emotional tendencies, ways of thinking etc so therefore a trait is a relatively stable and long lasting attributes of personality.
3.Temperament – these are biologically based, emotional and behavioral  tendencies that can be clearly seen even in early childhood
 ·        It is a combination  on inborn traits passed on through the genes and influences of the environment

·        It includes a persons typical moods and emotions and these are assured to be related to the psychological functioning of glands and nervous system

4.Character –  it is the consisting with which a person follows a certain rules of life especially moral and disciplinary rules.  It can be good or bad depending on whether one is morally upright or not character can be formed through training, education, modelling, disciplinary and promotion of values.
 Reasons for studying personality development
 Teachers should study personality because of the following benefits
 a)      To understand themselves so that they can improve their strength and potential and try to improve their weaknesses

b)      To understand others and be able to predict their behaviours, this helps to know to approach and interact with people

c)      To be able to influence  peoples behavior and learning i.e. selection of activities to enhance learning and performance of people of different personalities

d)      So as to be able to improve communication and interactions one can interact well with people when he/she understands the way they think, their attitudes, feelings  and moods

e)      To be able to assign duties and responsibilities appropriately according to children’s respective temperaments and personalities.

 ·        A theory is an orderly statement that organizes facts to enable people to understand available information and use such knowledge

·        These theories and their proponents are;

a)      Psychoanalytic theory (Erick Erickson)

b)      Humanistic theory (Maslow & Rodgers)

c)      Trait theory (Eysenak& Rodgers)

d)      Social cognitive theory (Albert Bandura)

 ·        Teachers should understand these theories of personality and how they can be applied in a situation to help children acquire good conduct and acceptable behaviour
 Functions of theories to personality development
 1)      Organizing existing information
 ·        Theories are able to organize facts in an orderly manner which enables peoples to know what information is already available and they  can use that knowledge
 2)      Acquisition of new knowledge
 ·        When one learns a theory when in school or college one can do a research to find out if what is contained in the theory is true or not this will lead to obtaining new information.
 ·        Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) who was a doctor simply wanted to help his patients whose problems were psychological in nature

·        Most of other personality theories evolved from it following a dissatisfaction from other theories

·        Freud believed that human beings are guided by 2 instincts i.e. life of sexual instincts and death or aggressive instincts

·        Life instincts are positive or constructive aspects of human behavior

·        The energy responsible for life instincts is called ‘libido’.  According to Freud death instincts explain the dark or negative and destructive side of behavior such as stealing, killing or anything that is cruel

·        This instincts are a natural feature in human beings

·        Freud argued that;

Ø  People cannot generally satisfy their sexual aggressive and other bodily desires whenever they wish.  This usually conflicts with what the society expects

·        People are sometimes not aware of these desires because they are not in their continuous awareness. They are therefore unaware  of the drives that cause their emotions and behavior because they are not continuous.

 Structure of personality according to Freud
 ·        Personality according to Freud is made up of three system i.e. Id, ego and super ego which work closely together despite  having their own functions and properties

·        It is difficult according to separate them when examining how they influence human behaviour

 a)     The Id
 ·        It is irrational and emotional part of the mind

·        It is also called the primitive mind

·        It stores the psychic energy of libido and provides all the energy to operate the ego and super ego when the tension level or an individual is raised

·        The Id release this tension immediately and returns to a comfortable low energy level

·        The principal of tension reduction by which the  Id operate is called ‘the pressure principle’ which is only interested in what it will reduce pain or pressure.

·        The Id does not care about the consequences but when it wants something it must have it immediately  e.g. A man who is ruled by his Id will rape a young woman because he wants sex there and then.  A thief will break into a house because he wants a TV there and then.

 b)     The Ego
 ·        The ego carries into existence because the needs of an individual must be  met in a realistic manner

·        It obeys  the reality principle and is viewed as the rational part of the mind

·        It finds the middle ground between the competing demands of the Id and the super ego e.g. The Id may want a packet of crisps but the super ego thinks it is not deserved because you have been very lazy the whole week

·        The Ego therefore makes a compromise and decides that you can get the packet after you have cleaned the house

 c)      Super ego
 ·        It is                            representative of the                                 values and ideas of the society as interpreted to be child by the parents and reinforced through rewards

·        It is the moral part of the mind as conscious is located there

·        It represents the ideal rather than the real and it tries to get perfection rather than pressure

·        It tries to decide whether something is right or wrong so that it can do what is expected by the society

 Functions of super ego
 To stop the impulses of the Id especially the aggressive and sexual impulses

To inspire for perfection

 Stages of personality development according to Freud
 ·        Freud believed that personality development occurs in stages as follows
 (1)    The oral stage (birth – 18 months)

(2)    Anal stage (2 – 3 yrs)

(3)    The phallic stage (4 – 5 yrs)

(4)    Latency stage (6 – 11 yrs)

(5)    Genital stage (adolescence)

 ·        At this stage the principle source of pressure is the mouth region

·        The child gets pressure from biting, sucking and chewing

·        The child derives pressure from stimulating the mouth region and the pressure determines the personality features that will develop at this stage

·        Freud says that 2 types of oral characters develop

 1.      Those whose needs are not fulfilled when they are babies may become extremely independent as adults and refuse to accept the help from anyone.

2.      Those whose needs were fulfilled when they were babies may always wait for the others to do things for them when they become adults

 ·        If someone is fixated in the oral stage this individual may become argumentative or may want to acquire materials things e.g. if a mother refused to breastfeed her child on demand quit early, the person may become fixated at oral stage and display behaviours such as pessimism suspicion, sarcasm
 (b)   ANAL STAGE (2- 3 YEARS)
 ·        During this stage the child derives a lot of pressure from retaining and expelling waste products

·        During this stage the child undergoes toilet training

·        Begins to have ability to control urges such as to defalcate

·        Parents should not have too much control over the child since it can develop psychological trauma e.g. prohibiting the child from crying or to hold his/her bowel longer than he is capable

 NB: If parents are so demanding the oral character that develops is one who is obsessive, orderly, rigid and obedient to authority and being organized
 ·        If the parent didn’t toilet train the child he/she will have oral character of no-self control, lack of punctuality, disorganized and disobedience to authority
 (c)    PHALLIC STAGE (4 – 5 STATE)
 ·        At this stage the genital, ana becomes the object of interest, children touch and show of their genitals.

·        Girls realize that boys have a penis and they do not

·        Boys wonders what happened to the girls and if they loose their penis like them (i.e. castration anxiety )

·        These are sexual feelings for the parents of opposite sex who is seen as a competitor

·        This is known as ‘oedipus complex for boys’ and ‘electra complex for the girls’

·        The boys fear they might loose their penis i.e. be castrated by their fathers as they fight them for their mothers love

·        In  order to end this boys identify with their fathers and adopt many with their values

·        Girls on the other hand mourn believing they have been castrated, they fear that their mothers will find out about the love with their fathers

·        They therefore slat with their mothers and accept with their value.

 (d)   LATENCY STAGE (6 – 11 yrs)
 ·        During this stage there is a decrease in sexual urges.  There is very little interest in opposite sex

·        It acts as a break which allows children to learn most of the things they will need in adult life

·        This includes learning to read, do calculations and other topics taught in school and at home

 ·        This stage occurs around puberty, the genitals or private parts are the centre of attention and the sexual urges re-service

·        This is emphasized on heterosexual i.e. boys show interest  in girls and vice versa

·        Characteristics such as sexual attractions, vocational planning preparation for Marriage and family begins to manifest themselves

1.Teachers and caregivers should understand how to apply this theory when dealing with children
 Ensure you meet children basic needs since failure to do so may lead to formation of other characters e.g. suspicion in oral stage.
2.Avoid over-doing what is expected of them e.g. breastfeeding for too long can lead to fixation parents and teachers should be to demanding e.g. toilet training (anal stage) or either too lenient .  use the right strategies and techniques of reducing unacceptable behavior e.g. on touching the genitals (phallic stage) by telling stories related to such behavior
3.Teach children most of the tasks and skills that they will need as adults e.g. various household chores
4.Guide and counsel adolescence on how to control their sexual urges and have healthy heterosexual relationship i.e. consequences of engaging in premarital sex (genital stage)
5.Be warm towards children and provide love and affection  to facilitate personality development
6.Find out as much background information on children to understand them
7.Encourage children to express themselves, their feelings and concerns to reduce anxiety and discomfort
8.Let children know that feelings on natural and others experience them
9.Help children to learn to use their ego and super ego on decision making in acquisition of values strong character and morals.
 ·        Erick Erickson (1902 – 1904) developed his own version Freud theory by discussing conflicts and occurring at each stage of life and the possible results of this conflicts

·        Erickson argued that what happened at one stage would influence the following stage e.g. being able to resolve conflicts in one stage  would probably lead to success in the following stage.

 (1)   Basic trust versus mistrust (birth – 18 months)
 ·        At this stage needs such as feeding and being kept warm are met resulting in a certified and less frustrated child.

·        A child will develop positive attitude towards life and develop confidence when the basic needs are met.  The opposite of this will lead to development of mistrust and pessimism

·        A child who develops basic trust is likely to develop autonomy while one who develops mistrust develops shame and doubt during the second stage

 (2)   Autonomy/shame and doubt (18 months – 3 years)
 ·        At this stage children are able to control their bowels, learn, language, begin to receive instructions from parents

·        They also learn what is expected of them, responsibilities and rights, what they can or cannot be allowed to do

·        There are two demands placed on the child

Ø  Demand for self control

Ø  Demand for the acceptance of control from others

 ·        A demand for self control meansthat the child has learnt how to control their bowelsand not urinate or defalcate on him/herself

·        A demand for acceptance of control from others means the child has to obey other people e.g. parents/guardians

·        Adults use the concept or shame to control the child e.g. telling the child ‘shame on you’ when the child does something wrong

·        At the same time they encourage the child to be independent or autonomous

·        Adults should avoid making the child feel excessively ashamed during this stage e.g. avoid humiliating a child if he  or she accidentally urinates on themselves

·        A child sense of self control they develop sense of lasting feeling of pride, if they looseself control they feel shame and doubt

·        During this stage the child develops knowledge of right or wrong, preparing him in the next stage of initiative versus guilt

 (3)   Initiative versus guilt (3 – 5 years)
 ·        To take initiative doing something is doing something without being told without doing it e.g. taking a broom and sweeping

·        Initiative combines with autonomy to give the child strength in pursuing, planning and achieving goals

·        The child’s major activity at this stage is playing the child learns the purpose of which things are done, the child engages in lots of printed play like wearing costumes and imitating adults

·        If children develop shame and doubt in second stage they develop a feeling of guilt about things they try to do

·        When a child has developed an initiative he/she is likely to be industrious in the next stage while a child who develop guilt ,may develop a sense of inferiority in the next stage

 (4)   Industry versus inferiority (6 – 12 years)
 ·        During the stage of industry vs inferiority the child

Ø  Begins to develop skills and attitudes needed to succeed in the world of work and in the society, the child must settle down to formal education

Ø  The child is ready to learn about the use of tools and other task needed to prepare adult life this induct chores at home, attending school, learning manual skills and participating in games.

Ø  Uses intelligence and excessive energy doing something useful

Ø  Develop a sense of industry and rams to preserve and work hard

Ø  Achieve a feeling of competence when they complete task and hence avoid a feeling of inferiority

Ø  They develop a feeling of inferiority in made to feel that they can not master the tasks given by parents

 NB:  It is important to give task they are able to perform inorder to develop a feeling of success
 ·        If tasks are too difficult they will be unable to perform hence end up feeling inferior
 (5)   Identity vs role confusion (12 – 18 years)
 ·        During this stage adolescence;

Ø  Try to find out who they are and what is or is not important

Ø  They choose values and goals that are consistent and useful

Ø  They have to make vocational choice and plans

Ø  Will undergo role confusion i.e. experiencing feeling of isolation, anxiety, emptiness and indecisiveness

Ø  It is therefore important for adolescence to develop a sense of identity to avoid feeling empty and worried

 (6)   Intimacy vs isolation (18- 35 years)
 ·        The major task in this stage is to find an intimate life partner rather than remain isolated or lonely

·        This means establishing a meaningful relationship and marrying

·        The danger of intimacy stage is isolation which is the avoidance relationship because one is unwilling to commit oneself to intimacy.

 (7)   Generating vs stagnancy (35 – 55 years)
 ·        At this stage the individual avoid stagnation but instead nurtures children and tries to help next generation

·        The urge to care at the stage is expressed by;

Ø  Concern for others e.g. helping the needy

Ø  Sharing one knowledge  and experience e.g. in bringing up children, teaching, demonstrating and supervising

 ·        When generativity id weak or not expressed there is a sense of failure and stagnation
 (8)   Integrity vs dispose (55 – 65 years)
 ·        A sense of integrity resources from reflecting backon  a meaningful life through a successful life review i.e.     to see a successful life spent.

·        At this stage people can continue working

·        Couples can achieve greater marital happiness, personal accomplishment and growth can continue even in old age.

·        Death of a spouse is one of the greatest psychosocial challenges resulting to depression, illness or death because of loss of emotional and physical support

·        The opposite of integrity is despair where an individual feels he has failed, becomes bitter about life and views it as meaningless, the end is near and they may even wish to die since it is too late to change anything  .

·        People who never contributed to society on reaching this age regret the way they lived

1.·        Bind or attachment ban parent and infant help them to develop sense of security which helps them to venture into social interactions

·        When such infants grow up they are able to trust  others and make friends easily

2.Encourage initiative in young children by allowing them to choose activities, provide materials and encourage social play
3.Promote industry especially in primary school, encourage children to find out things on their own to satisfy curiosity and motivation to master tasks.
4.Stimulates  identity exploration in adolescence
5.·        Helps adolescence to explore goals and opportunities in carriers, hobbies, music etc

·        Encourage them to think independently and to take responsibility of consequences of their actions.

6.·        Take good care of young children to prevent them from developing negative personalities during adulthood e.g. need for food and warmth

·        Parents and guardians should avoid embarrassing children and humiliating (especially in the autonomy vs. shame.  This may make them feel ashamed and doubt their own capabilities

7.At adolescence parent, teachers and other guardians should guide and counsel them especially on vocational and carrier choices to help them develop their identities
 ·        Abraham Maslow (1907 – 1970) believed that human beings are born with weak instinct which become specific needs

·        If the needs are not satisfied they will control the individuals personality

·        Basic needs must be fulfilled before higher needs since they are stronger

·        He believed that a person does not feel a second need before the first need is satisfied

·        These needs are;

 (1)    Psychological needs – (water, air, food, clothing, shelter and sex)

(2)    Safety needs – (protection, love, affection, stability)

(3)    Belongingness and love – (family, affection & relationship)

(4)    Self esteem and cognitive needs – (knowledge, self awareness)

(5)    Self actualization – (self fulfillment)

 ·        When all needs have been met the need for self actualization are activated, these are the ones a person are endorsed with at birth e.g. being as musician, writer/artist, this can be illustrated using a pyramid as shown.
 Self                               self actualization
 Knowledgeself esteem& cognitive
 &self awareness                  needs
 Family affection                  belonging and love
 And relationship
 Protection, love                    safety needs
 Affection, stability
 Water, air, food, clothing               psychological needs
 Shelter, sex
 ·        Always ensure that the various needs of children are met e.g. a starving child cannot concentrate in class

·        Have good teacher-pupil relationship.  This ensures safety needs of the child are met

·        Ensure there is security at home and school

·        Eliminate burying of children and other forms of abuse directed to them

·        Parents, teachers and guardians should love all children equally and avoid treating some Badly

·        Encourage group work so that children can interact with one another and feel as part of the group that is working together

·        Parents, teachers and guardians should recognize and praise children who do well by giving  presents. This promotes self esteem in children.

·        Encourage children to self actuaries  by tellingthem about people who haveself actualized, tell them that they can be the best in anything they do by being inspired by given hope and encouragement

 ·        Carl Rodgers (1902 – 1987) came up with a theory of personality that argued that a person experiences play a big role in his/her personality development

·        Experience is everything that goes on inside a person of which he/she could become continuous.  This included;

 (a)    Everything that is continuous

(b)    Everything that is in the focus of attention or awareness

(c)    Everything that is on the edge of awareness e.g. at the back of one’s mind

 ·        Rodgers began his inquiry about human nature by observing people who were troubled, conditioned and controlled to such an extent as to keep them from having positive self concepts and reaching their full potential

·        Rodgers believed that most people have difficulty accepting their own true innate positive feelings because of the way they are conditioned by negative feedback discouraged or by being expected to behave in a certain way.

·        We are used to conditioned regard whereby love and praise often are not given unless on individual conforms to parental or social standards, this gives rise to lowered self-esteem.

 ·        According to Rodgers the self emerges through the individual experiences with the world.

·        Rodgers views the self as a whole consisting of totally of oneself perception and the values we attach to this perceptions

 ·        It refers to individuals overall perceptions of his or her abilities, behavior and personality
 ·        Refers to the self which is as a result of our experiences
 ·        Is the desired self, if there is great discrepancy between the 2 perception of self this is likely to lead to mar adjustment.
 Unconditional positive regard empathy and genuineness
 ·        A person can develop a more positive concept through unconditional positive regards empathy and genuineness this involves accepting, valuing and being positive towards another person regardless of the others characteristics or short comings

·        This means accepting the person and not his good or bad behavior

·        It helps elevate the self worth and the self esteem of both people

·        Being emphatic being a sensitive listener and understanding another’s true feelings while being genuining  means being open and dropping our pretenses and masks

·        Unconditional positive regard empathy and genuineness are the three key ingredients of good human relations

·        We can use them to help other people feel better about themselves and to help ourselves relate better with others

 The fully functioning person
 ·        According to Rodgers most human beings are resilient

·        A fully functioning person is someone who is open to experience, is not defensive, is aware of and sensitive to self and external world and has fairly harmonious relationships

·        People who are resilient to negative feedback are capable of becoming fully functioning persons

·        Resilience – this is the ability to survive or cope in a hostile environment, adapt to it develop and become oneself despite the difficulties one faces in the environment

 Application of Carl Rodgers theory
 ·        People should team to ignore certain conditions if they believe what they are doing is right.  Children should therefore be taught that they should not do wrong things so that others can love them

·        Since individuals including children will do things so that people could like and accept them, parents and guardians should teach children socially, acceptable and expected behavior this will help

·        Children develop good personal qualities and make it easier for them to fit into society

·        We should not place too many demands on children by telling them that we will only love them if they do certain things rather we should guide children on what is right and appropriate and praise them when they display good behavior

·        Always communicate to the children that we have unconditional positive regards on them.

 Hans Eysenck through his vast studies come up with which he  called introversion/extroversion dimension
 ·        He also came up with a 2nd dimension which he called ‘neurotism’

·        Which is sometimes called the emotional stability vs. neurotism dimension

·        Eysenck said that people who can withstand emotional stress and are able to control emotions fall under emotional stability and are emotionally stable

·        On the other hand those who breakdown when they are faced with stress fall under neurotism and are called neurotic

·        Esynck system relate to an old description of individual differences given by two Greek physicians/doctors i.e. Hipp-Ocrates (400 BC) and Galen (200 AD)

·        Hippocrates and Galen had said that there are four basic personality types;

Ø  Melancholics

Ø  Phiegmatics

Ø  Cholerias

Ø  Sanguines

 Characteristics of personality types
 (a)   Melancholics
 ·        Quiet

·        Not social

·        Keep to themselves

·        Are pessimistic

·        Rigid (don’t change)

·        Anxious

·        Moody

·        They are also gifted perfectionists, high IQ, analytical, disciplined, industrious, sensitive and self sacrificing

 (b)   Phlegmatics
 ·        Careful

·        Thoughtful

·        Passive

·        Peaceful

·        Controlled

·        Reliable

·        Even tempered

·        Calm

·        They are also cool, slow, easy going, well balanced temperament, pleasant, life experiences, introverts, good natured, cheerful, kind hearted and peace loving

·        They  lack confidence

·        Are pessimistic

·        Fearful worries

·        Compromising

·        Self righteous

 (c)    Cholerres
 ·        They are quick

·        Active

·        Practical

·        Strong willed

·        Self sufficient

·        Independent

·        Bossy

·        Quick to anger

·        Sensitive to need of others

·        Little appreciation of aesthetics

·        Domineering

·        Not sympathetic

·        Confident

·        Natural leaders

·        Optimistic

·        Fearless and bold

·        Self disciplined

·        Cold

 (d)   Sanguines
 ·        They are warm, outgoing, lively

·        Happy

·        Fun loving

·        Have many friends

·        Story tellers

·        Talkative

·        Emotional

·        Emotionally unpredictable

·        Restless

·        Show outbursts of anger

·        Exaggerate the truth

·        Lack self control

·        Make emotional decisions

 Relation between Eysenck’s system and the Greeks personality types
 ·        Melancholies are both introverted and emotionally unstable

·        Phlegmatics are introverted and emotionally stable

·        Cholerics are both extroverted and emotionally unstable

·        Sangrines are both extroverted and emotionally stable

·        Later Eysencks added a 3rd dimension of personality which he called ‘psychotism’.  These people are;

Ø  Aggressive

Ø  Cold

Ø  Egocentric

Ø  Creative

Ø  Impersonal

Ø  Impulsive

Ø  Anti-social

 NB:  It is important to note that although personality type theory distinct personality category rarely are people of personality category
 Ø  Most people have a combination of two or more personality categories however there is personality category that is dominant
 Application of Esyneck’s theory
 (a)    Children possess and display different personality types with positive and negative sides

(b)    Parents, teachers and guardians should encourage positive aspects of personality and try to stop or reduce the negative characteristics

(c)    Introverted children should be introduced to social activities.  Too many social activities at once will make them more introverted

(d)    Introverted children should be praised when they engage in social activities, this will make them eager to engage in more social activities

(e)    Extroverted children be given many tasks so that they can  use up all extra energy they have

(f)     Extroverts who are usually outgoing should be provided with various opportunities to enable them interact with other children

(g)    Since extroverts are talkative teachers should not let them dominate all class activities such as group work or class participation

(h)    Extroverted children should be made to understand that there are times for everything i.e. time for quiet activities e.g. reading for exams

(i)      Parents, teachers and guardians should not expose children to too much stress (neurotism) dimension and also discourage other children from harassing or stressing one another

(j)      Neurotic children should be guided on how they can control their  emotions and handle various stressful situations to avoid breaking down

(k)    Children with psychotism dimension should be encouraged to be social interested in other people and to reduce the aggressiveness that they display

(l)      Provide opportunities for children to display their creative activities especially psychotism  dimension.

 Albert Bandura was born in Canada in 1975.  He came  up with the social cognitive theory which was originally known as the social learning theory.  This theory urges that;
 (a)    The human thought theory process or cognitive processes should be the focus the attention when talking about personality.

(b)    Thinking develops in a social context i.e. people get opinions about themselves and the word by social interactions

(c)    The theory says that human behavior is the result of the interaction between a person and the environment people are seen as capable of directing their own lives and learning complex patterns even when there are no reward

ü  In brief the theory argues that although outside forces can influence human beings, have the cognitive capacity to overcome this forces

ü  This is called reciprocal deterorinism model

ü  A human being is therefore;

Is active

A problem solver

Able to benefit from experiences and his cognitive capacities

Have a potential for good or bad

 Personality structure
 Ø  These structures mainly involve cognitive process and are called social cognitive structures since they develop as a result of social experiences

Ø  These structures are;

(a)    Competences and skills

(b)    Expectances and beliefs

(c)    Behavioral standards

(d)    Personal goals

 (a) Competences and skills
 ·        Differences among people may be caused by differences in them carrying out different types of actions e.g. some people may act in an introverted manner because they do not have social skills and they do not know how to start a conversation.

·        Others may have skills for one situation but lack in another

·        Bandura said that competences and skills can be obtained  by social interactions and observations

      (b)  Expectances and beliefs
 ·        Expectances refers to thoughts about what the world will be like while beliefs refer to thoughts about what the world is actually like

·        What we expect in future is going to influence the way we behave i.e. people behave in terms of the expectations e.g. a child expecting to be rewarded will study very hard

·        If a child anticipates punishment after stealing mangoes he will not steal the mango

 (d)   Behavioral standards
 ·        They are also known as evaluative standards.  This is thinking about what things should be like i.e. mental criteria or standards for evaluating the goodness or worth of a person being on event

·        Bandura says that people tend to evaluate or judge themselves

·        When people are satisfied with their performance they are happy

·        This personal standard are influenced by other people e.g. we set standards after observing the performance of other people.

 (e)   Personal goals
 ·        This is about what we intend to achieve in the future.  Some goals in life are seen as more important than others and more energy is used on them

·        The goals we have will influence the way we behave e.g. a child whose  goal is to become a pilot may spend a lot of time studying to pass exams

 (f)    Personal processes
 ·        Bandura says that personalities are formed by;

(a)    Observational learning/modelling

(b)    Motivation

 (1)   Observational learning/modelling
 ·        Bandura argues that knowledge is acquired through observing the behavior of others i.e. observational  learning

·        The person being observed is called a model and this observational learning process is called modelling e.g. a child can learn a language through observing his  parents and other people around him speak.

·        Children carry out selective modelling i.e.  they model behaviours that are rewarding

·        Bandura adds that observation of consequences by a model affects learning

·        To model one needs to attend to the model’s behavior, some behavior in memory then revive the behavior when need be.

 (2)   Motivation
 ·        The driving force behind behavior e.g. if a child does well in school he will be motivated to continuous studying and attending school if he fails he might be tempted to drop out of school.
 Application of Bandura’s social cognitive theory
 ·        Creates a conducive and appropriate environment to enable pupils obtain a lot of information.  This is because people learn about themselves and the world by social interactions

·        Children should be taught that they have the ability to overcome outside forces e.g. bad peer influence

·        Teach children that they have the ability to avoid certain situations and suitable for them and choose good or better options

·        Parents, teachers and guardians should help children develop skills and competences that are useful to them

·        Praise children for the skills they possess and encourage them acquire other skills

·        Teach children to interact not only with one another but also with adults who display useful skills and competences

·        Teachers, parents and guardians should be good role models that children can observe and emulate in addition to this teachers can invite good role models to schools to talk to children

·        Make children aware of what to expect for displaying certain behavior i.e. either positive or negative

·        Help children to set useful personal goals and encourage them to pursue the goals

·        Encourage parents, children  to watch educative programs

·        Encourage children to Have friends with positive behavior

 ·        There are different types of personalities which should be understood to avoid wrangles and disagreements
 Type A & B personalities
 ·        We have type A and B personality but some people have type AB mixed personality which is a combination of type A and B personalities
 Type A Personality
 ·        It is a hostile personality, extremely impatient

·        Easily irritated

·        Always in a rush

·        Hate to waste time

·        Time continuous

·        Very competitive

·        Workaholics and cant relax

·        The following descriptions characterized them;

(a)    Time urgency and impatient – they get frustrated when waiting in a queue.  Walk or talk very first and keep checking the time

(b)    Free floating hostility or aggressive which appears as rudeness, impatient or being easily irritated or annoyed

(c)    Competitiveness

(d)    Strong urge for success

(e)    Hypertension, high blood pressure is common among type A personality

(f)     Heart diseases must suffer from heart attacks or diseases from their own age

(g)    Jog stress, they are stressed at work or find the job unpleasant and are never happy with their jobs

(h)    Social isolation – they alienate others spend too much time working and focus too little on relationships ending up socially isolated and stressed

 Type B personality
 Describes the normal average person these people are:
 ·        Calm

·        Patient

·        Relaxed

·        Easy going

·        Not easily irritated

·        Don’t get over-stressed

·        Productive even when stressed

·        Not easily annoyed by long queues

·        Not in a hurry to do things

 Application of the information on type A  and B personality
 (a)    We should reduce that everyone is different and some people become more easily irritated than others

(b)    Type A personality may be inherited and hence one should show more understanding and tolerance towards children displaying this personality

(c)    Parents, guardians and teachers should therefore avoid putting too much stress on young children

(d)    Children should be guided and counselled on how to deal with their stress or anger

(e)    Parents should be a good role model.

 Personality Traits
 The five basic personality traits that will be discussed are
 (1)    Openness to the experience (0)

(2)    Conscientiousness (C)

(3)    Agreeableness (A)

(4)    Extroversion (E)

(5)    Neurotism/emotional stability (N)

 ·        The traits were proposed by Robert Macrae and Paul Costa 1987

·        The five traits are sometimes called the big five.  The initials from the acronym ocean

 ·        It include appreciation for art, emotion, old remedies unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity and a variety of experience

·        It include of experience

·        Openness differentiate creative , imaginativepeople from common people because open people are intellectually curious, sensitive to beauty and they appreciate art, they are also more aware of their feelings and therefore they have unusual and unique ideas

·        On the other hand people who are not open have narrow ordinary interest and they like playing obvious and straightforward things

·        They do not value art, prepare familiar things rather than new ones like old fashioned things and do not like to see changes occurring

 This means paying attention to details being thorough, precise, meticulous and careful
 ·        It is a tendency to have planned rather than spontaneous behavior, be self disciplined and aim for achievement

·        Conscientiousness is basically the way people control, regularly and direct their urges

·        Conscientiousness individual avoid trouble and becomes successful because they plan and are persistent

·        These people can be workaholics and want everything to be perfect

·        Unconscientious people are unreliable and unambitious

·        They are never boring and they sometimes have a lot of fun

 ·        It includes qualities such as socio ability, enactment, seeking energy and positive emotions

·        Extroverts like talking especially in a group and ascertain themselves

·        Introverts on the other hand are not active

Ø  Are quiet

Ø  Passive

Ø  Antisocial

 ·        They are happy when they do things alone like reading a novel

·        Introverts sing to get exhausted when they engage in social activities

 ·        It is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative

·        Agreeable people are not suspicious, not hostile, optimistic, friendly, helpful, generous, considerate and meet other people’s interest

·        Disagreeable people are more interested in achieving  own interest, are suspicious and uncooperative and unfriendly.

 NB:  Agreeableness is not useful in situations where one has to be much e.g. disagreeable people are better soldiers than agreeable people
 Neurotism (emotional instability)
 ·        Experiencing unpleasant emotions e.g. anger, anxiety and depression easily

·        Neurotic people respond emotionally to events and their mode of reacting is stronger and their  reactions last long

·        They are therefore usually in a bad mood

·        The opposite of neurotism is emotional stability

 Application of information in personality trait
 (a)    Different people have different personality trait and hence we should appreciate the different personality trait

(b)    Guidance and counseling especially to neurotic

(c)    Encourage children to be conscientious and be praised for displaying conscientiousness

(d)    Encourage children to develop trait of agreeable people and the importance of being helpful, friendly and considerate

(e)    Inform children that some situations calls for disagreeableness like being a boss and  one has to ensure that the juniors do their work

(f)     Children who show openness should be given opportunities to be creative, be provided with many learning materials to help them come with new inventions

(g)    Children who are not open should not be forced to open too many new ideas to others

 Factors influencing personality development
 ·        Personality development can be affected by various factors, the way a child behaves is a combination of various variables

·        Teachers and parents should know the main factors influencing personality development and explain how one can promote healthy personality development

 (a)    Heredity

(b)    Environment

(c)    Individual difficulties

 (a)   Heredity
 ·        They are also referred to as genetic make up/biological factors or nature i.e. what we inherit from our parents

·        Temperament are inherited through genes/some hereditary factors that influence personality development include

Ø  Physical appearance

Ø  Mental capabilities

Ø  Health

 ·        Physical appearance

Ø  This can affect how others judge a person as well as how a person behaves e.g. one can inherit a beautiful face and another will inherit unattractive one making the two behave differently

 ·        Mental capabilities

Ø  Such as learning disability or high level of intelligence could hinder or enhance activities requiring mental skills

Ø  People with high level of intelligence may have a higher self concept of themselves than those with learning disabilities

 ·        Health

Ø  Being weak, strong, normal/abnormal leads to thinking or acting in socially, acceptable or different ways which also influences personality e.g. a child with a heart defect will participate in some activities and not others.

 ·        Refers to the background, surrounding, location, setting in which an individual is brought up

·        This environmental factors include cultural background, social class, peers and family

·        Culture influences personality development in many ways e.g. African society, relatives are expected to help their kins while it is not the case in European countries hence  an African is considered generous while the Europeans is mean.

 Social class
 ·        The rich are considered to belong to upper class and the poor in the lower class

·        With this notion people view them differently according to how they respond to various situations

 Peer group
 ·        This socialize individuals into accepting new rules and behaves and provide opportunity that influence personality.
 ·        Influence personality through provision or through food, shelter, love, medical attention and education

·        The way it communicate through guidance and counseling to their children then modeling behavior which is imitated by their children

·        Rewarding/punishing for certain behavior

 Parenting styles
 These are three parenting styles
 (a)    Democratic

(b)    Authoritarian

(c)    Permissive

 (a)   Democratic style
 Democratic style parents are;
 (1)    Loving & respectful to their children

(2)    Use reasons other than force

(3)    They do their best to make their children feel accepted and loved

(4)    They are consistent when administering punishment

(5)    They encourage their children to take responsibility and make own decisions

 NB:  Children raised in this style are well adjusted, too mature for their age, have good self esteem and have knowledge that they are expected to be responsible
 (b)    Authoritarian style
 ·        These parents are streaked and are inclined to use force

·        They are not warm and supportive

·        They are “do as l say not as l do”

·        Children raised by these parents are inclined to be aggressive, withdrawn, poor performers in school

 (c)    Permissive style
 Parents who:
 ·        Do not communicate clear standards of behaviours

·        They are inconsistence i.e. their children never understand them e.g. punishment, hugs

·        Children raised here are socially and emotionally mature, impulsive and moody

 Interaction between heredity and environmental factors
 ·        Heredity and environment do interact

·        Heredity/environment alone cannot influence personality

·        The environment & heredity interact in several ways such as;

Ø  A very short girl due to her genes may be laughed at by others and this affects her personality

Ø  A boy may inherit a very strong athletic body but he get involved in an accident

 ·        Personality development might be found in the brain and the nervous system attached to the brain

·        In case of an accident brain damage occurs and personality and behavior change

 Role of individual characteristics in personality development
 ·        Individual factors such as sex will also influence personality development

·        Men and women usually have different tasks undergoing different problems and experiences.  This therefore influences their personality development

 Implication of information of role of heredity, environmental & individual characteristics
 (a)    Parents, teachers and guardians should understand that it is important all children should be treated the same way regardless of their boy type

(b)    Children should be taught to accept their body types and be made to feel that they are important human beings

(c)    Children should be taught not to laugh at and mock others because of certain physical appearance of body type

(d)    Children mental capacities, influence personality development and hence the less intelligence children should not be ridiculed or humiliated

(e)    Children with learning disabilities should be helped to excel in the areas they are good at such as art, music and drum

(f)     Children with certain medical conditions shouldn’t  be engaged in strenuous activities

(g)    Children should be understood to have come from various cultural background and cultural practices influence personality development

(h)    Children should be treated equally regardless of their social class

(i)      Family should display appropriate behavior in order to be good role model

(j)      Parents, teachers and guardians should encourage children to choose and interact with peers who has a positive influence

 Defence mechanisms
 ·        Due to challenge and situations that calls frustrations and stress

·        Defence mechanism become irritably important in human development

·        Defence mechanisms – are ways used to keep worries within are a reasonable level, this mechanisms are not used consciously.  They are brought by the uncontinuous part of the eagle when there is anxiety, they are mechanisms of the eagle that saves to protect an individual from experiencing anxiety produced by conflict between Id ego or super ego

 Characteristics of defence mechanisms
 1.      Appear uncontious

2.      They alter change or face reality

 When reality is falsified there is a change in perception anxiety and tension within an individual
 Causes of defence mechanisms

·        Freud argued that most people try to reduce the tension they feel.  This tension is caused by anxiety and there are three types of anxieties

 1.      Relief anxiety – fear of real and possible events such as being bitten by a snake.  People reduce tension from reality anxiety by keeping away from fearful situations e.g. running away from a snake

2.      Neurotic anxiety – it comes from uncontinuous fear that the Id will take control thus leading to punishment

3.      Moral anxiety – this comes from a fear of disobeying values and moral codes

Ø  It appears as a feeling of shame or guilt

Ø  Freud says that when anxiety occurs the mind tries to solve the problem by increasing its problem solving ability.  If this is not successful then the defence mechanisms appear

Ø  Defence mechanisms are ways in which the ego tries to deal with Id and super ego

Ø  Apart from anxiety other sources include

1.      Traumatizing experiences – an experience which is unbearable or likely to cause defence mechanism e.g. loss of a love one

2.      Inability to achieve a set objective causes disappointment and at times shame.  A defence mechanism distorts reality e.g. failed an exam because my teachers were harsh to me

3.      Home grown factors – hatred and rejection may cause defence mechanism e.g. a child born in a family where parents were unloving and uncaring derives  defence mechanism like reaction formation

4.      Daily challenging situations which cause stress, this challenging situations are there in work places, schools and so on.

5.      Frustrations – a feeling of being annoyed, or impatient after situations e.g. after failing an exam, divorce, separation one may apply a defence mechanism e.g. rationalization.

 Types of defence mechanisms
 (a)    Denial

(b)    Repression

(c)    Reaction formation

(d)    Projection

(e)    Rationalists

(f)     Intellectualization

(g)    Displacement

(h)    Submission

(i)      Compensation

(j)      Regression

 (a)   Denial
 ·        It is a situation whereby a person simply refuses that the source of worry exists e.g. a person failing to believe that he//she is sufferingfrom aids and continues living in denial.

·        A person may refuse to admit that a friend/relative has died in a road accident

 (b)   Repression
 ·        It is keeping things out of our continuousness and not thinking about them

·        When the negative thought filling of memory is successfully kept in the unconscious then the person is protected from the anxiety that this negative thoughts would cost.  E.g. a man who is insulted daily by his wife may burry all his insults in his unconscious but one day he may not be able to keep them and all the insults may resurface in his conscious and he could commit a serious actions, like becoming physically abusive or commit suicide.

 (c)    Reaction formation
 ·        Keeping forbidden thoughts feelings and impulses out of awareness and doing the opposite of what one rarely wants to do e.g. a woman may hate her mother in law but since she cannot openly show her hatred she starts being nice to the mother in law

·        A child may hate his new born brother/sister and without showing the dislike he might always hug and hold the baby

 (d)   Projection
 ·        This involves   attaching a thought or behavior that one fears to other people i.e. a person labels other people with something he/she fears e.g. if a candidate  wants to steal during exam he/she will quickly say that other candidates also wants to copy in the exam the candidate in this case is trying to suppress a bad thought him/herself
 (e)   Rationalization
 ·        It is a situation that would prevail over the anxiety aroused when one has done something they would otherwise feel ashamed of

·        It is done by apparently coming with a logical argument of why it was something hard to doe.g.a person  will tell a lie and then claim it was necessary to tell a lie, deep inside the person is ashamed but rationalization protect him from an easiness he fears.

 (f)    Intellectualization
 This represents a defence mechanism by which though that would cause anxiety and changed to distant non arousing expressions
 ·        Technical words are used  to talk about frightening issues and avoiding everyday word that may cause emotional arousal/anxiety e.g. a doctor will not refer to a patient as this person but this growth in the stomach and is then able to do the operation

·        If the doctor thought too much about the life of the patient he might not be able to perform the operation successfully

 (g)   Displacement
 ·        Is a defence mechanism that replaces one object of emotion with another

·        It reacts an impulse from  a dangerous target to a safe one e.g. a child might be angry with her mother but since she can not hate her she instead hates as dog

·        A company manager who cannot suck his thumb in a meeting sucks his pen

 (h)   Sublimation
 ·        This is a defence mechanism that occurs when a useful course of action replaces an acceptable one

·        It turns dangerous or anxiety producing desires useful e.g. an angry person goes to do manual work or play a game which reduces tension caused by the anger.

·        A person who likes seeing naked people might decide to become a doctor

 (i)      Compensation
 ·        It is the experienced when the individual attempts to overcome imagines or real in inferiorities/weaknesses by developing one’s ability e.g. a child who is weak academically may compensate by being very good in sports.
 (j)     Regression
 ·        It involves returning to an earlier stage of development when one is unable to cope with a challenging situation e.g. a five year old child might return to bed wetting or thumb sucking when he misses the mothers attention after having another baby or when the mother dies
 Role of defence mechanism in human adjustment
 ·        Defence mechanisms are important for they help us function normally

·        Defence mechanism performs the following

Ø  Helps human beings reduce tension and anxiety

Ø  Helps one get relief from intolerable confusion

Ø  Gives one time to solve a problem

Ø  Help one to cope with unbearable situations

 Skills for psychosocial competence
 Ø  Human beings are social beings who live an interact with one another, parents and teachers should help children to develop skills and abilities to assist them live comfortably as individuals and as members of the society

Ø  They should also be able to explain the importance and development of various life skills

 Definition of life skills
 ·        They are special abilities that enable an individual to develop adaptive and positive behavior so as to deal effectively with challenges and demands of every day life skills are those abilities that help to improve the mental well being and abilities  in people

·        Life skills involve developing inner capacities and practical skills needed to make the most out of life.

 Importance of life skills
 They are important because among other things they
 ·        Help children to handle challenging situations in life better

·        Help children achieve their best in life ad life skills promote self responsibility

·        Promotes social skills i.e. help children on how to get along with peers deal with supervisors etc.

·        Help children develop positive attitude towards themselves and others

·        Help children to critically evaluate their environment and their culture in order to identify ways of promoting healthy development

·        Provide knowledge that helps children protect themselves from many threats such as HIV/AIDS, drug abuse etc

·        Help children explore alternatives, way advantages & disadvantages and make sensible decisions in solving each problem or issue as it arises

 Categories of life skills
 1.      Skills for knowing and living with one self

2.      Skills for knowing and living with others

3.      Skills for effective decision making

4.      Skills for learning to do

 Early childhood workers are in ideakl position to help children during such occurrences
 Children’s reactions to loss
 ·        In general children respond to a loss is determined by their age at the time it occurs

·        It is therefore important to know how reaction occurs at each particular age from birth to adolescence

 0 – 2 years
 ·        Babies will understand very little about death or other losses but can sense when other people are feeling bereaved they can also miss the person from whom they have become separated through death/marriage breakup

·        If their mother is feeling bereaved they might miss out on the extra nurturing which they need to receive from her

 3 – 4 years
 ·        Children at this age think that death is temporary and appear to ignore it when  it comes

·        However, they will become more and more confused as they come to realize that death is permanent

·        Teachers, parents and guardians need to explain the children that the person or pet whom he/she loved is gone forever.

 5 – 8 years
 ·        This is the age of logical thinking, these children can express sorrow in the same way adults do by becoming pathetic, withdrawn, hostile, angry etc

·        Adults should hence allow children to express this feelings

 Examples of loss
 (a)   Death
 ·        Children should be allowed to stay with their family and be involved in activities surrounding the death and the tunnel
 Explaining death to children
 ·        Children needs facts and honest answers to their questions about death e.g. correct information about circumstances and causes of death

·        Children are also eager to know when the dead person goes the parents are better placed to answer such questions preferably before or after a loss

 (b)   Separation and divorce
 This has many challenges for children over time.  Children have to accept what has happened and get on with  their own lives
 ·        They have to resolve their grief anger and self blame, about the divorce and accept that their parents’ separation is permanent

·        Young children however will not achieve this during their early childhood years but they can make a start

·        A child needs to know that;

Ø  His parents have left each other but not left him/her

Ø  Parents separate because they have stopped being friends

Ø  It is not the child’s fault that the parents have separated

Ø  Bothe his/her parents still love him/her even though they do not love each other enough to stay together.

 Skills for knowing and living with others (learning to live together)
 ·        Life skills included here are empathy, effective communication, conflict resolution, and negotiation, friendship formation, assertiveness and peer pressure resistance

·        Skills for knowing and living with others are sometimes referred to as skills for learning to live together

·        Children require these skills so that they can be acceptable in a society

 ·        Individual needs to express feelings, give instructions etc
 ·        Children and adults sometimes  have to discuss issues with other people around them and reach to a compromise.
 ·        To have self confidence and to be firm

·        It is the ability to express ones feelings without hurting or threatening others

 ·        It means putting oneself into another person’s shoes i.e. thinking how one would feel if he/she was in the position that  another person is in
 Skills for effective decision making (learning to know skills)
 This include;
 ·        Critical thinking

·        Creative thinking

·        Problem solving

·        Decision making

·        Understanding consequences

 Learning to do
 ·        Children need to learn manual skills since they will need them later in life e.g.

Ø  How to wash clothes

Ø  How to make a table

Ø  How to prepare simple dishes

 Development of life skills
 ·        Life skills are acquired at every stage of life i.e. during early childhood education, primary school education ECDE

·        Life skills are both concrete and obstruct

·        Life skills are the ones that can be taught practically e.g.  how to make furniture

·        Abstract skills are things that cannot be taught directly e.g. self confidence

 Methods of enhancing acquisition of life skills
 1.      Drama and role playing through drama androle playing
 ·        Children can acquire life skills since they will do things practically
 2.      Counseling – it is talking to children and giving them important information e.g. the need to avoid drug abuse, it helps children to make decision, solve problems, address behavioral issues, develop coping strategies, resolve difficulties etc

Ø  Children should be helped to make the right choices, recognize the wrong choices and set realistic goals for themselves

 3.      Motivation
 Ø  Children should be motivated when they do the right thing e.g. when they make the right choices and use the life skills they have acquired when they come across challenging situations
 Appropriate curriculum and syllabus
 ·        Curricular and syllabus should be development to accumulate acquisition of life skills. This will help children to make real life application
 Role modeling
 ·        Children learn life skills by observing and imitating their teachers, Parents and other caregivers hence this should be good role model
 Use of peers
 ·        It can be done by praising children who display different aspects of life skills e.g. self confidence assertiveness for other children to learn for them
 Importance of values
 ·        People in a society and depend on each other, quality of relationship is very important and depends on the values one has e.g. empathy respect etc

·        The meaning, importance and development of values should be learnt

Ø  They make society live in order

Ø  When people conform to expected norms becomes easy to others to live and work with them

 ·        Young children learn this value in the early years (foundation  years in which individuals personality can be molded e.g.

1.      Honesty/integrity, truthful, genuine/being sincere

2.      Patient – being tolerant and enduring

3.      Hard work/industriousness – being productive and active

4.      Punctuality – being conscious and observing time

5.      Diligence/carefulness – being conscious in one’s duties or putting persistence, effort in ones work

6.      Consciousness – displaying good manners being polite

 Methods of impacting values to young children
 ·        Values in young children can be impacted in the following ways

(a)    Drama/role playing

(b)    Teaching/telling children

(c)    Role modelling

(d)    Stories, poems, proverbs and songs

(e)    Mass media e.g. video clips, demonstrating important values/newspapers e.g. with people being arrested by police for dishonesty/stealing


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