CBC latest training notes, manual download




It stipulates:


• Core competencies to be achieved in basic education
• Adopted curriculum approaches
• General learning outcomes
• Learning areas
• Necessary policies that will facilitate implementation of the curriculum reforms
• Appropriate pedagogical practices
• Proposed formative and summative assessment approaches
• support programmes for CBC



Curriculum Reforms In Kenya since
• Since independence in 1963, the country adapted the 7-4-2-3 system of Education
• First curriculum reform in 1985; following recommendations of the 1981 ‘Presidential Working Party on the Establishment of the Second University in Kenya’
• Country adapted the 8-4-4 structure; with the guiding
philosophy of ‘Education for self-reliance’.
• Successive curriculum reviews undertaken in 1992, 1995 and 2002 subsequent to several Task Force reports and summative and formative evaluation reports.

Task Force Report on The Re-alignment of The
Education Sector to Vision 2030 and Constitution 2010
• Competency based curriculum
• Flexible education pathways (at senior school level) for
identifying and nurturing individual learner’s potential to produce intellectually, emotionally and physically balanced citizens
• A national learning assessment system
• Introduction of national values and national cohesion and their integration into the curriculum.

Rationale For Curriculum Reforms
 Article 53 (1) (b) states; “Every child has a right to free and
compulsory basic education”
 Article 10; National Values and Principles of Governance
 Chapters 6; Leadership and Integrity
 Promoting Kiswahili ( national and official language) and English as an official language.
 Emphasise on teaching and learning of KSL and Braille.
 Developing and promoting the use of indigenous languages.
 Emphasis on communication formats and technologies accessible to persons with disabilities.

Rationale Continued…

• Integrating early childhood into primary education
• Reforming secondary curricula
• Modernizing teacher training
• Developing programmes for learners with special needs among others

Rationale Continued…
• Academic and examination oriented. Very little use of formative assessment (assessment for learning). Assessment was limited to summative assessment (assessment of learning).
• Did not provide flexible education pathways for identifying and nurturing aptitudes, talents and interests of learners early enough in order to prepare them for the world of work, career progression and sustainable development.
• Skills gaps identified – agricultural, entrepreneurial, vocational and technical skills, innovation and creativity and ICT .

Re-alignment To EAC Curriculum Harmonization
• The Eastern African states drew up, ‘A Framework on Harmonization of Curricula, Structure and Examinations in the EAC’ (EAC,2012).
• As a member of the East African Community (EAC), Kenya had an obligation to reform the basic Education curricula, structure and examination system to align to the EAC framework.
• To ease mutual recognition of certificates across the region.

Rationale continued…

Global Standards
• UNESCO IBE –curriculum review every 5 years
• Sustainable Development Goal No 4 (Ensuring quality education)
• Benchmarking With Best International Practices
• 21st Century Learning Skills and Approaches

The Learner is …

a sell-diracTed learner







engaged a problem-so(ver


economica|l/ liTeraTe


a critical fhinkar

media IiTaraTe

1 Vision





“An engaged:
and ethical citizen.

















* Nuñuring every * ieorner’s potentiol.

Three Pillars of CBC

• Values
• Guiding Principles
• Theoretical Approaches

• Love
• Responsibility
• Respect
• Unity
• Peace
• Patriotism
• Social Justice
• Integrity

How Values are Integrated in the Curriculum:
• Mainly through infusion and selection of learning environment and suggested learning experiences
• Guidance and Counselling programmes
• VbE will be implemented through Whole-School Approach which will involve learners, teachers, support staff, Board of Management, family members, wider school community and relevant stakeholders

• Opportunity
• Excellence
• Diversity and Inclusion
• Parental

How the Principles have been applied in the curriculum:
Pathways open opportunity for different categories of learners Stress on excellence in all
teaching and learning

Empowerment andParents are engaged through


extended learner activities

• Community ServiceVaried activities are suggested

• Differentiated Curriculum and Learning

to cater for the different learning styles Programmes on PEE, CSL,

Theoretical Approaches

The Theories Have Been
Applied in the Curriculum in:
• Design of the curriculum

• Instructional Design Theories
• Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural

and lessons.

• Gardner’s Multiple
Intelligences Theory

• Selection of learning

• Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive• Differentiated curriculum
and learning approaches

Seven Competencies for CBC
1. Communication and Collaboration
2. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
3. Imagination and Creativity
4. Citizenship
5. Digital Literacy
6. Learning to learn
7. Self Efficacy
(These are covered in detail in another Session)

















Early vears Education

Special N‹ae<Js


1. Foster nationalism, patriotism and promote national unity
2. Promote social, economic, technological and industrial needs for national development
3. Promote individual development and self-fulfillment
4. Promote sound moral and religious values
5. Promote social equity and responsibility
6. Promote respect for and development of Kenya’s rich and
varied cultures
7. Promote international consciousness and foster positive attitude towards other nations
8. Promote positive attitude towards good health and
environmental protection

Learning Outcomes for Early Years Education
By end of Early Years Education, the learner should be able to:
1. Communicate appropriately using verbal and/or non-verbal modes
2. Demonstrate basic literacy and numeracy skills
3. Apply digital literacy skills for learning and enjoyment
4. Apply creative and critical thinking skills in problem solving
5. Practice hygiene, proper sanitation, safety and nutrition to promote health
6. Practice appropriate etiquette for interpersonal
7. Explore the immediate environment for learning and enjoyment
8. Demonstrate acquisition of emotional, physical, spiritual, aesthetic and moral development
9. Demonstrate appreciation of the country and its rich, diverse cultural heritage for
harmonious living
10. Exhibit appropriate organizational skills.

Pre-primary And Lower Primary Learning Areas

1. Language Activities
2. Mathematical Activities
3. Environmental Activities
4. Psychomotor and Creative Activities
5. Religious Education activities (CRE/IRE/ HRE/PPI)

1. Literacy
2. Kiswahili Language Activities/ KSL for learners who are deaf
3. English Language Activities
4. Indigenous Language Activities
5. Mathematical Activities
6. Environmental Activities
7. Hygiene and Nutrition Activities
8. Religious Education (CRE/IRE/ HRE/PPI) and Life Skills Activities
9. Movement and Creative Activities (Art, Craft, Music and Physical Ed.

Learning Outcomes for Middle School
1. Apply literacy, numeracy skills and logical thinking appropriately in self-expression
2. Communicate effectively in diverse contexts.
3. Apply digital literacy skills appropriately for communication and learning in day to day life.
4. Demonstrate social skills, spiritual and moral values for peaceful co-existence.
6. Explore, manipulate, manage and conserve the environment effectively for learning and sustainable development. Practise hygiene, appropriate sanitation and nutrition to promote health.
7. Demonstrate ethical behaviour and exhibit good citizenship as a civic responsibility.
8. Manage pertinent and contemporary issues in society effectively.
9. Demonstrate appreciation of the country’s rich, diverse
cultural heritage for harmonious living

Upper Primary & Lower/Junior Secondary
Learning Areas

1. Kiswahili Language or KSL for learners who are deaf
2. English language
3. Other Languages
4. Science and Technology
5. Social Studies (Citizenship, Geography, History) development.
6. Mathematics
7. Home science
8. Agriculture
9. Religious Education (CRE/IRE/
10. Creative Arts (Art, Craft, Music)
11. Physical and Health Education

Learner support programmes for CBC

• Values based programme (VBE)
• Parental Empowerment & Engagement (PE&E)
• Community Service Leaning (CSL)
• Guidance services
• Clubs


10.30-11.00 am




Kenya Institute of Curriculum
Components and Interrelationship between National Goals of Education and Curriculum Learning Outcomes

Level Learning Outcomes

General Learning Outcomes Essence Statement
Strand Sub Strand Specific Learning Suggested Learning Key Inquiry Question
Outcomes Experiences

Core competencies
PCIs Values
Link to other subjects Suggested community service learning activities

Suggested assessment methods Suggested learning resources Suggested Non-formal activities


1. Suggested assessment methods, suggested learning resources and suggested non-formal activities are placed as appendix at the tail end of the curriculum design for each learning area in grade 5.

2. Rationale of the placement was to remove repetitiveness of the three components within the sub strands and also to provide a glance view of the above for planning purposes during curriculum implementation.

Suggested assessment methods Suggested learning resources Suggested Non-formal activities

National Goals of Education
 Education in Kenya addresses societal needs of the
Kenyans and Kenyan residents.

 National Goals of Education reflect the Kenya society needs in a summary form, expressing the general problems that education at any level is expected to solve.

 There are 8 National goals of Education in Kenya.

National Goals of Education
1. Foster nationalism, patriotism and promote national unity
2. Promote social, economic, technological and industrial needs for national development
3. Promote individual development and self-fulfilment
4. Promote sound moral and religious values
5. Promote social equity and responsibility
6. Promote respect for and development of Kenya’s rich and
varied cultures
7. Promote international consciousness and foster positive attitudes towards other nations
8. Promote positive attitudes towards good health and environmental protection.

What are National Goals of Education
Activity 1: Studying the National goals
Using online chats (eitohefr Eondmuecntai.ctoimo,nkahoot, Ms.forms or any applicable platforms);
 State a pertinent problem that should be solved by education in Kenya.
Through a virtual plenary,
 Discuss: relate the specific National goal of Education to the need.

Through open discussion;
 Justify subjects/ learning areas that can carry the learning content.




 National goals of Education are statements that describe the needs of the society that are to be met through education.

 Attainment of the National Goals of Education contributes to the overall development of the country.

 National goals are attained through cascade model in a series of learning outcomes.




 The Competency Based Curriculum focuses on acquisition of the desired knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to cope with contemporary life challenges.

 The achievement of learning outcomes leads to desired behavioral change.

 Learning outcomes are derived from the National goals of education.

 Learning outcomes are the end result or what the learner is able to demonstrate upon completion of a lesson, sub-strand, strand or level.

 Learning outcomes express what a learner is expected to do after going through a learning experience.

 Learning outcomes indicate the expected observable behavioral changes
in the learner after a learning experience.

 Learning outcomes are expressed through the application of knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Activity 2: Studying categories of learning outcomes in Curriculum design
1. Use a copy of grade 5 curriculum designs (any
learning area)
2. Identify and Study the following categories of learning outcomes:
A: Level learning outcomes
B: General learning outcomes C: Specific learning outcomes
3. Discuss the progression difference between the categories of learning outcomes.

Level learning outcomes


 Each level of education has a set of learning outcomes referred to as Level learning outcomes which are derived from the National Goals of Education.

 Level learning outcomes are stated in general and broad terms with the essence to ensure that at the end of a given level, the learner has acquired a specific set of knowledge, skills and values.


General learning outcomes


 General learning outcomes are stated in general terms and derived from level learning outcomes.

 General learning outcomes indicate what the learner is expected to achieve in a given learning area by the end of a level.

 General learning outcomes are achieved through Specific learning outcomes.

Specific learning outcomes



 Specific learning outcomes are stated in specific terms: they are SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time bound) and have a context.

 Specific learning outcomes are anchored on the
sub strands for the learning area.

Progression of Learning outcomes


Activity 3
In groups (form groups of participants on digital platform on Ms teams or google classroom) and task them to;
1. Analyse a curriculum design for a learning area of their choice.

2. Derive a schematic progression showing how a selected National goal of education will be achieved through the learning area.

The groups to present in virtual plenary stating the learning area, learning experiences/activities and corresponding learning outcomes.










What is a learning Experience?





• What is a learning experience?
• Discuss with your neighbor and share in the plenary.

“Zt’s always ’Sit, ’Stay, ’Heel’ never ‘T7iink, ’Jnnovnre,
’Be yoursefj?”’

• learning refers to the relative permanent change in behaviour brought about through interactions or experiences with the environment.
• learning experiences can be defined as interaction in which learning takes place.
“the interaction between the learner and external conditions in the environment
to which he/she can react.” Ralph Tyler

A learner is exposed to situations and activities so as to develop desired knowledge, skills, values and attitudes.
the experiences could be:
• Formal featuring the classroom conditions and teaching methods;
• Non-formal during which the learner is engaged in organized and structured activities taking place in or outside school
• Informal which entails general school and home social interactions.


• It covers why, how, when and
where learning takes place
• Teacher has the responsibility to invoke the experience in which learning takes place.


In groups, choose a sub strand of your choice in any learning area and:
1. Develop learning experiences that would enable achievement of the learning outcomes.
2. What resources would be required?



Extensive Reading
1.2.1 .1 Use of Reference Materials

(2 lessons)

By the end of the sub strand, the
learner should be able to:
a) Select relevant reference materials on a variety of subjects.
b) Spell words correctly for effective
c) Read a variety of materials independently for information and pleasure.
d) Use reference materials systematically to find necessary information.
e) Demonstrate interest in using
reference materials for lifelong

LeParunrinpgoesxepeorifenLceeas rennianbgle Ethxepleearrienenrcteo:s
• acquire knowledge and develop skills, values and attitudes
• acquire the intended core competencies
• self-regulate and evaluate
• engage deeply in the learnt concepts
• reflect on the learning process
• interact with others during the learning process.

Factors to consider in selection of learning experiences
• Relevance to intended learning outcomes
• Developmental age level
• Learning resources
• Safety
• Size of the class
• Time required for the experience

Learning Experiences in Curriculum Designs
The curriculum design has provided for LEs as:
• Suggested Learning experiences as per sub- strand
• Formal,Non- formal & Informal learning experiences
• Community service learning activities
• Linkage activities to PCIS

What Informs Learning Experiences?
In competency based curriculum, learner should be given opportunities to take responsibility for their learning through: embracing:
• Differentiated learning
• Multiple intelligence theory
• Learning styles









Differentiated learning
Differentiated learning recognize that learners learn differently and therefore should be given an opportunity to learn:
• Varied learning experiences
• Uses of a variety of media
• Use of a variety of resources
• Learning styles
• Needs and interests
• Strengths and abilities
• Learning pace
Classroom activities should be adapted to meet these differences.

Teachers Can Differentiate


According to Students’




Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1

Principles of Good Learning Experiences
• Validity: to achieve given learning outcomes
learners must be given opportunities to practise the specific behaviour indicated in the learning outcome.
• Authentic: if focus is to solve problems in sanitation, ample opportunities should be provided for learners to come into contact with real problems and find solutions.
• Variety: use of varied experiences (multisensory) to achieve the same learning outcome so long as they meet the criteria for effective learning

Principles Contd…
• Comprehensiveness: all the learning outcomes have corresponding les
• Adds value to the learner: le puts learner first and should be purposeful
• Promotes further learning: inspires learners to be long-life learners
• Effective: should enrich learning and not substitute it.
• Fulfilling: The learner must obtain satisfaction from carrying out the kind of behaviour implied by the learning outcome.

The suggested learning experiences should cover:
– Knowledge, skills, attitudes and Values
– Focus on acquisition of competencies
– Related to the content, specific learning outcomes and learning resources,
– Varied and include use of ICT devices

Activity 5:

Review the learning experiences earlier developed. Revise them to include:
– Values
– Competencies










• The competency-based approach to learning is intended to develop in the learner:
‘the ability to apply appropriate knowledge and skills to successfully perform a function’.
• Learners are enabled to make connections between the knowledge they acquire and how they can use it meaningfully within a given context.
• Learning therefore becomes more purposeful and relevant to real life situations.



• How do you remember the seven core competencies easily?

Core Competencies
Briefly Explain;
1. Communication and Collaboration
2. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
3. Creativity and Imagination
4. Citizenship
5. Learning to Learn
6. Self-efficacy
7. Digital Literacy

Communication and Collaboration
• Embed learning experiences that will make
learning take place collegially, in a group or a team
• Present opportunities for learners to:
-express themselves orally and in writing
-listen attentively
-argue out an opinion and defend his or her views
-share knowledge/resources with others and seek the same from them
– contribute to the team’s objectives
-justify course or action taken.

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
• Structure learning around situations that will require
learners to use logic and evidence to arrive at conclusions or solve problems
• Create scenarios for learners to:
-demonstrate objective ideas, opinions and views
-use evidence to draw conclusions
-innovate to solve problems in line with their age
-explore options/new ways of doing common chores
-generate and implement ideas individually and/or collectively to seek solutions to a contextual problem

-demonstrate open mindedness to new ideas and opinions
-adopt multifaceted dimensions and make multiple attempts to solving a contextual issue
-make critical observations and deduce objective conclusions
-make critical hypothesis and attempt resolutions to a problem
-give objective ideas to solving a contextual problem.
-seek assistance in critical needs.

• Create a learning environment that will require learners to demonstrate their rights, privileges, and duties as citizens.
• Engage them in activities requiring them to :
-value a sense of identity with others
-uphold identity with peers
-respect and uphold rights of others
-operate within their own rights
-responsibly claim their own rights and privileges


-undertake duties and obligations
-express own belonging among others
-seek peace while resolving conflicts with others
-demonstrates tolerance in resolving controversies
-demonstrates some level of understanding when own rights/privileges are infringed.

Digital Literacy
• Expose learners to a wide range of content and devices to equip them with knowledge, skills and behaviours which are effective and safe for digital literacy.
• Explore opportunities in and out of school for learners to progressively:
-use digital device communication networks,
-engage in online communication and social networks,
-become aware of and adhering to ethical behaviour protocols,
-get information about societal issues through digital media,
-search, evaluate and use information channelled through digital platforms

Creativity and Imagination
• Exploit learning activities as avenues for learners
create new ideas that result in products that add value to their lives and to the lives of those around them.
• Diversify the activities to take on board various
learners’ inclination to:
-form and communicate/present idea (writing, sketching, gestures)
-translate ideas to real items (drawing, sculpture, model, design)

-present multiple dimensions as a single idea
-compile other people’s ideas to a concrete image
-compile ideas to develop a concept
-patch-up ideas to a concrete course/solution/concept.
-analyse a broad idea into component ideas
-innovate a model/item from own or others ideas.

Learning to Learn
• Regularly remind learners that learning is a
continuous process that requires personal organization, effective management of time and information, both individually and in groups.
• Provide tasks that will challenge learners to :
-show openness to new ideas
-critique his or her own ideas
-use one idea as a learning experience to a new idea
-continuously demonstrate personality

-use new opportunities as a learning experience to
expound knowledge and skills

-progressively adopt new value, beliefs and opinion structures
-persistently pursue new targets and more
challenging goals
-work progressively to overcome existing
-seek assistance and guidance to overcome persistent obstacles

• Use the learning environment to instil in learners the belief about their capabilities to perform assigned tasks , prospects for accomplishment and personal well-being.
• Develop assignments that give learners chances to:.
-present ideas with confidence
-demonstrate sense of assurance and trust
-present self-interest, group interest and /or
defend opinions politely

-volunteer to undertake challenging tasks
-courageously volunteer to take group leadership
-demonstrate intrinsic self-motivation
-demonstrate self-awareness, responsibility, resource care and age- related chore management

-confidently protect and conserve personal and group resources














Pair and Share
What are values?

How do you easily remember the eight values in CBC?



Values are defined as standards that guide an individu respond or behave in a given circumstance.
Our values influence how we feel, act and make choi




Caught or taught?

Non formally Informally




In what ways are values
measured in Kenya?

Are these methods effective?

Why values?

Core values in the Competency Based

• Love
• Responsibility
• Respect
• Unity

• Peace
• Patriotism
• Social Justice
• Integrity

Integrating Love
• Use practical examples in the daily activities of learners at home, school and in the community to sensitize them on the need to genuinely care for each other.
• Leverage on the course content and observe learners as they interact so as to:
-encourage acts of kindness
– encourage consideration of well being of others



-discuss situations requiring them to analyse the
correct expression of love
-avoid conflict
-resolve conflicts if they occur

Integrating Respect
• Create opportunities for interactions to check what regard the learners have for themselves and others. Take note of possible causes of disregard and weed them out gradually.
• Exploit both explicit and implicit situations to bring out the respect to:
– promote acceptance of self and others for who you/they are

– encourage willingness to understand others
– recognize varied opinions, cultural orientations, religious beliefs and other differences
-demonstrate tolerance and uphold human dignity

Integrating Responsibility
• Observe learners’ individual dispositions or their
conduct as a basis of establishing this value.
• Assign different duties and observe capacity to:
– build the capacity for learners to recognise their role and function within a given group or space
– carry out given roles to the best of their ability
– promote accountability, care for self, others, animals , environment, property ,community service

Integrating Patriotism
• Pick out real situations about the country to assess learners levels of love, loyalty and devotion shown to their country.
• Use creative activities like recitation of poems, songs and dance to enhance patriotism.
• Encourage non formal activities that support other values such as democracy and the rule of law

Integrating Social Justice

• Model social justice to create an equal learning environment and inspires solidarity with others, especially those who may not be endowed in one way or another.
• Exemplify the value for human rights, and recognize the dignity of every learner, as a human being
• Instill and demand equity, equality, human rights from learners, citing what you model

Integrating Unity
• Use group work to create harmony within and among learners in a group.
• Enlighten them on the need for a shared vision for the common good as they work.
• Encourage inclusiveness and appreciation of diversity
• Discourage discrimination

Integrating Integrity

• Inspire honesty, trustworthiness and transparency among learners .
• Present situations to allow them to choose their thoughts, words and actions based on values and not personal gain.

Integrating Peace
• Develop a state of harmony to foster understanding, relationships and collaboration among learners.
• Endeavour to strengthen it with other values such as compassion, care, love and empathy.



Values are not for school records and reports They are not for placement
Values are for life!







From Answer to Question……..

Foundation for Key Inquiry
• Inquiry Based learning involves experiences that
enable learners to develop understanding about aspects of the world around them through the development and use of investigative skills.
IBL incorporates a process of exploring the world, which leads to:
a) Asking questions
b) Making discoveries(KIQ)
c) Conducting research and experiments
• Its philosophy is based on constructivist learning theories (Vygotskian social cultural theory, Paget’s theory of cognitive development & John Dewey ) whereby learners construct knowledge and meaning from their experiences.

Why ibl?


Audio visual – 20%
Demonstration – 30%
Discussion group – 50%
Practice by doing – 75%
Teach others/immediate use/ application – 90%

 IBL is rooted in the famous Chines proverb
“Tell Me and I Forget;Teach Me and I May Remember; Involve Me and I Learn”

Paradigm Shift in Learning
• The key objective of Modern Education is to give learners the skills, knowledge and attitudes they will need to succeed in a rapidly evolving world.
• In the paradigm shift the key question is: Can learners apply the knowledge, think critically about it and, therefore, make it part of what they know?
• According to this paradigm, education can only be the most powerful weapon…, only if it is used to solve life’s challenges.
• classrooms should be characterized by a spirit of inquiry where learner questions are encouraged and respected

An Inquiry Based Approach
• The inquiry based approach to learning is
more focused on using content as a means to develop information-processing and problem-solving skills.
• The traditional approach to learning on the contrary is focused on mastery of content at the expense of development of skills and nurturing inquisitive attitudes
• The system is more student centered, with the teacher as a facilitator of learning.

Inquiry Based Approach
• There is more emphasis on “how we come to know” and less on “what we know.” learners are more involved in the construction of knowledge through active involvement.
• Learning becomes almost effortless when something fascinates students and reflects their interests and goals

 Inquiry learning emphasizes constructivist ideas of learning, where knowledge is built from experience and process, especially socially based experience.
 Under this premise learning develops best through individual and group work.
 Progress and outcomes are generally
assessed by how well learners develop experimental and analytic skills, and

Inquiry-based learning covers a range of approaches to learning and teaching, including:
 Field-work
 Case studies
 Investigations
 Individual and group projects
 Research projects

Processes of IBL
The specific learning processes that learners engage during inquiry-learning include:
 Creating questions of their own
 Obtaining supporting evidence to answer the question(s)
 Explaining the evidence collected
 Connecting the explanation to the knowledge obtained from the investigative process
 Information from the quantitative data is used to cohere qualitative data in supporting emerging patterns.
 Creating an argument and justification for the explanation

The four levels of inquiry-based learning include;
 confirmation inquiry
 structured inquiry
 guided inquiry and
 open inquiry

Confirmation Inquiry
 In confirmation inquiry, people are provided with the question and procedure (method) where the results are known in advance, and confirmation of the results is the object of the inquiry.
 Confirmation inquiry is useful to reinforce a previously learned idea; to experience investigation processes or practice a specific inquiry skill, such as collecting and recording


 In structured inquiry, learners are provided with the question and procedure/method
 the task is to generate an explanation that is supported by the evidence collected in the procedure.

 Here, learners are provided with only the research question, and the task is to design the procedure/method and to test the question and the resulting explanations.
 Because this kind of inquiry is more open than a confirmation or structured inquiry, it is most successful when learners have had numerous opportunities to learn and practice different ways to plan experiments and record data

Open Inquiry,
 In open inquiry, learners form questions, design procedures for carrying out an inquiry, and communicate their results

Importance of Inquiry Learning
 The importance of inquiry learning is that learners learn how to continue learning.
 This is something they can carry with them throughout life — beyond parental help and security, beyond a textbook, beyond the time of a master teacher, beyond school — to a time when they will often be alone in their learning

 They ask questions (verbally and through actions).
 They use questions that lead them to activities generating further questions or ideas.
 The make critical observations, as opposed to casually looking or listening to what is being presented
 They value and apply questions as an important part of learning.
 They make connections to previous ideas

 Express ideas in a variety of ways, including journals, drawing, reports, graphing, and so forth.
 They listen, speak, and write about learning activities with parents, teachers and their peers.
 They use the language of learning, apply the skills of processing information

Learners Critique Own Learning

 They use indicators to assess their own work.
 Recognize and report their strengths and weaknesses.
 They reflect on their learning with their teacher and peers.

Inquiry Based Instruction
• It is more learner centred, with the teacher as a facilitator
of learning.
• It is concerned with in-school success as well as preparation for life-long learning.
• Its open systems where learners are encouraged to search and make use of resources beyond the classroom and the school.
• Assessment is focused on determining the progress of skills
development in addition to understanding content.
• Uses technology to connect learners appropriately with local and world communities which are rich sources of information.

So…. What kind of questions do we ask to facilitate

What Is A Question?
Activity 1.
From your learning area, can you write some of the questions you have asked learners in class? Work in groups of 2 or 3.
• Brainstorm on the nature of the questions into: closed vs open-ended questions.
• Brainstorm on inquiry or direct type of questions.
e.g. 1. What did we do yesterday?
2. where were we?
3. who can remind us what we did in the last lesson?
4. who can tell us where we left?
5. how do we write rhymes?

What Kind Of Questions are
• These are questions that help to focus on learning.
• Questions that probe for deeper meaning and set the stage for further questioning
• Foster the development of critical thinking skills and higher order capabilities such as problem solving.
• questions that originate from curiosity and engagement with subject matter

What Makes a Good KIQ
• It is open-ended, non-judgmental, meaningful and purposeful with an aim to allow learners to explore ideas.
• Is thought-provoking and intellectually engaging, often sparking discussion and debate.
• Encourages collaboration amongst learners, teachers, and the community.
• Integrates technology to support the learning process particularly through search for more information.


• Call for higher-order thinking, such as analysis, inference, evaluation, prediction. It cannot be effectively answered by recall alone.
• Point toward important, transferable
ideas within and even across subjects or learning areas.
• Raise additional questions and sparks further inquiry.
• Requires support and justification, not just an answer.

Key Inquiry Questions
• Asked to stimulate ongoing thinking and inquiry
• Raise more questions
• Spark discussion and debate
• Demand justification and support
• Responses may change as
understanding deepens

Question Words to Use
Utilize the six typical question words:
• Why?
• How?
• Who?
• Where?
• When?
• What?

Examples; Science and Technology
2.0 Strand: Health Education
2.1 Sub strand: Diseases
2.1.1 Water borne Diseases
• By the end of the sub strand the learner should be able to: state the causes, signs, symptoms, prevention and management of some water borne diseases.
To sigle out causes of diseases, we can provoke learners into thinking about the sizes of disease causing agents like size of bacteria and, virus by delving into the specific bacterial and viral diseases. KIQ
1. How can we accurately represent a large object on paper or in a small model?
2. How can we compare the sizes of objects when we
can’t place them next to each other?

Grade 4: Mathematics
Strand: Numbers, sub-strand: Whole numbers. Specific Learning Outcome:
By the end of the sub-strand, the learner should be able
e) round off numbers up to 1,000 to the nearest ten in different situations,
1. What ways can mathematical equations/symbols conceal as much as they reveal real figures?


Developing KIQ(s)

a) Consider the strands and sub-strands, specific learning outcomes and suggested learning experiences in the Grade 5 curriculum design.
b) Select a learning area and develop one KIQ for two of the four main levels of IBL i.e..,
 Confirmatory inquiry
 Structured inquiry

Ordinary Questions
Discuss the questions that we ask learners before we start the lesson on the sub-strand and learning outcome given.
1. what did we do yesterday/ last/ in the last lesson?
2. Where were we?
3. Where did we stop?
4. Who can remind us what we did yesterday?
5. What did we do with numbers yesterday? Participants to generate more questions and discuss the possible responses from the learners.

KIQ– Real Life Situations
• How do you round off numbers from items such as bills e.g. electricity?
(this activity to be carried out at home with the help of the parents/ care givers).
Parents to guide the learner on how to read bills and round off to 10 to estimate payment of bills at home. (parental engagement and empowerment)
• Other places where the concept is applicable: school, health centers (CSL, non-formal activity).
• From market places, eg weighing different things like meat in ½ kg or ¼ kg, cereals using containers of determined measurement rounded numbers etc
• Budget making: estimating costs of items by rounding
off to 10 to avoid dealing with cents…

Characteristics of Types of
Classroom Questions
• Questions That Hook
• Questions That Lead
• Questions That Guide
• Questions that are Essential

Questions that Hook
• Asked to interest learners around a new topic
• May spark curiosity, questions, or debate
• Asked once or twice, but not revisited

• Asked to be answered
• Have a “correct” answer
• Support recall and information finding
• Asked once (or until the answer is given)
• Require no (or minimal) support

• Asked to encourage and guide exploration of a topic
• Point toward desired knowledge and skill (but not necessarily to a single answer)
• May be asked over time
• Generally require some explanation and support

“Give the pupils something to do, not something to learn; and the doing is of such a nature as to demand thinking; learning naturally results.”
( John Dewey)








May-June 2021

Presentation Outline
• Pertinent And Contemporary Issues (PCIs)
• Parental Empowerment and Engagement(PEE)
• Community Service Learning(CSL)
• Career Guidance
• Values Based Education (VBE)
• Learner Support Programmes (LSPs)

Introduction to PCIs
• Children are faced with a myriad of challenges and issues owing to the social-cultural and economic dynamics in the society.
• CBC learning is expected to equip learners with appropriate competencies they require in order to effectively address the PCIs of everyday life, thereby leading a fulfilled life as well as becoming a productive member of the society

The PCIs in CBC

The PCIs include:
• Peace education, Integrity, Ethnic and racial relations, Social cohesion, Patriotism and Good governance, Child’s rights, Child care and protection
• Health related issues such as HIV and AIDS, Alcohol and Substance use, Life style diseases, personal hygiene, Communicable and chronic diseases e.g. COVID-19
• Life skills education; human sexuality
• Environmental Education, Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Safety and security Education, Gender and Animal Welfare Education.

Activity 1
In groups of three discuss and present on the methods teachers can use to integrate PCIs in learning.

How to Mainstream PCIs:
• A relevant and suitable sub strand or sub theme in a learning area/subject is identified where PCIs can appropriately be incorporated and taught alongside the subject matter
Non formal:
• These are organized, structured and systematic learning activities (NFPs) that take place in school. They support acquisition of knowledge, values and skills learnt in class. They include games, clubs and societies.
• This refers to the Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills or behaviour acquired by learners from the social interaction with members of the school community. Exemplary behaviour and appropriate values can easily be emulated.

• PEE has a positive impact on the overall development of the learner in areas such as acquisition of moral values, improved health and nutrition, increased enrolment, retention, transition and academic achievement.
• Parents are an integral part of children’s holistic growth and
development at all levels of life.
• Some parents are not aware of how to effectively play their roles and responsibilities in facilitating the wellbeing and education of their children.
• There is great need to build effective partnerships between parents, guardians, community and schools to support
children’s learning.

Think of a triangle – the learner, the
school and the parents/family.

Activity 2
In groups discuss the mechanisms schools can employ to enhance:
a) Parental empowerment
b) Parental engagement

Pillar I: Parental Empowerment
• Empowerment refers to the process of becoming stronger and more confident in performing one’s role.
• The general outcome of PEE is enhanced parental knowledge, skills, attitudes and practices that support holistic development of the learner in a safe and supportive environment.
• Empowerment is implemented through training, advocacy and resourcing

Pillar II: Parental Engagement
• Parental engagement is the active participation of parents in their children’s learning and development in collaboration with teachers and other stakeholders.
• Parent-school connections must be sustained for parental engagement to succeed. These connections are maintained through various activities, opportunities to render services, effective communication and ensuring emerging issues are jointly addressed.
• Some of the key areas in which parents are engaged include decision making, communication and collaboration, learning and development process, resourcing, volunteering, linkages and career guidance.

• Values are defined as standards that guide an individual on how to respond or behave in a given circumstance. They influence how we feel, act and make choices in life.
• The overall goal of values based education is to nurture values in learners to become empowered, engaged and ethical citizens for positive and holistic transformation of society.

What Learners Gain in VBE
In a Values-based school, learners:
• Develop a secure sense of self.
• Become more empowered to take responsibility for their own learning.
• Develop academic diligence.
• Develop relational trust.
• Become articulate and able to talk freely and well.
• Can understand their work and lives much more deeply through silence, quietness and reflection techniques of the Values-based education.

Activity 3
Discuss the non-formal and informal methods schools can employ to facilitate the development of appropriate values in learners

Guiding Principles for Values Based
1) Whole School Approach (WSA)
2) Holistic approach
3) Learning environment
4) Capacity Building
5) Relevance to local and global perspectives
6) Transformative Leadership
7) Monitoring, Evaluation, Research & Learning (See Activity 4 on next slide)

Activity 4
• Individually reflect on the importance of any one of the principles of VBE and present to the rest.

• Community Service Learning is about the learner getting to understand that they are members of a community and should endeavor to learn from the community and work to benefit the community.
• They should be able to identify community problems through research, and solve the problems using their knowledge, skills, personal talents and gifts.
• Should appreciate the importance of collaborating with community members towards economic and social development.

CSL …continued
• CSL integrates classroom learning and community service to enable learners to reflect, experience and learn from the community.
• Learners link social development with academic development
• In early years education and upper primary CSL has been integrated and infused in specific learning areas.
• CSL will be a stand-alone subject at Senior school

What CSL Entails
• Community Service Learning entails a balanced
emphasis on both students’ learning and addressing
real needs in the community.
• Learning outcomes are linked to meaningful human, safety, educational and environmental needs.
• The service experience is brought back to the classroom to enhance learning.
• Learners work on real problems that make academic learning relevant while simultaneously enhancing their social skills, analytical ability, civic and ethical responsibility, self-efficacy, and career development.

Criteria for Community Service
Community Service Learning Involves:
• Meaningful service provided to a community
• Features Intentional and Structured Learning
• Leads to improved learning outcomes

Activity 5
In pairs brainstorm on some of examples of service activities that learners carry out in schools.
Explain how these activities can be enhanced from simple service activities to community service learning activities.

• Career guidance is a range of activities and services designed to assist learners to make informed educational, occupational and vocational choices and decisions.
• These career decisions result to successful transition across school and post school.
• This will enable learners to manage their career pathways and equip them for lifelong learning.

Approaches to Career Guidance
• Classroom Assessments, School based assessments, MLPs
• Learner profiles and portfolios
• Career Resource person talks
• Field Visits
• Alternative assessment methods eg. Personality tests


• LSPs entail various structured learning experiences that
complement formal education.
• It aims at linking education to the learners’ everyday life, equipping them with competences necessary for molding responsible, adaptive, motivated and innovative individuals.
• The LSP programs include Guidance services, Career guidance, counselling services, Peer education, mentorship, coaching, Clubs and societies, Sports and games and Chaplaincy.
• The overall aim of the LSPs is to provide non-formal learning opportunities that will facilitate learners’ personal, social, physical, educational and career development.

Activity 6
In groups of three discuss the challenges schools face in implementing effective learner support programs. How can these challenges be mitigated?

LSPs: Counselling & Sports
Counselling is a process through which an individual is assisted to get access to a greater part of their personal resources, as a means of responding to challenges of their life. It aims at helping the individual make decisions, express emotions, achieve behavior change and learn to solve and cope with personal challenges.
Sports and Games
Sports aim at maintaining or improving physical abilities and skills, while providing enjoyment to participants and in some cases entertainment for spectators. Games are structured forms of play intended for enjoyment, competition and sometimes used as an educational tool.

LSPs: Peer Education & Mentorship

• Peer Education is the teaching or sharing of healthy information, values and behaviour in educating others who may share similar social backgrounds or life experiences.

• Mentorship is a relational process in which a more experienced person guides a less experienced one. It aims at enabling a learner to develop relevant skills to overcome challenging academic and life experiences. It is also intended to assist an individual to uphold healthy inter and intra personal relationships. Further, it enables individual learners to identify role models who can assist them in setting achievable goals.

LSP: Chaplaincy
Chaplaincy is the provision of religious services and spiritual guidance to those in need.
It aims at helping learners to be well grounded in spiritual matters.
It also helps learners develop religious tolerance for harmonious co-existence.






Thank You









Learning resources

• Learning Materials are the items/tools that are used by
teachers and instructors to
facilitate learning and understanding of concepts among

• They make learning real, practical and pleasurable for the learners.

• They are also used to illustrate or reinforce a skill, viewpoint, perspective or an idea

• They activate, influence motivation and arouse interest in learners

• They help clarify, interpret and compare important concepts, phenomena and events





• They make learning more focused, effective, interesting, vivid, meaningful and imaginative

• They promote better understanding and development of different skills, values and attitudes

• They promote teacher-learner and learner-learner communication and interaction( communication and collaboration)

Answer the following question.

• What factors should you consider when choosing learning resources?

• Attractiveness
• Durability
• Interesting
• Challenging
• Purpose of the material

• Type of the material
• Availability
• Viability
• Target Audience

Types of learning resources
Learning resources can be differentiated according to
• their different characteristics that are apparent at first glance,
• their different communication systems or
• the senses utilised by learners in the process of receiving the information

These can be divided into
1. Pictorials
• Pictorial representations
• Graphic representations

2. Written: These have text.
• Primary sources
• Secondary sources




Audio recordings on various devices such
• Human voices
• Telephone conversation
• Audio discs
• Tapes and radio broadcast.



Participants to brainstorm on Audio Visuals

• These are combinations of sound , image and text


• Any resource available on the internet in an online educational environment
• Using the internet produces necessary information in a short time, it is used for communication, to browse various databases, check the latest news, comment on events and even gain additional knowledge or education



–Using available resources, develop an effective learning resource,
–Present in plenary what has been developed.
–In groups to micro teach using the learning resource














• The new competency-based curriculum (CBC) has identified digital literacy as one of the core- competence
• Empowering learners to be productive knowledge workers which advanced 21st Century Skills.


In your perception, what is ICT Integration?
Explain how you integrated ICT in your teaching and learning.

Lets Kahoot ….






• ICT Integration in Learning is the process where teachers
use technology as tool to help them and their Learners achieve curricula and instructional goals.

Many educators fall into the trap of thinking that technology drives the curriculum, whereas in actual fact, it should be the other way round. The curriculum should drive technology (Shelly et al, 2012).

Strands Sub-Strand Specific Objective Suggested Learning Experience Key Inquiry Question



ICT Inte


gration: Learner ace value. By the end of the Sub- Strand learners should be able to use place value of digits up to hundreds of thousands

s can use Web Browser an In pair, groups or individuals identify place value of digits up to hundreds of thousands
dusYionugtupblaeceto learn value apparatus



Suggested Learning Experience: use your digital learning device to search the website how to use place value of digits up to hundreds of thousands.

The original
Bloom’s Taxonomy (Bloom, 1956) was revised to inform teacher educators on how to use technology and digital tools to
enrich learners’ experiences and outcome (Sneed, 2016).

Mishra and Koehler (2006) posited that TPACK model focus on how technology is used in teaching.
Technological knowledge is considered an important ingredient for




 Prepare, Micro-teach, and
Record a 10-minute on lesson demonstrating how ICT is Integrated. Upload the lesson into your Teams


 Devices (i.e. computers, internet Smartphones etc.)
 Productivity Tools (i.e. Word, Excel, PowerPoint etc.)
 Searching Tools (i.e. e- library, Google Scholar etc.)
 Collaborative Tools (i.e.
WhatsApp, Google Doc, etc.)
 Interactive Tools (i.e. Zoom, Google Meet, Webex, Microsoft Teams etc. )

 Learning Management Systems (i.e. Moodle, Microsoft 365 Office, Edmodo, Portal etc.)
 Meeting Tools (i.e., Attendify, Calendar, etc.)
 Assessment Tools (i.e. Forms,
Exam.net etc.)
 Creating Resources (i.e. Recording, Editing, Wikis, Podcasting etc.)




• Competency-based Curriculum is fertile
ground for ICT Integration

• ICT Integration is improves the quality of teaching and learning
• Computer-based and mobile-based technologies are available of integration in learning
• It is important for

• ICT Integration happens with-in and with-out classroom practice
• ICT Integration beings from basic (use of productivity tools) to advance levels (creating learning resources, using LMS etc.)
• Teacher educators need to acquire knowledge

Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development
Professional Documents



Session Outcomes




By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) Identify different professional documents used by the teacher
b) Develop different professional document to implement CBC curriculum
c) Appreciate use of professional documents in the

Task 1: Brainstorm
How can we (do we) encourage teachers to prepare professional documents?

 Professional documents are official documents developed to make learning efficient and effective as the teacher implements the Curriculum.
Peer Discussion
Answer the following questions. Search for relevant information from the internet. Discuss your answers with a peer.
i. What guides the development of professional documents?
ii. Why should teachers prepare and use professional documents in their day-to-day teaching?
Importance of professional documents

Professional documents

 Schemes of work
 Lesson plan
 Record of work
 Progress record
 IEP – Individualised Education Plan

Schemes of work

 Developed from the curriculum designs
 Plan of how learning shall be organised within the allocated time.
 Allows the teacher to manage the time appropriately
 All aspects of the learning process are thought through well in

Components of a schemes of work

 Administrative details
 Week
 Lesson
 Strand
 Sub strand


 Specific Learning Outcomes
 Learning Experiences
 Key Inquiry Questions
 Learning Resources
 Assessment
 Reflection

Scheme of work template


School, Subject/Learning area, Term , Year
e e k L
e s s o n Stra nd Sub stra nd Spe cifi c lear nin g out co me Lea rnin g exp erie nce s K IQ Lear ning reso urce s Assess ment Refle ction

Lesson Plan
Task 2: Find Out

i. What is a lesson plan?

ii. Why do you think some teachers result to buying lesson plans and schemes of work? Why is this unethical?
iii. Why is inquiry based learning important in lesson planning and delivery?

Factors to consider when preparing a
lesson plan


• Age of the learner
• Nature of the learner
• Level/grade/year of the
• Learner’s entry behaviour
• Available learning resources
• The specific learning
• Learning experiences: how the specific learning outcome(s) will be achieved • Key Inquiry Question(s)
• Integration of ICT in the lesson plan
• Core competences to be
• Values
• Assessment: a way of measuring
how well the outcome was attained;
test, worksheet and homework
among others

Important !
• 1) Establish the learning outcomes to be achieved during the lesson
• 2) Consider the learner’s ability, background and learning approach
• to use among others
• 3) Ensure the availability of relevant and appropriate materials for
• the lesson
• 4) Determine appropriate assessment methods to use

Components of a Lesson Plan


 Administrative details
 Strand
 Sub strand:
 Specific Learning Outcomes
 Key Inquiry Question
 Learning Resources

 Organisation of learning
• Introduction
• Lesson development
 Step 1
 Step 2
 Step 3:
• Extended Activity
• Conclusion
• Reflection

Sample Lesson Plan
learners Learners say a tongue twister containing words with the sound /l/ and /r/ as the teacher models.
Lesson Development
Step 1: Learners are guided to form small groups, listen and repeat the minimal pairs with sounds /l/ /r/. Life skills such as self-esteem and confidence are enhanced as the learner expresses themselves through correct pronunciation of sounds and words. Respect and communication and collaboration are enhanced as learners share group tasks.

• Step 2:
• Step 3:
• Conclusion

Sample lesson plan


Record of Work
Provides evidence of work covered by the teacher Components
 Administrative details
 Time frame
 Lesson
 Work done
 Reflection
 Signature

A record of work should have the following:
Administrative Details School: Njema Primary School
Grade: 6
Term: 2
Subject: English
Date Lesson Work done Reflection Signatu


a) Pronouncing sounds and words correctly for effective oral communication.
b) Using vocabulary in sentences for effective oral communication.

a) Pronunciation of sounds and words correctly for effective oral communication.
b) Use of
vocabulary in sentences for effective oral communication.

a re
Most learners were able to listen to an audio text, pronounce sounds correctly and use vocabulary to construct sentences.

Importance of Records of Work

Task 3 : Brainstorm

All teachers ought to maintain proper records. Brainstorm the importance of records of work. You may use the internet to search for required information.

• Importance of records of work

Learner’s progress record

 Record the learner’s progress over time
 An analysis of this will show what progress the learner is making
 Takes different formats depending on the type of assessment

Learner’s progress record Contd
Task 4: Peer Discussion

A learner’s progress record is made up of a learner’s academic achievements, skills and abilities and school reports. Discuss the importance of progress records.
Importance of progress records

Name: Patience Wafula School: Njema Primary School Grade: 6 Subject : English Strand: Listening and speaking Sub strand: Pronunciation and vocabulary Specific Learning Outcome(s):














Below expectations (1)

Qualities of effective Progress Record

 A good and effective Progress Record should:
 Be simple and easily understood
 Relate to key indicators about attainment and progress
 Use language that is sensitive to those whose attainment is
currently below the age related expectation.

Important to note!
 Competency based learning utilizes more of formative
assessment as opposed to summative assessment.
Task 5: Brainstorming Session
a) What are the different ways (tools) a teacher could use to record learner information?
b) How is information gathered through these tools utilised?

Practical exercise
In Groups of 10-12:
a) choose a sub strand in a learning area of your choice
b) prepare a one week scheme of work
c) prepare a lesson plan based on the scheme of work you have prepared.
d) ensure you integrate digital literacy in the lesson plan
e) make a gallery walk and note down your observations (strengths/ weaknesses
f) share your lesson plan with a peer. Critique each
other’s lesson plan and suggest improvements
g) post the scheme of work and the lesson plan on the classroom/lecture hall, or upload it on zoom/ teams.






Learners with Special needs include:

 Learners who are Gifted and Talented
 Learners with:
 Emotional and Behaviour Difficulties
 Specific learning Disabilities
 speech and language difficulties
 physical Impairments
 Autism

 hearing impairments who include the deaf and hard of hearing
 Visual impairments who include the Blind and those with low Vision
 Intellectual disabilities
 Deafblindness
 Multiple disabilities

These learners are found in both regular, special schools, special units and integrated programmes.


Eñ”” “ed/tâgdtAcceIerated










Specialized Curriculum

Gift .. alerited

Visu p i e t

Hea ing rñp e t
y ! I rment Mi d d Moderate
C rebra P

aEEndmottiioonal and Behhaavvioourr Di i t e

cific lea ni D s i ities





Home or Hospital Based Interven rammes





Category of
learners Pre-primary Lower primary Grades 4 and
3. Physical
impairment Mathematics
Activities Mathematics
Activities Mathematics
Environmental Activities Environmental Activities Science and Technology
Agriculture Home Science
Psychomotor Activities Movement and creative
Activities Social studies PHE
Creative Arts

A. Foundation Level
This is the entry level for learners with special needs who follow the specialized curriculum. After functional assessment and placement, education intervention begins at this level.

Learning areas for the foundation level The following learning areas will be offered at the foundation level:
1. Communication, social and pre-literacy skills
2. Activities of daily living skills and religious education
3. Sensory motor and creative activities
4. Orientation and mobility
5. Pre-numeracy activities

After a learner demonstrates outcomes at the foundation level, they transit to the intermediate level.

Learning Areas for the Intermediate Level The Intermediate Level Curriculum covers the following learning areas:
1) Communication, Social and Literacy Skills
2) Daily Living Skills and Religious Education
3) Sensory Motor Integration
4) Environmental Activities
5) Numeracy Activities
6) Creative Activities
7) Psychomotor Activities


















• An Individualised Education Programme (IEP) is a written plan that describes what the teacher and other professionals will do to meet special needs of a learner. It focuses on the individual learner’s needs, thereby allowing him or her to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes and values at his/her own pace.

• IEP is developed by a multidisciplinary team composed of the learner, special education teacher, assessment officer, psychologist, speech therapist,





In groups, discuss different ways of addressing individual learners needs in the learning process

What is an IEP?


What is a IEP?
• An Individualized Education Programme (IEP) is a plan whereby teachers, support personnel, and parents work together as a team to meet the needs of individual learners who require individualized support
• The IEP provides a description and action plan for the services and supports necessary to meet unique learning needs of the learner.

Who Needs an IEP?
A learner who may need an IEP can be identified through the following process

Referral Functional Assessment


Individual planning of programmes and interventions

Why an IEP?
The IEP is a key intervention strategy which creates an opportunity for teachers, parents, school administrators, related services personnel and learners to work together to improve learning outcomes for learners with special needs.

Components of an Individualised Education Programme (IEP)
Background information
Background information includes the historical background of the learner, family and home background, learning environment, birth history among others.
The learner’s present level of performance,
The current level of performance of the learner is assessed to identify academic skills in which the learner has strengths and those that he/she has challenges. Other aspects that may affect learning such as behaviour, communication and social skills should also be assessed. This can be done through observation, oral or written questions and interviews

Long term and short term outcomes
• Long term outcomes
After collecting information on the learner’s strengths and challenges, a statement describing what the learner is expected to achieve over a period of time, for example on term, is made. The long term outcome is then broken into short term outcomes.

• Short tern learning outcomes
The short term outcomes define in measurable terms the competencies that should be mastered within shorter duration of time to culminate in achieving the long term outcome.

Implementation Strategy
• Initiation and termination dates The implementation of the IEP should commence after the entry behaviour
assessment has been done. The duration of implementation will depend on the achievement of the stated outcomes. Reviews should be carried out continuously and
adjustment of the termination date should be made accordingly.
• Adaptation
These are changes to the curriculum, learning resources and physical environment that may be required to accommodate learners with special needs in the learning environment.

Assessment procedure and criteria
• This component describes how progress will be measured and specifies how well the learner is expected to perform.
• Assessment tools such as checklists, observation schedules, oral and written questions may be used. Continuous assessment record will be instrumental in determining the decision to be made about learner’s progress.

Related specialized services
Related services may include physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, guidance and counselling among others. Other services are sign language interpretation and braille subscription.

• This can be done in two ways: If the learner achieved all the outcomes specified, the IEP ends. If the learner achieved some of the outcomes, then the period of the IEP can be extended/reviewed for the learner to acquire the remaining outcomes.

• Background information
• Personal details of the learner
• Learner’s Name

• Date of birth

• Parent’s/guardian’s Name
• Occupation

• Address

• Telephone/Mobile number _
• Date of initiation of IEP
• Date of termination of IEP

Historical background:
• Medical history:
• Disability history:
• Home environment:
• Learning environment:

Present Level of Performance
• Tools used for assessing the present performance level
• Criteria

Summary of strengths challenges and initial recommendations

Long term learning outcome
By the end of the term, the learner should be able to –



Short term learning outcome
By the end of one week, the learner should be able to;




a) The following tools will be used to assess achievement of the learning outcomes

b) Performance will be expressed in descriptive terms. Performance levels such as exceeding expectation, meeting expectation, approaching expectations or below expectation will be used.
Related services needed


IEP Implementation strategies
• The IEP implementation will commence on —
• The IEP will be reviewed on ————————

• The IEP will be terminated on ——————–

Conclusion and recommendations
• If the learner acquired all the toileting skills, the IEP ends.
• If the learner acquired some of the skills in toileting, then the period of the IEP can be extended/reviewed for the learner to acquire the remaining skills.

• In groups, identify a unique need in a learner that may require individualized attention
• Develop an IEP for the learner and model its implementation during micro teaching
• Visit an SNE institution and obtain a typical IEP. Compare it with the one you have
developed and make any








Thank You




The Kenya National Examinations Council


What is Competency?


What is a Competency Based Curriculum (CBC)?


What is Competency Based Assessment (CBA)?

What do you know about the Competency Based Assessment

What is the linkage between CBC and CBA?

What are the major shifts from Objective-based Assessment to Competency-based Assessment?

What are Core Competencies and Core Values?

Improving Learning,
Instruction & AssessmeIndtentifying and

Evidence for

Nurturing Learner Potential







Feedback to


Measuring Learner Participation in CSL & Acquisition of Values









• CA Classroom Assessment
• SBA School Based Assessment
• KEYA Kenya Early Years Assessment
• SYR School Year Report
• PSEA Primary School Education Assessment
• KMYA Kenya Middle Years Assessment
• KCBE Kenya Certificate of Basic Education
• LEP Learner Exit Profile




• economy of time, effort and cost

accurately measures what it intends to measure




• assessment tasks relate to real-life experiences

consistency in producing identical results



equality, equity and justice


• responsive to the needs of the situation
and learner

• sufficient evidence to reach an assessment decision

Timely Feedback

• immediate


• involves self, peer and teacher assessment


• accommodates all learners


• recognition of current competencies

Formative Assessment

Summative Assessment

Assessment for learning – designed and administered during the learning process

Assessment as learning – learners evaluate their work against learning outcomes

For example, Classroom Assessment

Assessment of learning – undertaken at the end of a learning period


For example, National Assessment














Parents/Gua rdians

Headteache Teachers rs

MoE (Quality Assurance and Standards)

Kenya Institute of Curriculum Developme nt (KICD)

Sub-County Directors (MoE & TSC)

Curriculum Support Officers





The Kenya National Examinations

–Think, Pair & Share
• Individually, write the meaning of Authentic assessment
• In pairs, share what your thoughts are
• Share your discussions with the plenary

Authentic Assessment

– Is a process of examining a learner’s performance and understanding on significant tasks that have relevancy to the student’s life inside & outside of the classroom

Authentic Assessment

– Learners perform real world tasks that
demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills.




• Resembles real world tasks/activities
• Structured as written or oral assessments completed individually, in pairs or groups
• Often presented as ill-structured problems with no right answers

• Short term or long term assignments
• Need to balance shorter and longer performance assessments.
• Flexible length of time for performing the tasks.

• Traditional vs Authentic Assessment

Traditional ALsesarenserssment



Learners recall the knowledge that has been taught
Focuses more on
the product

LAeasrsneersssdmemeonnsttrate proficiency by performing relevant Wtaseklls-defined criteria and
standards to achieve reliability
and validity
Provides a picture of what the
learner knows and what they can do with what they know (application)
Learners construct new knowledge out of what has been taught and experienced Focuses more on the
process towards completing the product


Benefits of Authentic Assessme nt

Steps for Creating Authentic Assessment
1 Develop the Standard

DSetevpelop the Authentic Task

Step 3

etermine the Criteria

CSrteepate a Scoring Guide




Learning Area Strand Sub- strand Specific Learning Outcome Standards
and Technolog y Computing
device Handling
data; Word processin g By the end of the
sub strand the learner should be able to:

a) create a Word
b) edit a Word document
c) Create a personal journal in word The Learner can;

a) create a Word document
b) edit a Word
c) create a personal journal in word.

Meaning of Integrated
• Learners apply competencies from several Learning Areas to perform a task successfully

Benefits of Integrated Assessment

Relates to
competencies acquired in a variety of settings
Assesses all
forms of
3 experiences Effective in all
Learning Areas

4 Assesses the ability to apply problem solving skills





Benefits of using Integrated Assessment

Uses a variety of
tools/instruments and
6 Applicable in formative and summative 7assessment
Provides spontaneous
Useful in assessing a
number of outcomes/units/standards together


• Changing various assessment components to cater for the diverse needs of learners with disabilities

Adapting Assessment to
Accommodate Learners with

of the environment
PresentTaimtioi n of
the taskng

Disabilities 4


Response/Lea rners Performance
Schedul ing


of the task









The Kenya National Examination Council



• By the end of the session participants should be able to:
• Describe tools used in competency based assessment.
• Develop and use Competency Based Assessment (CBA) Tools in learning process.
Adapt Competency Based Assessment Tools to suit learners with special needs.

• Group Activity:

• CBA Tools are instruments used to:







• Outlines characteristics and behaviour that a learner shows during the performance of a task

• The teacher records observations made on the behaviour of the learner on the spot

1.1 Components of an Observation Schedule

1.2 Sample Observation Schedule

a) Administrative Information
i. School Mayoni Township Primary
ii. Learner’s name Veronica
iii. Teacher’s name Omar
iv. Grade Two

v. Learning Area/Subject Mathematics
vi. Strand 2.0 Measurement (page 35)
vii. Sub-strand 2.4 Time (page 35)
viii. Date or period of
assessment 3rd March 2020
b) Learning Activity/Task In groups, learners discuss and relate activities to the months of
the year.

1.2 Sample Observation Schedule Cont’d


c) Competency (Knowledge, skills, attitude, values) assessed (tick appropriately) Ye s N
o Comments
(i) Completes the assigned work within the
specified time √ Diligent and focused
(ii) Leads/assists others to ensure the group
targets are realized √ Shows leadership skills
d) Feedback to the learner on ability to relate activities to the months of the year A good team player, relates activities well
Learner’s signature


• Offers a Yes/No, True/False format in relation to a learner demonstrating a specific criteria (similar to a light switch either on or off).
• Contains a list of characteristics
of a learner’s behaviour.
• Requires the teacher’s careful observation of competencies portrayed.

2.0 CHECKLIST cont’d

• Teacher marks/ticks against the competencies portrayed.
• The observed competency can be recorded, as observed before or at the time of ticking.
• The learners can develop their own checklists.

2.1 Sample Checklist

a) Administrative information
i. School Amani Primary
ii. Teacher’s name Baraka
iii. Grade 3

iv. Learning Area/Subject Language Activities /
v. Strand Reading
vi. Sub-strand Phonemic awareness
vii. Date or period of
assessment February 2020

2.1 Sample Checklist Cont’d

a) Learning Activity/Task





Name Competence (Knowledge, skills, attitude, values) assessed
(tick appropriately)
Participa tes
in choral rote reciting of alphabe
t Contribu tes orally to naming various letters Spells name correct ly Using a model and working in pairs, puts alphabet flashcards in order Uses finger for tracking on a model while class recites
alphabet Teacher’s

1. Nyabil
√ √ √ √ √ Collaborates, is active, more reading
will enhance spelling
2. Mary
3. Adam
4. Omar
Teacher’s signature Date

• States the criteria and provides three or four response selections to describe the quality or frequency of learner’s work.
• Teacher indicates the degree or frequency of occurrence of competencies displayed by the learner.


3.1 Components of a Rating scale

3.2 Descriptive words for Rating scale
• Examples of descriptive terms that indicate degree or frequency of occurrence are;



very d







3.3 Sample Rating Scale

a) Administrative Information
Learner’s name Grade
Learning Area/Subject
Strand Sub-strand

Learning Activity

3.3 Sample Rating Scale Cont’d

b) Competence (knowledge,
skills, attitudes, values) assessed Always 4 Usually 3 Someti mes 2 Never 1
Selects appropriate tool
Uses the tool appropriately
Uses the tool safely
c) Comments on the learner’s performance
Learner’s signature Date
Teacher’s Name Signature Date


• Is a list of questions on various aspects of a
learner’s situation or issue.
• Respondents to give honest opinions or views.
• Questions are either open-ended or closed.
• Can be developed and administered by the teacher before, during or after the learning process.

4.1 Components of a Questionnaire

4.2 Extract from a Questionnaire

• The teacher may want to find out if the learner eats fruits.
• Did you eat a fruit yesterday? (Tick appropriately)
• Yes No
• If yes, name the fruit .
• How often do you eat fruits
– d y we mon y any her


• A Project is a set of activities implemented within a given timeframe


Gives an opportunity for learners to apply acquired knowledge and skills to a real life situation


Should have a clearly stated purpose and set of objectives

Can be assessed using observation schedules, rating scales, checklists, journals and portfolios

Projects can be used for learning, problem solving or income generation

5.1 Sample Project Task

This project should be undertaken in
• one term within the school. In groups, learners will be expected to:
identify forms of kitchen garden.
choose a suitable form of a kitchen garden.
name types of crops that can be grown in the kitchen garden.

5.2 Sample Project Task cont’d


choose one crop that is best suited

to the environment.
create a kitchen garden at school. care for the crop in the kitchen garden.
maintain progress records/portfolio for the project

Learning Activity

• In groups, Identify an area in the curriculum designs then come up with a project for the learners.
• The project should have clear timelines, purpose and objectives.
• Develop an assessment guide to assess the project.
• Each group to present the work in a plenary session.

Journals entail the learner keeping a record of their personal feelings, thoughts, experiences and activities on a daily basis.


Learner’s development can be tracked through their writings

Based on the
learner’s performance, the teacher can provide either support, challenge or both.

6.1 Components of a Journal



6.2 Sample Assessment Journal

School: Majengo Primary School
Learner’s Name: Sidi Mdzomba
Grade 3
Date of Entry: 5th February 2020
Competency: practicing of healthy habits that promote wellbeing,
Happenings/Activiti es: bathing, brushing teeth, and dressing.
Learners feelings: I feel great having white shiny teeth and fresh breath because I brushed my teeth. I am a good girl because I am smart and clean.
Comments You are a wonderful girl, you remembered to brush your teeth and you are also smartly dressed. Keep it up

6.3 Keeping Journals



• Participants to individually prepare a journal covering a one week period.

• Share with your group for comments and feedback.

(Signing & Observing Assessment)

i) Oral/Signed Assessment
Aimed at assessing a learner’s speaking/signing and listening/observing skills.
Teacher asks questions verbally/signing.
Learner can respond verbally/signing or using other appropriate modes of communication.
Teacher should give prompts and verbal/signed or non-verbal cues as they ask oral/signed questions.


• Aural/Observing Assessment


Aimed at assessing the learners listening/observing skills.

• Usually pre-recorded (with captions) and played to the learner.

7.1 Strategies for effective Oral and Aural
(Observing and Signing) Assessment

• Give a learner time to prepare and respond after the task is stated
• Ask a variety of questions:
 open-ended questions;
 questions that require more than a right or wrong answer;
 questions that promote higher-order thinking.

7.2 Sample Oral Questioning
• Listening and Speaking
• The teacher greets the learner. The learner responds. The teacher asks the learner to sit. The teacher then says,
• “I am Teacher Baraka. I would like you to tell me about
your home” But first, tell me, what is your name?
• (Learner responds)

• Where is your home?


• Why do you like your home? (Learner responds)
• What activities do you do when you are at home?
• (Learner

• A summary of the teacher’s opinion on a learner’s mastery of competencies.
Enables the teacher to
understand the:

The learner’s competencies can be assessed by peers, teachers, parents, and community members.

– The teacher constructs a learner’s
profile using information obtained from:


8.1 Sample Learner Profile

Leaner’s Name: Bahati Ngeli
Grade: 3
Teacher: Mrs. Gado.
Learning area/Subject: Environmental Activities/Science Strand: Plants
Learning outcome: identify and categorise different types of plants.

Students— Strengths
Students— Weaknesses Students— Preferences/Inte rests

Identification of plants Excellent knowledge of names of plants Challenges in sharing information about plants with peers Talented in
drawing plants

Categorisation of plants Thorough knowledge of types of plants None observed Loves expressing self using

Appreciation Very confident in caring for plants, Has challenges in observing safety when handling thorny plants Loves gardening and
Prefers hands-on

• In groups of 4-6, prepare learner’s
• The profile should be developed from the assessment tools previously created;
 observation schedule,
 learner’s journal,
 checklist,
 portfolio etc.


An account of a significant event in a learner’s day as they happen or immediately after.

The event may be described using Reports, photos, drawings etc.

Mostly focuses on very simple, everyday interactions involving learners.

Records specific observations of a learner’s behavior, skills and attitudes.

9.1 Sample Anecdotal Record
• School: Upendo Tele Primary School
• Learner’s Name: Baraka Juma Grade 2
• Observation Date: February 2020 Observation Time: 10:00 a.m
• incident/event
• Baraka expressed disbelief that animals can have an argument and hold a race as narrated in the story of the tortoise and the hare.
• Location/Setting
• English activities lesson, Story telling session
• Teacher Comments:
• Baraka demonstrated critical thinking when he expressed his views about the lesson learned from the story.
• Teacher’s Name Pendo Signature Tchr Pendo

10. Written Assignments/Tasks

Tasks designed according to pre-determined criteria to measure competencies.

Elicit evidence on the acquisition of learning outcomes and competencies.

They take form of multiple choice, short structured and short essay questions.
– The are accompanied by a scoring guide

Participant Reflection






• Participant should be able to:
• describe rubrics in assessment;
• identify the components of rubrics in assessment;
• describe and develop analytic and holistic rubrics in assessment;
• use rubrics to effectively assess learner’s
• explain the merits of using assessment rubrics.


• Its an assessment tool used to interpret and assess
learner’s performance in a task. It consists of:




Criteria Descriptor s

Performanc e Levels

11.1 Sample Assessment Rubric


11.2 Types of Rubrics

• There are two types of rubrics.

11.3 Sample Analytic Rubric


CRITERIA Exceeds expectation 4 Meets expectation 3 Approaches expectation 2 Below expectation 1
Sorting utensils according to their use Correctly sorts utensils according to their use and arranges
them neatly. Correctly sorts utensils according to their use. Correctly sorts some utensils according to their use. Sorts utensils according to their use with assistance.
Pairing and matching utensils according to specified attributes Accurately and systematically pairs and matches utensils according to
specified attributes. Accurately pairs and matches utensils according to specified attributes. Pairs and matches some utensils according to specified attributes. Has difficulty pairing and matching utensils according to specified attributes.



4 Meets
3 Approaches
2 Below
Sorting , Pairing and matching utensils according to their use and specified attributes Correctly sorts utensils, accurately pairs and matches them according to their use and specified attributes then arranges them neatly Correctly sorts utensils, accurately pairs and matches them according to their use and specified attributes Sorts most utensils, accurately pairs and matches them according to their use and specified attributes Sorts some utensils, accurately pairs and matches them according to their use and specified attributes


4 Meets
3 Approaches
2 Below
Identifying and using improvised materials for cleaning utensils, and drying the utensils using appropriate methods Correctly identifies and skillfully uses improvised materials for cleaning utensils, and dries the utensils using appropriate methods Correctly identifies and uses improvised materials for cleaning utensils, and dries the utensils using appropriate methods Identifies and uses some improvised materials for cleaning utensils, and dries some of the utensils using appropriate methods Identifies and uses improvised materials for cleaning utensils, and dries the utensils with assistance

11.6 Using Rubrics Effectively







• In groups of 4-6 Identify a learning area/Subject.
Select a strand and sub-strand. Come up with a task.
Develop either an analytic or a holistic rubric for the task.
Groups to present their work in plenary session.



• Participant should be able to:
• explain the meaning of portfolio in assessment;
• describe various types of portfolios used in assessment.
• identify features of a good portfolio;
• describe the development of a portfolio;

• Outcomes


create different types of portfolios
• explain the effective management of portfolios in the learning process;
• explain how parents can be engaged in portfolio assessment;
• explain the importance of portfolio in assessment.

• A portfolio is a purposeful
collection of learner’s work.

Participant Reflection
• What materials do we use to prepare a portfolio?

• Who develops the portfolio?

12.1 Types of Portfolios


12.2 Features of a good Portfolio















• In groups, participants to assume the kitchen garden project has been running. Create an assessment portfolio using the task on the kitchen garden provided.

– Learning area/ Subject: Environmental Activities
– Strand: Healthy Practices
– Sub-strand: Kitchen garden
– Task: Participants will be expected to identify a suitable form of a kitchen garden, choose and grow crops that are suited to their environment.


– The assessment will be guided by the following rubric which should be shared with the participants before they start making the portfolio

12.4 Assessment Rubric for the Portfolio

vel 4 3 2 1 Evidence in
Choice of
the form of kitchen garden Identifies and
choses a form of kitchen garden suited in their environment, made from locally available materials. identifies
and choses a form of kitchen garden suited in their environme nt Identifies
and choses a form of kitchen garden though may not be suited to their environmen
t Identifies
and choses a form of kitchen garden that is not appropriat e Photos,
pictures, drawings, videos, descriptions of kitchen gardens
Choice of plants for kitchen garden identifies and choses a variety of plants that are suited for a kitchen identifies and choses most plants that are suited for a kitchen Identifies and choses some plants that are suited for a kitchen Identifies and choses plants that are not suited for a kitchen Photos, pictures, drawings, videos, descriptions and

1 Evidence in portfolio
g a kitchen garden Correct choice
of soil for plant, proper preparation of soil for planting and appropriate placement of the form/garden Correct
choice of soil for plant, proper preparation of soil for planting.
Some forms/gard en not appropriate ly placed Soil and
some plants not suited.
Soil not prepared and placement of form/garde n not well thought out. Plants
planted without consideratio n on appropriate ness of soil; preparation of soil or placement of form/garde n. Photos,
pictures, drawings, sample soil mountings. Photos showing stages of garden preparation s

Criteria/level 4 3 2 1 Evidence in
Quality of
final product All plants are
healthy and well cared for (watered, well weeded, pruned,
thinned) Most
plants are healthy and well cared for Some
plants are healthy Only a few
plants are healthy Photos,
pictures of plants in the garden
Teamwork Clear leadership, division of labour, co- operation in performance of tasks,
unity in Clear leadership, fair division of labour, majority participate
in the No clear leadership, no assignment of specific duties though
some No common purpose. Participatio n is left to one or a few
individuals. Teacher observation notes,
Learner self- reflection

12.5 Effective Management of Portfolios
• The teacher should:
• review entries in the portfolio with learners regularly.
• Focus more on quality than quantity;
• involve the learners in organizing the portfolio.
• organize for the storage of the learners’ portfolios.
• NOTE: storage holders for the portfolio should be made from locally available and accessible materials.

12.6 Storage of Portfolios









12.7 Parental Engagement in
Portfolio Assessment

• The parents/guardians should:
– be informed about portfolio assessment
– be involved in the development of their learner’s


12.8 Importance of Portfolio Assessment






• Provides a clear profile of learners in terms of abilities and interests

12.8 Importance of Portfolio Assessment cont’d





13.0 Adaptation of Assessment Tools for Learners
with Special Needs


Adaptations in assessment involve modification of assessment methods and tools to suit learners with special educational needs.
• Modifications may be in terms of presentation of assessment task, duration of tackling the task, ways of responding to the task and scheduling.






The Kenya National Examinations Council



Age-based Pathway

• Outcomes
• By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:

a) Define competency as envisaged in learning;
b) List the core competencies outlined in the BECF;
c) Explain the role of core competencies in learning.

1. In pairs, discuss the
a) meaning of competency.
b) benefits of core competencies.
2. Make a presentation to the plenary.


Core Competencies in the BECF








Core Competencies

Communication and Collaboration








Ask questions

• Suggested learning activities:
1. In pairs, discuss the
• meaning of communication and collaboration;
• linkage between communication and collaboration;
• benefits of communication and collaboration;
• teacher’s role in developing communication
and collaboration skills;
• indicators of communication and collaboration.
2. Develop a task to assess
• communication and collaboration.


relationships among
learners. 5


7 Develops public
speaking and active
8 listening skills.
Makes learners
4 understand how to
address a problem, present solutions, and decide the best course of action.

Skills of communication

» There are four skills of communication:

» 1. Listening

» 2. Speaking

3. Reading

4. Writing

Pays attention to the person who is speaking.

Asks questions for clarity.



Keeps eye contact/turns to face the direction of the communicator.

Repeats what is communicate d.

Shows interest by nodding or by smiling at appropriate times.



Passionate/ enthusiastic.


Has clarity of speech.

Self awareness.

Indicator s

Takes turns in conversation

Uses gestures and facial expressions appropriately.



Visualizes/ creates pictures in the mind.


Predicts information.

• Indicator s

Infers informatio n.


Asks the right questions.

Answers questions from a text.


Sample Assessment of communication
and collaboration
1. In your groups, click on the link and discus the Sample tool for assessing communication and collaboration skills.
2. Select a learning area of your choice in the curriculum design, identify a suggested learning experience and develop a tool for assessing communication and collaboration.
3. Present in the plenary.

2: Critical Thinking
and Problem Solving
Ask questions




Generate ideas

SESSION 2: Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Session Outcomes:
• By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
• explain the meaning of Critical Thinking and Problem Solving as a competency;
• explore the benefits of Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in learning;
• Outline the indicators of critical thinking and problem solving;

• develop a task to assess Critical Thinking and Problem Solving.

Suggested Learning Activities
• In groups
1. explain the meaning of Critical Thinking and Problem Solving;
2. explore the benefits of Critical Thinking and Problem Solving;
3. outline the indicators of Critical Thinking and Problem Solving;
4. develop a task to assess Critical Thinking and Problem Solving.

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving

What is Critical Thinking and Problem Solving


Critical thinking refers to ability to come up with solutions for problems or issues faced in real life situations. This is done by defining the problem, gathering information, sorting, organizing, classifying and analysing materials and data.

• In a town with many incidences of murder, suicide and homicide, the first step to addressing the problem is to understand the root cause of the problems. This could be in form of investigations, research studies and observations (critical thinking).

• This core competency enables learners to:




Indicators of critical thinking and problem solving



Assessing critical thinking and problem
1. Select a learning area of your choice
in the curriculum design, identify a suggested learning experience and develop a tool for assessing Critical thinking and problem solving.
2. Present in the plenary.
3. Click the link and discuss an example of a tool for assessing critical thinking and problem solving



• Session outcomes:
• By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
1. explain the meaning of Creativity and Imagination as a competency;
2. explore the benefits of Creativity and Imagination in learning;
3. discuss teacher’s role in Creativity and
4. outline the indicators of Creativity and Imagination;
5. develop a task to assess Creativity and Imagination.

• In pairs,
a) discuss meaning of Creativity and Imagination.
b) explore the benefits of Creativity and Imagination.
c) outline indicators of Creativity and Imagination.
d) develop a task to assess Creativity and Imagination.






makes learners curious.


Promotes independenc e.

Improves ability to focus on an issue.

problem solving ability.

one’s self- esteem.
It is a life skill.


spends time outdoors for discovery;

makes drawings on various surfaces;
models clay

observes the sky and explains what is seen;

Indicators of imagination and creativity

comes up with new ways of doing things;

new skills.

into a variety
of objects;

Improvise materials for different functions

Create using
locally available materials



1. Select a learning area of your choice in the curriculum design, identify a suggested learning experience and discuss the indicators that exhibit imagination and creativity.

experience and discuss the
indicators that exhibit imagination and creativity.
2. Click the link below:
• Sample tool for assessing imagination and creativity












deal with situations of conflict in a rational way;

develop self- confidence in dealing with challenges in life;

understand the consequences of their actions, and those of the adults around them;


be conscious of their social and moral duties and responsibilities in the society.

adheres to regulations/respe cts authority/adults.

is sensitive to environment al

exhibits love for own


conservati n.

accommodat es others.

Participates in community activities

the competency of citizenship

Appreciates diverse cultures.

is familiar with the immediate environment.

symbols of unity.

Assessing Citizenship


1. You are taking learners for a visit to the National Museum of Kenya. In your group,
a) discuss the indicators of citizenship that are likely to be exhibited by learners during the visit.
b) prepare a tool to assess citizenship during the visit
2. Present in the plenary.
3. Click on the link below
• Sample tool for assessing citizenship

5: Digital Literacy

SESSION 5: Digital Literacy
• Session outcomes
• By the end of the session, the participants should be able to:
1. define Digital Literacy as a competency;
2. explain the benefits of Digital Literacy in learning;
3. explain teacher’s role in developing Digital
Literacy skills;
4. outline the indicators of Digital Literacy;
5. develop a task to assess Digital Literacy.

Suggested Learning Activities
1. In pairs, brainstorm the meaning of Digital Literacy.
2. In pairs, discuss benefits of Digital Literacy.
3. In pairs, discuss teacher’s role in
developing Digital Literacy skills.
4. In pairs, discuss indicators of Digital Literacy.
5. In groups, develop a task to assess Digital Literacy.

Digital Literacy


Indicators of digital literacy
A learner with the competency of digital literacy


plays digital games;

1. Click the link below for the
• Sample tool for assessing digital literacy
2. Below is a suggested learning experience:
• In groups, learners are guided to use digital devices and visual aids to observe and identify pars of the digestive system.
3. Using the suggested learning experience, prepare a tool for assessing digital literacy.

1. Click the link below for the
• Sample tool for assessing digital literacy
2. Below is a suggested learning experience:
• In groups, learners are guided to use digital devices and visual aids to observe and identify pars of the digestive system.
3. Using the suggested learning experience, prepare a tool for assessing digital literacy.




– Session outcomes
– By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
1. explain the meaning of Learning to Learn as a competency;
2. discuss the benefits of Learning to Learn in the learning process;
3. explain teacher’s role in developing Learning
to Learn;
4. outline the indicators of Learning to Learn;
5. develop a task to assess Learning to Learn.

Suggested Learning Activities
1. In pairs, discuss the meaning of Learning to Learn.
2. In pairs, discuss the benefits of Learning to Learn.
3. In pairs, discuss teacher’s role in
developing Learning to Learn.
4. In pairs, outline indicators of Learning to Learn.
5. In groups, develop a task on Learning to Learn.

• Learning to Learn
• Learning to learn is the ability to pursue and persist in learning, to organise one’s own learning by the effective management of time and information, both individually and in groups.

• Benefits
1. It engages learners to build on prior learning and life experiences.
2. It enables learners to apply knowledge and skills in a variety of contexts at home, at work, in education and training.
3. It allows learners to become more effective, flexible and self-organized in a variety of contexts.













Indicators of learning to learn

A learner with a competency of learning to learn

Assessing learning to learn
1. Click the link below
• Sample tool for assessing leaning to learn.
2. The following are some indicators of leaning to learn:
a) Self disciplined
b) Works collaboratively
c) Organizes their own learning
d) Shares what they have learnt

Assessing learning to learn…cont’d
e) Reflects on own work and adjusts accordingly
f) Learns independently
g) Motivated to learn continuously
h) Seeks advice, information and support as appropriate

Assessing learning to learn

1. Click the link below
• Sample tool for assessing leaning to learn.
2. The following are some indicators of leaning to learn:

a) Self disciplined
b) Works
c) Organizes their own learning
d) Shares what they
have learned

a) Reflects on own work and adjusts accordingly
b) Learns independently
c) Motivated to learn continuously
d) Seeks advice, information and support as appropriate

Assessing learning to learn… cont’d

learning to learn in learners.
4. Using the learning experience created, develop a tool for assessing the core competency of learning to learn.

7: Self efficacy

– Session outcomes:
– By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
1. define self-efficacy as a competency;
2. explain the benefits of self-efficacy in learning;
3. explain teacher’s role in developing self- efficacy;
4. explain the indicators of self-efficacy;
5. develop a task to assess self-efficacy;

1. In pairs, participants discuss definition of self-efficacy.
2. In pairs, participants explore benefits of self-efficacy.
3. In pairs, participants discuss teacher’s role in developing self-efficacy in the learners.
4. In pairs, participants outline indicators of self-efficacy.
5. In groups, participants develop a task to
assess self-efficacy.







believes in own capabilities;
shows interest in
learning activities;
has self- esteem and confidence;
has developed

demonstrate persistence, commitment, and resilience;

Indicators of self-efficacy
A learner with a competency of Self-efficacy

improves in the level of achievemen t;
embraces challenging tasks;
demonstrat es assertivene

aware portrays a
sense of self-

recovers quickly
from disappointments and setbacks.

Assessing self-efficacy


1. Click the link below
• Sample tool for assessing self-efficacy
2. Select a learning area of your choice in the curriculum design, identify a suggested learning experience and discuss the indicators that exhibit self efficacy.
3. Using the learning experience identified, develop a tool for assessing self efficacy.



Pertinent And Contemporary Issues (PCIs) are problems
currently affecting people or places and are unresolved. PCIs are designed and addressed in CBC to ensure that education is relevant.

• Children like adults, are faced with legal, technological, social, cultural, political and economic challenges in society.

• It is important that these challenges are addressed for the overall wellbeing of the child.






experience that addresses a
b) develop an assessment tool to assess the learners on the PCI(s).

Assessment of PCIs

1. Identify the target PCI
2. Define the indicators of PCI(s) as per the learning experience or task
3. Infuse the PCI(s) in the learning experience or task taking into consideration the local contexts.
• Suggested learning activity
• From the curriculum design,
a) identify a strand or learning experience of your choice;
b) identify and infuse the target PCI(s) in the learning
experience or task.


The Kenya National Examinations Council


• By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) state the eight core values outlined in the BECF;
b) explain each of the core values;
c) Identify the indicators of the core values in the BECF
d) demonstrate the ability to assess a learner on the acquisition of core values.

Suggested Learning Activities

• In groups, participants:
 brainstorm on the core values as presented in the BECF
 discuss the indicators of the core values
 demonstrate ability to assess values


• Values are standards that guide an individual on how to respond or behave in a given circumstance.
• The assessment of values facilitates the achievement of the CBA vision of developing an ethical citizen.




Respect other
Keeps promises and
honours commitments

Offers leadership and guidance
to others

Does not blame others

Cares for own property and those of others

Engages in assigned roles and duties

Observes safety precautions

Is dependable

Accepts the

Proactively solve problems

– Unity n t

– Unity is the ability to live together harmoniously
regardless of social, cultural, racial, religious, economic and political differences. It is the recognition of the importance of working with other people towards a common goal.


Strives to achieve common goals

– Peace is a state of tranquility & harmony with oneself & among people. The Value of peace enables an individual to remain calm always regardless of the circumstances around them.


Resolves differences amicably


Has respect for diversity

Follows laid down procedures when carrying out activities.





Displays tolerance


Avoids hurting others

/resolves conflicts

Respects self
and others

Aware of own responsibilities in the society.

Obeys laws
and regulation


Is conscious of his/her social and moral duties

Is aware of own culture

– Patriotism
– Patriotism refers to loyalty, love and devotion for one’s country or nation. A patriotic individual is proud of their country, readily and competently performs their duties
as a citizen.

Is ready to defend the country

Loves own

Serves the community




– Social Justice

Fosters fairness and justice among peers and other members of the

– Social justice refers to fair community
treatment of each other and promotion of equity. It is about creating a society that is based on the principles of respect for human dignity, equity, solidarity and elimination of inequalities.






Avoids conflict of interest


– Integrity
– Integrity refers to the ability

Displays transparency, fairness and accountability
Applies laid

Is committed to duty


to know, defend and do what is right always. It entails doing the right thing even when you have the opportunity to do the wrong thing.

down procedure when doing things

Has self


Avoids breaches of
confidentiality and security

Takes action on
identified corrupt deals

Assessment of Core Values


1. Identify strands and learning experiences that address the core values.
2. Identify the target Core Values
3. Define the indicators of the core values
4. Identify the appropriate tool for assessing the core values.

Assessment of Core Values……cont’d


5. Click on the link and discuss the sample tool for assessing core values.
6. From the curriculum design,
(a) identify a strand or learning experience that addresses core values
(b) develop an assessment tool to assess the learners on the core values.
















• By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) identify the tools for reporting the performance of learners;
b) demonstrate the ability to use an appropriate tool to provide feedback on learner’s performance to relevant stakeholders.




• Samples of:




Suggested Learning Activities





In groups, participants discuss the concept of ‘Feedback’
Activity 2:
In groups, participants discuss ways of reporting feedback on performance of learners

Qualities of Effective Feedback




(Specific, Measurable, Attainable/Achievable, Realistic, Timely)

i.e. positive, optimistic, genuine and appreciative.



highlight the strengths of the learner
feedbac k should:

What to avoid in feedback reporting:
bias and stereotypes criticism and fault-finding ambiguity
comparisons and ranking
use of discouraging comments

Tools for Reporting Learner’s Performance



Issued by the school at the end of pre-primary education.

Informs learners and other stakeholders on learning achievement and areas for improvement.

Can also be used to initiate dialogue on teacher training needs at the lower levels.

Example of a School Readiness Report
The Ministry of Education through the Department of Early Childhood Development Education (ECDE) developed the Kenya School Readiness Assessment Tool (KSRAT).
KSRAT is prepared for learners transiting to Grade One in the age-based pathway.

School Readiness Report …cont’d.
KSRAT comprises of:
General information that contains details of individual learner;
Instructions to the assessor on how to use the
Checklist for assessing competences in various learning areas;
General comments by the teacher on:
 Learner’s wellbeing;
 Learner’s readiness to transit to primary
education at Grade One;
 Validation by the teacher, parent and head teacher.


Suggested Learning Activities




• In groups, participants critique a sample School Readiness Report

• A few groups are selected to present their work during plenary

School Year Report
• This is an annual report giving an account of learners:
progress in achievement of core competencies and core values



participation in community service learning



awareness of Pertinent and Contemporary Issues (PCIs).


• Attendance

• Learner’s performance level in the various learning areas.
• Learner’s conduct and behaviour

• Achievement of core competencies and acquisition of core values

• Evidence of learner’s participation in community service learning

• Validation by the school.


Suggested Learning Activities





• In groups, participants fill in a School Year Report using information from sample assessment tools

• A few groups are selected to present their work during plenary

Assessment Sheet
• This is developed by KNEC and will be uploaded in
the KNEC Grade 3 portal.
• Schools will be expected to download the sheet alongside the KEYA assessment tools
• It will be used to summarize the performance of learners in learning areas in the KEYA
• After administration of KEYA and filling in the sheet, schools will immediately upload the content of KEYA sheet in the KNEC Grade 3 portal

Components of Assessment Sheet




Task 1

Task 2

Task 3

Task 4
CORE COMPETE NCY Teacher comments on learner’s performance










































1 (strengths,
weaknesses, and strategies for improvement)
Learner 1
Learner 2
Learner 3
Learner 4




Suggested Learning Activities




• In groups, participants fill in an Assessment Sheet.

• A few groups are selected to present their work during plenary.


iv. How useful were the group discussions to


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