Home Teachers' Resources 311 HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT SYLLABUS FORM 1-4 IN PDF

311 HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT SYLLABUS FORM 1-4 IN PDF

311 HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
GENERAL OBJECTIVES

By the end of the course the learner should be able to:

1. recognize and appreciate the importance of studying History and Government;
2. acquire knowledge, ability and show appreciation for critical historical analysis of socio-economic and political organization of African societies;
3. understand and show appreciation of the rights, privileges and obligations of oneself and others for promotion of a just and peaceful society;
4. promote a sense of nationalism, patriotism and national unity;
5. encourage and sustain moral and mutual social responsibility;
6. identify, assess and appreciate the rich and varied cultures of the Kenyan people and other peoples;
7. promote a sense of awareness and need for a functional democracy of the Kenyan people and other nations;
8. promote an understanding and appreciation of intra-national and international consciousness and relationships;
9. derive through the study of History and government an interest in further learning;
10. appreciate the importance of interdependence among people and among nations
11. identify, assess and have respect for different ways of life influencing development at local, national and international levels;
12. demonstrate the acquisition of positive attitudes, values, and skills for self reliance;
13. acquire appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes as a basis for technological and industrial development;
14. promote patriotism and national unity.
1.0.0 INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
1.1.0 Specific objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain the meaning of the term ‘History’;
b) explain the meaning of the term ‘Government’;
c) identify the sources of information on History and Government;
d) explain the importance of studying History and Government.
1.2.0 Content
1.2.1 The meaning of History 1.2.2 The meaning of Government. 1.2.3 Sources of information on History and Government. 1.2.4 Importance of studying History and Government. 2.0.0 EARLY MAN 2.1.0 Specific Objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain the origin of man;
b) identify the stages through which man evolved during the Stone Age Period;
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c) Describe the cultural and economic practices of early man (old, middle and new stone Age).
2.2.0 Content
2.2.1 Origin of man.
2.2.2 Evolution of man.
2.2.3 Cultural and economic practices of early man (old, middle and new stone age) 3.0.0 DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 3.1.0 Specific Objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) identify the factors that led to the development of early agriculture;
b) explain the development of agriculture in Egypt and Mesopotamia;
c) describe the Agrarian Revolution in Britain and the USA;
d) identify the causes of food shortages in Africa and the interest of the Third World;
e) discuss the effects and remedies of food shortages in Africa and the rest of the Third World.
3.2.0 Content
3.2.1 Development of early agriculture.
3.2.2 Early agriculture in:
a) Egypt
b) Mesopotamia.
3.2.3 The Agrarian Revolution in:
a) Britain
b) U.S.A.
3.2.4 The food situation in Africa and the rest of the Third World.
4.0.0 THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UP TO THE 19TH CENTURY
4.1.0 Specific objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) state the origins of the Bantu, Nilotes and Cushites;
b) trace and describe the migration and settlement of the Bantu, Nilotes and Cushites;
c) discuss the results of the migration and settlement of the people of Kenya;
4.2.0 Content
Origin, migration and settlement of the people of Kenya
a) Bantu
i. Western Bantu ii Eastern Bantu
b) Nilotes
i River – Lake Nilotes ii Plains Nilotes iii Highland Nilotes
c) Cushites
i Eastern Cushites ii Southern cushites
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4.2.1 Results of the migration and settlement of the people of Kenya.
5.0.0 SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION OF KENYAN SOCIETIES IN THE 19TH CENTURY.
5.1.0 Specific objective:
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to discuss the Social, Economic and Political organisation of the Bantu, the Nilotes and the Cushites.
5.2.0 Content
5.2.1 Bantu: Agikuyu, , Ameru, Akamba, Abagusii, Mijikenda.
5.2.2 Nilotes: Luo, Nandi, Maasai,
5.2.3 Cushites: Borana, Somali
6.0.0 CONTACTS BETWEEN EAST AFRICA AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD UP TO THE 19TH CENTURY.
6.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) identify the origin of the early visitors to the East African Coast;
b) explain the development of trade between the East African Coast and
outside World;
c) discuss the effects of the contact between the East African Coast and
outside world;
d) identify reasons for the coming of the Portuguese
e) trace the portuguese conquest of the East African Coast;
f) discuss the decline and effects of the portuguese rule; g) discuss the establishment and impact of Omani rule; h) explain the reasons for the coming of the Christian misssionaries; i) describe missionary activities and challenges; j) discuss the effects of missionary activities. 6.2.0 Content 6.2.1 Early visitors to the East African Coast up to 1500. 6.2.2 Trade between the East African Coast and the outside World
a) Development of the trade
b) Organization of the trade
c) Impact of the trade on the peoples of East Africa.
6.2.3 The coming of the Portuguese
a) Reasons for their coming to East Africa.
b) Their conquest and rule.
c) The decline of Portuguese power.
d) Impact of Portuguese rule.
6.2.4 Establishment and impact of Omani rule.
a) Seyyid Said and the development of plantation agriculture
b) Development, organization and consequences of:
i) Long distance trade
ii) International trade.
6.2.5 The spread of Christianity:
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a) Reasons for the coming of Christian missionaries
b) Missionary activities and challenges
c) Effects of missionary activities.
7.0.0 CITIZENSHIP
7.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) state ways of becoming a Kenyan citizen;
b) state the rights and responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen;
c) discuss the elements of good citizenship.
7.2.0 Content
7.2.1 Kenyan citizenship.
7.2.2 Rights of a citizen.
7.2.3 Responsibilities of a citizen.
7.2.4 Elements of good citizenship.
8.0.0 NATIONAL INTERGRATION
8.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain the meaning and importance of national integration;
b) describe factors promoting and limiting national unity;
c) describe the process of resolving conflicts.
8.2.0 Content
8.2.1 National Integration.
a) Meaning.
b) Importance.
8.2.2 National Unity
a) factors promoting national unity.
b) factors limiting national unity.
8.2.3 Conflict Resolution
a) Meaning of the term ‘conflict’.
b) Methods of resolving conflicts.
c) Processes of resolving conflicts.
9.0.0 TRADE
9.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) define the term ‘trade’;
b) explain methods of trade;
c) identify types of trade;
d) discuss the origin, development, organisation and impact of different types of trade.
9.2.0 Content
9.2.1 Definition of trade.
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9.2.2 Methods of trade: (a) Barter (b) Currency.
9.2.3 Types of Trade
a) Local trade: i ) Origin, ii) Development, iii) Organization, iv) Impact.
b) Regional trade (Trans Saharan Trade): i) Origin, ii) Development, iii) Organization,
iv) Impact.
c) International Trade (Trans-Atlantic Trade): i) Origin, ii) Development,
iii) Organization, iv) Impact.
1.0.0 DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) define the terms trade and communication;
b) explain the traditional and modern means of transport;
c) describe the traditional and modern means of communication;
d) analyse the impact of modern means of transport and communication.
10.2.0 Content
10.2.1 Definitions of transport and communication.
10.2.2 Traditional forms of transport: land and water.
10.2.3 Developments in modern means of transport: Road transport, Rail transport, Water transport, Air transport, Space exploration
10.2.4 Impact of modern means of transport.
10.2.5 Traditional forms of communication: Smoke signals, Drum beats, Messengers, Horning,
Written messages on scrolls and stone tablets
10.2.6 Development in modern means of communication
a) Telecommunication : Telephone and cellphone, , television, Radio, Telegraph, Electronic mail (E-mail), Facsimile transceiver (fax), Telex, Pager, Internet.
b) Print media: Newspapers, Magazines, Journals, Periodicals.
11.0.0 DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY
11.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) identify early sources of energy;
b) explain the uses of metals in Africa;
c) trace and describe the development of the Industrial Revolution in Europe;
d) discuss the Scientific Revolution and its effects on agriculture, industry and medicine;
e) describe the emergence of selected world industrial powers;
f) explain the development of industrial in the Third World.
11.2.0 Content
11.2.1 Early sources of energy: Wood, wind , water .
11.2.2 Uses of metal in Africa: Bronze, Gold, Copper, Iron.
11.2.3 The Industrial Revolution in Europe.
a) Uses of various sources of energy: Coal, Oil, Steam, Electricity.
b) Uses of iron and steel
c) Industrialization in Britain
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d) Industrialization in Continental Europe
e) Effects of the Industrial Revolution in Europe
11.2.4 The Scientific Revolution
a) Scientific inventions
b) Impact of scientific inventions on Agriculture, Industry and Medicine
11.2.5 Emergence of selected World industrial powers: USA, Germany, Japan.
12.0.0 URBANISATION
12.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) define the term ‘Urbanization’;
b) describe Early Urbanisation in African and Europe;
c) describe the emergence of modern urban centres in Africa;
d) discuss the impact of agrarian and industrial developments on urbanisation.
12.2.0 Content
12.2.1 Meaning of urbanization.
12.2.2 Early Urbanization in:
a) Africa – Cairo, Merowe/Meroe and Kilwa.
a) Europe – London and Athens
12.2.3 Emergency of modern urban centers in Africa: Nairobi and Johannesburg
12.2.4 Impact of agrarian and industrial development on Urbanization
13.0.0 SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ORGANISATION OF AFRICAN SOCIETIES IN THE 19TH CENTURY.
13.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) describe the social and economic organization of African societies in the 19th
century.
b) discuss the political organization of African societies in the 19th century.
13.2.0 Content
The Social, Economic, and Political organization of African societies with reference to:
13.2.1 The Baganda
13.2.2 The Shona
13.2.3 The Ashanti/Asante.
14.0.0 CONSTITUTION MAKING
14.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) identify the difference between written and unwritten constitutions.
b) discuss the features of the Independence Constitution of Kenya
c) trace and describe the constitutional changes in Kenya since independence.
14.2.0 Content
14.2.1 Types of constitutions: Written and Unwritten.
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14.2.2 The Independence Constitution of Kenya.
14.2.3 The Kenya constitution
a) Constitution making process
b) Features of the Kenya constitution
c) Constitutional amendments since independence.
15.0.0 DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS
15.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) define the terms’Democracy’ and ‘Human Rights’;
b) identify types of democracy;
c) discuss the principles of democracy;
d) identify the rights of a child;
e) classify and discuss Human Rights.
15.2.0 Content 15.2.1 Democracy: Definition ,types and Principles of democracy 15.2.2 Human Rights
a) Definition of Human Rights
b) The Bill of Rights
c) U. N. Charter on Human Rights
d) The rights of the child
e) Classification of Human Rights
16.0.0 EUROPEAN INVASION OF AFRICA AND THE PROCESS OF
COLONIZATION.
16.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) define the terms ‘scramble’ and ‘partition’;
b) identify the methods used by Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa;
c) discuss the factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa in the 19th Century
d) describe the process of partition;
e) analyse the impact of the partition;
f) discuss the African reaction to European colonization;
16.2.0 Content
16.2.1 The Scramble for and Partition of Africa
a) Definitions of the terms ‘scramble’ and ‘partition’
b) Methods used by Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa
c) Factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa
d) The process of partition
e) Impact of partition
16.2.2 African reactions to European colonization
a) Resistance: Maji Maji, Mandinka – Samori Toure, Ndebele – Lobengula.
b) Collaboration: Baganda, Lozi-Lewanika
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17.0.0 ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA 17.1.0 Specific Objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain factors for European invasion of Kenya;
b) describe the process of British occupation of Kenya;
c) explain African response to British invasion;
d) identify the method of administration in Kenya.
17.2.0 Content
17.2.1 Background to the Scramble and Partition of East Africa.
17.2.2 British occupation of Kenya.
17.2.3 The response of the peoples of Kenya to the British invasion and occupation
a) Resistance: Nandi, Agiryama, Busuku, Somali
b) Collaboration: Maasai, The wanga
c) Mixed Reactions: Akamba, Agikuyu, Luo
18.0.0 COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
18.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to identify and analyse the colonial systems of administration with special reference to:
a) Indirect rule;
b) Direct rule;
c) Assimilation.
18.2.0 Content
18.2.1 Indirect rule: The British in Kenya, The British in Nigeria.
18.2.2 Direct Rule: The British in Zimbambwe (Southern Rhodesia)
18.2.3 Assimilation: The French in Senegal
19.0.0 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE COLONIAL
PERIOD IN KENYA.
19.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain the social changes that took place in Kenya during the colonial
period;
b) identify and explain the main economic developments in Kenya during the colonial period.
19.2.0 Content
19.2.1 The Uganda Railway
19.2.2 Settler farming in Kenya
19.2.3 Colonial land policies
19.2.4 Devonshire White Paper
19.2.5 Urbanization
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20.0.0 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPEDENCE IN KENYA (1919 – 1963)
20.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) identify and explain the origins, organization and effects of political movements in Kenya up to 1939;
b) trace the origins of the independent churches and schools;
c) discuss political organisations and movements up to 1945;
d) describe the role of trade unionism in the struggle for independence;
e) discuss the role of women in the struggle for independence;
f) describe the constitutional changes leading to independence.
20.2.0 Content
20.2.1 Early Political Organizations in Kenya up to 1939
a) East Africa Association
b) Kikuyu Central Association
c) Kavirondo Tax Payers and Welfare Association
d) Ukamba Members Association
e) Coast African Association
f) Taita Hills Association.
20.2.2 Emergence of Independent Churches and Schools.
20.2.3 Political organisations and movements after 1945
a) Kenya African Study Union (K.A.S.U)
b) Kenya African Union (K.A.U)
c) Mau Mau
d) Kenya African National Union (K.A.N.U)
e) Kenya African Democratic Union (K.A.D.U)
f) African Peoples Party (A.P.P)
20.2.4 Trade Union Movement: African Workers Federation and Kenya Federation of Labour 20.2.5 Role of women in the struggle for independence. 20.2.6 Constitutional changes leading to independence
a) African representation in the Legco
b) Lyttleton Constitution
c) Lennox-Boyd Constitution
d) Lancester House Conferences
21.0.0 RISE OF AFRICAN NATIONALISM
21.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to discuss the rise and growth of African Nationalism in selected African countries.
21.2.0 Content
21.2.1 Rise and growth of African Nationalism in Ghana, Mozambique and South Africa.
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22.0.0 LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS 22.1.0 Specific Objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to analyse the lives and contributions of selected Kenyan leaders.
22.2.0 Content
22.2.1 Jomo Kenyatta
22.2.2 Daniel Arap Moi
22.2.3 Oginga Odinga
22.2.4 Tom Mboya
22.2.5 Ronald Ngala
23.0.0 THE FORMATION, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF KENYA 23.1.0 Specific Objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) describe the electoral process in Kenya;
b) state the functions of the Electrol Commission of Kenya;
c) explain the process of the formation of government;
d) describe the structure and functions of the three arms of the Government of Kenya;
e) state the functions of the Armed forces, police and prisons departments in Kenya;
f) analyse the challenges facing the police and prisons departments in Kenya;
g) analyse the concepts of the ‘Rule of Law’ and ‘Natural justice’.
23.2.0 Content 23.2.1 Electrol process. 23.2.2 Functions of the Electoral Commission of Kenya. 23.2.3 Formation of Government. 23.2.4 Structure and Functions of the Government of Kenya
a) Legislature: Composition, Functions , Process of law making, Parliamentary Supremacy.
b) The Executive
i. Powers and functions of the President
ii. Composition and functions of the Cabinet
iii. Composition and functions of the Civil Service
iv. Provincial administration
v. Functions of the armed forces, police and prisons department
vi. Challenges facing the police and prisons departments in Kenya
c) The judiciary
i. Chief Justice
ii. Attorney General
iii. Structure and functions of the Court Systems in Kenya
iv. Importance of the Independence of the Judiciary
v. The rule of law
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vi. The concept of Natural Justice
24.0.0 WORLD WARS
24.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain the causes, of the First and the Second World Wars;
b) describe the course of the First and the Second World Wars;
c) discuss the results of the First and the Second World Wars;
d) explain the reasons for the formation of the league of Nations;
e) describe the organisation of the league of Nations;
f) analyse the performance of the league of Nations.
24.2.0 Content
24.2.1 The First World War (1914 – 1918) – Causes, Course and Results.
24.2.2 The league of Nations – Formation, Organization, Performance. 24.2.3 The Second World War (1939 – 1945) – Causes, Course and Results. 25.0.0 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS International organizations
25.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) analyse the reasons for the formation of major international organizations;
b) describe the structure of major international organizations;
c) discuss the functions of major international organizations;
d) analyse the performance of major international organisations;
e) discuss the effects of the cold war.
25.2.0 Content
International Organization
25.2.1 The United Nations – Formation, Organisation, Performance and challenges.
25.2.2 The commonwealth – Formation, Membership, Functions and Challenges
25.2.3 The Non-Aligned Movement – Formation, Performance and Challenges.
25.2.4 The cold War (Vietnam, Cuba, Europe and Angola) – Cause, Course and Effects.
26.0.0 CO-OPERATION IN AFRICA
26.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain the origin and development of selected regional organizations in Africa;
b) discuss the performance and challenges of the respective organisations.
26.20 Content
26.2.1 Pan-Africanism – Origin, Development and Performance.
26.2.2 Organization of African Unity (OAU) – Formation, Charter, Performance and challenges.
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26.2.3 African Union – Formation , Charter, Performance and Challenges.
26.2.4 Rebirth of the East African Community – 2001 – Formation, Organization, Performance and challenges. 26.2.5 Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) – Formation, Organization Performance and challenges.
26.2.6 The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) – Formation, Function, Performance and challenges.
27.0.0 NATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES (KENYA)
27.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain the origin and development of National philosophies;
b) analyse the impact of National Philosophies.
27.2.0 Content
27.2.1 African Socialism
27.2.2 Harambee
27.2.3 Nyayoism
27.2.4 Impact of National Philosophies.
28.0.0 SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
28.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) discuss the political developments in Kenya since independence;
b) discuss the social and economic developments in Kenya since independence;
c) analyse the political, social and economic challenges in Kenya since Independece.
28.2.0 Content
28.2.1 Political developments
a) Developments from 1963-19991
b) Multi – party democracy in Kenya
c) Challenges of multi-party democracy
d) The role of political parties in Government and nation building.
28.2.2 Economic developments and challenges: Land policies, Industry.
28.2.3 Social developments and challenges: Education, Health, Culture and sports.
29.0.0 SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND
CHALLENGES IN AFRICA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
29.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) discuss the political, social and economic developmnets in selected African countries since independence;
b) analyse the political, social and economic challenges in Africa since independence.
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29.2.0 Content
29.2.1 Social Economic and Political developments in selected African countries
a) Democratic Republic of Congo – DRC
b) Tanzania .
29.2.2 Social, Economic and Political challenges in Africa since independence.
30.0.0 LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN KENYA
30.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) describe types of local authorities in Kenya;
b) discuss the functions of local authorities;
c) analyse the relationship between local authorities and the Central Government;
d) discuss the challenges facing local authorities in Kenya.
30.2.0 Content
30.2.1 Types of local authorities.
30.2.2 Functions of local authorities.
30.2.3 Relationship between local authorities and the central government.
30.2.4 Challenges facing local authorities.
31.0.0 GOVERNMENT REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
31.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) identify and discuss sources of government revenue;
b) explain the expenditure of government revenue;
c) discuss how the government controls public finance.
31.2.0 Content
31.2.1 National budget.
31.2.2 Sources of government revenue.
31.2.3 Control of public finance.
32.0.0 THE ELECTORAL PROCESS AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT IN OTHER PARTS OF THE OWRLD.
32.1.0 Specific Objectives
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain the electoral process of governments in selected countries;
b) discuss the functions of governments of the respective countries.
32.2.0 Content
32.2.1 USA.
32.2.2 Britain.
32.2.3 India.
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312 – GEOGRAPHY
GENERAL OBJECTIVES By the end of the course, the learner should be able to: 1. appreciate the importance of studying Geography; 2. recognize different types of environments and manage them for individual, national and international development; 3. identify and explain weather phenomena and their influence on the physical environment and human activities; 4. explain land-forming processes and appreciate the resultant features and their influence on human activities; 5. acquire knowledge of available natural resources and demonstrate ability and willingness to utilize them sustainably; 6. identify and compare economic activities in Kenya and the rest of the world; 7. state, interpret, analyse and use Geographical principles and methods to solve problems of national development; 8. apply field-work techniques in studying Geography; 9. acquire knowledge and skills necessary to analyse population issues of Kenya and the world; 10. appreciate the importance of interdependence among people and among nations; 11. identify, assess and have respect for different ways of life influencing development at local, national and international levels; 12. demonstrate the acquisition of positive attitudes, values and skills for self reliance; 13. acquire appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes as a basis for technological and industrial development; 14. promote patriotism and national unity. 1.0.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define the terms Geography and Environment;
(b) describe the branches of Geography;
(c) explain the importance of studying Geography;
(d) explain the relationship between geography and other disciplines.
1.2.0 Content 1.2.1 Definition of: (a) Geography and (b) Environment. 1.2.2 Branches of Geography: (a) Physical geography and (b) Human Geography. 1.2.3 Importance of studying Geography. 1.2.4 Relationship between geography and other disciplines. 2.0.0 THE EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM 2.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define the solar system;
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(b) explain the origin of the earth;
(c) explain the effects of rotation and revolution of the earth;
(d) describe the structure of the earth.
2.2.0 Content. 2.2.1 Definition and composition of the solar system. 2.2.2 Origin, shape, size, and position of the earth in the solar system 2.2.3 Rotation and revolution of the earth and their effects. 2.2.4 Structure of the earth – (a) the atmosphere, (b) the hydrosphere, (c) the lithosphere/crust, (d) the asthenosphere/mantle and (e) the barysphere/centrosphere (outer and inner core). 3.0.0 STATISTICAL METHODS 3.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define the term statistics;
(b) identify types and sources of statistical data;
(c) identify and describe methods of collecting and recording data;
(d) analyse, interpret and present statistical data using appropriate graphical methods;
(e) explain the advantages and disadvantages of each method of data presentation.
3.2.0 Content 3.2.1 Definition of statistics. 3.2.2 Types of statistical data. 3.2.3 Sources of statistical data 3.2.4 Methods of collecting data. 3.2.5 Methods of recording data. 3.2.6 Analysis of data by working out arithmetic mean, median, mode, percentage, range. 3.2.7 Statistical analyses, interpretation and presentation by use of Line graphs, Bar graphs, Polygraph (combined line and bar graphs), Wind rose, Comparative/group line and bar graphs, cumulative bar graphs, proportional circles, pie charts, divided bars/rectangles, population pyramids and Age-Sex pyramids. 3.2.8 Analysis and interpretation of dot and choropleth maps. 3.2.9 Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each method of data presentation. 4.0.0 FIELD WORK 4.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define the term field work;
(b) state different types of field work;
(c) explain the importance of field work;
(d) explain the procedure to be followed during field work;
(e) identify possible problems during field work;
(f) carry out field work within the local environment.
4.2.0 Content 4.2.1 Definition of field work.
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4.2.2 Types of field work. 4.2.3 Importance of field work. 4.2.4 Field work procedure. 4.2.5 Problems likely to be encountered during fieldwork. 4.2.6 Field work within the local environment. 5.0.0 MINERALS AND ROCKS 5.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define minerals and rocks;
(b) state the characteristics of minerals;
(c) classify rocks according to mode of formation;
(d) state the characteristics of rocks;
(e) account for the distribution of major types of rocks in Kenya;
(f) explain the significance of rocks;
(g) identify major types of rocks and their use within the local environment.
5.2.0 Content 5.2.1 Definition of (a) minerals and (b) rocks. 5.2.2 Characteristics of minerals. 5.2.3 Classification of rocks according to mode of formation. 5.2.4 Characteristics of rocks. 5.2.5 Distribution of major types of rocks in Kenya. 5.2.6 Significance of rocks 5.2.7 Field work – Identification of major types of rocks and their uses within the local environment. 6.0.0 INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES 6.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define earth movements;
(b) explain the causes of horizontal and vertical earth movements;
(c) explain the theories of Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics;
(d) define folding, faulting, vulcanicity and earthquakes;
(e) explain the processes of folding, faulting, and vulcanicity;
(f) describe types of folds, faults and forms of vulcanicity;
(g) explain features that result from folding, faulting and vulcanicity;
(h) explain the causes of earthquakes;
(i) describe how earthquakes are measured;
(j) account for the world distribution of earthquake zones, fold mountain systems and features due to faulting and vulcanicity;
(k) explain the significance of the resultant features of folding, faulting, vulcanicity and effects of earthquakes.
6.2.0 Content 6.2.1 Earth Movements (a) Definition
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(b)Types of earth movements – horizontal and vertical movements. (c) Causes of earth movements 6.2.2 Theories of the origins of
(a) Continental drift and
(b) Plate tectonics
6.2.3 Folding
(a) Definition, and processes of folding.
(b) Types of folds
(c) Features resulting from folding.
(d) World distribution of fold mountain systems.
(e) Significance of folding to human activities. 6.2.4 Faulting
(a) Definition, and processes of faulting.
(b) Types of faults.
(c) Features resulting from faulting.
(d) A study of the Great Rift Valley.
(e) World distribution of features formed through faulting.
(f) Significance of faulting to human activities.
6.2.5 Vulcanicity
(a) Definition of vulcanicity.
(b) Types of vucanicity and the resultant features.
(c) World distribution of features formed through vulcanicity.
(d) Significance of vulcanicity to human activities.
6.2.6 Earthquakes
(a) Definition of earthquakes.
(b) Measurement of earthquakes.
(c) Distribution of the major earthquake zones of the world.
(d) Effects of earthquakes.
7.0.0 EXTERNAL LAND-FORMING PROCESSES 7.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define weathering, mass wasting, hydrological cycle, river systems, lakes and glaciation.
(b) distinguish between oceans and seas;
(c) describe water movement in oceans and seas;
(d) explain the factors that contribute to the sculpturing of the earth;
(e) explain external land-forming processes and the resultant features;
(f) identify the sources of underground water;
(g) discuss the significance of the resultant physical features to the environment;
(h) carry out field-work of the landforms within the local environment.
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7.2.0 Content 7.2.1 Weathering
(a) Definition of weathering.
(b) Agents of weathering.
(c) Types and processes of weathering.
(d) Significance of weathering to physical and human environments.
7.2.2 Mass Wasting
(a) Definition of mass wasting.
(b) Factors influencing mass wasting.
(c) Types and processes of mass wasting.
(d) Effects of mass wasting on the physical and human environments.
7.2.3 Hydrological cycle
(a) Definition of hydrological cycle.
(b) Process of the cycle.
(c) Significance of the cycle
7.2.4 Action of rivers
(a) Definition of rivers
(b) River erosion, transportation and deposition and the resultant features.
(c) Development of cross and long river profiles.
(d) River capture and rejuvenation.
(e) Drainage patterns.
(f) Significance of (i ) rivers and (ii) river formed features.
7.2.5 Lakes
(a) Definition of the term lake.
(b) Formation and classification of lakes.
(c) Significance of lakes.
7.2.6 Oceans, seas and types of coasts
(a) Distinction between oceans and seas.
(b) Nature of ocean water.
(c) Water movement: meaning , causes and significance of (i) vertical movements and (ii) horizontal movements – ocean currents, tides and waves.
(d) Wave erosion, transportation and deposition, and resultant features.
(e) Types of Coasts.
(f) Significance of oceans, seas, coasts and coastal features.
7.2.7 Action of wind and water in arid areas.
(a) Processes of wind erosion and transportation in arid areas.
(b) Features formed by wind erosion and deposition.
(c) Features formed by water in arid areas.
(d) Significance of features found in arid areas.
7.2.8 Action of water in limestone areas
(a) Sources of underground water.
(b) Formation of features by surface and underground water in limestone areas.
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(c) Significance of the features.
7.2.9 Glaciation
(a) Definition of the term glaciation, glaciers, ice sheets, ice caps and icebergs.
(b) Processes of glacial erosion, transportation and deposition in highland and lowland areas and the resultant features.
(c) Significance of glaciation.
7.3.0 Field work Study of significant land-forming processes within the local environment. 8.0.0 WEATHER AND CLIMATE 8.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) distinguish between weather and climate;
(b) state the elements of weather;
(c) explain the conditions necessary for the sitting of a weather station,
(d) use instruments to measure elements of weather;
(e) analyse and interpret data on weather conditions,
(f) describe the structure and composition of the atmosphere;
(g) explain the factors that influence weather and climate;
(h) describe the characteristics of climatic regions of Kenya;
(i) describe the characteristics of major climatic regions of the world;
(j) account for the causes of aridity and desertification;
(k) explain the effects and possible solutions to aridity and desertification, discuss the causes and impact of climate change on the physical and human environment;
(l) carry out field study on a weather station. 8.2.0 Content 8.2.1 Distinction between weather and climate. 8.2.2 Elements of weather. 8.2.3 Factors to consider in siting a weather station. 8.2.4 Instruments for measuring weather elements. 8.2.5 Recording and calculating weather data. 8.2.6 Structure and composition of the atmosphere. 8.2.7 Weather forecasting. 8.2.8 Factors influencing weather. 8.2.9 Factors that influence climate. 8.3.0 Distribution and characteristics of climatic regions of Kenya and the world. 8.3.1 Causes, effects and possible solutions to aridity and desertification. 8.3.2 Causes and impact of climate change on physical and human environment. 8.2.9 Field work – a study based on a weather station. 9.00 SOILS 9.10 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define soil, soil profile, soil catena, soil degeneration/degradation and soil erosion;
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(b) discuss the composition of soil and the processes of soil formation;
(c) describe the properties and characteristics of soil;
(d) describe soil profile and soil catena;
(e) explain soil degeneration/degradation;
(f) classify soils according to soil orders;
(g) discuss the significance of soils;
(h) discuss ways and means of managing and conserving soil;
(i) identify different types of soils and their uses within the local environment
9.2.0 Content 9.2.1 Definition of soil. 9.2.2 Composition of soil. 9.2.3 Soil forming processes. 9.2.4 Properties and characteristics of soil. 9.2.5 Soil profile and catena. 9.2.6 Soil degeneration/degradation, including soil erosion. 9.2.7 Classification of soils: zonal, intrazonal and azonal. 9.2.8 Significance of soils. 9.2.9 Management and conservation of the soil. 9.3.0 Field work – identification of different types of soils and explanation of uses within the local environment. 10.0.0 VEGETATION 10.1.0 Specific Objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define vegetation;
(b) discuss the factors that influence the distribution of vegetation;
(c) identify and describe the characteristics of major vegetation regions of Kenya and the world;
(d) discuss the significance of vegetation;
(e) identify different types of vegetation and explain their uses within the local environment.
10.2.0 Content 10.2.1 Definition of vegetation. 10.2.2 Factors that influence the distribution of vegetation. 10.2.3 Characteristics of major vegetation regions of Kenya and the World. 10.2.4 Significance of vegetation. 10.2.5 Fieldwork on identification of different types of vegetation and explanation of their uses within the local environment. 11.0.0 MAPS AND MAP WORK 11.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define pictures, plans and maps;
(b) explain the relationships between pictures plans, and maps;
(c) identify types of maps and state their uses;
(d) identify and use marginal information on maps;
(e) identify types and uses of scales;
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(f) determine distances and areas using scales;
(g) distinguish between direction and bearing;
(h) identify traditional and modern methods of locating places and features;
(i) locate places and features on maps using various methods,
(j) describe the different methods of representing relief on topographical maps;
(k) identify and describe physical features and human activities on topographical maps;
(l) enlarge and reduce parts of topographical maps;
(l) draw cross-sections from topographical maps;
(m) calculate and interpret vertical exaggeration and gradient
(n) determine points of intervisibility.
11.2.0 Content 11.2.1 Definition of pictures, plans and maps. 11.2.2 Relationship between pictures, plans and maps. 11.2.3 Types of maps e.g. Atlas maps, topographical maps, and sketch maps. 11.2.4 Uses of maps. 11.2.5 Marginal information. 11.2.6 Map scales:- types of scales, conversion of scales, sizes of scales. 11.2.7 Uses of scales:- estimation and measurement of distance and calculation of areas of regular and irregular shapes. 11.2.8 Distinction between direction and bearing. 11.2.9 Traditional and modern methods of showing direction. 11.3.0 Calculation of bearing 11.3.1 Location of places and features using compass direction, bearing, distance, place names, latitudes and longitudes, grid reference. 11.3.2 Methods of representing relief on topographical maps. 11.3.3 Identification and description of the following in topographical maps:- landforms, vegetation, drainage, economic activities and settlement. 11.3.4 Enlargement and reduction of maps. 11.3.5 Drawing of cross-sections. 11.3.6 Calculation and interpretation of (a) vertical exaggeration and (b) gradient. 11.3.7 Determining intervisibility. 12.0.0 PHOTOGRAPH WORK 12.1.0 Specific objectives. By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) identify types of photographs;
(b) describe parts of a photograph;
(c) estimate sizes of features appearing on photographs;
(d) draw sketches from photographs;
(e) identify and interpret features from photographs.
12.2.0 Content 12.2.1 Types of photographs. 12.2.2 Parts of a photograph. 12.2.3 Interpretation of photographs by estimation of actual sizes of features, sketching from photographs, studying and describing natural and human features and activities on photographs.
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13.0.0 FORESTRY 13.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define forest and forestry;
(b) discuss the factors that influence the distribution and types of natural forests;
(c) discuss the significance of forests and forest products to Kenya;
(d) identify and explain the problems facing forestry in Kenya;
(e) discuss ways and means of managing and conserving forests in Kenya;
(f) compare and contrast softwood forests in Kenya and Canada;
(g) demonstrate the ability to manage and conserve forests and forest resources.
13.2.0 Content 13.2.1 Definition of forest and forestry. 13.2.2 Factors influencing the distribution and types of natural forests. 13.2.3 Importance of forests and forest products to Kenya. 13.2.4 Problems facing forestry in Kenya. 13.2.5 Management and conservation of forests – with specific emphasis on Kenya. 13.2.6 Related study on softwood in Kenya and Canada. 14.0.0 MINING 14.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define the term mining;
(b) explain the factors that influence the occurrence of minerals and mining activities;
(c) describe methods of mining;
(d) state the location of the major minerals of East Africa and show them on a map;
(e) explain the significance of locally available minerals in Kenya;
(f) state and account for the problems facing the mining industry in Kenya;
(g) explain the effects of mining on the environment;
(h) describe the occurrence of specific minerals and their exploitation in selected countries.
14.2.0 Content
14.2.1 Definition of mining 14.2.2 Factors influencing the occurrence of minerals and their exploitation 14.2.3 Methods of mining. 14.2.4 Distribution of major minerals in East Africa 14.2.5 Significance of minerals in Kenya. 14.2.6 Problems facing the mining industry in Kenya. 14.2.7 Effects of mining on the environment. 14.2.8 Study of (a) Trona on Lake Magadi in Kenya (b) Gold and diamonds in South Africa and (c) Petroleum in the Middle East.
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15.0.0 AGRICULTURE 15.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define agriculture;
(b) discuss the factors that influence agriculture;
(c) explain types of agriculture;
(d) locate the major cash crop growing areas in a map of Kenya;
(e) discuss the growing of selected cash crops in different countries;
(f) compare and contrast farming practices for selected cash-crops in Kenya and other countries;
(g) discuss pastoral farming in Kenya;
(h) compare and contrast (i) dairy farming in Kenya and Denmark (ii) beef farming in Kenya and Argentina;
(i) carry out fieldwork on agricultural activities in the local environment.
15.2.0 Content 15.2.1 Definition of agriculture. 15.2.2 Factors that influence agriculture. 15.2.3 Types of agriculture. 15.2.4 Crop farming – (a) distribution of major cash crops in Kenya, (b) a study of tea, sugar-cane and maize in Kenya , (c) a study of cocoa in Ghana and oil palm in Nigeria and (d) comparative studies of coffee in Kenya and Brazil, wheat in Kenya and Canada and horticulture in Kenya and the Netherlands. 15.2.5 Livestock farming – (a) pastoral farming in Kenya (b) comparative study of dairy farming in Kenya and Denmark and beef farming in Kenya and Argentina. 15.2.6 Field work – collect, record, analyse, and present data on agricultural activities in the local environment. 16.0.0 LAND RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION 16.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to;
(a) define land reclamation and rehabilitation;
(b) discuss the factors that influenced the location of selected irrigation schemes in Kenya, the significance of the schemes and the problems that are experienced in carrying out irrigation farming in Kenya;
(c) describe the methods that are used in land reclamation and rehabilitation in Kenya;
(d) compare the methods of land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands,
16.2.0 Content 16.2.1 Meaning of the terms land reclamation and rehabilitation. 16.2.2 A study of Mwea-Tebere and Perkerra irrigation schemes. 16.2.3 Importance of irrigation farming in Kenya. 16.2.4 Problems experienced in irrigation farming in Kenya. 16.2.5 Methods of land reclamation and rehabilitation in Kenya. 16.2.6 Comparative study of land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands.
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17.0.0 FISHING 17.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define the terms fishing and fisheries;
(b) explain the factors that influence fishing;
(c) account for the location of the major fishing grounds of the world;
(d) identify types and names of fish and describe methods of fishing;
(e) discuss fresh water and marine fisheries in East Africa;
(f) assess the significance of the fishing industry in Kenya;
(g) discuss the problems that face the fishing industry in Kenya and their possible solutions;
(h) compare and contrast fishing activities in Kenya and Japan;
(i) explain ways and means of managing and conserving fresh water and marine fisheries.
17.2.0 Content 17.2.1 Definition of fishing and fisheries 17.2.2 Factors that influence fishing. 17.2.3 distribution of the major fishing grounds of the world. 17.2.4 Types and names of fish. 17.2.5 Methods of fishing. 17.2.6 Fresh water and marine fisheries in East Africa. 17.2.7 Significance of the fishing industry in Kenya, 17.2.8 Problems facing fishing in Kenya and their possible solutions. 17.2.9 Comparative study of fishing in Kenya and Japan. 17.3.0 Management and conservation of fresh water and marine fisheries. 18.0.0 WILDLIFE AND TOURISM 18.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define the terms wildlife, tourism and eco-tourism;
(b) distinguish between (i) game reserves, national parks and sanctuaries (ii) domestic tourism and international tourism;
(c) explain the factors that influence the distribution of wildlife in East Africa and tourism in Kenya;
(d) locate national parks, major game reserves and sanctuaries on a map of East Africa;
(e) identify and discuss tourism attractions in Kenya;
(f) discuss the significance of wildlife and tourism in Kenya;
(g) discuss (i) the problems facing wildlife is East Africa and (ii) those facing and associated with tourism in Kenya;
(h) discuss the management and conservation of wildlife in East Africa;
(i) discuss the future of tourism in Kenya;
(j) compare and contrast tourism in Kenya and Switzerland.
18.2.0 Content 18.2.1 Definition of the term wildlife, 18.2.2 Factors influencing the distribution of wildlife in East Africa. 18.2.3 Distinction between game reserves, national parks and sanctuaries and their
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distribution in East Africa. 18.2.4 Location of National Parks, major game reserves and sanctuaries in East Africa. 18.2.5 Significance of wildlife in East Africa. 18.2.6 Problems facing wildlife in East Africa. 18.2.7 Management and conservation of wildlife in East Africa. 18.2.8 Definition of the terms tourism and eco-tourism, 18.2.9 Distinction between domestic and international tourism. 18.2.10 Factors influencing tourism in Kenya. 18.2.11 Significance of tourism. 18.2.12 Problems facing and associated with tourism in Kenya. 18.2.13 Comparative study of tourism in Kenya and Switzerland. 18.2.14 The future of tourism in Kenya. 19.0.0 ENERGY 19.10 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define energy;
(b) discuss sources and types of energy;
(c) discuss the development of electric power projects in Kenya and Uganda;
(d) identify and locate other hydroelectric power projects in Africa;
(e) explain the significance of energy;
(f) explain the impact of the energy crisis in the world;
(g) discuss ways and means of managing and conserving energy;
(h) identify sources and uses of energy within the local environment.
19.2.0 Content 19.2.1 Definition of energy. 19.2.2 Sources and types of energy. 19.2.3 Hydroelectric power projects in Kenya and Uganda. 19.2.4 Geothermal power projects in Kenya. 19.2.5 Location of hydroelectric power projects elsewhere in Africa. 19.2.6 Management and conservation of energy. 19.2.7 Significance of energy 19.2.8 The energy crises. 19.2.9 Fieldwork on identification of sources and uses of energy within the local environment. 20.0.0 INDUSTRY 20.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the leaner should be able to:
(a) define industry and industrialization;
(b) explain the factors that influence the location and development of industries;
(c) describe types of industries;
(d) account for the distribution of industries in Kenya;
(e) explain the significance of industrialization to Kenya,
(f) discuss the problems of industrialization and suggest possible solutions;
(g) compare and contrast aspects of industrialization in selected countries;
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(h) carry out fieldwork on an industry in the local area.
20.2.0 Content 20.2.1 Definition of industry and industrialization. 20.2.2 Factors influencing the location and development of industries. 20.2.3 Types of industries. 20.2.4 Distribution of industries in Kenya. 20.2.5 Significance of industrialization to Kenya. 20.2.6 Problems of industrialization and their possible solutions 20.2.7 A study of (a) the cottage industry in India, (b) iron and steel industry in the Ruhr region in Germany and (c) car manufacture and electronic industry in Japan. 20.2.8 Field work on identification of industries within the local area and a detailed study of one of them. 21.0.0 TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION 21.1.0 Specific Objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define transport and communication;
(b) identify modes of transport and types of communication;
(c) locate the major lines of transport in Africa;
(d) outline the role of transport and communication in the economic development of Africa;
(e) discuss the problems facing transport and communication in Africa and the efforts being made to solve them;
(f) explain the role of the Great lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway in the economies of the USA and Canada.
21.2.0 Content 21.2.1 Definition of, and distinction between transport and communications. 21.2.2 Modes of transport and types of communication. 21.2.3 Distribution of major lines of transport if Africa. 21.2.4 The role of transport and communication in the economic development of Africa. 21.2.5 Problems facing transport and communication in Africa and the efforts being made to solve them. 21.2.6 A study of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway. 22.0.0 TRADE 22.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define trade;
(b) identify types of trade;
(c) discuss the factors that influence trade;
(d) identify the major exports and imports of Kenya;
(e) assess the significance of trade to Kenya;
(f) discuss the problems facing trade in Kenya;
(g) assess the future of international trade in Kenya;
(h) outline the role played by selected blocs in the economies of their respective countries.
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22.2.0 Content 22.2.1 Definition of trade. 22.2.2 Types of trade. 22.2.3 Factors that influence trade. 22.2.4 Major exports and imports of Kenya. 22.2.5 Significance of trade to Kenya. 22.2.6 Problems facing trade in Kenya. 22.2.7 The future of international trade in Kenya. 22.2.8 The role played by the (a) Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), (b) Southern African Development Cooperation (SADC), (c) Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and (d) European Union (EU) in the economies of their respective regions. 23.0.0 POPULATION 23.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define population;
(b) explain the factors influencing the distribution of population is East Africa;
(c) explain the factors influencing population growth;
(d) describe population structure;
(e) analyse the consequences of population growth and structure;
(f) compare and contrast population trends between Kenya and Sweden;
(g) present population data using relevant statistical graphs.
23.2.0 Content 23.2.1 Definition of population. 23.2.2 Factors influencing the distribution of population in East Africa. 23.2.3 Factors influencing population growth with specific reference to the fertility, mortality and migration. 23.2.4 Population structure. 23.2.5 Consequences of population growth and structure. 23.2.6 Comparative studies of the populations of Kenya and Sweden. 24.0.0 SETTLEMENT 24.10 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define settlement and urbanization;
(b) explain the factors that influence settlements and settlement patterns;
(c) account for the distribution of major urban centres in East Africa;
(d) explain the growth and functions of selected towns in Kenya;
(e) compare and contrast selected urban centres in Kenya with those of other part s of the world;
(f) discuss the effects of urbanization.
24.2.0 Content 24.2.1 Definition (a) settlement and (b) urbanization. 24.2.2 Factors that influence settlement and settlement patterns. 24.2.3 Distribution of major urban centres in East Africa.
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24.2.4 Factors influencing the growth of major urban centres ins East Africa. 24.2.5 A study of (a) an industrial town in Kenya (Thika), (b) a lake port (Kisumu) and (c) an agricultural collection centre (Eldoret). 24.2.6 Comparative studies of (a) Nairobi and New York and (b) Mombasa and Rotterdam ports. 24.2.7 Effects of urbanisation. 25.0.0 MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 25.1.0 Specific objectives By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
(a) define (i)management and (ii) conservation;
(b) explain the importance managing and conserving the environment;
(c) name environmental hazards;
(d) assess the impact of selected environmental hazards and suggest measures of combating them;
(e) discuss measures taken in managing and conserving the environment.
25.2.0 Content 25.2.1 Definition of (a) management and (b) conservation. 25.2.2 The need for environmental management and conservation. 25.2.3 Environmental hazards. 25.2.4 Problems associated with, and measures of combating floods, lightning, windstorms, pests and diseases and environmental pollution. 25.2.5 Environmental management and conservation measures in Kenya. 25.2.6 Field work on any aspect of environmental pollution.

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